Lincoln Independent Party (LIP)
The Lincoln Independent Party was formed in 1921 by a group of young African American male leaders in Louisville, KY. The aim was to influence support away from the Republican Party. Neither the Republican nor Democratic Party were working in favor of equality for African Americans, yet the formation of LIP was seen as an affront and caused a break between Louisville's older African American leaders and the younger leaders. African Americans had been loyal to the Republican Party since the end of slavery. LIP created the fear that prominent whites would cease donating money to African American causes due to the perceived change in political allegiance. The younger leaders, such as I. Willis Cole and William Warley, were less dependent on whites and were therefore the most outspoken among the new leaders. At the same time, the old leaders gained support from new comrades such as George Clement and James Bond. The development of LIP brought forth new and old leaders who began making stronger demands of the established political parties, resulting in African Americans making better headway in the political arena. For more see G. C. Wright, "Black political insurgency in Louisville, Kentucky: The Lincoln Independent Party of 1921," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 58, issue 1 (1983), pp. 8-23.