Central and South American Immigration Association and Equal Rights League of the Western Continent
Prior to the end of the Civil War, the formation of Negro colonies in Central and South America had been attempted by President Lincoln and others. In 1885, the idea was revisited by a Negro organization known as the Central and South American Immigration Association and Equal Rights League of the Western Continent. There were 50 prominent members from Kansas, Missouri, Arkansas, Kentucky, and a few other states. Colonel John M. Brown, a county clerk of Shawnee County, KS, was president of the organization, and S. W. Wine of Kansas City was secretary.
The group met for several years and in 1893 was prepared to put its plan into action: Negroes in the U.S. were to form colonies prior to each colony being deported to a new homeland in various countries in Central or South America. The Brazilian government had given assurance that it would help the Negro colonists.
There was strong opposition to the plan from Negro leaders throughout the U.S. There was also speculation that the southern Negro labor force would be depleted, and the North would lose the best members of the Negro race.
For more see The Negro a Menace to American Civilization, by R. W. Shufeldt [available full text at Google Books]; "Negroes going to Brazil," New York Times, 4/03/1893, p. 8; and Proposed American Negro Colony in New Granada.