From NKAA, Notable Kentucky African Americans Database (main entry)

Wayne County (KY) Enslaved, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870

Wayne County, located in south central Kentucky, is bordered by four counties and the Tennessee state line. It was formed in 1800 from portions of Pulaski and Cumberland Counties. Wayne County was named in honor of Anthony Wayne, a member of the Continental Army who was a veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War.

The seat of Wayne County is Monticello, established in 1800 and named for the Virginia home of Thomas Jefferson [Jefferson's Monticello]. The 1810 Wayne County population was 1,850 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census; the population increased to 9,272 by 1860, excluding the enslaved. Below are the number of slave holders, enslaved, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule
  • 141 slave owners
  • 447 Black slaves
  • 131 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [Li Ewing, Judia Grals Ewing, and Jerry Lankford]
  • 7 free Mulattoes [last names Mills, Rotan, 1 Frazer, 1 Spradling]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 212 slave owners
  • 720 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Cowan, 1 Gibson, 1 Philips, 1 Wadkins]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 528 Blacks
  • 177 Mulattoes
  • About 55 U.S. Colored Troops listed Wayne County as their birth location.
For more see the Wayne County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A Compilation of Materials Documenting the History of Negro Education in Monticello and Wayne County, Kentucky, by H. Ogle; Jesse Alexander Papers at the University of Minnesota; "Thomas J. Craft, Sr." in Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century, by J. H. Kessler; and "Brent Woods" in Black Valor, by F. N. Schubert.

Kentucky County & Region

Read about Wayne County, Kentucky in Wikipedia.

Kentucky Place (Town or City)

Read about Monticello, Kentucky in Wikipedia.

Item Relations

Cite This NKAA Entry:

“Wayne County (KY) Enslaved, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870,” Notable Kentucky African Americans Database, accessed September 30, 2023,

Last modified: 2023-06-26 16:29:36