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<Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]>

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African American Slave Owners in Kentucky
Start Year : 1830
In 1924 the Research Department of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History completed a study of the free Negro slave owners found in the 1830 U. S. Federal Census. The study found that there were 3,777 Negro slave owners in the United States. Negro slave owners were listed in 29 Kentucky counties (see below). Ownership may have meant the purchase of a spouse, an individual's children, or other relatives who were not emancipated. Ownership was also an investment: purchased children and adults may or may not have been given the opportunity to work off their purchase price in exchange for their freedom. A History of World Societies documents a total of 6,000 Negro slave owners in the U.S. for the year 1840 [p. 846]. The 1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules do not identify slave owners by race; the individual names of slave owners must be searched in the U.S. Federal Census to identify the individual's race. For more see the Research Department's article, "Free Negro owners of slaves in the United States in 1830," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan., 1924), pp. 41-85; A History of World Societies, by J. P. McKay, et al. [2006]; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas.

Kentucky Counties with Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]
 

  1. Adair County (1) - Swaney Burbridge
  2. Barren County (1) - Leander Force
  3. Bourbon County (9) - Peter Allen, Sally Wallace, Isaac Jones, James Monday, Peter Grant, Gabriel, Allen Heathman, Edmon Hurley, Stephen Brooks
  4. Bracken County (1) - Lethia Thomas
  5. Bullitt County, [Mt. Washington] (2) - Isaac Ellison, Bash Oldridge
  6. Christian County, [Hopkinsville] (1) - Michael Cocke
  7. Clark County (2) - John Dudley, George Birth
  8. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) - Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black -- Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer'y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith
  9. Fleming County (1) - Jacob Truett
  10. Franklin County, [Frankfort] (6) - Harry Mordecai, David Jones, John Ward, Burrel Chiles, John S. Goin, Samuel Brown
  11. Graves County (1) - Alias Keeling
  12. Green County (1) - Thomas Malone
  13. Harrison County (1) - Benjamin Berton
  14. Henderson County (1) - Liverpool Pointer
  15. Jefferson County (1), [Louisville] (5) - J. T. Gray -- Betty Cozzens, David Straws, Frank Merriwether, Daniel Brigadier, Sally
  16. Jessamine County (3) - Judith Higenbothan, Anthony of colour, William a man of color
  17. Knox County (1) - Isaiah Goins
  18. Logan County, [Russellville] (5) - Nicholas Valentine, Robert Buckner, Edward Jones, Isham Husketh, William Barber
  19. Madison County (1) - George White
  20. Mason County (9), [Washington] (3) - Thomas F. Bowles, John Glasford, Edward Cooper, H. Markham, Roseann Wann, Charles More, Ann Baylor, Edmond Toliver, Acam Diggs -- Peggy Miles, John Lightfoot, Isaac Johnson
  21. Mercer County (9) - Anderson Harris, Ben Harris, Spencer Easton, Fielding Melvin, Jemima Fry, Hercules Jenkins, George Warman, Adam Beaty, Sanko Robinson
  22. Montgomery County (1) - Richard Lee
  23. Nelson County, [Bardstown] (4) - Thomas Smiley, Joe Cocke, Thomas Rudd, George Aud
  24. Nicholas County (1) - George Mallery
  25. Rockcastle County (1) - David Cable
  26. Shelby County (1), [Shelbyville] (3) - John Edwards -- Peter Short, Hannah Harris, Jim Henson
  27. Warren County (2) - Jane Palmore, Bazzle Russell
  28. Washington County, [Springfield] (2) - Robert C. Palmer, Ignatius Sandy
  29. Woodford County (13) - Joe Miller, Lawrence Corbin, Betty Tutt, Billy Campbell, Henry Mason, Tom Stratford, Ambrose Hardy, Richard Harvey, Samuel Cloak, Nathan Twiner, Joel Hawkins, Moses Weaver, Jordan Ritchie

Subjects: Free African American Slave Owners, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Daviess [Daveiss] County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Daviess County, located in the Western Coal Field region of Kentucky, was formed in 1815 from a part of Ohio County. It is on the Indiana state border, with four neighboring counties in Kentucky. The county was named for Joseph H. Daveiss, a lawyer and an orator who was killed during the battle of Tippecanoe. The present day spelling of the county name was the recording clerk's error in 1815. The Kentucky General Assembly passed an act to correct the spelling to "Daveiss", but it never caught on. The county seat is Owensboro and was originally named Yellowbanks, in reference to the color of the soil along the river banks. When the city was incorporated in 1817, it was spelled "Owensborough," named for Abraham Owen, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and a Kentucky Legislator who was born in Virginia. The name of the town was later shortened to the present day spelling of Owensboro. In the first U.S. Federal Census for the county in1820, there was a population 501 [heads of households], and by 1860 there was a population of 12,035, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 585 slave owners
  • 2,359 Black slaves
  • 524 Mulatto slaves
  • 17 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 669 slave owners
  • 2,856 Black slaves
  • 22 Colored slaves
  • 611 Mulatto slaves
  • 75 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,173 Blacks
  • 527 Mulattoes
  • About 7 U.S. Colored Troops listed Daviess County. KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Daviess County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Born With a Purpose by N. Johnson et. al.; and A Generation Remembers Oral History Project by the Kentucky Oral History Commission and Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Daviess [Daveiss] County, Kentucky

Edmonson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Edmonson County is located in the Pennyrile and Western Coal Field Regions of Kentucky, and is surrounded by five counties. It was formed in 1825 from portions of Hart, Grayson, and Warren Counties, and was named for John Edmonson, who was from Virginia and was killed during his service in the Battle of River Raisin during the War of 1812. The county seat is Brownsville, established in 1828 and incorporated by the General Assembly in 1860, was named for General Jacob J. Brown, a Quaker from Pennsylvania and an American Army officer in the War of 1812. In 1830, the Edmonson County population was 369 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and that increased to 4,374 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 78 slave owners
  • 297 Black slaves
  • 16 Mulatto slaves
  • 12 free Blacks [most with the last name Cowles]
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 68 slave owners
  • 210 Black slaves
  • 63 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [last name Cowl] 
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 224 Blacks
  • 20 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops gave Edmonson County, KY, as their birth location. 
For more see The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; 1825-1900 Edmonson County by R. Carroll; Pictorial History, Edmonson County, Kentucky, 1825-1998 by Edmonson County Historical Society; and Edmonson County, Kentucky History and Biographies by L. Collins et. al.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Edmonson County, Kentucky

Elliott County (KY) Free Blacks and Free Mulattoes, 1870-1900
Start Year : 1870
End Year : 1900
Elliott County is located in northeastern Kentucky, and was formed in 1869 from portions of Morgan, Lawrence, and Carter Counties. The county is named for either John L. Elliott, a Kentucky Senator and House Member, or his son Judge John M. Elliott who was assassinated. The county seat is Sandy Hook. The county population in 1870 was 4,433, and it increased to 10,448 in 1900. Elliott County was formed in 1869, which was after the emancipation of slaves in Kentucky with the Ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865. Below are the population numbers for African Americans in the county 1870, 1880, and 1900.

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 21 Blacks [with the last names Collins or Howard, and one named Watson]
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3 Blacks [Collins, Howard, Watson]
  • 1 Mulatto [Watson]
1900 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2 Blacks [Watson]
  • 10 Mulattoes [most with the last name Leadenham, one Roe, one Whitt]
For more see the Elliott County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Elliott County, Kentucky

Estill County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Estill County was formed in 1808 from portions of Clark and Madison Counties. The county is located in eastern Kentucky, surrounded by five counties, and named for James Estill who was killed during the Revolutionary War. [Monk Estill was the slave of James Estill, before becoming the first freed slave in Kentucky.] The county seat of Irvine was established in 1812, and is named for William Irvine who was wounded in 1782 during Estill's Defeat, also known as the Battle of Little Mountain. The county population in 1810 was 295 [heads of households], and it increased to 6,378 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 119 slave owners
  • 359 Black slaves
  • 52 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Judy Wages]
  • 1 free Mulatto [Lucy Jones]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 132 slave owners
  • 379 Black slaves
  • 128 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks [5 children with the last name Corner]
  • 7 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 446 Blacks
  • 152 Mulattoes
  • About 3 U.S. Colored Troops listed Estill County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Estill County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Irvine and Estill County, Kentucky by E. C. Park; and Estill County, Kentucky: a pictorial history by Citizen Voice and Times.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Estill County, Kentucky

Fayette County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Fayette County is one the three original counties formed by Virginia in 1780. Today the county is located in the central Bluegrass Region surrounded by six counties, including its southern boundary of the Kentucky River that is shared with Madison County. Fayette County was named for Marquis de Lafayette, a French aristocrat who was a military officer in the American Revolutionary War and during the French Revolution. There are many locations in the United States named for General Lafayette. The county seat of Fayette County in Kentucky is Lexington, created by Virginia in 1782, and named after Lexington, MA. Fayette County encompasses the second largest population in Kentucky. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 14,626 whites, 3,752 slaves, and 32 free persons. In 1800, the population was 14,028, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 9,715 whites, 4,225 slaves, and 88 free coloreds. In 1830, there were 13 African American slave owners in Fayette County, and 15 in Lexington. By 1860, the county population had increased to 12,585 [excluding the slaves], and ten years later, after slavery had ended in Kentucky, the Fayette County population was 26,736, according to the U.S. Federal Census. There was a significant slave population in Fayette County, below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 1,553 slave owners
  • 9,946 Black slaves
  • 858 Mulatto slaves
  • 518 free Blacks
  • 153 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 1,720 slave owners
  • 8,537 Black slaves
  • 1,611 Mulatto slaves
  • 453 free Blacks
  • 232 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 10,795 Blacks
  • 1,590 Mulattoes
  • About 406 U.S. Colored Troops listed Fayette County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Fayette County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Lexington, Kentucky by G. W. Ranck; History of Fayette County, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin; Black Marriage Bonds of Fayette County, Kentucky, 1866-1876 by G. Garrison; and African American Presence by Historic South Hill Neighborhood Association.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Fayette County, Kentucky

Fleming County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Fleming County, located in northeastern Kentucky, was formed in 1798 from a portion of Mason County. It is bordered by four counties along the Licking River. The county was named for John Fleming an early settler who secured land in Kentucky via the Virginia Land Act. Flemingsburg is the county seat, it was founded in 1796. The county population was 5,016, according to the 1800 Second Census of Kentucky; 4,752 whites, 254 slaves, and 10 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Fleming County. The population increased to 10,471 by 1860, according to the U. S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 530 slave owners
  • 1,812 Black slaves
  • 325 Mulatto slaves
  • 115 free Blacks
  • 44 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 609 slave owners
  • 1,412 Black slaves
  • 668 Mulatto slaves
  • 73 free Blacks
  • 40 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,067 Blacks
  • 477 Mulattoes
  • About 122 U.S. Colored Troops listed Fleming County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Fleming County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Blacks Living in Fleming County, Ky.: federal census 1880 by E. R. H. Grady; and Blacks Living in Fleming County, Kentucky: federal census 1900 by E. R. H. Grady.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Fleming County, Kentucky

Floyd County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Floyd County, located in eastern Kentucky, was formed in 1800 from portions of Fleming, Montgomery, and Mason Counties, and is surrounded by five counties. The county was named for John Floyd, a land surveyor and early explorer. Prestonsburg, once named Preston's Station, is the county seat, named for its founder John Preston from Virginia. Preston, a land surveyor, was also a member of the Virginia Legislature. Prestonsburg is the oldest settlement in the Big Sandy Valley. The 1800 county population was counted as 478 in the Second Census of Kentucky: 447 whites and 31 slaves. The population increased to 6,241 in 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 42 slave owners
  • 110 Black slaves
  • 39 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 185 slave owners
  • 105 Black slaves
  • 42 Mulatto slaves
  • 4 free Blacks 
  • 0 free Mulattoes 

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 58 Blacks
  • 81 Mulattoes
  • About 4 U.S. Colored Troops listed Floyd County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Floyd County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; The Big Sandy Valley by W. R. Jillson; Slave Narratives, Volume 7 by Projects, A Work Projects Administration; and Floyd County, Kentucky History by the Floyd County Bicentennial History Book Committee.
See photo image of children at recess at the Colored Grade School in Wheelwright, KY, at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Floyd County, Kentucky

Franklin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Franklin County, located in central Kentucky, was formed in 1794 from portions of Mercer, Shelby, and Woodford Counties. It is surrounded by six counties, and was named in honor of Benjamin Franklin. Frankfort is the county seat and the state capital, it is believed to have been named for Stephen Frank, a pioneer who was killed during an attack by Indians in 1780 at a location on the Kentucky River that became known as Frank's Ford. The 1800 county population was 5,078, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 3,687 whites, 1,369 slaves, and 22 free coloreds. In 1830 there were six African American slave owners in Frankfort. By 1860, the population was 9,270, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 634 slave owners
  • 2,748 Black slaves
  • 612 Mulatto slaves
  • 248 free Blacks
  • 110 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 598 slave owners
  • 2,553 Black slaves
  • 834 Mulatto slaves
  • 252 free Blacks
  • 197 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,647 Blacks
  • 1,048 Mulattoes
  • About 123 U.S. Colored Troops listed Franklin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Franklin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; visit the Center of Excellence for the Study of Kentucky African Americans (CESKAA) at Kentucky State University; Capital on the Kentucky by C. E. Kramer and W. B. Scott; Early Frankfort and Franklin County, Kentucky by W. R. Jillson; A Brief History of the Colored Churches of Frankfort, Kentucky by E. E. Underwood; and Community Memories: a glimpse of African American Life in Frankfort, Kentucky W. L. Fletcher et. al.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Franklin County, Kentucky

Free Blacks, Negroes, and Mulattoes in the 1800 Kentucky Tax Lists
Start Year : 1800
The Second Census of Kentucky 1800 was constructed from the tax lists in the existing Kentucky counties. Below are the names of free Blacks, Negroes and Mulattoes, all taxpayers who were included in the listing. They were among the 739 free Colored persons in Kentucky in 1800. There may have been others named on the lists, but their race was not noted.

  • Robert Anderson, Barren County
  • William Anderson, Barren County
  • John Baker, Nelson County
  • William Blakey, Barren County
  • Abner Bourne, Barren County
  • Peter Brass, Franklin County
  • William Cousins, Nelson County
  • William Daily, Fayette County
  • Isam Davis, Lincoln County
  • Adam Evens, Lincoln County
  • Michael Jackson, Lincoln County
  • Abraham Levaugh, Warren County
  • John Lewis, Jefferson County
  • Bristo Mathews, Lincoln County
  • Edward Mathews, Lincoln County
  • Gloster Rawls, Nelson County
  • George Stafford, Gallatin County
  • Moses Tyre, Bullitt County
  • William Walker, Nelson County

Subjects: Early Settlers, Freedom, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky Counties: Bullitt, Fayette, Franklin, Gallatin, Jefferson, Lincoln, Nelson, Warren

Fulton County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Fulton County, located in southwestern Kentucky, was formed from a portion of Hickman County in 1845. The county is bordered by one Kentucky county, the Mississippi River on the west side, and the state of Tennessee on the south side. The county was named for Robert Fulton [online biography]. Fulton, from Pennsylvania, was an engineer and developed the first commercially successful steamboat, and an enhanced steam warship and submarine. There are many places in the United States named for Robert Fulton. The county seat of Fulton County, KY is Hickman, which was previously named Mills Point in honor of James Mills who settled in the area on a military grant. The town was renamed to Hickman in 1837, in honor of Mrs. G. W. L. Marr (her maiden name was Hickman); Mr. Marr had owned the town site. The 1850 county population was 3,503, and increased to 4,239 in 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 209 slave owners
  • 751 Black slaves
  • 192 Mulatto slaves
  • 4 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 216 slave owners
  • 901 Black slaves
  • 141 Mulatto Slaves
  • 16 free Blacks
  • 3 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 824 Blacks
  • 113 Mulattoes
  • About 8 U.S. Colored Troops listed Fulton County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Fulton County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Declaration of Marriage of Negroes and Mulattoes, the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 12 May 1866 to 2 April 1874 by M. H. Adams; Fulton County, Kentucky: histories and biographies by L. Collins and W. H. Perrin; and Fulton by E. R. Jones.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky

Gallatin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Gallatin County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1798 from portions of Franklin and Shelby Counties. It is surrounded by four counties, with the Ohio River as the northern border. The county was named for Albert Gallatin, born in Switzerland, who was a U.S. Senator, the longest serving Secretary of the Treasury, and the founder of New York University. There are other U.S. states with a county named Gallatin. The county seat of Gallatin County, KY, is Warsaw, which was first known as Ohio River Landing, established in 1814. The name was changed to Fredericksburg and incorporated in 1831. But, there was already a Fredericksburg in Washington County, so the name was changed to Warsaw in honor of author Jane Porter's fictional book Thaddeus of Warsaw [full-text at Google Book Search and Project Gutenberg]. The Gallatin County, KY, population in 1800 was 1,291, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 960 whites, 329 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. By 1860 the population had increased to 4,348, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 141 slave owners
  • 512 Black slaves
  • 75 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 170 slave owners
  • 539 Black slaves
  • 169 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 601 Blacks
  • 97 Mulatto
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Gallatin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Gallatin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Gallatin County, Kentucky by G. M. Gray; and The Negro Population of Kentucky by A. L. Coleman and D. I. Kim.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Gallatin County, Kentucky

Garrard County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Garrard County is located on the edge of the Bluegrass Region of central Kentucky. It was formed in 1796 and is surrounded by six counties. The county was named for James Garrard, the second governor of Kentucky 1795-1804, and the first governor to succeed himself. The county seat is Lancaster, founded in 1797, and named for Lancaster, PA. The 1800 county population was 6,186, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 4,921 whites, 1,259 slaves, and 6 free coloreds. By 1860, the population had increased to 6,953, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 572 slave owners
  • 2,899 Black slaves
  • 275 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 653 slave owners
  • 3,206 Black slaves
  • 384 Mulatto slaves
  • 79 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,406 Blacks
  • 535 Mulattoes
  • About 202 U.S. Colored Troops listed Garrard County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Garrard County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Garrard County, Kentucky and Its Churches by F. Calico; and Kentucky: portrait in paradox, 1900-1950 by J. C. Klotter. See photo image of Lancaster Colored School in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky

Grant County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Grant County was formed in 1820 from a portion of Pendleton County, and is surrounded by six counties. It is located in north-central, Kentucky, and was named for one or all of the frontiersmen brothers, Samuel Grant, John Grant, and Squire Grant. The county seat is Williamstown, it was incorporated in 1825, named for William Arnold, a native of New Jersey, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, and builder of the first Grant County courthouse in 1821. The 1820 Grant County population was 278 [heads of households] in the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 7,660 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 164 slave owners
  • 452 Black slaves
  • 80 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 195 slave owners
  • 500 Black slaves
  • 197 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks
  • 12 free Mulattoes [last names Lair, Prudean, and 1 King]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 331 Blacks
  • 176 Mulattoes
  • About 18 U.S. Colored Troops listed Grant County, Ky, as their birth location.
For more see the Grant County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Grant County, Kentucky by J. B. Conrad; and Grant County, Kentucky Biographies by L. Collins et. al. See photo image and additional information about the Dry ridge Consolidated Colored School at the National Trust for Historic Preservation website.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Grant County, Kentucky

Graves County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Graves County is located in far western Kentucky on the Tennessee state line and borders five Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1824 from a portion of Hickman County and is the largest county in the Jackson Purchase Region. The county is named for Benjamin Franklin Graves, born in Virginia, was a soldier who was killed at the Battle of River Raisin during the War of 1812. The county seat is Mayfield, named in 1824 for the major waterway Mayfield Creek, which is supposedly named for George Mayfield from Mississippi, who was shot and died in the creek. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner in Graves County. The 1830 Census for the county showed a population of 380 [heads of households], and that increased to 13,348 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 353 slave owners
  • 1,125 Black slaves
  • 232 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Easter Negro]
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Maples and Owens]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 566 slave owners
  • 2,309 Black slaves
  • 535 Mulatto Slaves
  • 2 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,933 Blacks
  • 328 Mulattoes
  • About 54 U.S. Colored Troops listed Graves County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Graves County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Graves County, Kentucky, History & Families by Turner Publishing Co.; and Sugar of the Crop by S. Butler.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Graves County, Kentucky

Grayson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Grayson County, located in the western central region of Kentucky, was established in 1810 from portions of Hardin and Ohio Counties. It was named for William Grayson, who was a lawyer and one of the first two U.S. Senators from Virginia. William Grayson was an aid to George Washington, and Washington was also a early landowner in the Grayson County area. The county seat is Leitchfield, also founded in 1810 and named for David Leitchfield when his widow donated the land for the county seat. The 1810 county census was 357 [heads of households], and it increased to 7,551 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 92 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 72 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [Jesse Fenley and Bill Kelly]
  • 5 free Mulattoes [all with last name Holden]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 97 slave owners
  • 226 Black slaves
  • 125 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last names Harrel and Lowden]
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 307 Blacks
  • 37 Mulattoes
  • About 9 U.S. Colored Troops listed Grayson County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Grayson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; see the Grayson Co., KY Black Vital Statistics website submitted by K. Adjodha; and Historical Sketches and Family Histories, Grayson County, Kentucky by the Grayson County Historical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Grayson County, Kentucky

Green County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Green County, located in south-central Kentucky, is bordered by five counties and was formed in 1792 from portions of Lincoln and Nelson Counties. The county was named for Nathanael Greene, a major general of the American Revolutionary War. The county center was named Glover's Station in 1780, and once the county name became Green, the county seat was named Greensburg. The 1800 Green County population was 6,096, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 5,257 whites, 836 slaves, and 3 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Green County. The county population increased to 6,353 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 430 slave owners
  • 2,504 Black slaves
  • 105 Mulatto slaves
  • 96 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Rilda Cox and Mark Mathews]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 361 slave owners
  • 2,052 Black slaves
  • 317 Mulatto slaves
  • 94 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,551 Blacks
  • 382 Mulattoes
  • About 95 U.S. Colored Troops listed Green County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Green County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Green County, Kentucky, 1793-1993 by K. P. Evans; and Green County Black Records by M. Bishop.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky

Greenup County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Greenup County, located on the northeastern border of Kentucky, was formed in 1803 from a portion of Mason County. It is bordered by the Ohio River and three Kentucky counties. Both the county and the county seat are named Greenup, named for Kentucky Governor Christopher Greenup from Virginia, who was also a veteran of the Revolutionary War. The county seat was incorporated as Greenupsburg in 1818, and the name was changed to Greenup in 1872. The county population was 316 [heads of households] in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census, and it grew to 8,325 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 135 slave owners
  • 443 Black slaves
  • 163 Mulatto slaves
  • 44 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 89 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 114 Mulatto slaves
  • 34 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 317 Blacks
  • 144 Mulattoes
  • About 2 U.S. Colored soldiers listed Greenup County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Greenup County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Greenup County, Kentucky by N. M. Biggs and N. L. Mackoy; and Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1834, Chapter 736, p.185, concerning the county levy on all slaves in Greenup County, KY [available online at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Greenup County, Kentucky

Hancock County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hancock County was formed in 1829 from portions of Ohio, Breckinridge, and Daviess Counties. It is located on the north-western edge of Kentucky along the Ohio River and bordered by three counties. Hancock County was named for John Hancock, whose signature is the most flamboyant on the U.S. Declaration of Independence. There are nine other Hancock Counties in the U.S. The county seat of Hancock County, KY, is Hawesville, named in 1829 for Richard Hawes who donated the land for the town. Hawes was born in Virginia, he was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky, and also served as Governor of Kentucky. The 1830 population of Hancock County was 190 [heads of households] according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,395 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 134 slave owners
  • 590 Black slaves
  • 32 Mulatto slaves
  • 12 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto [Elizabeth Shaw]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 205 slave owners
  • 677 Black slaves
  • 143 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 707 Blacks
  • 43 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hancock County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hancock County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; A Social and Educational History of Hancock County, Kentucky by C. A. Clinton; and Hancock County, Kentucky, a Pictorial History by the Tawana Publishing Company.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hancock County, Kentucky

Hardin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hardin County, KY, created in 1792 from a portion of Nelson County, is located on the Ohio River and bordered by seven Kentucky counties. It was named for John Hardin from Virginia, who fought in the Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. There are six states with a county named Hardin. The county seat of Hardin County, KY, is Elizabethtown, which was originally named Severn's Valley Settlement, named for early explorer John Severns. The name of the town was changed to Elizabethtown in 1797, named for Elizabeth Hynes; her husband, Andrew Hynes, had provided the land for the county buildings. The 1800 county population was 3,653, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,317 whites, 325 slaves, 11 free coloreds. The population increased to 12,660 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and not including the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 593 slave owners
  • 1,993 Black slaves
  • 615 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks [many with the last name Kelly]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 589 slave owners
  • 1,815 Black slaves
  • 818 Mulatto slaves
  • 21 free Blacks [many with the last name Kelly]
  • 13 free Mulattoes [Goodin, Moton, Sheckles, one Caloway, one Spurrier]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,653 Blacks
  • 607 Mulattoes
  • About 35 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hardin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hardin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Lincoln of Kentucky, by L. H. Harrison; Two Centuries in Elizabethtown and Hardin County, Kentucky, by D. E. McClure; and Kentucky Life #905, Emma Reno Connor Black History Gallery.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hardin County, Kentucky

Harlan County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Harlan County, located in southeastern Kentucky, is bordered by the state of Virginia and four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1819 from a portion of Knox County, and named for Silas Harlan who died during the Battle of Blue Licks. The town of Harlan was incorporated in 1876, it is the county seat of Harlan County. The county population was 309 [heads of households] in 1820, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 5,367 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 29 slave owners
  • 71 Black slaves
  • 52 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last name Bailey]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names Smith and Sturgeon]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 0 slave owners
  • 0 Black slaves
  • 0 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Elizabeth Coffman]
  • 12 free Mulattoes [most with last name Bailey; other last names Beaty, Coffman, and Glasgow]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 67 Blacks
  • 33 Mulattoes
  • About 6 U.S. Colored Troops listed Harlan County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Harlan County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History Records of Harlan County, Kentucky People by A. W. Burns; Harlan County, Kentucky by E. Middleton; and Those Were the Days by J. Renfro, C. Warren, and T. Garland. 


   See the photo image of Harlan Negro School, in Explore UK.

 

  See the photo image of Harlan (Colored) Negro School, in Explore UK.

 

 
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky

Harrison County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Harrison County, located in north-central Kentucky in the Bluegrass Region, was formed in 1793 from portions of Bourbon and Scott Counties. It was named for Benjamin Harrison [not to be confused with President Benjamin Harrison]. Harrison was born in Virginia and lived in Pennsylvania before coming to Kentucky. He was a veteran of Dunmore's War and the American Revolutionary War. After moving to Kentucky, Harrison helped write the Kentucky Constitution and was a Kentucky legislator. The first white settlers in Harrison County had come from Pennsylvania and settled near what would become Cynthiana, the county seat. Cynthiana, built on land donated by Benjamin Harrison, was established in 1793 and named for Harrison's daughters, Cynthia and Ana. The 1800 county population was 4,350, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,925 whites, 406 slaves, and 19 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Harrison County. The population increased to 10,491 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 665 slave owners
  • 2,701 Black slaves
  • 640 Mulatto slaves
  • 88 free Blacks
  • 59 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 620 slave owners
  • 2,398 Black slaves
  • 894 Mulatto slaves
  • 91 free Blacks
  • 58 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,636 Blacks
  • 735 Mulattoes
  • About 97 U.S. Colored Troops listed Harrison County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Harrison County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland, by J. B. Hudson; African American Marriage Index, Harrison County, Kentucky, by P. A. Naff; Cynthiana Since 1790, by V. Peddicord; and Cynthiana, by M. B. Kennerly.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Harrison County, Kentucky

Hart County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hart County is located in south-central Kentucky in the Pennyroyal Region, surrounded by seven counties. Established in 1819 from portions of Hardin and Barren Counties, it is named for Nathaniel G. T. Hart, who was killed at the Battle of River Raisin. Munfordville is the county seat, named for Richard I. Munford, who was the first Kentucky Legislator from Hart County. Munfordville was called Big Buffalo Crossing until Munford gave 100 acres for the development of a town in 1816, and Munfordville became the county seat in 1819. The county population in 1820 was 584 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 8,953 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the numbers for slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 333 slave owners
  • 1,104 Black slaves
  • 196 Mulatto slaves
  • 29 free Blacks [many with the last names Owens and Woodson]
  • 4 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 339 slave owners
  • 957 Black slaves
  • 440 Mulatto slaves
  • 32 free Blacks [many with the last names Clark, Cowl, and Woodson]
  • 43 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Mills and Temerideth]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 1,768 Blacks
  • 447 Mulattoes
  • About 28 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hart County, KY as their birth location.

For more see the Hart County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Hart County, Kentucky Pictorial History by the Tawana Publishing Co.; and Hart County, Kentucky History and Biographies  by L. Collins, et. al.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

Henderson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Henderson County, established in 1798 from a portion of Christian County, is located in western Kentucky, bordered by the Ohio River and four counties. It is named for Richard Henderson, a lawyer and judge from Virginia and founder of the Transylvania Company. The company purchased millions of acres of land (in Kentucky and Tennessee) from the Native Americans, which was in violation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763; therefore the sale was void. In compensation for their losses, the Virginia House of Delegates gave the Transylvania Company members 200,000 acres of land on the Ohio River (present day Henderson County, KY). The settlement of Red Banks would later become the county seat named Henderson. The 1800 county population was 1,468, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,076 whites, 390 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Henderson County. By 1860, the population was 8,495, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 677 slave owners
  • 3,988 Black slaves
  • 407 Mulatto slaves
  • 53 free Blacks [many with the last name Pointer]
  • 68 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Hamilton, Drew, Fisher, and Bradley]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 993 slave owners
  • 5,046 Black slaves
  • 726 Mulatto slaves
  • 38 free Blacks [many with the last names Painter and Fisher]
  • 37 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Painter, Fisher, and Piner]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 4,526 Blacks
  • 1,478 Mulattoes
  • About 168 U.S. Colored Soldiers listed Henderson County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Henderson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling [available at Google Book Search]; The Annals and Scandals of Henderson County, Kentucky, 1775-1995, by M. Arnett; and Henderson Kentucky Black Births of the City, 1896-1910, by the Henderson County Historical Society.
  See photo images of Colored School at Anthoston, Henderson County, KY, 1916, at Library of Congress.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky

Henry County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Henry County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed from a portion of Shelby County in 1798. It is named for Patrick Henry, who was Governor of Virginia, a Revolutionary War patriot, and considered by some as a founding father of the U.S. The Henry County seat is New Castle, founded in 1798; the origin of the name is unknown. The county population was 3,258 in 1800, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,848 whites, 406 slaves, and 4 free coloreds. The population increased to 8,638 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 676 slave owners
  • 2,754 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 21 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 752 slave owners
  • 2,555 Black slaves
  • 750 Mulatto slaves
  • 26 free Blacks [most with last names Adams or Mastason]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,121 Blacks
  • 295 Mulattoes
  • About 201 U.S. Colored Troops listed Henry County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Henry County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Henry County, Kentucky, by M. J. Drane; Henry County, Kentucky, 1798-1995, by the Henry County Historical Society; Henry County Public Library Oral History Collection, by the Henry County Public Library (Eminence, KY); and Who's Who Among African Americans of Henry County, by the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission and First Baptist Church (Eminence, KY).
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky

Hickman County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hickman County, established in 1821, is located in the far southwestern tip of Kentucky in the Jackson Purchase region. It is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River, on the southern tip by the state of Tennessee, and on all other sides by three Kentucky counties. Wolfe Island is separated from the county by the Mississippi River and borders the state of Missouri. The county was named for Paschal Hickman, who was killed during the Battle of River Raisin. The settlement of Iron Banks became Columbus, which was the first county seat; the town was renamed for explorer Christopher Columbus. In 1830 the county seat was moved to the town of Clinton. The 1830 population was 690 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 5,758 by the year 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 234 slave owners
  • 653 Black slaves
  • 188 Mulatto slaves
  • 16 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [James Cousins and Frank Waide]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 322 slave owners
  • 938 Black slaves
  • 314 Mulatto slaves
  • 18 free Blacks [many with the last name Cromwell]
  • 1 free Mulatto [Wesley James]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,286 Blacks
  • 327 Mulattoes
  • About 63 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hickman County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hickman County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Hickman County History, by the Hickman County Historical Society; Hickman County, Kentucky, Slaves and Black Vital Statistics, 1852-1906, 1907 and 1948, by E. Jewell and S. L. P. Morrison; and Hickman County Public Library Oral History Collection, Hickman County Public Library (Clinton, KY).
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hickman County, Kentucky

Hopkins County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hopkins County, located in western Kentucky and surrounded by five counties, was created in 1806 from a portion of Henderson County. It was named for Samuel Hopkins, a lawyer, Kentucky Senator, and Revolutionary War veteran; several of the early settlers in the Hopkins County area were Revolutionary War veterans who had received land grants from Virginia. Madisonville, which became the county seat of Hopkins County in 1808, was named for James Madison, who later became the fourth President of the United States. During the early 1800s, there was also a community named Charleston in Hopkins County; it was named for a former slave and tavern owner named Free Charles. The Hopkins County population was 414 [heads of households] in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census, and it grew to 9,866 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 555 slave owners
  • 1,815 Black slaves
  • 335 Mulatto slaves
  • 16 free Blacks [most with last name Herrin]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names Earle, Lewis, and Oakley]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 457 slave owners
  • 1,451 Black slaves
  • 557 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 20 freee Mulattoes [many with last names Baker and Fisher]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,458 Blacks
  • 340 Mulattoes
  • About 83 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hopkins County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • Charleston, Hopkins County, Kentucky: 41 African Americans, many with last name Metcalf; and 16 Mulattoes with the last names Bishop, Morris, Paravel, and one Smouthers. Total population 1,575. According to the title Kentucky Place Names, by R. N. Rennick, (p. 56), there was a post office in Charleston from 1855-1909 and a coal loading station that was on the Illinois Central Railroad line.
For more see the Hopkins County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Non-White Marriage Index 1866-1914, by the Hopkins County Genealogical Society (KY); NAACP Administrative File, Part 20, White resistance and reprisals, 1956-1965; and History of Hopkins County, by M. K. Gordon.
Subjects: Communities, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Hopkins County, Kentucky

Jackson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1860-1880
Start Year : 1860
End Year : 1880
Jackson County, located in southeastern Kentucky, was established in 1858 from portions of Clay, Estill, Larue, Madison, Owsley, and Rockcastle Counties. It was named for former President Andrew Jackson. The county seat is McKee, also established in 1858, and thought to be named for George R. McKee, a county judge and Kentucky House Member. The county population was 3,080 in 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1860-1880.

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 3 slave owners [Perlina Attick, Duttan S. Jones, and William Spurlin]
  • 6 Black slaves
  • 1 Mulatto slave
  • 1 free Black [Anderson Arthur]
  • 20 free Mulattoes [most with last names Griffin and Cotton]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 13 Blacks [most with last names Blyth, 2 Cornelison, 2 Treble]
  • 13 Mulattoes [all with last names of Griffin or Cotton]
  • 7 U.S. Colored Troops listed Jackson County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 9 Blacks [all with last names of Jackson or Million]
  • 33 Mulattoes
For more see the Jackson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Jackson County, Kentucky (to about 1918), by I. A. Bowles; and A Portrait of Jackson County, Kentucky, 1858-2008, by the Jackson County Development Association.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Jackson County, Kentucky

Jefferson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Jefferson County was established in 1780; it was one of the original three counties created when Kentucky County was subdivided by the Virginia General Assembly. Jefferson County is located in the western part of the state along the Ohio River, bordered by four counties. It is named for Thomas Jefferson, who was then governor of Virginia, and who would become the third U.S. President. Jefferson County is the most populated county in Kentucky. The county seat is Louisville; George Rogers Clark is credited as the founder of Louisville in 1778, and the city was named for King Louis XVI of France in 1780. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 3,857 whites, 903 slaves, and 5 free persons. The 1800 population of Jefferson County was 8,754, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 6,325 whites, 2,406 slaves, 23 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Jefferson County and five in Louisville. By 1860, the population had increased to 79,060, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 2,394 slave owners
  • 8,814 Black slaves
  • 2,093 Mulatto slaves
  • 1,062 free Blacks
  • 589 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 2,664 slave owners
  • 6,786 Black slaves
  • 1,922 Mulatto slaves
  • 1,244 free Blacks
  • 762 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 13,944 Blacks
  • 4,940 Mulattoes
  • About 443 U.S. Colored Troops listed Jefferson County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Jefferson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Early Kentucky Settlers, by the Genealogical Pub. Co.; A Brief History of the Schools, Public and Private, for Colored Youths in Louisville, Ky. for fifty years, from 1827 to 1876, inclusive, by J. Meriwether; The Bulletin [newspaper], by the Adams Bro.; The Ohio Falls Express [newspaper], by H. Fitzbutler; Berrytown-Griffytown, a walk through history, by J. G. Grube; Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Founding of Colored Parkland or "Little Africa," Louisville, Kentucky, 1801-1916, by J.S. Cotter; and A Survey of the Economic and Cultural Conditions of the Negro Population of Louisville, Kentucky, by J. H. Kerns.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Jefferson County, Kentucky

Jessamine County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Jessamine County, named for  the jasmine (jessamine) flower and Jessamine Creek, was established in 1798 from a portion of Fayette County. Located in the Bluegrass Region, it is surrounded by five counties. The county seat is Nicholasville, named for George Nicholas, who was appointed the first U.S. Attorney in Kentucky by President George Washington. Nicholas was born in Virginia and was a veteran of the U.S. Revolutionary War. He drafted the first Kentucky constitution and was the first professor of law at Transylvania College. He had come to Kentucky around 1788 and died in 1799, about a year after Jessamine County was formed. The total county population for 1800 was 5,461, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,879 whites, 1,561 slaves, and 21 free coloreds. Ten years later the population was 8,377, according to the Third Census of the United States (Census of 1810), Jessamine County, Kentucky: 3,072 white males, 2,786 white females, 2,483 slaves, and 36 free Black persons. In 1830 there were three African American slave owners. By 1860, the population had increased to 5,776, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 615 slave owners
  • 3,367 Black slaves
  • 457 Mulatto slaves
  • 116 free Blacks 
  • 42 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 572 slave owners
  • 3,153 Black slaves
  • 572 Mulatto slaves
  • 73 free Blacks
  • 23 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,862 Blacks
  • 634 Mulattoes
  • About 88 U.S. Colored Troops listed Jessamine County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Jessamine County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; A History of Jessamine County, Kentucky, by G. H. Young; A History of Jessamine County, Kentucky, by R. Fain; Slaves to Soldiers, by B. R. Eades; and Camp Nelson, Kentucky, by R. D. Sears.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Jessamine County, Kentucky

Johnson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Johnson County, established in 1834, is located in eastern Kentucky, and surrounded by five counties. It was created from portions of Floyd, Lawrence, and Morgan Counties, and named for Richard M. Johnson, who was born in Kentucky and served as a U.S. Representative, Senator, and Vice President under President Martin VanBuren. The county seat of Johnson County is Paintsville, established in 1834 and named for the pictures found on the trees in the area and thought to be the work of Native Americans. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 14 slave owners
  • 20 Black slaves
  • 10 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 11 slave owners
  • 13 Black slaves
  • 14 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 19 free Mulattoes [most with last names Dale or Spencer, 2 Blanton, 1 Collins]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 14 Blacks
  • 28 Mulattoes [most with last names Right and Spencer]

For more see the Johnson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Johnson County, Kentucky by C. M. Hall; and Johnson County, Kentucky by Johnson County Historical and Genealogical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Johnson County, Kentucky

Kentucky Slaves and Free Blacks, 1800
Start Year : 1800
G. Glen Clift, Assistant Secretary of the Kentucky Historical Society, compiled and published "Second Census" of Kentucky 1800, originally published in Frankfort, KY in 1954. The following quotation is taken from the title page: "A Privately Compiled and Published Enumeration of Tax Payers Appearing in the 79 Manuscript Volumes Extant of Tax Lists of the 42 Counties of Kentucky in Existence in 1800." Within the table on page VI is the following information: 739 free Colored and 40,303 slaves, and there is also a breakdown by county.
Subjects: Early Settlers, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kentucky Slaves and Free Persons Not White, 1790
Start Year : 1790
In 1790, there were 11,830 slaves and 114 free blacks in the area known as Kentucky, according to the title Black Genesis: A Resource Book for African-American Genealogy, p116. Another source is the "First Census" of Kentucky 1790, compiled by C. B. Heinemann, published in Washington in 1940. The following quote comes from page 1. "It is a privately compiled list of tax payers appearing in the tax lists of all Kentucky counties which were established at the time of the First Federal Census." In Heinemann's work, the number of slaves are slightly higher: 12,430 slaves and 114 free persons who were not white. The following information comes from p.3.

  • Bourbon County:     6,929 whites,   908 slaves,
  • Fayette County:    14,626 whites, 3,752 slaves, 32 free persons
  • Jefferson County:    3,857 whites,    903 slaves,   5 free persons
  • Lincoln County:       5,446 whites, 1,094 slaves,   8 free persons
  • Madison County:     5,035 whites,    737 slaves
  • Mason County:        2,500 whites,    229 slaves
  • Mercer County:        5,745 whites, 1,339 slaves,   7 free persons
  • Nelson County:      10,032 whites, 1,248 slaves, 35 free persons
  • Woodford County:    6,963 whites, 2,220 slaves, 27 free persons


Subjects: Early Settlers, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]

Lexington (KY) City Directory - African Americans, 1818
Start Year : 1818
For the state of Kentucky, the earliest published city directory was probably Lexington's First City Directory published by Joseph Charless for the Year 1806. An individual's race was not noted in the directory, though there were free African Americans living in the city. Lexington's Second City Directory published by William Worsley and Thomas Smith for the Year 1818, has the names of four free African Americans, listed as "coloured": James Gatewood, a retailer of liquors on Market Street; Billy Gist of the Western Suburb; Peter Lewis on Market Street; and Henry Quarles on Short Street continued. According to an article in the Kentucky Reporter, 10/30/1820, p. 3, col. 4, the 1820 census of Lexington, KY, included 1,641 slaves and 115 free Colored persons.
Subjects: Directories, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

The Slave Rebellion Website [online]
Start Year : 2010
The Slave Rebellion Website is sponsored by The New World African Press. In reference to Kentucky, the site includes references to African and slave insurrections and actions. The population database covers the census years 1790-1890 for all states, and includes the number of slaves per county between 1790-1860. There are also some data on free persons of color by sex, county, and decade.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

U.S. Census: Slave Schedules, Black or Mulatto, Colored
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1890
African American slaves were first enumerated in the U.S. Federal Census in 1850 in a separate census called Slave Schedules. The 1850 Census was also the first in which all members of a household were listed by name; prior to 1850, only the heads of households were listed by name. As for slaves listed in the 1850 Slave Schedules, the vast majority are not listed by name but rather are numbered by age, sex, and color [Black or Mulatto] from the oldest to the youngest, all under the name of the slave owner. Also listed were the reported fugitive and manumitted (freed) slaves and the deaf, blind, insane, and idiotic slaves. A second slave census was taken in 1860. Kentucky was one of the 18 states included in the 1850 Slave Schedules and one of the 17 states in the 1860 Slave Schedules. African American slaves had been freed by the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 or by the ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865. Because Kentucky did not secede from the Union, Kentucky slaves were freed by the ratification of the 13th Amendment. In the 1870 and 1880 U.S. Federal Censuses, African Americans are included as Black or Mulatto. When the 1890 Census was taken, the term "Colored" was also used as a race descriptor for some African Americans, as well as for Chinese, Hawaiians, Japanese, Puerto Ricans, Swiss, Native Americans, and many others. As early as 1850, the term "Colored" had been used in the U.S. Federal Census and in the census of some individual states to describe free persons who were not White. Well beyond the year 1900, in the United States, the terms Black, Mulatto, and Colored were all used on birth, death, and military records, and on ship passenger lists. For more information about the race descriptors used in the early U.S. Census data, contact the U.S. Census Bureau; see Shades of Citizenship, by M. Nobles; Census and Identity, by D. I. Kertzer and D. Arel; and Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census, by M. J. Anderson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z], Race Categories
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

 

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