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<Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]>

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African American Slave Owners in Kentucky
Start Year : 1830
In 1924 the Research Department of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History completed a study of the free Negro slave owners found in the 1830 U. S. Federal Census. The study found that there were 3,777 Negro slave owners in the United States. Negro slave owners were listed in 29 Kentucky counties (see below). Ownership may have meant the purchase of a spouse, an individual's children, or other relatives who were not emancipated. Ownership was also an investment: purchased children and adults may or may not have been given the opportunity to work off their purchase price in exchange for their freedom. A History of World Societies documents a total of 6,000 Negro slave owners in the U.S. for the year 1840 [p. 846]. The 1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules do not identify slave owners by race; the individual names of slave owners must be searched in the U.S. Federal Census to identify the individual's race. For more see the Research Department's article, "Free Negro owners of slaves in the United States in 1830," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan., 1924), pp. 41-85; A History of World Societies, by J. P. McKay, et al. [2006]; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas.

Kentucky Counties with Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]
 

  1. Adair County (1) - Swaney Burbridge
  2. Barren County (1) - Leander Force
  3. Bourbon County (9) - Peter Allen, Sally Wallace, Isaac Jones, James Monday, Peter Grant, Gabriel, Allen Heathman, Edmon Hurley, Stephen Brooks
  4. Bracken County (1) - Lethia Thomas
  5. Bullitt County, [Mt. Washington] (2) - Isaac Ellison, Bash Oldridge
  6. Christian County, [Hopkinsville] (1) - Michael Cocke
  7. Clark County (2) - John Dudley, George Birth
  8. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) - Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black -- Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer'y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith
  9. Fleming County (1) - Jacob Truett
  10. Franklin County, [Frankfort] (6) - Harry Mordecai, David Jones, John Ward, Burrel Chiles, John S. Goin, Samuel Brown
  11. Graves County (1) - Alias Keeling
  12. Green County (1) - Thomas Malone
  13. Harrison County (1) - Benjamin Berton
  14. Henderson County (1) - Liverpool Pointer
  15. Jefferson County (1), [Louisville] (5) - J. T. Gray -- Betty Cozzens, David Straws, Frank Merriwether, Daniel Brigadier, Sally
  16. Jessamine County (3) - Judith Higenbothan, Anthony of colour, William a man of color
  17. Knox County (1) - Isaiah Goins
  18. Logan County, [Russellville] (5) - Nicholas Valentine, Robert Buckner, Edward Jones, Isham Husketh, William Barber
  19. Madison County (1) - George White
  20. Mason County (9), [Washington] (3) - Thomas F. Bowles, John Glasford, Edward Cooper, H. Markham, Roseann Wann, Charles More, Ann Baylor, Edmond Toliver, Acam Diggs -- Peggy Miles, John Lightfoot, Isaac Johnson
  21. Mercer County (9) - Anderson Harris, Ben Harris, Spencer Easton, Fielding Melvin, Jemima Fry, Hercules Jenkins, George Warman, Adam Beaty, Sanko Robinson
  22. Montgomery County (1) - Richard Lee
  23. Nelson County, [Bardstown] (4) - Thomas Smiley, Joe Cocke, Thomas Rudd, George Aud
  24. Nicholas County (1) - George Mallery
  25. Rockcastle County (1) - David Cable
  26. Shelby County (1), [Shelbyville] (3) - John Edwards -- Peter Short, Hannah Harris, Jim Henson
  27. Warren County (2) - Jane Palmore, Bazzle Russell
  28. Washington County, [Springfield] (2) - Robert C. Palmer, Ignatius Sandy
  29. Woodford County (13) - Joe Miller, Lawrence Corbin, Betty Tutt, Billy Campbell, Henry Mason, Tom Stratford, Ambrose Hardy, Richard Harvey, Samuel Cloak, Nathan Twiner, Joel Hawkins, Moses Weaver, Jordan Ritchie

Subjects: Free African American Slave Owners, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Free Blacks, Negroes, and Mulattoes in the 1800 Kentucky Tax Lists
Start Year : 1800
The Second Census of Kentucky 1800 was constructed from the tax lists in the existing Kentucky counties. Below are the names of free Blacks, Negroes and Mulattoes, all taxpayers who were included in the listing. They were among the 739 free Colored persons in Kentucky in 1800. There may have been others named on the lists, but their race was not noted.

  • Robert Anderson, Barren County
  • William Anderson, Barren County
  • John Baker, Nelson County
  • William Blakey, Barren County
  • Abner Bourne, Barren County
  • Peter Brass, Franklin County
  • William Cousins, Nelson County
  • William Daily, Fayette County
  • Isam Davis, Lincoln County
  • Adam Evens, Lincoln County
  • Michael Jackson, Lincoln County
  • Abraham Levaugh, Warren County
  • John Lewis, Jefferson County
  • Bristo Mathews, Lincoln County
  • Edward Mathews, Lincoln County
  • Gloster Rawls, Nelson County
  • George Stafford, Gallatin County
  • Moses Tyre, Bullitt County
  • William Walker, Nelson County

Subjects: Early Settlers, Freedom, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky Counties: Bullitt, Fayette, Franklin, Gallatin, Jefferson, Lincoln, Nelson, Warren

Kentucky Slaves and Free Blacks, 1800
Start Year : 1800
G. Glen Clift, Assistant Secretary of the Kentucky Historical Society, compiled and published "Second Census" of Kentucky 1800, originally published in Frankfort, KY in 1954. The following quotation is taken from the title page: "A Privately Compiled and Published Enumeration of Tax Payers Appearing in the 79 Manuscript Volumes Extant of Tax Lists of the 42 Counties of Kentucky in Existence in 1800." Within the table on page VI is the following information: 739 free Colored and 40,303 slaves, and there is also a breakdown by county.
Subjects: Early Settlers, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kentucky Slaves and Free Persons Not White, 1790
Start Year : 1790
In 1790, there were 11,830 slaves and 114 free blacks in the area known as Kentucky, according to the title Black Genesis: A Resource Book for African-American Genealogy, p116. Another source is the "First Census" of Kentucky 1790, compiled by C. B. Heinemann, published in Washington in 1940. The following quote comes from page 1. "It is a privately compiled list of tax payers appearing in the tax lists of all Kentucky counties which were established at the time of the First Federal Census." In Heinemann's work, the number of slaves are slightly higher: 12,430 slaves and 114 free persons who were not white. The following information comes from p.3.

  • Bourbon County:     6,929 whites,   908 slaves,
  • Fayette County:    14,626 whites, 3,752 slaves, 32 free persons
  • Jefferson County:    3,857 whites,    903 slaves,   5 free persons
  • Lincoln County:       5,446 whites, 1,094 slaves,   8 free persons
  • Madison County:     5,035 whites,    737 slaves
  • Mason County:        2,500 whites,    229 slaves
  • Mercer County:        5,745 whites, 1,339 slaves,   7 free persons
  • Nelson County:      10,032 whites, 1,248 slaves, 35 free persons
  • Woodford County:    6,963 whites, 2,220 slaves, 27 free persons


Subjects: Early Settlers, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]

Nelson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Nelson County, located in west-central Kentucky, is surrounded by seven counties. It was the fourth county established in Kentucky, formed in 1784 from a portion of Jefferson County and named for the governor of Virginia, Thomas Nelson. The county seat is Bardstown, first known as Salem and later renamed for one of the original town settlers, David Bard (spelled as Baird in some sources). In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 10,032 whites, 1,248 slaves, and 35 free persons. The county population in 1800 was 9,866, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 7,948 whites, 1,902 slaves, and 16 free coloreds. In 1830 there were four free African American slave owners in Bardstown. The population increased to 10,270 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 997 slave owners
  • 4,156 Black slaves
  • 969 Mulatto slaves
  • 94 free Blacks
  • 1 free Colored [Charlot Humphrey]
  • 21 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 1,053 slave owners
  • 4,918 Black slaves
  • 578 Mulatto slaves
  • 79 free Blacks
  • 32 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,092 Blacks
  • 796 Mulattoes
  • About 221 U.S. Colored Troops listed Nelson County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see Nelson County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Abstracts of Wills Nelson County, Kentucky 1785-1823: complete index including slaves, Blacks, and servants by Nelson County Historical Society; Marriage Bond Books, 1785-1913 by Nelson County Clerk; From Out of the Dark Past Their Eyes Implore Us: the Black roots of Nelson County, Kentucky by P. Craven and R. L. Pangburn; and Declaration of Marriage of Negroes and Mulattoes: the Commonwealth of Kentucky [1900-1985?] by Nelson County Historical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Nelson County, Kentucky

Nicholas County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Nicholas County was formed in 1799 from portions of Bourbon and Mason Counties. It is bordered by five counties and was named for George Nicholas from Virginia, who was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and was the first Kentucky Attorney General. Carlisle, in Nicholas County, is one of the state's smallest county seats. It was established in 1816. The town was developed on land that had belonged to John Kincart, who named the town in honor of his father's hometown of Carlisle, Pennsylvania. The 1800 Nicholas County population was 2,925, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,597 whites, 322 slaves, and 6 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner. By 1860, the population was 9,416, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 421 slave owners
  • 1,283 Black slaves
  • 214 Mulatto slaves
  • 121 free Blacks
  • 48 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 381 slave owners
  • 1,407 Black slaves
  • 207 Mulatto slaves
  • 112 free Blacks
  • 42 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 955 Blacks
  • 225 Mulattoes
  • About 75 U.S. Colored Troops listed Nicholas County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Nicholas County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; for more on George Nicholas stand on slavery see Kentucky and the Question of Slavery, a Kentucky Educational Television website; Edmund Lyne Papers [slaves manumission]; Marriage Books (indexed), 1800-1934 by Nicholas County Clerk; and Nicholas County Memorial Library Oral History Collection.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Nicholas County, Kentucky

Ohio County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Ohio County, located in the western region of Kentucky, was established in 1798 from a portion of Hardin County, and was named for the Ohio River. The county ran along the river before it was divided into additional counties. Hartford is the county seat, and was named for a deer crossing, hart ford. The land was part of a grant that Gabriel Madison received from Virginia, and Fort Hartford was one of the first settlements in the area. The 1800 county population was 1,223, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,069 whites, 151 slaves, and 3 free coloreds. The population increased to 10,919 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 327 slave owners
  • 865 Black slaves
  • 268 Mulatto slaves
  • 40 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 320 slave owners
  • 825 Black slaves
  • 547 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,190 Blacks
  • 132 Mulattoes
  • About 42 U.S. Colored Troops listed Ohio County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Ohio County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Spider Webs, a Steamer-trunk, and Slavery by L. E. Lindley and E. L. Bennett; Papers (bulk 1857-1863), 1843-1947, Slavery - Emancipation [letters from a former slave in Liberia]; and Interview with Eva Carmen Rearding Her Life (FA154), Manuscript and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Ohio County, Kentucky

Oldham County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Oldham County is located along the Ohio River and is bordered by four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1823 from portions of Henry, Jefferson and Shelby Counties, and named for William Oldham who fought in the American Revolutionary War. The original county seat was West Port, and in 1827 was moved to the new town of LaGrange [also spelled La Grange], which was named for the French estate of the Marquis de Lafayette. In 1828, the Kentucky General Assembly moved the county seat back to West Port, and ten years later, the county seat was moved permanently to La Grange. The 1830 county population was 1,127 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 4,852 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 468 slave owners
  • 2,118 Black slaves
  • 306 Mulatto slaves
  • 36 free Blacks
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 369 slave owners
  • 2,031 Black slaves
  • 319 Mulattoes
  • 35 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [James Newman and Liter Poetch]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,224 Blacks
  • 569 Mulattoes
  • About 44 U.S. Colored Troops listed Oldham County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Oldham County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A Survey of African-American Cemeteries, Oldham County, Kentucky, 2004 by the Oldham County Historical Society; and History & Families Oldham County, Ky by the Turner Publishing Company.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Oldham County

Owen County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes,1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Owen County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1819 from portions of Franklin, Gallatin, and Scott Counties. It is bordered by five counties, and was named for Abraham Owen, an early Kentucky Legislator who was killed in 1811 during the Battle of Tippecanoe. The county seat is Owenton, which was also named for Abraham Owen. In 1820, the county population was 305 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 11,535 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 367 slave owners
  • 1,220 Black slaves
  • 294 Mulatto slaves
  • 48 free Blacks [most with last name Lucas]
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Palina Skilman and Benjamin Yancey]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 398 slave owners
  • 1,299 Black slaves
  • 361 Mulatto slaves
  • 46 free Blacks
  • 23 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 995 Blacks
  • 174 Mulattoes
  • About 26 U.S. Colored Troops listed Owen County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Owen County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; New Liberty by C. Roland; Big Eagle Country by R. R. Williamson; and History of Owen County, Kentucky, "Sweet Owen" by M. S. Houchens.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Owen County, Kentucky

Owsley County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Owsley County, located in eastern Kentucky, was formed in 1843 from portions of Breathitt, Clay, and Estill Counties. It is surrounded by five counties and was named for William Owsley, a Kentucky governor who also served in the Kentucky House and Senate, and was Kentucky Secretary of State. The county seat is Booneville, named for Daniel Boone. The 1850 county population was 3,956, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,223 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 41 slave owners
  • 114 Black slaves
  • 22 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks [last names Orchard, 1 Jenkins, 1 Butcher]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [last names Butcher, Ross, 1 Clark, 1 Ferey, 1 Goosey]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 29 slave owners
  • 77 Black slaves
  • 35 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last names Hornsby, 1 Buford]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [last names Goosey, Ross, 2 Norman, 1 Smith, 1 Ward]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 26 Blacks [last names Cawood, Guess, Minter, 1 Pendleton, 1 Ambrose]
  • 17 Mulattoes [last names Cawood, Ross, 3 Ambrose, 1 Bowman, 1 Clark, 1 Minter]
  • At least one U.S. Colored Troop listed Owsley County as his birth location [Allen Jett].
For more see Owsley County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and Owsley County, Kentucky, and the Perpetuation of Poverty by J. R. Burch.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Owsley County, Kentucky

Pendleton County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Pendleton County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1798 from portions of Campbell and Bracken Counties. It is bordered by five counties and was named for Edmund Pendleton from Virginia, who was a delegate to the first Continental Congress. The county seat is Falmouth, named for Falmouth, VA. The 1800 county population was 1,613, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,371 whites, 240 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. The population increased to 10,019 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 127 slave owners
  • 462 Black slaves
  • 46 Mulatto slaves
  • 36 free Blacks [most with last names Monday and Southgate]
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Elsey Hues and Charity Sothgate]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 121 slave owners
  • 335 Black slaves
  • 89 Mulatto slaves
  • 24 free Blacks [most with last name Monday]
  • 17 free Mulattoes [most with last name Southgate]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 503 Blacks
  • 127 Mulattoes
  • At least 8 U.S. Colored Troops listed Pendleton County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Pendleton County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; An Account of the Life of James Bradley, Black Abolitionist, website by Pendleton County Genealogy Project; see "Charity's House" in African American Historic Places by B. L. Savage and C. D. Shull; see Chapter 7 in I've Got a Home in Glory Land by K. S. Frost; and The Grave of a Forgotten Soldier, by H. R. Seibert, Jr. [online], article originally published in Northern Kentucky Heritage Magazine, (Autumn/Winter 1994), v.2, issue 1.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Pendleton County, Kentucky

Perry County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Perry County, located in southeastern Kentucky, was formed in 1820 and named for Oliver Hazard Perry, a naval officer during the War of 1812. Hazard is the county seat, founded in 1821. It was originally named Perry until the name was changed to Hazard in 1854. Both county seat names were in honor of Oliver Hazard Perry. The 1830 county population was 488 [heads of households], and the population increased to 3,877 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 33 slave owners
  • 85 Black slaves
  • 32 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black (Joseph Williams)
  • 8 free Mulattoes (Henry Williams, Hiram Freeman, his wife and five children)
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 28 slave owners
  • 45 Black slaves
  • 28 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes [11 with last name Couch, 2 Stacy]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 77 Blacks
  • 7 Mulattoes [4 Crawford, Morgan, Sumler, Walker]
  • At least 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Perry County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Perry County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Britt Combs Collection [Dr. C. Britt Combs]; and NAACP 1940-55 legal file, mob violence, James Robinson [i.e., Robertson], 1942. See the photo image of the Negro School in Hazard in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Perry County, Kentucky

Pike County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Pike County, located in far eastern Kentucky, is bordered by four Kentucky counties, the Virginia state line and the West Virginia state line. Pike County was formed in 1821 and is named for Zebulon M. Pike, an explorer; Pikes Peak is also named in his honor. Pike County is one of the major coal producing counties in the United States. The county seat is Pikeville, founded in 1823 and also named for Zebulon M. Pike. The county population was 433 [heads of households] in 1830, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 7,325 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 29 slave owners
  • 44 Black slaves
  • 58 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [2 with last name Polly, 1 Campbell]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [most with last name White, 4 Dottan, 1 Huffman, 1 Rutherford]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 29 slave owners
  • 37 Black slaves
  • 60 Mulatto slaves
  • 5 free Blacks [all with last name Polly]
  • 35 free Mulattoes [last names Collins, Polly, Slone, and White]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 64 Blacks
  • 32 Mulattoes
  • At least 7 U.S. Colored Troops listed Pike County as their birthplace.

For more see Pike County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, by J. E. Kleber; Curriculum Resources: African American History in Pike County, with Emphasis on the Historical African American Section of Dils Cemetery, by M. F. Sohn and K. K. Sohn; and "The saga of the Polly family..." in The Black Laws: race and the legal process in early Ohio, by S. Middleton. See the photo image of the Negro School in Pikeville in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.



Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Pike County, Kentucky

Powell County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1860-1880
Start Year : 1860
End Year : 1880
Powell County is located slightly east of central Kentucky. It was formed in 1852 from portions of Clark, Estill, and Montgomery Counties, and named for Kentucky Governor Lazarus W. Powell. Powell County is surrounded by three counties. It is home to one of the last Native American villages in the state. The county seat is Stanton, named for U.S. House Member Richard M. Stanton in 1852. The 1860 county population was 2,132, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 3,647 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1860-1880.

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 32 slave owners
  • 101 Black slaves
  • 24 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks [last names Holley, Johnson, Anderson, 2 Abbott, 1 Brandenburg]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [2 Johnson, 1 Clarke, 1 Miltson]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 191 Blacks
  • 45 Mulattoes
  • At least 8 U.S. Colored Troops listed Powell County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 269 Blacks
  • 10 Mulattoes [last name Kelly, 1 Harris]
For more see the Powell County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and Powell County, Kentucky: a pictorial history, by the Powell County Pictorial History Book Committee.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Powell County, Kentucky

Pulaski County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Pulaski County was formed in 1798 from portions of Green and Lincoln Counties. The area was settled by veterans of the American Revolutionary War; they named the county for Casimir Pulaski, who was born in Warsaw, Poland, and was known as the "Father of the American Cavalry." Casimir Pulaski died fighting in the Battle of Savannah in 1779. There are seven counties named Pulaski in the United States. In Kentucky, Somerset became the seat of Pulaski County in 1801, named by settlers from Somerset County, New Jersey. The Pulaski County, KY, population in 1800 was 3,161, according to the "Second Census" of Kentucky; 2,928 whites, 232 slaves, and 1 free colored. The population increased to 15,831 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census. This did not include the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 269 slave owners
  • 1,193 Black slaves
  • 7 Colored slaves [one owned by John Long and six owned by William Tarter]
  • 105 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks [last names Buster, Madnel, Moderal, Simpson, Weaver, and Wellens]
  • 12 free Mulattoes [most with last name Roper, and one Drew, Hays, Keeney, and Simpson]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 285 slave owners
  • 1,150 Black slaves
  • 180 Mulatto slaves
  • 18 free Blacks [most with last names Buster and Moderal]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names White and Stevens]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 946 Blacks
  • 133 Mulattoes
  • About 33 U.S. Colored Troops listed Pulaski County, KY, as their birth location.
For more, see Pulaski County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Free Frank, by J. E. K. Walker; and A History of Pulaski County, Kentucky, by A. O. Tibbals. See the photo image of the Negro high school in Pulaski County in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Pulaski County, Kentucky

Robertson County (KY) Free Blacks and Free Mulattoes, 1870-1900
Start Year : 1870
End Year : 1900
Robertson County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1867 from portions of Harrison, Mason, Bracken, and Nicholas Counties. One of the last battles in the American Revolutionary War took place in what is now Robertson County in 1782, the Battle of Blue Licks. Robertson County is named for Judge George Robertson, a U.S. Congressman who also served in the Kentucky House, as Kentucky Secretary of State, and in several other positions in Kentucky government. George Robertson was also a slave owner; he filed a lawsuit against William L. Utley during the American Civil War, seeking compensation for the loss of his slave named Adam. The seat of Robertson County is Mt. Olivet, established around 1820, and named for Mt. Olivet in the Bible. Robertson County was formed after slaves in Kentucky were freed by the ratification of the 13th Amendment. Below are population numbers for Blacks and Mulattoes from 1870-1900.

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 136 Blacks
  • 93 Mulattoes
  • At least 3 U.S. Colored Troops listed Robertson County, KY, as their birth location. Jerry Brooks enlisted November 24, 1864; Abraham Norrington enlisted in 1863; and Thomas Thompson enlisted October 13, 1864. [Note: Robertson County, Kentucky was not officially a county until 1867. The birth location of the three troops may be an error, or they many have been born in Robertson County, TN. There is also the possibility that Robertson County, KY, was recognized by the local people before it officially became a county in 1867.]
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 231 Blacks
  • 47 Mulattoes
1900 U.S. Federal Census
  • 130 Blacks
For more, see Robertson County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; see "Blue Licks" in the History of Nicholas County, compiled and edited by J. W. Conley; and the 1846 Kentucky Legislature Resolution replacing Jack Hart's rifle that was lost in the Battle of Blue Licks, in the Edmund T. Halsey Collection.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Robertson County, Kentucky

Rockcastle County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Rockcastle County was named for the Rockcastle River. The river was named in 1767 by Isaac Lindsey, an explorer who viewed the rock formations along the water and thought they resembled castles. Rockcastle County was formed in 1810 from portions of Lincoln, Madison, Knox, and Pulaski Counties. About a quarter of the county is in the Daniel Boone National Forest. The county seat is Mt. Vernon, established prior to 1790 and named for George Washington's 8,000-acre plantation home in Virginia [info]. The 1810 county population was 245 [heads of households], according to the 1810 U.S. Federal Census; that did not include the 154 slaves. By 1830, there was one free Negro slave owner. In 1860, the county population increased to 4,986, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 163 slave owners
  • 503 Black slaves
  • 124 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks [last names, Cabb, True, and 1 Woodall]
  • 26 free Mulattoes [last names Ann and Gatliff, 1 Edwards, 1 Wiggins, 2 Woodall]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 93 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 109 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks [last names Gatliff, Ture, and 1 Rentfroe]
  • 27 free Mulattoes [last names Cornett, Gatliff, Wiggins, Woodall, 1 Hubbard, 1 Moore]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 242 Blacks
  • 85 Mulattoes
  • At least two U.S. Colored Troops listed Rockcastle County, KY, as their birth location [David Newcomb and William Smith, both of whom enlisted at Camp Nelson].

For more, see the Rockcastle County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Oral History Interview of Nettie Sherman, by N. H. Sherman and L. J. Goff; "Rockcastle County (Robert Mullins)" in Slave Narratives, Volume 7, by Work Projects Administration; and the Mt. Vernon Signal, a Kentucky newspaper.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Rockcastle County, Kentucky

Rowan County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1860-1880
Start Year : 1860
End Year : 1880
Rowan County, in northeastern Kentucky, was formed in 1856 from portions of Fleming and Morgan Counties; it is surrounded by seven counties and named for John Rowan, who served as Kentucky Secretary of State, Kentucky House Member, and U.S. Senator. The county was almost dissolved due to the Rowan County War, 1884-1887, also known as the Martin-Tolliver feud. The county seat, Morehead, was established in 1856 and named for Kentucky Governor James T. Morehead. The 1860 county population was 2,140, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1860-1880.

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 32 slave owners
  • 110 Black slaves
  • 32 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Jo Million]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 21 Blacks
  • 24 Mulattoes
  • At least two U.S. Colored Troops listed Rowan County, KY, as their birth location [Mathew Davis and Scipio Torrence].
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 95 Blacks
For more see Rowan County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Rowan County, Kentucky

Russell County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Russell County, located in south-central Kentucky, was formed in 1825 from portions of Adair, Cumberland, and Wayne Counties. Russell County is named for William Russell, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, Indian wars, and the War of 1812. He also served in the Virginia and Kentucky Legislatures. The seat of Russell County is Jamestown, which was formerly named Jacksonville after Andrew Jackson. The town was renamed Jamestown in 1826, named for James Woodridge, who gave the land for the town location. The 1830 county population was 569 [heads of households] according to the U.S. Federal Census; the population increased to 5,425 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 53 slave owners
  • 163 Black slaves
  • 20 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes [two with the last name Brummet, one Dunkeson, one Garret]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 134 slave owners
  • 400 Black slaves
  • 159 Mulatto slaves
  • 8 free Blacks [most with last name Jackman and Rowe, one Epperson, one Faubus]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [two Whittle, one Jackman, one Richards]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 248 Blacks
  • 38 Mulattoes
  • About six U.S. Colored Troops listed Russell County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Russell County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Russell Co., Kentucky, Black Marriages, by C. L. Sanders; Russell County (Ky.): cemetery records; and "Jemima - a faithful Negro woman" in History of the Carlock Family and the Adventures of Pioneer Americans, by M. P. Carlock.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Russell County, Kentucky

Scott County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Scott County was formed from Woodford County in 1792, the 11th county in Kentucky. It is located in the north-central part of the state and was named for Kentucky Governor Charles Scott, who was a veteran of the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. Scott County is surrounded by seven counties. The county seat is Georgetown, which was previously named Lebanon. In 1790 the town was renamed George Town in honor of George Washington. After Scott County was established in 1792, George Town became the county seat, and the spelling was changed to Georgetown [one word] in 1846. The 1800 population was 8,007 and included 6,085 whites, 12 free coloreds, and 1,910 slaves, according to the Second Census of Kentucky. By 1860, the population was 8,675, excluding the slaves, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Below are the numbers for slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 909 slave owners
  • 5,378 Black slaves
  • 456 Mulatto slaves
  • 174 free Blacks
  • 47 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 1,070 slave owners
  • 4,854 Black slaves
  • 678 Mulatto slaves
  • 162 free Blacks
  • 66 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,355 Blacks
  • 561 Mulattoes
  • About 267 U.S. Colored Troops listed Scott County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Scott County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, by J. E. Kleber; Scott County, Kentucky (map), by M. A. Cabot; History of the Development of Education for Negroes in Scott County, Kentucky, by A. B. C. Sowards; A History of Scott County, Kentucky, in the World War, 1917-1919, by Mrs. W. H. Coffman; Spencer Family Papers, 1878-1986, Spencer Family; and A History of Scott County, by A. B. Bevins.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky

Shelby County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Shelby County, formed in 1792 from portions of Jefferson County, was named in honor of the first Kentucky Governor, Isaac Shelby. The county is located in north-central Kentucky and surrounded by six counties. The county seat, Shelbyville, was also named for Governor Shelby. Shelby County was the 12th county formed in Kentucky, and according to the Second Census of Kentucky, in 1800 the total population was 8,191, with 6,681 whites, 23 free coloreds, and 1,487 slaves. In 1830, there were four free African American slave owners: one in Shelby County and three in Shelbyville. By 1860, the population was 9,799, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 1,266 slave owners
  • 5,875 Black slaves
  • 908 Mulatto slaves
  • 138 free Blacks
  • 55 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 1,192 slave owners
  • 5,668 Black slaves
  • 998 Mulatto slaves
  • 103 free Blacks
  • 61 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,260 Blacks
  • 2,070 Mulattoes
  • About 296 U.S. Colored Troops listed Shelby County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Shelby County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; 1924 Third Annual Fair and Premium List of New Colored Shelby County Fair Association, Inc.; Whitney M. Young, Sr. Papers; Oral History Interview with Maurice Rabb; and History of Shelby County, Kentucky. by G. L. Willis.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky

Simpson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Simpson County, in south Kentucky, slightly to the west, is on the Tennessee line and borders the three Kentucky counties from which it was formed in 1819: Allen, Logan, and Warren Counties. Simpson County was named in honor of John Simpson, who was killed during the War of 1812. The county seat is Franklin, established in 1819 and named for Benjamin Franklin. The 1820 county population was 674 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, the population increased to 5,841 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 394 Slave owners
  • 1,664 Black slaves
  • 271 Mulatto slaves
  • 37 free Blacks
  • 7 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 462 Slave owners
  • 1,928 Black slaves
  • 381 Mulatto slaves
  • 92 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes [last names Husketh, 1 Earnest]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,770 Black slaves
  • 381 Mulattoes
  • About 42 U.S. Colored Troops listed Simpson County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Simpson County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; African American Heritage of Simpson County, Kentucky, by the African American Heritage Committee of the Kentucky Heritage Council; Simpson County, KY African American Death Certificates, by M. Denning; Minutes of the First District Association of Colored Baptists, held with the Alpha Baptist Church, Franklin, Kentucky. On Sept. 21, 22, 23 and 24, 1876, by the First District Association of Colored Baptists (KY); and Gospel Musicians (FA191), Folklife Archives Project 191.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

The Slave Rebellion Website [online]
Start Year : 2010
The Slave Rebellion Website is sponsored by The New World African Press. In reference to Kentucky, the site includes references to African and slave insurrections and actions. The population database covers the census years 1790-1890 for all states, and includes the number of slaves per county between 1790-1860. There are also some data on free persons of color by sex, county, and decade.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

Spencer County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Spencer County is located on the western side of central Kentucky and surrounded by five counties. It was formed in 1824 from portions of Bullitt, Nelson, and Shelby Counties, and named for Spier Spencer, who died in the Battle of Tippecanoe. The county seat is Taylorsville, named for Richard Taylor, a gristmill owner and land owner. Taylorsville existed prior to 1790 and was incorporated in 1829. The county population was 868 [heads of households] in 1830, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The population increased to 15,615 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 445 slave owners
  • 1,674 Black slaves
  • 477 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks [most with the last name White]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 440 slave owners
  • 1,938 Black slaves
  • 273 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,267 Blacks
  • 133 Mulattoes
  • About 74 U.S. Colored Troops listed Spencer County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Spencer County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Spencer County, Kentucky Negro Marriages, 1866-1914, by J. M. Lily; The History of Spencer County, Kentucky, by M. F. Brown; and "Spencer County" in African American Historic Places, by B. L. Savage.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Spencer County, Kentucky

Taylor County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Taylor County, located in south-central Kentucky, was formed in 1848 from a portion of Green County, and is named for U.S. President Zachary Taylor. It is bordered by five counties. The county seat, Campbellsville, was established in 1817. The town was laid out by Andrew Campbell, a gristmill owner. The county population was 5,695 in 1850, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,887 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 303 slave owners
  • 1,466 Black slaves
  • 154 Mulatto slaves
  • 88 free Blacks
  • 60 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 287 slave owners
  • 1,305 Black slaves
  • 288 Mulatto slaves
  • 57 free Blacks
  • 72 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 1,673 Blacks
  • 190 Mulattoes
  • About 64 U.S. Colored Troops listed Taylor County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see Taylor County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Campbellsville-Taylor County, Kentucky Oral History Project (FA202) Manuscripts and Folklife Archives; and Campbellsville - Taylor County, Kentucky Oral History Project (FA 202), at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Taylor County, Kentucky

Todd County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Todd County, formed in 1819 from portions of Logan and Christian Counties, is bordered by three Kentucky counties and the Tennessee state line. The county is named for John Todd, a colonel who was killed during the Battle of Blue Licks. Elkton, the county seat, was incorporated in 1820 and is located on Elk Fork, which was a water source for herds of elk. Both the city and the fork are named for the elk. The 1820 county population was 575 [heads of households], and the population increased to 6,726 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 635 slave owners
  • 4,600 Black slaves
  • 211 Mulatto slaves
  • 69 free Blacks
  • 28 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 583 slave owners
  • 4,336 Black slaves
  • 506 Mulatto slaves
  • 38 free Blacks
  • 7 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 4,421 Blacks
  • 412 Mulattoes
  • About 292 U.S. Colored Troops listed Todd County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Todd County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Marriage Bond Books, Todd County Clerk; Kinchlow, Gina Lloyce (FA4), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; Lewis, Lisa Claire (FA 193), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; and Todd County, Kentucky, Family History by Turner Publishing Company.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Todd County, Kentucky

Trigg County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Trigg County, located in southwest Kentucky, is on the Tennessee state line and borders five Kentucky counties. Trigg County was created in 1820 from portions of Christian County and, to a lesser degree, Caldwell County. It is named for Stephen Trigg, a land commissioner and soldier who was killed during the Battle of Blue Licks. The county seat is Cadiz. The 1820 county population was 514 heads of households, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 7,603 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 502 slave owners
  • 2,435 Black slaves
  • 362 Mulatto slaves
  • 69 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 529 slave owners
  • 2,977 Black slaves
  • 473 Mulatto slaves
  • 25 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,373 Blacks
  • 386 Mulattoes
  • About 230 U.S. Colored Troops listed Trigg County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Trigg County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Slave Records of Stephen Trigg; Marriage Books (indexed), Trigg County Clerk; Trigg County African American Oral History Project (FA 196), Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; Oral History Interview with Bobby Allen, B. Allen and S. Fisk; and Y. M. Pitts, "I Desire to Give My Black Family Their Freedom," chapter three in Women Shaping the South, by A. Boswell and J. N. McArthur.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentucky

Trimble County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Trimble County is located in northern Kentucky, bordered by three counties and the Ohio River. The county was formed in 1837 from portions of Gallatin, Henry, and Oldham Counties. The county was named for Robert Trimble, a U.S. Supreme Court Justice who was born in Virginia and lived in Bourbon County, KY. There is only one Trimble County in the United States. The county seat is Bedford, established in 1816 and named for Bedford, VA, the home of Bedford, KY's first settler, Richard Ball. The Trimble County population in 1840 was 654 [heads of households], according to the the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,049 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 216 slave owners
  • 715 Black slaves
  • 226 Mulatto slaves
  • 27 free Blacks [most with the last name Scott]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [last names Moreland, 2 Penn, Penna]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 196 slave owners
  • 661 Black slaves
  • 175 Mulatto slaves
  • 4 free Blacks [last names Lynch, Mason, 2 Scott]
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 308 Blacks
  • 141 Mulattoes
  • About 22 U.S. Colored Troops listed Trimble County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Trimble County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Marriage Books (Indexed), Trimble County Clerk; and Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, an American Slave, by Henry Bibb.
See photo image of children in WPA Colored Nursery in Trimble County, at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky

Union County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Union County, in western Kentucky, was formed in 1811 from a portion of Henderson County. It is bordered by three counties and the Ohio River. Morganfield, the county seat, was established in 1812 on land acquired from the heirs of Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Morgan. The 1820 Union County population was 383 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 9,686 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 484 slave owners
  • 1,915 Black slaves
  • 377 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks [5 with no last name, 5 Dickson, 1 Acliff, 2 Waller]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [last names Acliff, Henson, Kirkendall, and Roberts]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 539 slave owners
  • 2,893 Black slaves
  • 180 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 2,001 Blacks
  • 462 Mulattoes
  • About 177 U.S. Colored Troops listed Union County, KY, as their birth location.

For more information, see Union County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Slavery On the Edge of Freedom, by J. M. Crate (thesis); Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky education, by J. M. Trowbridge and J. Lemay; and Freedom on the Border, by C. Fosl and T. E. K'Meyer.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Union County, Kentucky

U.S. Census: Slave Schedules, Black or Mulatto, Colored
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1890
African American slaves were first enumerated in the U.S. Federal Census in 1850 in a separate census called Slave Schedules. The 1850 Census was also the first in which all members of a household were listed by name; prior to 1850, only the heads of households were listed by name. As for slaves listed in the 1850 Slave Schedules, the vast majority are not listed by name but rather are numbered by age, sex, and color [Black or Mulatto] from the oldest to the youngest, all under the name of the slave owner. Also listed were the reported fugitive and manumitted (freed) slaves and the deaf, blind, insane, and idiotic slaves. A second slave census was taken in 1860. Kentucky was one of the 18 states included in the 1850 Slave Schedules and one of the 17 states in the 1860 Slave Schedules. African American slaves had been freed by the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 or by the ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865. Because Kentucky did not secede from the Union, Kentucky slaves were freed by the ratification of the 13th Amendment. In the 1870 and 1880 U.S. Federal Censuses, African Americans are included as Black or Mulatto. When the 1890 Census was taken, the term "Colored" was also used as a race descriptor for some African Americans, as well as for Chinese, Hawaiians, Japanese, Puerto Ricans, Swiss, Native Americans, and many others. As early as 1850, the term "Colored" had been used in the U.S. Federal Census and in the census of some individual states to describe free persons who were not White. Well beyond the year 1900, in the United States, the terms Black, Mulatto, and Colored were all used on birth, death, and military records, and on ship passenger lists. For more information about the race descriptors used in the early U.S. Census data, contact the U.S. Census Bureau; see Shades of Citizenship, by M. Nobles; Census and Identity, by D. I. Kertzer and D. Arel; and Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census, by M. J. Anderson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z], Race Categories
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

Warren County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Warren County, in southern Kentucky and bordered by six counties, was formed in 1796 from a portion of Logan County. It is named for Joseph Warren, a Harvard graduate and major-general who was killed in the Battle at Bunker Hill during the American Revolutionary War. The seat of Warren County is Bowling Green, founded in 1798 and thought to have been named in honor of Bowling Green, Virginia, or for the game 'bowling on the green.' According to the Second Census of Kentucky, 1800, the total population was 4,686: 4,251 whites; 4 free coloreds, and 431 slaves. In 1830 there were two free African American slave owners. By 1860, the total population was 12,004, according to the U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 812 slave owners
  • 3,706 Black slaves
  • 611 Mulatto slaves
  • 92 free Blacks
  • 114 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 882 slave owners
  • 3,893 Black slaves
  • 1,068 Mulatto slaves
  • 99 free Blacks
  • 105 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 5,085 Blacks
  • 1,089 Mulattoes
  • About 172 U.S. Colored Troops listed Warren County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Warren County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; 1870 Warren County, Kentucky Black Census by M. B. Gorin; Barbara J. Chase (FA316) Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; Mt. Moriah Cemetery by J. Jeffrey et. al.; Warren County, Kentucky Marriages (1866-1962): Blacks at Warren County Clerk Office; and African American Heritage in Bowling Green and Warren County, Kentucky (FA509) Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts & Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Warren County, Kentucky

Washington County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Washington County, located in central Kentucky where it is bordered by six counties, was the 10th county formed in Kentucky, in 1792. It was named for President George Washington. Many of the first settlers were veterans who came to the area to claim land grants awarded to them for service during the American Revolutionary War. The county seat, Springfield, was founded in 1793 and named for the many springs in the area. In 1800, the total population was 9,050: 7,611 whites, 17 free coloreds, and 1,422 slaves, according to the Second Census of Kentucky, 1800. In 1830 there were two free African American slave owners in Springfield. By 1860, the total population was 8,753, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 608 slave owners
  • 3,127 Black slaves
  • 337 Mulatto slaves
  • 48 free Blacks
  • 15 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 450 slave owners
  • 2,149 Black slaves
  • 674 Mulatto slaves
  • 32 free Blacks
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,783 Blacks
  • 312 Mulattoes
  • About 25 U.S. Colored Troops listed Washington County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Washington County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; 1792 Tax List of Washington County, Kentucky; Marriage Bond Books, (1858-1942) at the Washington County Clerk's office; Marriages of Black Residents of Washington County, Kentucky Back Dated and Recorded, 1866-1872, by L. A. Anderson; I Shared the Dream, by G. D. Powers; and Washington County, Kentucky, St. Rose Cemetery, and other "tidbits", by D. F. Bertram.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Washington County, Kentucky

Wayne County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Wayne County, located in south central Kentucky, is bordered by four counties and the Tennessee state line. It was formed in 1800 from portions of Pulaski and Cumberland Counties. Wayne County was named in honor of Anthony Wayne, a member of the Continental Army, and a veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. The seat of Wayne County is Monticello, established in 1800 and named for the Virginia home of Thomas Jefferson [Jefferson's Monticello]. The 1810 Wayne County population was 1,850 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 9,272 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 141 slave owners
  • 447 Black slaves
  • 131 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [Li Ewing, Judia Grals Ewing, and Jerry Lankford]
  • 7 free Mulattoes [last names Mills, Rotan, 1 Frazer, 1 Spradling]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 212 slave owners
  • 720 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Cowan, 1 Gibson, 1 Philips, 1 Wadkins]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 528 Blacks
  • 177 Mulattoes
  • About 55 U.S. Colored Troops listed Wayne County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Wayne County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A Compilation of Materials Documenting the History of Negro Education in Monticello and Wayne County, Kentucky, by H. Ogle; Jesse Alexander Papers at the University of Minnesota; "Thomas J. Craft, Sr." in Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century, by J. H. Kessler; and "Brent Woods" in Black Valor, by F. N. Schubert.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Wayne County, Kentucky

Webster County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1860-1880
Start Year : 1860
End Year : 1880
Webster County, located in western Kentucky, was formed in 1860 from portions of Henderson, Hopkins, and Union Counties. It is bordered by five counties and was named for Daniel Webster, a U.S. Congressman who opposed the War of 1812. The seat of Webster County is Dixon, which was incorporated in 1861 and named for Archibald Dixon, a U.S. Senator from Kentucky and the 12th Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky. The 1860 Webster County population was 6,449, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. The population increased to 14,249 by 1880. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1860-1880.

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 256 slave owners
  • 790 Black slaves
  • 293 Mulatto slaves
  • 11 free Blacks [most with the last name Tye, 3 Brooks, 1 White]
  • 22 free Mulattoes [most with the last names Brooks, Hambleton, Lisle, and Rose]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 923 Blacks
  • 367 Mulattoes
  • About 18 U.S. Colored Troops listed Webster County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,154 Blacks
  • 0 Mulattoes
For more see the Webster County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Jesse Oliver Mays Collection; and "Samuel Watson" in Homeless, Friendless, and Penniless: the WPA interviews with former slaves living in Indiana, by R. L. Baker.
See the photo image of the Sebree Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Webster County, Kentucky

Whitley County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Whitley County, formed in 1818 from a portion of Knox County, is located in southeastern Kentucky, bordered by four counties and the Tennessee state line. The county was named for William Whitley, a veteran of the Indian Wars and the War of 1812. In the late 1700s, he built the country's first circular race track at his home in Whitley County. Noted differences were that the course was made of clay and the horses raced in a counter-clockwise direction [info]. The seat of Whitley County is Williamsburg, established in 1819 and also named for William Whitley. The 1820 county population was 371 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 7,579 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 46 slave owners
  • 135 Black slaves
  • 66 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 46 slave owners
  • 115 Black slaves
  • 42 Mulatto slaves
  • 8 free Blacks [most with last name Berry, 1 Bradshaw, 1 Eaton]
  • 19 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 94 Blacks
  • 51 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Whitley County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Whitley County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Roy M. Chappell in the chapter "No Sir, I Will Not Sign" in Hidden History of Kentucky Soldiers, by B. Craig; The Abolitionist Legacy, by J. M. McPherson for information on the first Black students in 1885 at the American Missionary Association (AMA) School in Williamsburg, KY; and the "John G. Tye" entry in the History of Kentucky, v. 5, by W. E. Connelley and E. M. Coulter, for information on the role of the Tye slaves during the early pioneering days of developing Whitley County, KY.
See ca.1920 photo image of African American miners in Whitley County coal mine.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Whitley County, Kentucky

Wolfe County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1861-1900
Start Year : 1861
End Year : 1900
Wolfe County was formed in 1860 from portions of Breathitt, Owsley, and Powell Counties; it is surrounded by six counties. It is named for Nathaniel Wolfe, a Commonwealth's Attorney for Jefferson County who also served in the Kentucky House and Senate. The town of Campton became the seat of Wolfe County in 1860; it had originally been named Camp Town by the first settlers. The 1870 county population was 3,643, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 8,969 by 1900. Below are the number of Black and Mulatto members of the population from 1861-1900.

1861 Annual Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of the State of Kentucky for the Fiscal Year Ending October 10, 1861 [p. 249, online at Google Books]

  • 14 slaves over the age of 16
  • 1 free Negro
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 42 Blacks
  • 9 Mulattoes [last names Burden, Cockrill, Cox, Linden, and Razor]
  • At least one U.S. Colored Troop listed Wolfe County, KY, as his birth location [Samuel Stewart]
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 74 Blacks
1900 U.S. Federal Census
  • 99 Blacks
For more see the Wolfe County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; the Hazel Green Herald newspaper; and Early and Modern History of Wolfe County, by R. M. Cecil.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Wolfe County, Kentucky

Woodford County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Woodford County was the ninth and last Kentucky county that was organized by the Virginia Legislature. The county was created from Fayette County in 1788, and is surrounded by six counties. It was named for William Woodford, an American Revolutionary War general who died after being captured by the British. The seat of Woodford County is Versailles, established in 1792, and named for Versailles, France. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 6,963 whites, 2,220 slaves, and 27 free persons. The total county population for the year 1800 was 6,624: 4,502 whites, 2,107 slaves, and 15 free coloreds, according to the Second Census of Kentucky. There were 13 African American slave owners in Woodford County in 1830. The 1860 county population was 5,391, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 808 slave owners
  • 5,767 Black slaves
  • 607 Mulatto slaves
  • 143 free Blacks
  • 22 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 704 slave owners
  • 4,681 Black slaves
  • 1,150 Mulatto slaves
  • 81 free Blacks
  • 33 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,337 Blacks
  • 450 Mulattoes
  • About 436 U.S. Colored Troops listed Woodford County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Woodford County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Woodford County, Ky. Colored Marriages by D. A. Wilson; Proclamation Orders by Governor E. P. Morrow; All I See Is What I Know by Z. Webb (video); Funeral Home Records, Mack Brown Funeral Home; and History of Woodford County, Kentucky by W. E. Railey.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Woodford County, Kentucky

 

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