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<Jim Crow>

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Fox, Robert and Samuel
The Fox brothers owned a grocery store and one of the three leading undertaking businesses in Louisville, KY. Their undertaking business would eventually be merge with that of J. H. Taylor. In 1870, the Fox brothers and Horace Pearce went against the public streetcar policies when they boarded the Central Passenger's car at Tenth and Walnut Streets. All three men were removed from the car and jailed and their case would be resolved in U.S. District Court. Robert Fox (b.1846) and Samuel Fox (b.1849 ), both born in Kentucky, were the sons of Albert and Margaret Fox. For more see History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, by W. H. Gibson, Sr.; and the entry Streetcar Demonstrations.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Businesses, Civic Leaders, Jim Crow, Corrections and Police, Rioting, Insurrections, Panics, Protests in Kentucky, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Railroad, Railway, Trains, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

"Jim Crow Car"
Start Year : 1902
In 1902, Mrs. Lulu Thurman won her lawsuit against Southern Railroad in the Lexington, KY, courts. She had originally asked for $10,000 in damages because the train conductor had thought Mrs. Thurman was a Negro and had forced her to ride in the Jim Crow car. Mrs. Thurman was able to prove to the courts that she was white and the jury awarded her $4,000. For more see "Woman gets $4,000 verdict," New York Times, Special to the New York Times, 04/18/1902, p.1.

  See photo image of a Jim Crow car for Negroes only, Fayetteville, NC, 1929, at the NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Jim Crow, Railroad, Railway, Trains, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

"Jim Crow" The Character
The origin of the minstrel character, Jim Crow, has been placed in Cincinnati, Pittsburgh, and Louisville, Kentucky. The Kentucky version suggests that in 1830, Thomas D. Rice, a white man who was a blackface performer, was in Louisville acting and working as a stagehand doing carpentry and lamp lighting. A livery stable owned by a man named Crowe was located near the City Theatre where Rice performed; Crowe owned a slave named Jim Crowe who sang and danced while he worked at the stable. Rice studied Crowe's movements, his song, and his clothes, all of which were incorporated into Rice's stage performance of Jim Crow in Pittsburgh. Rice's performance was originally meant to be a brief diversion between acts; instead it was an instant hit with white audiences in the United States and England. "Jim Crow" became a permanent term in the English vocabulary and would have multiple applications. A Jim Crow song was published in 1830 by William C. Peters. Jim Crow acts and songs were the rave, and Rice was dubbed "Daddy Rice," "Father of American Minstrels," and "Mr. T. D. Rice of Kentucky." Thomas Rice was actually from New York but had spent a brief time in Kentucky at the beginning of his stage career. For more about the character Jim Crow, see the entry by J. D. Julian in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and Men in Blackface, by S. Stark. For more about Thomas D. Rice, see M. N. Ramshaw, "Jump Jim Crow! A Biographical Sketch of Thomas D. Rice," Theatre Annual, vol. 17 (1960).

See image of Jim Crow character at the KET [Kentucky Educational Television] website.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Jim Crow, Carpenters
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

"Jim Crow" Imagery
The fame of Thomas Rice's Jim Crow performance helped to advance the marketability of what was termed "Jim Crow Images," with depictions in various media such as literature, advertisements, cartoons, and designs on food containers and other caricature-labeled merchandise. For more see the Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia website and the collection at Ferris State University in Michigan; and The Shadow as Substance: Black Photographic Representation in Response to Jim Crow Iconography [theses], by B. M. Collins. See also the entry The Character Jim Crow.

See image on postcard titled Give My Regards To Broadway, at Wikimedia Commons.
Subjects: Jim Crow
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Jim Crow (term)
It is not definitively clear how the term "Jim Crow" came to be associated with the segregation of African Americans and whites in the United States. The use of the term was expanded to define a certain genre of music in the 1830s. Abolitionist newspapers in Massachusetts were using the term in the 1840s in reference to the segregated railway cars. By the 1890s the term was applied to segregation and exclusion laws and norms in border states and the south. By the 1940s the term had been further used to define behavior, speech, violence, and other forms of discrimination and segregation. Also in the 1940s, the term was used by the military to refer to lookout units or individual men in such units. For more see the Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History, vol. 3, 2nd edition, ed. by C. Palmer; and the Oxford English Dictionary.
Subjects: Freedom, Jim Crow

Negro wit and humor: also containing folk lore, folk songs, race peculiarities, race history
Start Year : 1914
In 1914, Marion Franklin Harmon published Negro Wit and Humor through his Louisville, KY, press, Harmon Publishing Company. The book was one of the joke books published by whites and distributed throughout the South for the purpose of entertaining other whites. Harmon claimed the book was meant to show the progress of the race, the content based on his observations and the words of friends "who vouch for their accuracy and originality." The book is full of supposed Negro dialect. Harmon gives thanks to Professors A. J. Aven of Mississippi College, Joseph [S.] Cotter, [Sr.] of Louisville Coleridge Taylor Colored School, and Thomas [F.] Blue, [Sr.], head of the Louisville Colored Branch Library. In 1929, Harmon produced The History of Christian Churches (Disciples of Christ) in Mississippi, published in Mississippi. For more see R. D. Abrahams, "Folk beliefs in Southern joke books," Western Folklore, vol. 24, issue 4 (Oct. 1964), pp. 259-261; J. Morgan, "Mammy the huckster: selling the Old South for the New Century," American Art, vol. 9, issue 1 (Spring 1995), pp. 86-109; S. A. Brown, "The Negro character as seen by White authors," The Journal of Negro Education, vol. 2, issue 2 (April 1933), pp. 179-203; and Negro Wit and Humor, by M. F. Harmon.
Subjects: Authors, Jim Crow, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Poets
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Quisenberry, Rosetta Lucas
Birth Year : 1951
Rosetta Quisenberry, born in Lexington, KY, was a school teacher for 14 years. She has collected over 1,000 postcards and other memorabilia with depictions of racist acts toward African Americans, many of which are featured in Quisenberry's 4-part series, A Saga of the Black Man, A Saga of the Black Woman, A Saga of the Black Child, and A Saga of the Black Family. From September 2007 - May 2008, items from Quisenberry's extensive collection were included in the exhibit in the William J. Clinton Presidential Library in Arkansas. In 2009, Quisenberry appeared on BET [Black Entertainment Television] to talk about her books. She has also appeared on KET. In 2009, Quisenberry was awarded the Lucy Harth Smith-Atwood S. Wilson Award by the Kentucky Education Association, which she received April 2010. Three years later, the 5th book of A Saga series was published, Things, People, and Places We Must Always Remember. Rosetta Quisenberry is a graduate of Eastern Kentucky University and the University of Kentucky. For more see the Rosetta Quisenberry interview on the second half of the video Juneteenth [#217] "Connections with Renee Shaw," 07/07/2007, at KET (Kentucky Educational Television); M. Davis, "Clinton Library checks out collection, likes what it sees," Lexington Herald-Leader, 06/28/2007, Free Time section, p. E2; and M. Davis, "BET to highlight Lexington author - Quisenberry self-published four books on the Black experience in U.S.," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/05/2009, City Region section, p. D1.

See photo image of Rosetta Quisenberry at her website.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Jim Crow
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Whyte, Garrett
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 2000
Whyte was born in Louisville, KY, according to his Army enlistment records. [Mt. Sterling has also been given as his birth location.] He completed an art education degree at North Carolina A&T State University in 1939. Whyte was an artist for the Chicago Defender, taught art at a high school and was an art professor at Chicago City College System [now City Colleges of Chicago]. In addition to teaching, Whyte was an artist for a number of organizations before he retired in 1980. He is remembered for his art and for the creation, for the Chicago Defender, of the comic strip, "Mr. Jim Crow," one of the first Civil Rights graphic satires. Whyte was a WWII Army veteran. For more see J. D. Stevens, "Reflections in a dark mirror: comic strips in Black newspapers," Journal of Popular Culture, vol. 10, issue 1 (Summer 1976), pp. 239-244; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-2006.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Artists, Fine Arts, Education and Educators, Jim Crow, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois


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