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<Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]>

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Adair County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Adair County, named for General John Adair, is located near the Tennessee border in south-central Kentucky. The county was developed in 1801 from a portion of Green County, KY. General John Adair was born in South Carolina and came to Kentucky in 1786. He was a U.S. Senator in 1805, served as a Kentucky Legislator, and was the Governor of Kentucky 1820-1824. He was a U.S. Representative 1831-1833. Once Adair County was established, there were 800 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census. In 1830, there was one African American slave owner in the county. There were 8,000 people counted in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from the 1850-1870 census records.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 486 slave owners
  • 1,886 Black slaves
  • 239 Mulatto slaves
  • 108 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulattoes
With the country moving closer to the beginning of the Civil War, there were still about 8,000 people in Adair County, according to the 1860 U.S. Federal Census (minus the slaves). The number of slaves and slave owners had decreased, as had the number of free Blacks. The number of persons listed as Mulatto had increased.

1860 Slave Schedule
  • 341 slave owners
  • 1,342 Black slaves
  • 260 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 40 free Mulattoes
Five years after the Civil War and the freeing of Kentucky slaves with the ratification of the 13th Amendment, the numbers had not drastically changed when the 1870 U.S. Federal Census was completed:
  • 1,783 Blacks (including Parker Hiram Jackman)
  • 32 Mulattoes
  • About 35 U.S. Colored Troops of the Civil War had reported that they were born in Adair County, KY.
For more see "Adair County" and "John Adair" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; Historical Sketches of Kentucky, by L. Collins [available at Google Books]; and Notes on Adair County, Kentucky, by J. A. Steele and M. C. Watson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Adair County, Kentucky

African American Slave Owners in Kentucky
Start Year : 1830
In 1924 the Research Department of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History completed a study of the free Negro slave owners found in the 1830 U. S. Federal Census. The study found that there were 3,777 Negro slave owners in the United States. Negro slave owners were listed in 29 Kentucky counties (see below). Ownership may have meant the purchase of a spouse, an individual's children, or other relatives who were not emancipated. Ownership was also an investment: purchased children and adults may or may not have been given the opportunity to work off their purchase price in exchange for their freedom. A History of World Societies documents a total of 6,000 Negro slave owners in the U.S. for the year 1840 [p. 846]. The 1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules do not identify slave owners by race; the individual names of slave owners must be searched in the U.S. Federal Census to identify the individual's race. For more see the Research Department's article, "Free Negro owners of slaves in the United States in 1830," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan., 1924), pp. 41-85; A History of World Societies, by J. P. McKay, et al. [2006]; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas.

Kentucky Counties with Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]
 

  1. Adair County (1) - Swaney Burbridge
  2. Barren County (1) - Leander Force
  3. Bourbon County (9) - Peter Allen, Sally Wallace, Isaac Jones, James Monday, Peter Grant, Gabriel, Allen Heathman, Edmon Hurley, Stephen Brooks
  4. Bracken County (1) - Lethia Thomas
  5. Bullitt County, [Mt. Washington] (2) - Isaac Ellison, Bash Oldridge
  6. Christian County, [Hopkinsville] (1) - Michael Cocke
  7. Clark County (2) - John Dudley, George Birth
  8. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) - Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black -- Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer'y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith
  9. Fleming County (1) - Jacob Truett
  10. Franklin County, [Frankfort] (6) - Harry Mordecai, David Jones, John Ward, Burrel Chiles, John S. Goin, Samuel Brown
  11. Graves County (1) - Alias Keeling
  12. Green County (1) - Thomas Malone
  13. Harrison County (1) - Benjamin Berton
  14. Henderson County (1) - Liverpool Pointer
  15. Jefferson County (1), [Louisville] (5) - J. T. Gray -- Betty Cozzens, David Straws, Frank Merriwether, Daniel Brigadier, Sally
  16. Jessamine County (3) - Judith Higenbothan, Anthony of colour, William a man of color
  17. Knox County (1) - Isaiah Goins
  18. Logan County, [Russellville] (5) - Nicholas Valentine, Robert Buckner, Edward Jones, Isham Husketh, William Barber
  19. Madison County (1) - George White
  20. Mason County (9), [Washington] (3) - Thomas F. Bowles, John Glasford, Edward Cooper, H. Markham, Roseann Wann, Charles More, Ann Baylor, Edmond Toliver, Acam Diggs -- Peggy Miles, John Lightfoot, Isaac Johnson
  21. Mercer County (9) - Anderson Harris, Ben Harris, Spencer Easton, Fielding Melvin, Jemima Fry, Hercules Jenkins, George Warman, Adam Beaty, Sanko Robinson
  22. Montgomery County (1) - Richard Lee
  23. Nelson County, [Bardstown] (4) - Thomas Smiley, Joe Cocke, Thomas Rudd, George Aud
  24. Nicholas County (1) - George Mallery
  25. Rockcastle County (1) - David Cable
  26. Shelby County (1), [Shelbyville] (3) - John Edwards -- Peter Short, Hannah Harris, Jim Henson
  27. Warren County (2) - Jane Palmore, Bazzle Russell
  28. Washington County, [Springfield] (2) - Robert C. Palmer, Ignatius Sandy
  29. Woodford County (13) - Joe Miller, Lawrence Corbin, Betty Tutt, Billy Campbell, Henry Mason, Tom Stratford, Ambrose Hardy, Richard Harvey, Samuel Cloak, Nathan Twiner, Joel Hawkins, Moses Weaver, Jordan Ritchie

Subjects: Free African American Slave Owners, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Allen County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1920
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1920
Allen County, located in south-central Kentucky, was formed in 1815 from parts of Barren and Warren Counties. The county is named for Colonel John Allen, and the county seat, Scottsville, is named for Kentucky Governor Charles Scott. Allen County is one of the Kentucky locations to experience oil booms: 1850, 1890, and 1915-1920. Below is the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and free Mulattoes listed in the U.S. Federal Census for Allen County for the period during the oil booms.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 179 slave owners
  • 795 Black slaves
  • 102 Mulatto slaves
  • 25 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 314 slave owners
  • 1,246 Black slaves
  • 283 Mulatto slaves
  • 27 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
Available online are the Allen County slave births, 1852-1861, provided by Sharon Tabor. The listing includes the names of a few free born Blacks, also.

1870 Federal Census
  • 806 Blacks
  • 199 Mulattoes
  • About 44 U.S. Colored Troops listed Allen County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 718 Blacks
  • 175 Mulattoes
1900 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,100 Blacks
  • 3 Mulattoes
1920 U.S. Federal Census
  • 634 Blacks
  • 143 Mulattoes
  • There were about 110 draft registration cards by Blacks, and 1 Colored, in Allen County, KY.
For more see A History of Scottsville and Allen County, by H. H. Patton; the "Allen County" entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and Till Freedom Came: slaves in Allen County, 1815-1866 by G. Conner. For more on the oil fields in Kentucky, see Brandon C. Nuttall, "Oil and Gas History of Kentucky: 1860-1900" at the University of Kentucky Geological Survey website.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky

Anderson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Anderson County is located in central Kentucky within the Bluegrass Region, bound by seven other counties. Slaves arrived with the first settlers in the 1770s. Lawrenceburg, the county seat, was incorporated as Lawrence in 1820. Anderson County was established in 1827. There were 573 persons [heads of households] counted in the county in the 1830 U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. By 1870, there were 5,500 persons counted in the census. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes in Anderson County between 1850 and 1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 307 slave owners
  • 1,021 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 19 free Blacks
  • 11 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 285 slave owners
  • 1,211 Black slaves
  • 146 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 646 Blacks
  • 67 Mulattoes
  • About 93 U.S. Colored Troops listed Anderson County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see "Anderson County" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and History and Families Anderson County, Kentucky, by Turner Publishing Co.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky

Ballard County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Ballard County, located in western Kentucky, was established in 1842 from parts of Hickman and McCracken Counties. The county was named after Captain Bland Ballard, a District Court Judge and member of the Kentucky Legislature. Wickliffe was voted the county seat of Ballard County in 1882. The first U.S. Federal Census for Ballard County was taken in 1850 when 4,654 persons were counted, excluding slaves. Below are the figures for slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 190 slave owners
  • 646 Black slaves
  • 195 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 19 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 336 slave owners
  • 1,132 Black slaves
  • 585 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks
  • 24 free Mulattoes
Note: The 1850 population for Ballard County (given above) is lower than that provided at Ballard County, Kentucky, Free Black and Mulatto Residents. by Kathleen Hill. Additional information about the free Black and Mulatto families can be found at this website.

1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 979 Blacks
  • 483 Mulattoes
  • About 30 U.S. Colored Troops listed Ballard County, KY, as their birth location
For more see the Ballard County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. Kleber; and Ballard and Carlisle Counties History, by Ballard-Carlisle Historical and Genealogical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky

Barren County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Barren County is located in south-central Kentucky, surrounded by six other counties. The county was established in 1798 from parts of Warren and Green Counties. It was named for the meadowlands known as the barrens. Many of the early white settlers were veterans of the Revolutionary War who had received land grants in Barren County as payment for their military services. The county had a large number of Scottish families, which was a major influence in the naming of the county seat, Glasgow. There was a total of 4,784 persons counted in Barren County in the Second Census of Kentucky 1800: 4,279 whites and 505 slaves. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner in Barren County. By 1850, there was a population of 15,657, excluding slaves, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes in the county from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 944 slave owners
  • 3,921 Black slaves
  • 628 Mulatto slaves
  • 63 free Blacks
  • 1 free Colored [Turnedo Bass born in Mexico]
  • 49 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 729 slave owners
  • 3,649 Black slaves
  • 421 Mulatto slaves
  • 37 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,152 Blacks
  • 375 Mulattoes
  • About 68 U.S. Colored Troops listed Barren County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Barren County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Heart of the Barrens, by C. E. Goode; Barren County, Kentucky: African-American Male Marriage Index Book, by M. B. Gorin; Barren's Black Roots, by M. B. Gorin; and Ralph Bunche National Historic District - Oral History Project (FA 457), at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky

Bath County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bath County is located in the north-eastern part of Kentucky, surrounded by five other counties. It was established in 1811 from part of Montgomery County, though white settlers had come to the area as early as 1775. Bath County was named for its medicinal springs. The county seat was originally Catlett's Flats, but it was changed to Owingsville in 1811. In 1820, the population of Bath County was recorded as 1,132 [heads of households] in the U.S. Federal Census; the population had grown to 9,747 in 1850, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 823 slave owners
  • 3,216 Black slaves
  • 50 Colored slaves
  • 567 Mulatto slaves
  • 94 free Blacks
  • 2 free Colored [Caroline Duncan and her daughter Mary Duncan]
  • 34 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 441 slave owners
  • 1,933 Black slaves
  • 562 Mulatto Slaves
  • 90 free Blacks
  • 2 free Colored [Eli Burton and James Burton]
  • 51 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,438 Blacks
  • 283 Mulattoes
  • About 100 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bath County, KY, as their birth location
For more see the Bath County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and A History of Bath County, Kentucky, by J. A. Richards.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bath County, Kentucky

Bell County (KY) Free Blacks and Free Mulattoes, 1870-1900
Start Year : 1870
End Year : 1900
Bell County, originally known as Joshua Bell County, was established after the Civil War in southeastern Kentucky on August 1, 1867, created from portions of Harlan and Knox Counties. Bell County is bordered by five Kentucky counties and the Virginia and Tennessee state borders. The county was named for Kentucky Legislator Joshua F. Bell, and the county seat is Pineville. The first U.S. Federal Census of Bell County, completed in 1870, reveals a population of 3,731. The county was created after the ratification of the 13th Amendment that freed Kentucky slaves in 1865; below are the number of free Blacks and Mulattoes in Bell County as reported in the 1870-1880, and 1900 Census.

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 99 Blacks
  • 11 Mulattoes
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 99 Blacks [the majority of whom were born in Virginia]
  • 76 Mulattoes
1900 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,552 Blacks
  • 256 Colored
  • 2 Mulattoes
For more, see the Bell County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Images of America, Bell County by T. Cornett; and History of Bell County, Kentucky, by H. H. Fuson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bell County, Kentucky

Boone County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Boone County is located in northern Kentucky along the Ohio River and is bordered by three counties. Named for Daniel Boone, it was formed from Campbell County in 1798. The county seat is Burlington. In 1800, the county population was about 1,534: 1,194 whites, 325 slaves, and 15 free coloreds, according to the Second Census of Kentucky. [See the Boone County, KY, website for additional information.] At the completion of the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, the population, excluding slaves, was 9,165. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 194 slave owners
  • 676 Black slaves
  • 116 Mulatto slaves
  • 36 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 468 slave owners
  • 1,256 Black slaves
  • 489 Mulatto slaves
  • 35 free Blacks
  • 12 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,013 Blacks
  • 207 Mulattoes
  • About 20 U.S. Colored Troops gave Boone County, KY, as their birth location.
For more, see the Boone County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Boone County, Kentucky, by A. M. Yealey; and A Brief History of Slavery in Boone County, Kentucky, by M. S. Caldwell.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Boone County, Kentucky

Bourbon County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bourbon County is located in central Kentucky in the Bluegrass Region. The county was developed from a part of Fayette County in 1785. The county seat was named Hopewell, then Bourbonton, and finally renamed Paris in 1790. Bourbon County was one of the nine counties organized by the Virginia Legislature before Kentucky became a state. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 6,929 whites and 908 slaves. Ten years later, the total population was 12,825 in the Second Kentucky Census 1800: 10,627 white, 2,136 slaves, and 62 free colored. In 1830 there were nine African American slave owners in the county. When the 1850 Census was completed, there were 7,401 persons, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 1,075 slave owners
  • 5,495 Black slaves
  • 1,576 Mulatto slaves
  • 171 free Blacks
  • 74 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 960 slave owners
  • 5,678 Black slaves
  • 1,086 Mulatto Slaves
  • 240 free Blacks
  • 102 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S Federal Census

  • 5,710 Blacks
  • 863 Mulattoes
  • About 350 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bourbon County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Bourbon County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Bourbon County in Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky: History of Kentucky, vol. 2, by L. Collins and R. H. Collins [available at Google Book Search]; and History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky, by W. H. Perrin and R. Peter.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky

Boyd County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1860-1880
Start Year : 1860
End Year : 1880
Boyd County was created in 1860 from portions of Greenup, Carter, and Lawrence Counties. The county seat is Catlettsburg. Boyd County is surrounded by three Kentucky counties and the Ohio and West Virginia state borders. The county was named for Linn Boyd, who, although born in Tennessee, was a member of the Kentucky Legislature, a U.S. Congressman, and Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky. There were 5,888 persons counted in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census for Boyd County, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1860-1880.

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 197 slave owners
  • 74 Black slaves
  • 54 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks
  • 7 free Mulattoes [all with the last name Bolts]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 240 Blacks
  • 116 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Boyd County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 326 Blacks
  • 193 Mulattoes
For more, see Boyd County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; The Early History of Boyd County Kentucky, by J. L. Smith; and The History of Boyd County, Kentucky [videocassette] by WOWK-TV.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Boyd County, Kentucky

Boyle County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Boyle County, located in central Kentucky, was formed in 1842 from Lincoln and Mercer Counties. It was named for Judge John Boyle, who was born in Virginia and moved to Kentucky, where he became a state Legislator, a Chief Justice, a District Judge, and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. John Boyle died around 1835, prior to the naming of Boyle County. The county seat is Danville. The first U.S. Census of Boyle County was completed in 1850: 5,693 persons were counted, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes between 1850 and 1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 612 slave owners
  • 2,968 Black slaves
  • 456 Mulatto slaves
  • 129 free Blacks
  • 189 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 505 slave owners
  • 2,677 Black slaves
  • 2 Colored slaves [1 owned by R. W. Washington, 1 owned by Wm Owsley]
  • 559 Mulatto slaves
  • 192 free Blacks
  • 243 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,995 Blacks
  • 657 Mulattoes
  • About 103 U.S. Colored Troops listed Boyle County, KY, as their birth location.
For more, see the Boyle County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Danville and Boyle County, Kentucky, 1774-1992, by R. C. Brown; History of Mercer and Boyle Counties [Kentucky], by M. T. Daviess; and Boyle County's Black Physicians, by R. C. Brown [thesis]; and see Michael J. Denis' rootsweb page with records of African American marriages, free persons and slaves, and an index of death certificates, all pertainging to Boyle County.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky

Bracken County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bracken County is located along the northern edge of Kentucky, and is bordered by the Ohio River and four other counties. Bracken County was named for William Bracken, an early settler. The county was formed in 1796 from parts of Mason and Campbell Counties. Augusta is the county seat. In the 1870s, Bracken County was among the top wine producing counties in the United States. The small population in the late 1700s had grown to 2,606 in 1800, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,349 whites, 243 slaves, and 14 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner. By 1860, the population was 10,193, according to the U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 208 slave owners
  • 129 Black slaves
  • 33 Mulatto slaves
  • 114 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto [Laura E. Blythe]
See also J. E. Leming, Jr, "The Great Slave Escape of 1848 ended in Bracken County," The Kentucky Explorer, June 2000, pp.25-29.

1860 Slave Schedule
  • 177 slave owners
  • 553 Black slaves
  • 196 Mulatto slaves
  • 55 free Blacks
  • 28 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 554 Blacks
  • 66 Mulattoes
  • About 28 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bracken County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Bracken County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and African-American Records by C. R. Miller.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bracken County, Kentucky

Breathitt County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Breathitt County, located in eastern Kentucky in the Cumberland Plateau, is surrounded by eight counties and was formed from Clay, Perry, and Estill Counties. Breathitt County was formed in 1839, and was named for Kentucky Governor John Breathitt. Jackson is the county seat. The population was 359 in the 1840 U.S. Federal Census [heads of households], and grew to 5,673 by 1870, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 46 slave owners
  • 118 Black slaves
  • 51 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks
  • 8 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 46 slave owners
  • 115 Black slaves
  • 75 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks
  • 19 free Mulattoes [last names Freeman and Smith]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 75 Blacks
  • 103 Mulattoes
  • At least 2 U.S. Colored Troops listed Breathitt County, KY, as their birth location [Henson Calamees and Robert Chanler].
For more see the entry for Breathitt County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Breathitt County, Kentucky by J. E. Munson [thesis]; and History of Breathitt County, Kentucky by D. Wullschleger [thesis].
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Breathitt County, Kentucky

Breckinridge County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Breckinridge County was formed in 1799 from part of Hardin County, KY, and is bordered by five counties and the Kentucky River. Breckinridge County is located in the mid-western part of the state, and was named for John Breckinridge, a U.S. Attorney General and a Senator, an Attorney General and House Member in Kentucky, and a veteran of the American Revolutionary War. John Breckinridge died in 1806, shortly after Breckinridge County was formed. The county seat is Hardinsburg. The total population in 1800 was 807, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 765 whites, 41 slaves, and 1 free colored. By 1860 the population was 10,896, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 408 slave owners
  • 1,569 Black slaves
  • 380 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 2 Colored [Thomas Alexander and Hardin Alexander]
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 476 slave owners
  • 1,837 Black slaves
  • 499 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes [3 last name Piles, 1 last name Tanner]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,143 Blacks
  • 413 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Breckinridge County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Breckinridge County in Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky, v.2 by L. Collins and R. H. Collins; History and Legend of Breckinridge County, Kentucky by B. Thompson; and Breckinridge County, Kentucky Pictorial History by Breckinridge County Bicentennial Committee.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Breckinridge County, Kentucky

Bullitt County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bullitt County is located in the western Bluegrass Region of Kentucky, and is bordered by four other counties. Shepherdsville is the county seat, named for Adam Shepherd, an engineer and Revolutionary War veteran. Shepherdsville was founded in 1793, three years before the county was established. Bullitt County was formed from parts of Jefferson and Nelson Counties, and was named after Alexander Scott Bullitt, the state's first Lieutenant Governor. The total population in 1800 was 3,542, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,564 whites, 969 slaves, 9 free colored. In 1830, there were two African American slave owners in the town of Mount Washington. The 1860 population was 5,631, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 252 slave owners
  • 1,186 Black slaves
  • 169 Mulatto slaves
  • 23 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 294 slave owners
  • 1,067 Black slaves
  • 391 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 3 free Mulattoes [women]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 984 Blacks
  • 189 Mulattoes
  • About 16 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bullitt County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Bullitt County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Bullitt County, Kentucky by Turner Pub. Co.; and Rogers Family African American Graveyard (Fox Chase) a Bullitt County History Museum website.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bullitt County, Kentucky

Butler County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Butler County is located in the western part of Kentucky and is bordered by six counties. It was formed in 1810 from portions of Logan and Ohio Counties, and was named for Richard Butler, a Revolutionary War veteran from Pennsylvania. The county seat is Morgantown. There were 322 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census for Butler County, and the population had increased to 7,117 by the year 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 177 slave owners
  • 574 Black slaves
  • 107 Mulatto slaves
  • 14 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 213 slave owners
  • 560 Black slaves
  • 212 Mulatto slaves
  • 25 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 622 Blacks
  • 16 Mulattoes
  • About 17 U.S. Colored Troops listed Butler County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Butler County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and Butler County, Kentucky by L. Russ.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Butler County, Kentucky

Caldwell County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Caldwell County is surrounded by six counties, it is located in the western section of the state. The county was formed in 1809 from a portion of Livingston County. and was named for John Caldwell, a veteran of the Indian Wars, a Kentucky Senator, and the 2nd Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky. The first community was Eddy Grove and the first county seat was Eddyville. The new county seat of Princetown was selected around 1817, named for land owner William Prince, and the town name was later changed to Princeton. The 1810 population for Caldwell County was 659 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and that increased to 6,912 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 566 slave owners
  • 2,723 Black slaves
  • 384 Mulatto slaves
  • 95 free Blacks
  • 43 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 433 slave owners
  • 2,013 Black slaves
  • 418 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,342 Blacks
  • 656 Mulattoes
  • About 228 U.S. Colored Troops listed Caldwell County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Caldwell County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Caldwell County, Kentucky History by S. W. Steger; and First History of Caldwell County, Kentucky by C. R. Baker. See photo image of Caldwell County Negro high school in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Caldwell County, Kentucky

Calloway County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Calloway County is located in south-western Kentucky, surrounded by two counties, the Kentucky Lake, and the Tennessee state border. It was formed from a portion of Hickman County in 1822, and named for explorer Richard Calloway. The county seat was first named Williston, then Pooltown, then Pleasant Springs, and finally named Murray in 1844 after John L. Murray, a Kentucky Legislator and a U.S. Congressman. The county population was 822 [heads of households] according to the 1830 U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 8,424 in 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 255 slave owners
  • 866 Black slaves
  • 126 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [teenagers Henry and Dan Cooper]
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 336 slave owners
  • 1,135 Black slaves
  • 348 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [last names Harper and Mays]
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 775 Blacks
  • 81 Mulattoes
  • About 29 U.S. Colored Troops listed Calloway County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Calloway County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A Distant Light by B. Cunningham; History of Calloway County, Kentucky 1931 by E. A. Johnston; and The Story of Calloway County, 1822-1976 by D. Jennings and K. Jennings.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Calloway County, Kentucky

Campbell County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Campbell County, located in northern Kentucky, is bordered by two counties and the Ohio River. It was formed in 1794 from portions of Harrison, Mason, and Scott Counties. The county was named for John Campbell, who was born in Ireland. He was a veteran of the Revolutionary War, and he was a Kentucky Senator. The county seat is Alexandria. The county population in 1800 was 1,903, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,612 whites, 279 slaves, 12 free coloreds. By 1860 the population was 20,673, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 59 slave owners
  • 115 Black slaves
  • 62 Mulatto slaves
  • 65 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 50 slave owners
  • 81 Black slaves
  • 35 Mulatto slaves
  • 68 free Blacks
  • 20 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 253 Blacks
  • 228 Mulattoes
  • About 4 U.S. Colored Troops listed Campbell County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see The Encyclopedia of Kentucky edited by J. E. Kleber; Campbell County, Kentucky, 200 Years, 1794-1994 by Campbell County Historical Society; History of Campbell County, Kentucky by M. K. Jones [available at Google Book Search]; and see Tid-bits of Northern Kentucky History: Wm. S. Bailey of Newport, and his anti-slavery newspapers, by M. S. Hartman, online at Northern Kentucky Views [.pdf].
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Campbell County, Kentucky

Carlisle County (KY) Free Blacks and Free Mulattoes, 1900-1920
Start Year : 1900
End Year : 1920
Carlisle County, formed in 1886 from portions of Ballard County, is located in far western Kentucky, bordered by four counties and the Mississippi River. The county is named for John G. Carlisle, who was Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives and U.S. Secretary of the Treasury and a Kentucky House Member, Senator, and Lieutenant Governor. The county seat of Carlisle County is Bardwell, founded in 1874. In 1900, the county population was 10,213 and decreased to 8,232 by 1920. Below are the numbers for the African American population.

1900 U.S. Federal Census

  • 645 Blacks
  • 1 Mulatto
1910 U.S. Federal Census
  • 301 Blacks
  • 105 Mulattoes
1920 U.S. Federal Census
  • 239 Blacks
  • 72 Mulattoes
  • There were 45 WWI draft registration cards by Blacks, and 2 Coloreds, in Carlisle County, KY.
For more see The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and A History of Carlisle County, Kentucky for the Years 1820-1900.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Carlisle County, Kentucky

Carroll County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Carroll County is located in north-central Kentucky along the Ohio River, bordered by four counties. One of the smallest counties in the state, it was formed in 1838 from portions of Gallatin, Henry, and Trimble Counties. Both Carroll County and its county seat, Carrollton, were named for Charles Carroll, who was a U.S. Senator for Maryland. Of all who signed the Declaration of Independence, Charles Carroll (1737-1832) lived the longest. There are Carroll Counties in 12 states and two Parishes in Louisiana, all named for Charles Carroll. In Carroll County, KY, the first U.S. Census of the county was taken 1840, when there was a population of 572 [heads of households]. By 1860 the population was 5,533, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes in Carroll County for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 243 slave owners
  • 788 Black slaves
  • 159 Mulatto slaves
  • 21 free Blacks
  • 7 free Mulattoes [including Wheeling Gaunt, his wife, and brother]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 264 slave owners
  • 1,629 Black slaves
  • 233 Mulatto slaves
  • 32 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 529 Blacks
  • 6 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Carroll County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Carroll County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Carroll County, Kentucky, by M. A. Gentry; and Carroll County, Kentucky History and Biographies by L. Collins, et al.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Carroll County, Kentucky

Carter County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Carter County is located in northeastern Kentucky and is surrounded by six counties. It was formed in 1838 from parts of Greenup and Lawrence Counties. Both the county and the county seat, Grayson, were named for William Grayson Carter, who was a Kentucky Senator 1834-38. Senator Carter had been awarded 70,000 acres in the Carter County area for his service in the American Revolution. The county population was 364 [heads of households] according to the 1840 U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 8,207 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 60 slave owners
  • 190 Black slaves
  • 67 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 11 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 63 slave owners
  • 218 Black slaves
  • 92 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks [most with last names Bell, Black, and Garner]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [all with last name Nickell]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 99 Blacks
  • 1 Mulatto
  • About 11 U.S. Colored Troops listed Carter County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Carter County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Carter County, Kentucky

Casey County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Casey County was created from Lincoln County in 1806, and is named for William Casey, the great-grandfather of Samuel Clemens [Mark Twain]. William Casey was from Virginia, he was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Prior to the development of Casey County, the land had been given to war veterans as payment for their military services. President Abraham Lincoln's grandfather was one of the settlers in the area around 1780. Casey County is surrounded by seven counties, and Liberty is the county seat. There were 514 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 Census, and the population had increased to 5,800 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 121 slave owners
  • 598 Black slaves
  • 37 Mulatto slaves
  • 24 free Blacks
  • 35 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 110 slave owners
  • 582 Black slaves
  • 84 Mulatto slaves
  • 24 free Blacks
  • 33 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 507 Blacks
  • 34 Mulattoes
  • About 31 U.S. Colored Troops listed Casey County, Kentucky as their birth location.
For more see The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Searching for Jim by T. Dempsey; Casey County, Kentucky, 1806-1977 by G. C. Thomas; Free African Americans in Casey County During the Era of the Underground Railroad by D. Y. Wilkinson; and see Michael J. Denis' rootsweb page with census records on slaves and military records on U.S. Colored Troops, all pertaining to Casey County.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Casey County, Kentucky

Christian County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Christian County is located in southwestern Kentucky, bounded by the Tennessee state border and five Kentucky counties. It was formed from a portion of Logan County in 1797 and named for the American Revolutionary War veteran William Christian who was from Virginia. There is also a Christian County in Illinois and another in Missouri. In Kentucky, the county seat of Christian County is Hopkinsville, which was incorporated in 1804 and named for Samuel Hopkins, a Kentucky Representative and Senator, and a U.S. Congressman who was born in Virginia. The 1800 Christian County population was 2,318 according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,021 whites and 297 slaves. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner in Hopkinsville. By 1860, the county population was 11,676, excluding the slaves, all according to the U.S. Federal Census. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule  

  • 1,184 slave owners
  • 7,120 Black slaves
  • 1,020 Mulatto slaves
  • 121 free Blacks
  • 30 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 1,178 slave owners
  • 8,055 Black slaves
  • 1 Colored slave [owned by Elizabeth J. Barnett]
  • 1,878 Mulatto slaves
  • 34 free Blacks
  • 22 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 9,518 Blacks
  • 259 Mulattoes
  • About 500 U.S. Colored Troops listed Christian County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Christian County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane by C. M. Meacham; Christian County, Kentucky, Historical and Biographical by W. H. Perrin; and The Dark Side of Hopkinsville by T. Poston and K. Hauke
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

Clark County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Clark County was formed in 1792 from portions of Bourbon and Fayette Counties. Clark County is located in north-central Kentucky on the eastern edge of the Bluegrass Region, and is surrounded by six counties. It is named for George Rogers Clark, Revolutionary War veteran who was born in Virginia, and a brother to William Clark of the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition. The county seat is Winchester, named for Winchester, VA. The 1800 county population was 7,653, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 6,075 whites, 1,561 slaves, and 17 free coloreds. The 1810 county population was 11,519, according to the Third Census of the United States (1810 Census), Clark County, Kentucky: 8,562 whites, 2,934 slaves, and 23 free coloreds. In 1830 there were two African American slave owners. The 1860 population was 6,727, according to the U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 833 slave owners
  • 4,349 Black slaves
  • 574 Mulatto slaves
  • 103 free Blacks
  • 32 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 769 slave owners
  • 4,417 Black slaves
  • 347 Mulatto slaves
  • 113 free Blacks
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,349 Blacks
  • 393 Mulattoes
  • About 380 U.S. Colored Soldiers listed Clark County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Clark County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A.C. Quisenberry, "Clark County, Kentucky, in the Census of 1810" The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, 1922, vols.1-20, pp.68-84 [available at Google Books]; and Clark County, Kentucky: a history by T. D. Clark. See photo image of Oliver School (1892-1956) in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Clark County, Kentucky

Clay County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Clay County is located in southeastern Kentucky in the Cumberland Mountains and is surrounded by seven counties. During the 1800s, Clay County was the major salt producer for the state of Kentucky. The county was formed in 1807 from portions of Madison, Floyd, and Knox Counties, and is named for Green Clay from Virginia, he was a veteran of the War of 1812 and the American Revolutionary War. Green Clay was a surveyor in Kentucky, and later became a Kentucky Representative in the Virginia House of Delegates. He was also a member of the Kentucky Legislature. The town of Greenville was also named for Green Clay, but the name was later changed to Manchester, which is the county seat. The name change was in honor of Manchester, England. The 1810 Clay County population was 428 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 6,303 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 51 slave owners
  • 349 Black slaves
  • 82 Mulatto slaves
  • 58 free Blacks
  • 118 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 85 slave owners
  • 215 Black slaves
  • 139 Mulatto slaves
  • 49 free Blacks
  • 209 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 366 Blacks
  • 176 Mulattoes
  • About 25 U.S. Colored Troops listed Clay County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Clay County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Clay County, Kentucky, 1767-1976 by K. Morgan and H. S. Morgan; Clay County, Kentucky: history and families by the Clay County Genealogical and Historical Society; and Appalachians and Race by J. C. Inscoe.
See photo image of the Colored Graded School in Manchester, KY, at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Clay County, Kentucky

Clinton County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Clinton County is located in south-central Kentucky, on the Tennessee border and neighboring three Kentucky counties. The county was formed in 1835 from portions of Cumberland and Wayne Counties, and was named for DeWitt Clinton who was a U.S. Senator and the Governor of New York. The county seat is Albany; some of the earliest settlers came to the area from Albany, NY. There were 631 [heads of households] counted in the 1840 U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,523 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 78 slave owners
  • 233 Black slaves
  • 29 Mulatto slaves
  • 35 free Blacks [most with the last name of Cowan or Cozens]
  • 3 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 77 slave owners
  • 181 Black slaves
  • 78 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 202 Blacks
  • 108 Mulattoes
  • About 18 U.S. Colored Troops listed Clinton County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Clinton County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and Clinton County, Kentucky: a pictorial history by Clinton County Historical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Clinton County, Kentucky

Crittenden County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Crittenden County, located in southwest Kentucky, is named for Kentucky Governor John Jordon Crittenden, who resigned before his term as governor was completed. The county was established on April 1, 1842, and is bordered by the Ohio River and five Kentucky counties. The county seat is Marion, named for Francis Marion, a Revolutionary War veteran from South Carolina. In the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, 5,604 person were counted in the county and there was an increase to 7,817 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 190 slave owners
  • 720 Black slaves
  • 116 Mulatto slaves
  • 14 free Blacks
  • 15 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 226 slave owners
  • 702 Black slaves
  • 234 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks [most with last name Yeaky]
  • 11 free Mulattoes [most with the last name of Going or Thralkeld]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 619 Blacks
  • 161 Mulattoes
  • About 70 U.S. Colored Troops listed Crittenden County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the entry for Crittenden County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Crittenden County, Kentucky: volume 1 by T. Tucker; and Crittenden County, Kentucky History and Biographies by L. Collins and W. H. Perrin.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Crittenden County, Kentucky

Cumberland County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1870
Cumberland County is located in south-central Kentucky, bordered by the state of Tennessee and five Kentucky counties. The county was formed in 1798 from a portion of Green County, and is named for the Cumberland River that flows through the county. The county seat, Burkesville, was incorporated in 1846. It was named for Samuel Burk, a citizen in the community. The city had been known as Cumberland Crossings prior to the name change to Burksville. The county population was 3,284 in the Second Census of Kentucky 1800; 3,012 whites, 236 slaves, and 36 free coloreds. By 1860, the population had increased to 5,927, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 295 slave owners
  • 1,150 Black slaves
  • 332 Mulatto slaves
  • 45 free Blacks 
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 273 slave owners
  • 1,213 Black slaves
  • 203 Mulatto slaves
  • 47 free Blacks
  • 192 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,288 Blacks
  • 251 Mulattoes
  • About 32 U.S. Colored Troops listed Cumberland County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Cumberland County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Cumberland County, Kentucky Yesterday and Today by R. Wooten; and History of Cumberland County by J. W. Wells.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Cumberland County, Kentucky

Free Blacks, Negroes, and Mulattoes in the 1800 Kentucky Tax Lists
Start Year : 1800
The Second Census of Kentucky 1800 was constructed from the tax lists in the existing Kentucky counties. Below are the names of free Blacks, Negroes and Mulattoes, all taxpayers who were included in the listing. They were among the 739 free Colored persons in Kentucky in 1800. There may have been others named on the lists, but their race was not noted.

  • Robert Anderson, Barren County
  • William Anderson, Barren County
  • John Baker, Nelson County
  • William Blakey, Barren County
  • Abner Bourne, Barren County
  • Peter Brass, Franklin County
  • William Cousins, Nelson County
  • William Daily, Fayette County
  • Isam Davis, Lincoln County
  • Adam Evens, Lincoln County
  • Michael Jackson, Lincoln County
  • Abraham Levaugh, Warren County
  • John Lewis, Jefferson County
  • Bristo Mathews, Lincoln County
  • Edward Mathews, Lincoln County
  • Gloster Rawls, Nelson County
  • George Stafford, Gallatin County
  • Moses Tyre, Bullitt County
  • William Walker, Nelson County

Subjects: Early Settlers, Freedom, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky Counties: Bullitt, Fayette, Franklin, Gallatin, Jefferson, Lincoln, Nelson, Warren

Kentucky Slaves and Free Blacks, 1800
Start Year : 1800
G. Glen Clift, Assistant Secretary of the Kentucky Historical Society, compiled and published "Second Census" of Kentucky 1800, originally published in Frankfort, KY in 1954. The following quotation is taken from the title page: "A Privately Compiled and Published Enumeration of Tax Payers Appearing in the 79 Manuscript Volumes Extant of Tax Lists of the 42 Counties of Kentucky in Existence in 1800." Within the table on page VI is the following information: 739 free Colored and 40,303 slaves, and there is also a breakdown by county.
Subjects: Early Settlers, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kentucky Slaves and Free Persons Not White, 1790
Start Year : 1790
In 1790, there were 11,830 slaves and 114 free blacks in the area known as Kentucky, according to the title Black Genesis: A Resource Book for African-American Genealogy, p116. Another source is the "First Census" of Kentucky 1790, compiled by C. B. Heinemann, published in Washington in 1940. The following quote comes from page 1. "It is a privately compiled list of tax payers appearing in the tax lists of all Kentucky counties which were established at the time of the First Federal Census." In Heinemann's work, the number of slaves are slightly higher: 12,430 slaves and 114 free persons who were not white. The following information comes from p.3.

  • Bourbon County:     6,929 whites,   908 slaves,
  • Fayette County:    14,626 whites, 3,752 slaves, 32 free persons
  • Jefferson County:    3,857 whites,    903 slaves,   5 free persons
  • Lincoln County:       5,446 whites, 1,094 slaves,   8 free persons
  • Madison County:     5,035 whites,    737 slaves
  • Mason County:        2,500 whites,    229 slaves
  • Mercer County:        5,745 whites, 1,339 slaves,   7 free persons
  • Nelson County:      10,032 whites, 1,248 slaves, 35 free persons
  • Woodford County:    6,963 whites, 2,220 slaves, 27 free persons


Subjects: Early Settlers, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]

The Slave Rebellion Website [online]
Start Year : 2010
The Slave Rebellion Website is sponsored by The New World African Press. In reference to Kentucky, the site includes references to African and slave insurrections and actions. The population database covers the census years 1790-1890 for all states, and includes the number of slaves per county between 1790-1860. There are also some data on free persons of color by sex, county, and decade.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

U.S. Census: Slave Schedules, Black or Mulatto, Colored
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1890
African American slaves were first enumerated in the U.S. Federal Census in 1850 in a separate census called Slave Schedules. The 1850 Census was also the first in which all members of a household were listed by name; prior to 1850, only the heads of households were listed by name. As for slaves listed in the 1850 Slave Schedules, the vast majority are not listed by name but rather are numbered by age, sex, and color [Black or Mulatto] from the oldest to the youngest, all under the name of the slave owner. Also listed were the reported fugitive and manumitted (freed) slaves and the deaf, blind, insane, and idiotic slaves. A second slave census was taken in 1860. Kentucky was one of the 18 states included in the 1850 Slave Schedules and one of the 17 states in the 1860 Slave Schedules. African American slaves had been freed by the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 or by the ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865. Because Kentucky did not secede from the Union, Kentucky slaves were freed by the ratification of the 13th Amendment. In the 1870 and 1880 U.S. Federal Censuses, African Americans are included as Black or Mulatto. When the 1890 Census was taken, the term "Colored" was also used as a race descriptor for some African Americans, as well as for Chinese, Hawaiians, Japanese, Puerto Ricans, Swiss, Native Americans, and many others. As early as 1850, the term "Colored" had been used in the U.S. Federal Census and in the census of some individual states to describe free persons who were not White. Well beyond the year 1900, in the United States, the terms Black, Mulatto, and Colored were all used on birth, death, and military records, and on ship passenger lists. For more information about the race descriptors used in the early U.S. Census data, contact the U.S. Census Bureau; see Shades of Citizenship, by M. Nobles; Census and Identity, by D. I. Kertzer and D. Arel; and Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census, by M. J. Anderson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z], Race Categories
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

 

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