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<Colored Fairs & Black Expos>

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1878 Abdallah Park "Colored" Fair (Harrison County, KY)
Start Year : 1878
"I wonder how many who read this will remember when our colored citizens gave a fair at Abdallah Park? Along about 1878, I put it, and I was there. My father allowed his stable boy to show some stock and sent me along to act as kind of fiduciary agent." For more about the fair and additional history, see "African-American Life in Cynthiana - 1870 - 1940," Harrison Heritage News, February 2004, vol. 5, no. 2 (published monthly by Harrison County Historical Society. PO Box 411, Cynthiana, KY 41031).
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Parks
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky

1924 third annual fair and premium list of New Colored Shelby County Fair Association, Inc.
Start Year : 1924
Held Wednesday, Thursday, & Friday, September 3, 4 & 5, 1924. At the Shelby County A. & M. Association Fair Grounds near Shelbyville, Ky. Shelbyville, Ky.: Shelby News Press, 1924. Publication available at the Filson Historical Society Library (in the Rare Pamphlet Collection, RB Pamphlet 394.2 N532 1924), in Louisville, KY. An earlier Colored Fair was held in Shelbyville in 1900, the Southern Railroad offered route services to the fair for low rates. See "Low rates via Southern Railroad" in the Mt. Sterling Advocate, 08/28/1900, p.1.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky

Agricultural and Mechanical Association of the Colored People of Bourbon County
Start Year : 1874
On January 16, 1874, the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky passed an act for the benefit of the Agricultural and Mechanical Association of the Colored People of Bourbon County. The act, referring to the organization's colored fair, prohibited booths and the selling of refreshments or liquor within a half mile of the fairgrounds while the fair was in progress. The fair was held in Millersburg, KY. For more see Chapter 58 of the Laws of Kentucky in Acts Passed at...Session of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth, printed in 1874 at the Kentucky Yeoman Office in Frankfort, KY [available full view via Google Book Search] .
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Millersburg, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Breckinridge, Thomas, and Holmes - Undertakers (Xenia, OH)
Start Year : 1902
In 1902, three former teachers from Kentucky opened an undertaking business in Xenia, OH. One of the owners, Prof. A. W. Breckinridge (b. 1863 in Kentucky), had served as principal of the Colored schools in Midway, KY, for 17 years and was a former president of the Kentucky Colored Teachers Association [later named the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA)]. His wife, Annie, was a teacher at the school. Breckinridge had also owned a grocery store in Midway. A second owner, J. D. Thomas, had been a teacher in Kentucky colored schools for 20 years. He was the former assistant secretary of the Colored Fair Association of Bourbon County. The third owner, F. E. Holmes, had also taught school in Kentucky, but had left for employment with the U.S. Revenue Service. He was a graduate of the School of Embalming in Cincinnati. For more see "Interesting Doings in Colored Society," [Xenia] Daily Gazette, 07/03/1902, p. 2.
Subjects: Businesses, Education and Educators, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Migration North, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky / Xenia, Ohio

Colored A. & M. Fair Association
Start Year : 1869
End Year : 1930
Annual exhibition. [Lexington, Ky.?: the Association, 1869?- ]. The Lexington Colored Fair, held off of Georgetown Road in Lexington, Kentucky, was the largest African American fair in the state. Copies of exhibition catalogs are available at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Library, call number S555 .K45.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Colored Fair at Stamping Ground, KY
By the year 1900, the Colored Fair in Stamping Ground, KY, had become an annual event. The event was held at Wash's Woods. For more see "Stamping Ground," Frankfort Roundabout, 09/15/1900, p. 1.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Stamping Ground, Scott County, Kentucky

Hensley, Peter Lee
Birth Year : 1858
Death Year : 1926
Peter L. Hensley was born in Mt. Sterling, KY, he had been a slave, the son of Howard and Margaret Magowan Hensley. He owned and bred trotters, owned a grocery store and restaurant when he was 19 years old, and later owned the Yellow Rose Farm in Montgomery County, KY. Two of his winning horses were Temple Bar (who won 24 out of 25 races) and Alcyo (who won 17 consecutive races). Peter Hensley was also president of the Montgomery County Colored Fair Association. Peter Hensley's family was owned by the Magowan Family during slavery. For more see Peter Hensley on p. 392 in The WPA Guide to Kentucky, by F. K. Simon; P. W. L. Jones, "The Greatest Negro harness horse owner," Crisis, Sept. 1937, pp.266, 284-285 [online with picture at Google Book Search]; and the following articles in The Mt. Sterling Advocate: "Alcyo and Temple Bar," 04/18/1906, p. 2, and "Home of Alcyo and Temple Bar," 05/09/1906, p. 3 [picture with article].

See picture of Peter L. Hensley in Crisis, Sept. 1937, p.266.
Subjects: Businesses, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

Kentucky Colored Fairs
Start Year : 1869
End Year : 1910
The Kentucky Department of Agriculture attempted to collect data on the associations that held fairs in Kentucky, but, for the most part, the data was not reported. The second report was published in 1879, wherein three Colored fair associations and their fairs were reported: Shelby, Bourbon, and Clark Counties. They are listed on p. 419 of the Second Annual Report of the State Bureau of Agriculture, Horticulture, and Statistics (1879), by W. J. Davie [available full-text at Google Book Search]. In addition to the three counties listed in the annual publication, there were many more Colored fairs that took place around the state beginning in the late 1800s. The fairs created business for the cities in which they were held and for the railroad companies. When a Colored fair was held, many times there would be special train services offered from various cities around the state to the fair location, sometimes with reduced round trip rates.

  • In 1869, the Lexington Colored Fair, the largest in the state, was held on Georgetown Pike. It may have been the first Colored fair in Kentucky. [see the 1869 Lexington Colored Fair entry in NKAA] [Lexington is located in Fayette County, KY.]
  • In 1870, the first colored fair for Simpson and Logan Counties was held. The fair did well for three years, netting $3,000 in 1870, then the profits fell off. The fair had been organized by the Agriculture and Mechanical Association in Simpson and Logan Counties. Two of the founders of the organization were Elijah P. Marrs and his brother H. C. Marrs. The project was started with $750 the brothers raised by selling 50 subscriptions (stock) that went for $15 each. H. C. Marrs was president, E. P. Marrs, secretary, and James Flint and James Tyree secured the property for the fair. The men purchased 42 acres for $4,200. When the profits began to fall, E. P. Marrs sold his stock. [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.134]
  • In 1874, the Kentucky General Assembly set restrictions against selling beverages and alcohol within one mile of the Bourbon County Colored Fair. The fair was managed by the Agricultural and Mechanical Association of the Colored People of Bourbon County. [see the Agricultural and Mechanical Association of the Colored People of Bourbon County entry in NKAA]
  • In 1878, a Colored Fair was held in Abdallah Park in Harrison County, KY. [see the Harrison County Colored Fair entry in NKAA]
  • In 1879, a Colored Fair had been held in Clark County, KY. In 1910, the Clark County Colored Fair Association was formed with President J. C. Hopewell, Vice-President John Pervine, Recording Secretary C. H. Curry, Corresponding Secretary H. P. Alexander, Treasurer J. W. Bates, and Assistant Treasurer Woodson Miller. The organization planned their first fair for 1911.
  • In 1897, a Colored Fair was held in Springfield, KY. The fair was raided by Sheriff Baughman and his posse due to the gaming operations: "sure things", a wheel of fortune, " bee hive", and the tin horse steal. In 1900, the Washington County Colored Fair Association held their fair September 20-23. The fair was referred to as the Springfield Colored Fair and as the Washington County Colored Fair. In 1902 the fair was a loss financially and attendance was down; the same was true for 1903.
  • In 1898, the Danville Colored Fair was held August 24-27. [Danville is located in Boyle County, KY.]
  • In 1898, the Stanford Colored Fair was held September 30-October 1. [Stanford is located in Lincoln County, KY.]
  • In 1899, the Louisville Colored Fair was held during the month of August. Round trip train fare was available from Mt. Vernon to Louisville for August 25 and 26. In 1900, the L & N Railroad service provided a special rate from Hopkinsville, KY, with return on August 15 and 16 from Louisville, KY. In 1910, the Louisville Colored Fair Association held its fair September 21-24. The Illinois Central provided round trip train service from Hopkinsville to Louisville for $5.38. [Louisville is located in Jefferson County, KY.]
  • In 1900, Professor J. F. Gray from Russellville, KY, traveled to Earlington, KY, to advertise the second fair to be held in Guthrie, KY, October 11-13, by the Guthrie Colored Fair Association. [Guthrie is located in Todd County, KY.]
  • In 1900, the Hustonville Colored Fair Company had a loss of 35 cents on their fair that was held August 15-18. The fair had included a cake walk and a baseball game. [Hustonville is located in Lincoln County, KY.]
  • In 1900, the Illinois Central provided round trip train service from Hopkinsville to Paducah, KY, for the Colored Fair, September 12-14. In 1908, a Colored fair association was formed in Paducah with the intention of having a fair in either August or September of 1909. [Paducah is located in McCracken County, KY.]
  • In 1900, the first Color Fair was held in Richmond, KY by the Young Men's Agricultural and Mechanical Association. The event was held at the Richmond Fair Grounds, August 23-25. In 1901, E. M. Embry was president of the organization, and B. F. Stone was secretary. [Richmond is located in Madison County, KY.]
  • In 1900, the Shelbyville Colored Fair was held September 5-7, one week after the Shelbyville Fair for whites. Southern Railroad offered services at low rates from various cities to Shelbyville. In 1924, the New Colored Shelby County Association, Inc. held their third annual fair. [see the New Colored Shelby County Fair Association, Inc. entry in NKAA]
  • In 1900, the Stamping Ground Colored Fair was again being held at Wash's Woods. [see the Stamping Ground Colored Fair entry in NKAA] [Stamping Ground is located in Scott County, KY.]
  • In 1901, the Newburg Colored Fair was held in September. The Illinois Central provided round trip service from Hopkinsville, with a transfer in Princeton, then on to Louisville, with a return on September 6 at $2.50. [Newburg is located in Jefferson County, KY.]
  • In 1901, the Owensboro Colored Fair was held August 29-31. For those attending the fair from Beaver Dam, KY, a round trip train ticket cost $1.25. In 1903, the Owensboro Colored Fair was held in October. [Owensboro is located in Daviess County, KY.]
  • In 1902 and in 1903, the Lincoln County and Garrard County Colored Fair Association held their fair at the Stanford Fair Grounds. In 1903 the fair was held August 27-29 in the woodlands on Danville Avenue, the property of Mrs. Nora M. Goodknight. The fair association officers were W. M. Jones, President; Alex Miller, Vice-President; W. H. Harris, Secretary; and J. Miller Broaddus, Assistant-Secretary. In 1905, the joined county fair was held in Lancaster, KY, August 24-26. By 1906, the union was dissolved and Lincoln and Garrard Counties were holding their own Colored fairs in their respective counties.
  • In 1903, the Colored Fair held in Frankfort, KY was not a success. In 1905, the Frankfort Colored Fair was held September 12-16. During the fair, the Ninth Battalion, Ohio National Guard, an all African American unit, was to hold their annual encampment in Lexington rather than Frankfort. Lexington officials had sought and received permission from Kentucky Governor Beckham to allow the Ninth Battalion to enter the state bearing arms. In 1906, the Colored Fair Association held their fair at Glenwood Park, September 6-8. By 1908, the organization name had changed to the Frankfort County Colored Agricultural and Industrial Association. [Frankfort is located in Franklin County, KY.]
  • In 1904, the Henry County Colored Fair was held September 29-October 1. The L&N Railroad sold tickets to Eminence a rate of one fair plus 25 cents for the round trip. [source: "Eminence, Ky." in the column "L. and N. Special Rate Column within the Lexington Herald, 10/02/1904, p.3].
  • In 1905, the Harrodsburg Colored Fair was held, and in 1906 the Harrodsburg Colored Fair Association was included in the List of National, State, and Local Commercial Organizations, compiled by the Interstate Commerce Commission, p. 172 {Google Book Search}. [Harrodsburg is located in Mercer County, KY.]
  • In 1905, the Scott County Colored Fair was held August 9-12.
  • In 1905, the Midway Colored Fair was held the end of August of 1905 [source: "The Midway Colored Fair...," Lexington Herald, 09/14/1905, p.8]. [Midway is in Woodford County, KY.]
  • In 1906, the Hardin County Colored Fair was held in Elizabethtown, KY, September 28 and 29. The L&N Railroad offered round trip service from Mt. Vernon to Elizabethtown for $3.85.
  • In 1906, the Nelson County Colored Fair was led by 78 year old Jarvis Wilson.
  • In 1907, the Christian County Colored Fair was held in Hopkinsville at the Horse Show grounds in September.
  • In 1907, the success of the joined Lincoln and Garrard County Colored Fairs prompted a separate Colored Fair to be held in Lancaster, KY, August 8-10. The Lancaster Fair Association was led by African Americans from Lancaster and Garrard County. The fair was canceled for 1910 by the association president George Morgan and secretary James B. Williams; the cancellation was due to a misunderstanding about the cost of renting the fair grounds. [Lancaster is located in Garrard County, KY.]
  • In 1907, the first Laurel County Colored Fair was held September 27 and 28 in London, KY. It was during the baseball game that Russell Dyche, editor of the London Sentinel, was struck by a baseball and taken to Louisville, KY, for eye surgery.
  • In 1908, a Colored Fair Association was being formed in Berea, KY; it had hoped to hold a fair in September of that year. The Berea Fair Association had voted to rent the fair grounds to the Colored association. [Berea is located in Madison County, KY.]
  • In 1908, the Knox County Colored Fair Association was incorporated in July and planned to hold their first fair, a two day event, a few months later. The association executive members were President Jeff Etter, Vice President J. W. Mullins, Secretary Mary L. Jones, and Treasurer J. J. Croley. The Knox County Colored Fair Association was one of the few in Kentucky to have a woman on the executive committee.
  • In 1909, the Montgomery County Colored Fair Association had its fair at the Mt. Sterling Fair Grounds, September 22-25. [see the Montgomery County Colored Fair Association entry in NKAA]
  • In 1910, the Glasgow Colored Fair was held October 6-9. [Glasgow is located in Barren County, KY.]
  • In 1901, a Colored Fair Association was formed in Nicholasville, KY, and the first meeting was held at the Knights of Pythias fair grounds on September 2 and 3. Nicholasville is located in Jessamine County, KY. See Colored fair "Colored Notes," Lexington Leader, 08/07/1910, p. 16.

For more see "Look out for them" in the News-Leader, 09/02/1897, p. 2; "Colored Fair at Danville" in the Central Record, 07/15/1898, p. 1; "The Stanford Journal says..." in the Central Record, 09/16/1898, p. 1; "One fair for the round trip..." in the Mount Vernon Signal, 08/25/1899, p. 3; "Our Colored citizens" in The Bee, 10/04/1900, p. 7; "The Hustonville Colored Fair Company..." in the Central Record, 08/23/1900, p. 1; "The Catalogues for the colored fair" in the Semi-Weekly Interior Journal, 07/27/1900, p. 3; "Special rates via L & N..." in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/10/1900, p. 8; "Account of Colored Fair..." in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 09/07/1900, p. 8; "The first Colored fair ever..." in the Citizen, 08/29/1900, p. 1; "Low rates via Southern Railroad" in the Mt. Sterling Advocate, 08/28/1900, p. 1; "Colored Folks" in the News-Leader, 09/20/1900, p. 1; "Colored fair here" in the Richmond Climax, 08/08/1900, p. 3; "Louisville return $2.50" in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/16/1901, p. 7; "On account of Owensboro Colored Fair..." in the Hartford Herald, 08/21/1901, p. 1; "The Colored fair held here..." in the Frankfort Roundabout, 10/03/1903, p. 8; "Big Colored Fair" in the Central Record, 04/24/1903, p. 1; "John and Edmund Holland attended the Owensboro Colored Fair Saturday" in The Bee, 10/08/1903, p. 6; "Allowed to bear arms" in the Citizen, 07/27/1905, p. 7; "Colored Fair in Lancaster" in the Central Record, 06/30/1905, p. 1; "Reduced tickets to Scott County Colored Fair. Georgetown, Ky" in The Blue-grass Blade, 08/06/1905, p. 3; "Colored People's Fair" in The Frankfort Roundabout, 08/18/1906, p. 2; "Reduced rates" in the Mount Vernon Signal, 09/14/1906, p. 3; "Proud of his record" in the Springfield Sun, 04/25/1906, p. 1; "The colored fair will be held..." in the Central Record, 07/19/1907, p. 1; "The First annual exhibition..." in the Citizen, 09/12/1907, p.8; "Colored Fair" in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 09/21/1907, p.1; "Shattered Glass" in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 10/01/1907, p. 4; "Berea and vicinity" in the Citizen, 03/12/1908, p. 3; "Knox County Colored Fair Association" in the Mountain Advocate, 06/26/1908, p. 3; "Colored citizens may have a fair next fall" in The Paducah Evening Sun, 05/26/1908, p. 6; "Colored Fair," Mount Sterling Advocate, 09/15/1909, p. 6; "Glasgow colored fair, October 6, three days" in the Hartford Herald, 07/27/1910, p. 1; "Louisville Colored Fair Ass'n" in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 09/24/1910, p. 4; "Colored Column: On the night of October 27..." in the Winchester News, 10/29/1910, p. 4.

**All articles and additional information are available online at Kentucky Digital Library - Newspapers.
Subjects: Businesses, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Fraternal Organizations, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kentucky State Fair
"As most things were during the first few decades of Kentucky State Fair's existence, the event remained racially segregated. Various counties in the state had previously attempted to produce a "colored fair," but those were often one-time-only events and did not continue with much success." For more information about the history of the Kentucky State Fair and African Americans, see Kentucky State Fair Board Press Release, January 31, 2005; or contact the Kentucky State Fair Board.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Kentucky

The Ladies (of color)
Start Year : 1847
The Ladies (of color), in Frankfort, KY, are thought to have been free African American women. In 1847 the group held a fair for "benevolent purposes" at the home of Mrs. Rilla Harris. For more see A Thousand Years Over a Hot Stove: a history of American women told through food, recipes and..., by L. Schenone, p. 131.
Subjects: Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Women's Groups and Organizations, Benevolent Societies
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Louisville Black Expo
Start Year : 1930
The Louisville Black Expo is one of the oldest (if not the oldest) black expos held in Kentucky. Beginning in the 1930s as a Louisville Defender (newspaper) cooking show, it became an annual event that continued to grow and was named the "Louisville Defender Black Expo." In addition to other activities, some of the best talent performances in the state, including gospel singing, have been presented to thousands of attendees over several days. There have also been concerts by well-known recording artists. In 2000, the expo name became the "Louisville Defender Newspaper's Minority Consumer Expo." For more about the most recent changes see Think Kentucky: Cabinet for Economic Development, Winter 2000, p. 5. For pictures and articles concerning the expo over the years see the annual coverage in the Louisville Defender.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Madisonville Black Expo
Start Year : 1997
Only one Black Expo has been held in Madisonville, in 1997, confirmed by the Madisonville-Hopkins County Chamber of Commerce. One of the activities was the Willie Rascoe Woodworking Workshop.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Madisonville, Hopkins County, Kentucky

Magowan, James E.
Birth Year : 1870
Death Year : 1933
The following information comes from the James E. Magowan archival file at the Montgomery County Historical Society and Museum in Mt. Sterling, KY. James E. Magowan was a successful businessman and a community leader. He was born in Montgomery County, the son of Amanda and John Wesley Magowan, and a brother of John, Noah, Susan, and Emily Magowan. The family lived in Smithville, KY. James Magowan, his brothers, and sister, Susan, all attended the Academy at Berea. As an adult, James Magowan was a real estate agent, loans and collecting agent, notary public, carpenter, contractor, and owner of the Magowan Theater and the colored skating rink in Mt. Sterling. James Magowan developed the Lincoln View Cemetery next to Olive Hill Cemetery in Smithville. The Lincoln View Cemetery opened on April 1, 1929, with James Magowan as president, his son, Jesse E., 1st vice president, and his wife, Lizzie, his daughter, Sarah, and his son-in-law and daughter, Watson D. Banks and Estella Magowan Banks, board members. James Magowan established a subdivision for African Americans next to the cemetery, and he owned and managed the waterline to the homes, charging a monthly fee for the service. He established the Mt. Sterling Colored Fair Association in 1909. He was owner of the James E. Magowan Grocery Store, which was located within the J. E. Magowan Hall (built in 1914) at the corner of East Locust and Fox Streets. James Magowan leased-out the grocery store and other space within the building. Additional information about James E. Magowan comes from "Achievements of the late James E. Magowan" on pp. 23-24 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. James E. Magowan was a school teacher for six years. He led the effort to extend the gas line into Smithville, and in 1915 he was president of the organization that had a sidewalk completed from the city limits of Mt. Sterling to the entrance of Olive Hill Cemetery. James Avenue in Mt. Sterling was named in his honor. James E. Magowan is buried in the Lincoln View Cemetery in Mt. Sterling, KY.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Civic Leaders, Communities, Construction, Contractors, Builders, Education and Educators, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Carpenters, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments, Notary Public, Skating Rinks, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling and Smithville, Montgomery County, Kentucky

McCoy v Commonwealth
Start Year : 1912
Around midnight on September 24, 1911, Will McCoy was supervising the dance hall at the Bourbon County Colored Fair being held in Millersburg, KY. The lights at the dance hall went out, and a young man named Frazier White lost his hat and started cursing and demanding his hat back. A man by the name of Darnall was the floor manager, and he confronted White about his behavior. Will McCoy took over the situation, cautioning White about his foul language in the presence of women. Darnall left the matter in the hands of McCoy and walked away. Frazier White then directed his insults toward McCoy, and when all was said and done, McCoy had shot White, severing his spine. White was rushed to the hospital and died during surgery. McCoy was arrested and found guilty of murder by the Circuit Court of Bourbon County. McCoy's case was taken to the Court of Appeals of Kentucky. His attorney, John J. Williams of Paris, felt that McCoy should be charged with manslaughter at most; McCoy had shot White but had not killed him. According to Attorney Williams, White's death was due to the surgery. Williams also felt that the final statement of the Commonwealth's Attorney in the first trial "was highly prejudicial to his client's defense." During the appeals process, Attorneys General James Garrett and M. M. Logan argued that White would have died if the surgery had not been performed. September 25, 1912, the Court of Appeals affirmed McCoy's 1st degree murder conviction. It was also decided that no infringements had taken place during the Commonwealth Attorney's final statement. The case of McCoy v Commonwealth has been frequently cited in cases where there is question of "the act causing death" in a homicide, and in cases questioning the prejudicial influence of final statements. For more see McCoy v Commonwealth, pp. 903-904 in the Southwestern Reporter, vol. 149 (1912) [available full-text at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Millersburg and Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Montgomery County Colored Fair Association (Kentucky)
Start Year : 1909
End Year : 1928
The first annual Colored Fair in Montgomery County was held at the Mt. Sterling Fair Grounds by the Montgomery County Colored Fair Association, September 22-25, 1909. The event began with a street parade Wednesday morning at 9:00 a.m., and ended the following Saturday. Music at the fair was provided by the First Regiment K. P. Band from Charleston, WV. See "Colored Fair," Mount Sterling Advocate, 09/15/1909, p.6. For more about the history of the fair see "The Montgomery County Negro Fair Association was first organized in 1909" on pp.15-16 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974 by S. A. Harris; and the James E. Magown archival file at the Montgomery County Historical Society and Museum.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

National Association of Colored Fairs
Start Year : 1921
In 1921, James A. Jackson (1878-1960) began his push for the establishment of the National Association of Colored Fairs. Jackson, who was born in Pennsylvania, had performed in minstrels and was a journalist and promoter. He believed that a national fair association would strengthen and financially benefit fair officials, park owners, theater owners and managers, and Black communities. Jackson also proposed that the national fair association be affiliated with the National Negro Business League. As editor of the Negro Department of Billboard magazine, he compiled the first directory of colored fairs, which included fairs in Alabama, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Missouri, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania. Colored fairs had been held in Kentucky since shortly after the end of the Civil War. In a 1922 Billboard editorial, Jackson gave attendance statistics for the major fairs. The National Association of Colored Fairs was chartered at a meeting in Norfolk, VA, in 1922. The organization was a subsidiary of the National Negro Business Men's League. For more see "The National Association of Colored Fairs" in Pages from the Harlem Renaissance, by A. D. Hill. For more on James A. Jackson, see his entry in the 1911 edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Negro Business League
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

Negro business directory and fair souvenir: a miniature list of trades, businesses and professions among the Negroes of Lexington, Kentucky
Start Year : 1899
[Lexington, Ky.] : Standard Printing Co., 1899. Housed in the University of Kentucky Special Collections Library Rare Books: call no. F459.L6 N4560 1899.
Subjects: Businesses, Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Oldham County Colored Fair Company
According to authors Lipscomb and Johnston, the Oldham County Colored Fair Company owned its own fair ground. Source: "The Colored People: the commercial status of the Colored people of Kentucky" on p.190 in The Commercial History of the Southern States, by A. B. Lipscomb and J. H. Johnston [available at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Oldham County, Kentucky

Owensboro Black Expo
The 33rd Black Expo was held in Owensboro, KY, in July 2005 after a two year hiatus due to low participation. The outdoor festival included a parade, pageants, and basketball games. The event raises scholarship money and awareness in the African American community. For more see D. Blackburn, "Black Expo returns after two year absence," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 07/29/2005; and J. Campbell, "Four-day Black Expo kicks off Thursday," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 07/26/2005.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Race Riot of 1917 (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1917
On September 1, 1917, a race riot broke out in Lexington, KY. It was one of the many riots that took place across the United States between 1917 and 1921. The country was at war abroad, while at home tensions had been created due to the demands for civil rights, and the Great Migration North had created employment and housing competition between the races. The day of the Lexington riot, there was an extremely large number of African Americans in the city; they had arrived for the week of activities at the Colored A. & M. Fair that was held on Georgetown Pike. The colored fair in Lexington was one of the largest in the South. During the same period, National Guard troops were camped on the edge of the city. On the day of the riot, three National Guard troops were passing in front of an African American restaurant, shoving aside those who were on the sidewalk. A fight broke out and reinforcements arrived for both sides, leading to a riot. The Kentucky National Guard was summoned, and once calm was restored, armed soldiers on foot and on mount patrolled the streets, along with the police. All other National Guard troops were restricted from the city streets for the duration of the fair. The story of the riot was carried in newspapers across the United States. For more see "Race rioting in Lexington," The Ogden Standard, 09/01/1917, p. 13; and "Race riot in Lexington," Raleigh Herald, 09/07/1917, p. 6.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Military & Veterans, Rioting, Insurrections, Panics, Protests in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Ross, James A.
Birth Year : 1867
Death Year : 1949
Born in Columbus, KY, James A. Ross was a lawyer, politician, real estate broker, journalist, editor, and publisher. His family left Kentucky when Ross was a child; he was raised in Cairo, IL, and later moved farther north. Ross was editor and proprietor of The Reformer (Detroit) and publisher of the monthly magazine, Gazetteer and Guide (NY), written for African American Pullman Porters and railroad and hotel employees. He declined the U. S. Consul appointment to Cape Haitien in 1893. Ross was in charge of the Negro exhibit at the 1901 Pan-American Exhibition, held in Buffalo, and he was Vice-President of the National Colored Democratic League Bureau in Chicago in 1912. He served as Race Relations Executive for the Works Progress Administration in Albany, NY. In 1946, Ross was elected president of the New York State Colored Real Estate Brokers Exchange. He was the husband of Cora B. Hawkins Ross (b.1874 in Canada), and the family of six lived on Michigan Street in Buffalo, NY, in 1900, according to the U.S. Federal Census. For more see Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915; and "James A. Ross," New York Times, 04/28/1949, p. 31.

See newspaper image of James A. Ross and additional information at the Uncrowned Community Builders website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Businesses, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Lawyers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Pullman Porters, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments, Works Progress Administration (WPA)
Geographic Region: Columbus, Hickman County, Kentucky / Cairo, Illinois / Detroit, Michigan / Buffalo and Albany, New York / Chicago, Illinois

Rules and regulations of the annual fair of the Colored A. & M. Association Incorporated: to be held on the grounds of the white fair association, Lexington, Ky., September 8, 9, 10, 11
Colored Agricultural and Mechanical Association. Lexington, Ky.: Standard Print, 1897. Title available at Transylvania University Library's Special Collections (call no. S552 .C65 1897z) in Lexington, KY.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Waring, Mary R. Fitzbutler
Birth Year : 1870
Death Year : 1958
Mary R. Fitzbutler Waring was said to have been born in Louisville, KY, but according to the 1880 U.S. Census, she was born in Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada, the daughter of doctors Henry and Sarah Fitzbutler. The family moved to the U.S. in 1875, and was living in Louisville in 1880. Waring would become a teacher at the Western Colored School, according to the 1890 Louisville City Directory. She was a 1894 graduate of the Louisville National Medical College. She married Frank B. Waring, her second husband, in 1901. According to the 1930 U.S. Census, the Warings were living in Chicago, where Mary was a physician, having graduated from the Chicago Medical College, and she was also a school teacher. She was the 1915 commissioner of the Chicago Exposition, showing progress of Colored People in Chicago, and she was the appointed representative of the National Council of Women of America. She served as president of the National Association of Colored Women, and she attended the International Council of Women in Norway in 1920. For more seeWho's Who in Colored America, 1928-29; Blacks in Science and Medicine by V. O. Sammons; and Notable Black American Women,Book II by J. C. Smith.

See photo image of Mary Fitzbutler Waring at New York Public Library Digital Gallery.

See 1898 graduation photo image of Mary Fitzbutler at Explore UK.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Migration South, Women's Groups and Organizations, Association of Colored Women's Clubs
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada / Chicago, Illinois / Norway

Williams, Henry
Death Year : 1908
Williams was a marshal with the police department in Paris, KY. In September 1908, he was on patrol at the Paris Colored Fair and attempted to break up a fight between Bud Warren and his wife. Williams was stabbed to death by Warren, who claimed self-defense. Later that night, Warren telephoned the police and asked them to come get him at the home of Dan Love on Cypress Street in Paris. For more see "Stabbed to death," The Bourbon News, 09/22/1908, p. 1.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

World's Columbian Exposition 1893
Start Year : 1893
End Year : 1893
In 1890, U.S. President Benjamin Harrison appointed a national commission with representation from all states and territories to oversee the planning of the world's fair, to take place in Chicago during the summer of 1893. No African Americans were selected for the commission or the Board of Lady Managers that was headed by Mrs. Bertha Honore Palmer, a Chicago socialite originally from Kentucky. African American contributions were also missing from the majority of the exhibits; these exclusions were cause for protests. There were also ongoing disagreements between various African American groups about the fair. An attempt to appease the protesters resulted in a Colored Jubilee Day being held in August 1893. Discrimination of public accommodations was not part of the grievance; during the fair only one incidence of exclusion based on race was reported: Miss Mary Britton of Lexington, KY, was denied entrance to the Kentucky Building. The building had also been featured in one of the series of stereotyped cartoons about the unenlightened Johnson family, former slaves, who were attending the fair. The cartoons were printed in issues of Harper's Weekly. For more about African Americans and the Columbian Exposition see All the World is Here!: the Black presence at White City, by C. R. Reed; and Rudwick & Meier, "Black Man in the White City: Negroes and the Columbian Exposition, 1893," Phylon, vol. 26, issue 4 (1965), pp. 354-361. For more about the Kentucky Building, see the cartoon in Harper's Weekly, 11/04/1893, p. 1059. For more about the Mary Britton incident, see The Freeman (Indianapolis, IN), vol. 5, issue 32, front page, bottom of column one. The Hifner Photo Collection of Woodford County, KY, Schools was created in 1892 for the educational exhibit at the World's Fair, available online via the Kentucky Historical Society Digital Collections web page.

See images from the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893, a digital history collection at the Illinois Institute of Technology, Paul V. Galvin Library website.
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Photographers, Photographs
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois


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