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Adams, Henry
Birth Year : 1802
Death Year : 1873
Henry Adams was a Baptist leader in Louisville, KY, where he established the first African American Church. He also set up a school for African American children; the school survived while other schools established for African Americans by white ministers were being destroyed. Rev. Adams was born in Franklin County, KY. He was the father of John Quincy "J. Q." Adams. For more see Life Behind a Veil, by G. C. Wright; "Rev. Henry Adams" on pp.196-197 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky from Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891, by M. B. Lucas.

See photo image of Rev. Henry Adams in the Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, at the NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Fathers, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Franklin County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Communities in Warren County, KY
Sunnyside, Freeport, and Oakland were three African American communities in Warren County, KY, developed after the Civil War. In 2001, the city of Oakland was awarded a grant from the African American Heritage Commission to complete the study of the community Sunnyside. The resulting report, Writ Upon the Landscape: an architectural survey of the Sunnyside Community, reveals that the African American section of Sunnyside grew to the point that it merged with the white section of Sunnyside. There are presently 53 buildings and the Loving Union CME Church and its cemetery. The community also had a one room schoolhouse with grades 1-8 that was torn down in 1948. Sunnyside is located 5 miles southwest of Freeport, an African American community that had a two-room schoolhouse, Woodland School. One room held grades 1-3 and the other grades 4-8; the school was closed after integration, and the building was used as a restaurant and for social entertainment. The Mt. Zion Baptist Church, established in 1870, is still in use. The communities of Freeport and Oakland were separated by a railroad track, with Freeport on the north side. Mrs. Virgie M. Edwards was a teacher at the School in 1916; she was a member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. The names of other Oakland teachers are listed in the KNEA Journal from 1916-1935 [available online]. For more see Transpark: a collapse of dreams, by the City of Oakland, Kentucky; and the following articles from the News section of the Daily News - J. Dooley, "Oakland gets grant to fund study - work will cover history, heritage of Sunnyside," 07/26/2001; A. Carmichael, "Historic Oakland mill being dismantled - lumber will be used by famed Nashville-based builder," 08/30,2003; A. Harvey, "Black History: woman remembers Freeport's heyday," 02/22/2004; A. Carmichael, "A lifetime of teaching - Warren County woman has passion for education," 08/01/2005; and J. Niesse, "Freeport endangered by transpark project," Letter section, 04/25/2001.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Sunnyside, Freeport, Oakland, Warren County, Kentucky

African American Schools - Catlettsburg Colored Common School District (Boyd County, KY)
Start Year : 1873
End Year : 1944
The Catlettsburg Colored Common School District was established by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873. The district included the area beginning at the Ohio River at the mouth of Horse Branch. There was a poll tax on every male 18 years old or older within the district, and widows with children were also taxed. The tax was not to exceed $2. Students attending the school had to live in the specified district and be at least 5 years old and not over 25 years old. In 1887, the school term was five months. An African American minister, the Reverend John R. Cox of the AME Church, was the first truant officer in Catlettsburg. Cox was a former slave born in Catlettsburg in 1852. The school district existed for 38 years before an act was established in 1912 to repeal the act that had established the Colored Common School District in Catlettsburg. Four Colored families were counted in Catlettsburg in the 1910 U.S. Federal Census, most of whom did not have children. The number of children had more than doubled by 1920; Miss Agnes H. Lockwood was the school teacher in 1923; and in 1925, there was a school census of 20 school age children for the one colored school that had one teacher [sources: U.S. Federal Census; Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.66;and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.69]. The Colored school district in Cattletsburg may have been discontinued, but the colored school of Catlettsburg operated as part of the Ashland Colored school system. In the 1937 Polk's Catlettsburg City Directory, Daisy Keeton is listed as principal of the Catlettsburg Colored School at 170 E. Panola Hill. The school was still listed in the directory as late as 1944. For more see "Chapter 653" in the 1873 Acts Passed at the...session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth, pp. 193-194 [full-text available at Google Book Search]; and Common School Laws of Kentucky: 1922, by the Kentucky Department of Education. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Catlettsburg, Boyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools - Colored Superintendents at Kentucky Public Schools, 1925
Start Year : 1925
Below are the names of the colored superintendents listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory for the school year July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1926. The publication is one of the earliest school directories for the state. For the county schools, the superintendents were white and each one served all (black and white) schools in a given county system. In 1925, there were a few colored superintendents hired by the city and independent graded school systems for the colored schools. See also the NKAA entries for African American Schools.

Colored Superintendents in Kentucky 1925
SUPERINTENDENTS CITY SCHOOLS
P. More Hopkinsville
R. D. Roman Earlington
T. C. B. Williams Franklin
G. T. Halliburton Hickman
- Lebanon
Silas E. Dean Murray
J. A. Hays Princeton
J. W. Roberts Shelbyville
   
SUPERINTENDENTS INDEPENDENT GRADED SCHOOLS
B. B. Smith Lynch Mines
J. Neil Burnside Whitesburg

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky: Hopkinsville, Christian County / Earlington, Hopkins County / Franklin, Simpson County / Hickman, Fulton County / Lebanon, Marion County / Murray, Calloway County / Princeton, Caldwell County / Shelbyville, Shelby County / Lynch Mines, Harlan Co

African American Schools - Kentucky, 1866
Start Year : 1866
In 1866, there was a new law for the benefit of the Negroes and Mulattoes of the Commonwealth; all taxes from these persons were set aside in a separate fund, one half to support Negro and Mulatto paupers, and one half for the education of the children. There were 13 schools counted in December of 1866, they were included in the publication of the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864 [see below]. The schools had been under-counted; a large majority of the colored schools had not been reported to the Commissioner of Common Schools, because the schools were not part of the Common School system, and the commissioners had procrastinated in establishing common schools for colored children. As stated in the annual report, there were 41,804 colored children between the ages of six and twenty in Kentucky, and 9,995 of those children lived in one of the 12 counties reported as having a colored school. The Colored Fund held $5,656.01 (as of March 1867), one half of which went to the colored schools and one half was used to care for paupers. It was expected that the following year, there would be a more accurate count of the colored schools.

  • Bracken County - 1 school
  • Clinton County - 1 school
  • Estill County - 1 school
  • Fayette County - 1 school
  • Greenup County - 1 school
  • Harrison County - 1 school
  • Hopkins County - 1 school
  • Jefferson County - 2 schools
  • Laurel County - 1 school
  • Logan County - 1 school
  • Madison County - 1 school
  • Mercer County - 1 school
For more information see "Chapter 636" on pp.231-232, and "Colored Schools" on pp.22-23 of the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. See NKAA Database entries African American Schools.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools - Kentucky, 1886
Start Year : 1886
The Colored School System covered about 112 of the 120 counties. Many of the colored schools were actually school sessions being held for three to five months in colored churches. There was not sufficient revenue from the property taxes of African Americans to afford but a few new school buildings. School superintendents filed reports that included information about the condition of the facilities, enrollment and student attendance, and the qualifications of teachers. A driving force behind the development and continuation of a colored school was the community. It was not uncommon for schools to be opened, moved, or discontinued without the knowledge of the school superintendent. There were superintendents who did not submit a separate report about the colored schools, or there may be a statement about the colored schools in the annual report for the white schools. The following list comes from the "Colored Schools. A digest of the Epistolary Reports of County Superintendents," found within the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887. The total number of schools/districts was not available for every county. See also the NKAA Dabatase entries African American Schools.

  • Adair County
  • Barren County
  • Bath County - 8 districts with 1 school each
  • Boone County
  • Bourbon County - 24 schools
  • Boyd County - 2 districts
  • Boyle County
  • Breathitt County - 2 districts
  • Breckinridge County
  • Bullitt County - 7 districts
  • Butler County - 7 schools
  • Calloway County - 8 districts
  • Carroll County - more than 3 districts
  • Casey County - 5 schools
  • Christian County
  • Clark County - 11 schools
  • Clay County - 4 districts
  • Crittenden County
  • Cumberland County - 8 districts
  • Daviess County - 4 schools
  • Edmonson County - 4 schools
  • Fayette County
  • Fleming County - 6 districts, school held in churches
  • Franklin County
  • Fulton County - 11 districts, 1 school in a church
  • Grant County - 4 districts
  • Graves County - 16 districts
  • Green County - 17 districts
  • Harlan County
  • Hardin County
  • Harrison County
  • Hart County - 10 districts
  • Hopkins County - 18 districts
  • Jessamine County
  • Larue County
  • Laurel County
  • Lawrence County - 2 schools
  • Lee County - 2 schools, 1 in a church
  • Lewis County - 1 school in a church in Vanceburg
  • Lincoln County - 16 districts
  • Logan County - 21 teachers, many schools taught in church buildings
  • Lyon County - 11 districts
  • Madison County - 27 districts
  • Magoffin County - 1 school
  • Mason County
  • Marshall County - 3 districts
  • McCracken County - no school houses, 3 or 4 schools doing good
  • McLean County - 5 districts, most schools held in church buildings
  • Meade County
  • Menifee County - 1 school
  • Mercer County
  • Metcalfe County - 7 districts
  • Monroe County - 5 schools
  • Montgomery County
  • Muhlenberg County - the schools are at a stand-still
  • Ohio County - 11 districts, 11 schools
  • Oldham County
  • Owen County
  • Pendleton County - 3 districts
  • Powell County - 3 schools
  • Pulaski County - 6 schools
  • Robertson County - 2 schools
  • Rockcastle County - 2 schools, one in Brodhead
  • Scott County - 1 school, school held in rented building
  • Shelby County - 13 districts
  • Simpson County - 10 districts
  • Spencer County
  • Taylor County
  • Trigg County - 3 districts
  • Union County - 9 districts, 6 with schools
  • Warren County
  • Washington County
  • Wayne County
  • Wolfe - 1 district
  • Woodford County

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools - Moonlight Schools, Kentucky
Start Year : 1911
End Year : 1920
The Moonlight Schools were night schools for adults; the sessions were held within school houses in rural communities. The first moonlight school sessions were held in 1911 in Rowan County, KY. The idea and execution of night school for adults was the brainchild of Cora Wilson Stewart, an experienced education leader who crusaded against illiteracy [More information and her biography can be found at Guide to Cora Wilson Stewart Papers, 1900-1940 in the Kentucky Digital Library]. Moonlight Schools were soon opened throughout the United States in county areas and within cities. There were at least 15 Colored Moonlight Schools in Kentucky by 1915, with the best schools located in Maysville, Winchester, Mount Sterling, and Paris; Mercer County held a Moonlight School in every colored school district [source: p. 49 in Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. See also the 1919 Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, a collection of booklets within the Cora Wilson Stewart Papers, 1900-1940, Box 65. The booklets include the locations of some of the Colored Moonlight Schools and the names of the teachers. The collection is held at the University of Kentucky Special Collections. See also NKAA entries for African American Schools.

  • Allen County (in Scottsville at Zion School)
  • Barren County (Union Hill)
  • Clark County (Winchester)
  • Daviess County (in Owensboro at Western Colored School, teacher A. O. Guthrie, 12 students)
  • Green County (three schools: in Ote, teacher Mrs. Fannie Hoskins; in Gresham, teacher Miss Lilliows Thurman; in Whitewood, teacher Mrs. Sallie B. Graves)
  • Hopkinsville (Christian County)
  • LaRue County (in Buffalo, KY, teacher Bessie Ford, 12 students)
  • Maysville (Mason County)
  • Mercer County
  • Monroe County
  • Mt. Sterling (Montgomery County)
  • Paris (Bourbon County)
  • Simpson County (in Franklin, teachers Gertrude Mahin, Iola Ryons, and Bessie Lawrence, 68 students enrolled)
  • Campbellsville (in Taylor County, teacher Mrs. G. E. Philpott) [source: "Mrs. G. E. Philpott...," Freeman, 02/13/1915, p. 3].

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools: African American Education in South Central Kentucky, 1920–1960 - Oral History Collection by Joseph Carl Ruff (FA166)
Start Year : 1993
The following information is taken from the descriptive inventory. "This project, “African American Education in South Central Kentucky, 1920 – 1960”, was conducted by Joseph Carl Ruff, and includes 26 interviews with African Americans who were students, teachers and/or administrators in segregated schools in south central Kentucky. Their first-hand accounts provide a unique perspective on the evolution of the education of African Americans in the region. Each interview reflects the determination of a people to overcome the obstacles created by a flawed doctrine, ‘separate but equal’, to achieve success, and for many of the interviewees, to become community leaders as teachers and school administrators. This project was funded by a grant from the Kentucky Oral History Commission." The collection is available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: South Central, Kentucky

African American Schools and Students in Kentucky (Photographs), Kentucky Digital Library
Start Year : 1901
Photographs of "Colored" and "Negro" schools and students are available online within the Kentucky Digital Library - Images section. Student body photographs include Bracktown 1901, Briar Hill 1901, and Burdine 1921. For more see the Kentucky Digital Library - Images. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Bracktown and Briar Hill, Fayette County, Kentucky / Burdine (Jenkins), Letcher County, Kentucky

African American Schools and Students Photographs, KDLA Electronic Records Archives
End Year : 1900
Below are links to some of the pictures of students and colored schools in Kentucky, found online within the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives. The pictures were taken in the 1880s-1890s. Contact KDLA for additional information about the photographs and the schools.


Colored District No. 3, 8


Colored District No. 2, 80


Colored District No. 1, 79 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools and Teachers in Kentucky, 1929
Start Year : 1929
In 1929, Harvey C. Russell, Sr. found that the higher education institutions in Kentucky were at a low state of teacher preparation for the state's colored high schools. The findings are included in Russell's thesis The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools of Kentucky, for a Master of Arts in Education at the University of Cincinnati. In his thesis, Russell focused on public high schools, but noted that there were 61 colored high schools of all types in Kentucky: 36 city controlled, 23 county controlled, and 2 state controlled. There were 204 teachers. The number of colored high schools had more than doubled over a 10 year period and student enrollment had increased by 170 percent. There were 31 four year approved high schools within 28 counties and all but three had less than 100 students. The Rosenwald Fund had provided for 10 libraries. Among the public high schools, 56% of the teachers were college graduates and "the state has drawn heavily upon educational institutions in other states." [quote from Chapter VI, p.68, item 7.] Below are the names of the higher education institutions with graduates who were teachers at the colored high schools in Kentucky during the 1928-29 school term, as listed in Table XI, pp.46-46a, in The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools in Kentucky by Harvey C. Russell, Sr.

Training institutions in Kentucky attended by colored teachers (26%):

Training institutions in other states attended by colored teachers (74%):

Tennessee
  • Fisk University
  • Lane College
  • Knoxville College
  • Tennessee State College
Ohio
  • Wilberforce University
  • Ohio State University
  • Ohio University
  • Miami University
Washington, D.C.
  • Howard University
Indiana
  • Indiana University
  • Terre Haute Teacher College
Illinois
  • University of Chicago
  • Northwestern University
  • Illinois State Normal
  • University of Illinois
  • Chicago Business College
Georgia
  • Atlanta University
  • Clark University
  • Morris Brown University
Pennsylvania
  • Lincoln University
  • Cheney Normal
Virginia
  • Hampton Institute
Alabama
  • Tuskegee Institute
Oklahoma
  • Langston University
Michigan
  • Ypsilanti Normal
New York
  • Columbia University
  • Pratt Institute
Florida
  • Florida State College
Massachusetts
  • Smith College
Nebraska
  • University of Nebraska
North Carolina
  • John C. Smith University

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, Freedmen Schools - Kentucky, 1866-1870
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1870
The establishment (and support) of schools by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands from 1866-1870 was the first major, statewide effort to provide education for African Americans in Kentucky. There were more than 200 freedmen schools in Kentucky, including American Missionary Association Schools that were supported by the Bureau. The support was extended to schools that held classes in churches and rented buildings. In areas where the schools were not welcomed, the buildings were destroyed and/or the teachers were run out of town. In most of the cities where the schools were established, they were the first schools for African Americans. There were day schools, night schools, and Sabbath schools for both children and adults. Prior to the arrival of the Bureau, there were about 35 colored schools with 58 colored teachers in Kentucky. The students paid a subscription fee. For those schools supported by the Bureau, the majority of the school teachers were white women, some from northern states and associated with the American Missionary Association. The history of the overall effort, successes and failures, and the names of cities where schools were located, are all included in the Semi-annual Report on Schools for Freedmen: numbers 1-10, January 1866-July 1870, by J. W. Alvord. The title is available full-text online at Google Books. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. See also The Race to Educate: African American resistance to educational segregation in Kentucky, 1865-1910 (dissertation) by T. L. Bradley.
 
Freedmen Schools in Kentucky

  • Bourbon County - Millersburg - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Paris - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School built by Mr. Clay.
  • Boyd County - Ashland - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Boyle County - Danville - Freedmen School; American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Parksville - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Shelby City - Freedmen School
  • Bracken County - Augusta - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Bullitt County - Shepherdsville - Freedmen School. Teacher threatened; Noble School burnt down; schools held in two churches, churches were burnt down.
  • Breckinridge County - Cloverport - Freedmen School; - Hardinsburg - Freedmen School
  • Caldwell County - Princeton - Freedmen School
  • Christian County - Hopkinsville - Freedmen School
  • Clark County - Winchester - Freedmen School
  • Cumberland County - Burkesville - Freedmen School built by white citizens.
  • Daviess County - Owensboro - Freedmen School (brick)
  • Fayette County - Lexington - Freedmen School; Sabbath School established by the Episcopal Church; High School; - Stickaway - Freedmen School
  • Franklin County - Frankfort - School built with $600 contribution from the Episcopal Church & school under supervision of the Bishop.
  • Fulton County - Hickman - Freedmen School
  • Gallatin County - Warsaw - Freedmen School
  • Garrard County - Lancaster - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Graves County - Mayfield - Freedmen School. Freedmen beaten and whipped, teacher run out of town.
  • Harrison County - Cynthiana - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School
  • Hart County - Munfordville - Freedmen School; - Woodsonville - Freedmen School
  • Henderson County - Henderson - Freedmen School, school teachers threatened and run out of town.
  • Hickman County - Columbus - Freedmen School held in rented school house.
  • Jefferson County - Louisville - Teacher training school, school teacher insulted by police officer; Ely Normal School; - Portland - Freedmen School
  • Jessamine County - Camp Nelson - Ariel Academy (purchased by the Bureau for $1,520); - Keene - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Kenton County - Covington - Freedmen School; there were also several schools held in churches; American Missionary Association Schools supported by the Bureau.
  • Lincoln County - Crab Orchard - Freedmen School. School teacher mobbed and run out of town.
  • Logan County - Auburn - School plans were scrapped due to mob.
  • McCracken County - Paducah - Runkle Institute [named for Benjamin P. Runkle, Superintendent of Education in Kentucky]
  • Madison County - Berea - Freedmen School; Berea College provided instruction to freemen; - Kingston - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Richmond - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School.
  • Mason County - Maysville - Freedmen School; American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Mayslick - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Washington - Freedmen School
  • Marion County - Lebanon - Freedmen School
  • Meade County - Bradenburg - Freedmen School, school was burnt down, another building rented and school continued; - Haysville - Freedmen School. School was burnt down.
  • Monroe County - Tompkinsville - Freedmen School. School was burnt down.
  • Montgomery County - Mt. Sterling - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School.
  • Nelson County - Bardstown - Freedmen School; - Bloomfield - Freedmen School; - Springfield - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Nicholas County - Carlisle - Freedmen School
  • Oldham County - LaGrange - Freedmen School; - Peewee Valley - Freedman School
  • Pendleton County - Falmouth - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Pulaski County - Somerset - Freedmen School. School teacher run out of town.
  • Shelby County - Shelbyville - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School. Teacher assaulted by the county judge and run out of town.
  • Scott County - Georgetown - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Simpson County - Franklin - Freedmen School. Teacher mobbed, had to be saved by U.S. Troops.
  • Todd County - Hadensville - Freedmen School; - Trenton - Freedmen School
  • Warren County - Bowling Green - Freedmen School. Teacher run out of town.
  • Woodford County - Versailles - Freedmen School; - Midway - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Chaplain - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Hopkins Farm - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Sills Farm - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Smith's Mill - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Turnerville - Freedmen School
  • Cairo, Illinois - Freedmen School. The school burnt down, it had been attend by studens who were members of the large number of former slaves from Kentucky who had escaped to Cairo.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, High Schools - Eastern Kentucky, 1948
Start Year : 1948
In 1948, William T. Gilbert completed his thesis, The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky, for a Master of Arts degree at Indiana University. A Kentucky school law mandated that all school districts provide 12 grades of segregated school for both races. For many of the eastern counties with few colored students (who lived in scattered locations throughout the county), the law presented a challenge. There were 16 approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky from 1918-1940, and two of the schools had been dropped: enrollment was too small at Manchester, and the Vicco school was consolidated with the Hazard school system. The high school classes ranged in size from six students in Pineville to 288 students in Lynch. There were 46 high school teachers, all college graduates. Below is a list of the high school names from p. 25 of Gilbert's thesis, and below that, from p. 90, a list of the institutions from which the high school teachers graduated.

Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools:

  • Lincoln [not Liberty]
Middlesboro
  • Roland-Hayes
Pineville
  • B. T. Washington
Ashland
  • Palmer-Dunbar
Wheelwright
  • Benham
Benham
  • Rosenwald
Harlan
  • Lynch
Lynch
  • Rosenwald
Barbourville
  • London
London
  • Dunham
Jenkins
  • Fee
Maysville
  • Liberty
Hazard
  • Perry Cline
Pikeville
  • Somerset
Somerset



Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools: Institutions from which the High School Teachers Graduated:

  • Kentucky State

25
  • Tennessee State

4
  • Knoxville College

3
  • Wilberforce University

3
  • Clark University

2
  • Tuskegee Institute

2
  • Fisk University

1
  • Hampton Institute

1
  • West Virginia State

1
  • Ohio State

1
  • Atlanta University

1
  • University of Cincinnati

1
  • Louisville Municipal

1

Subjects: Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Eastern Kentucky

African American Schools in Adair County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Adair County, KY; Kittie Miller was the teacher in Columbia [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There continuted to be colored schools according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 30th, 1886 and June 30th, 1887, pp.68 & 123. There are references to the schools in William G. Aaron's thesis History of Education in Adair County, Kentucky. By 1895, there were 13 colored schools, 5 in log buildings, and 8 in frame buildings [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.194-197]. The average attendance was more than 300 students taught by 13 teachers 1895-96, and 14 teachers 1896-97. In 1912, the Columbia Colored School was taught by Parker Jackman; he had been teaching since shortly after the end of the Civil War and was one of the first African American teachers in Adair County and Russell County. There were as many as 14 colored schools in Adair County, but the number decreased to 10 by 1933 [Aaron, p.112]. In 1917, bids were accepted for the building of a colored school in Kelleyville [source: "Notice," Adair County News, 07/25/1917, p.4]. In 1920, bids were accepted for the building of the Elroy Colored School in District G, Division 2 [source: "To Contractors," Adair County News, 01/28/1920, p.4]. In 1921, the colored teachers earned between $65-$75 per month, and in 1931, they earned between $44-$56 per month [Aaron, p.86]. Attendance ranged from 384 students in 1901 to 161 students in 1931 [Aaron, p.89]. The Columbia County High School for colored students opened in 1925; the school was funded by the County Board of Education and cost $3,800 [Aaron, p.107]. There was also the Rosenwald School built on Taylor Street and named Jackman High in honor of Parker Jackman. There were 10 high school students for the 1931-32 term. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Adair County were R. L. Dowery, Arena Duvall, Mares Grider, Sottie Harris, Pabla Hughes, Viven Johnson, Bessie Lasley, Mollie Lasley, Stephen Samuel, Nina Mae Vaughan, Ida White, Paralee White, and Ora Lee Willis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Integration of the schools in Adair County occured in 1956 after parents of Negro studens filed a lawsuit via the NAACP (James A. Crumlin, Sr.), [source: "Court orders Adair Board to end segregation, Leader, 12/01/1955; and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.41].

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Columbia School
  • Jackman High School
  • Kelleyville School
  • Elroy School
  • Knifley #2 School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]
  • Montpelier School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]
  • Pellyton #2 School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]

  See photo image of Columbia School c.1926 on p.73 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1923 by The Kentucky Heritage Council.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Adair County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Allen County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1962
As early as 1874, there were five colored school districts in Allen County, KY, and two of them had schools that were in operation when the common school report was published in 1876 [source: Legislative Document No. 2: Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of the State of Kentucky for the fiscal years ending Oct. 10, 1874, and October 10, 1875, pp. 173-172]. Jesse M. Hudson was a school teacher in Scottsville, KY, (according to the list on p. 30 of the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916). There were at least five colored school teachers in Allen County, KY, in 1919, when the County Illiteracy Agent, Elizabeth Baker, secured their pledge for a Moonlight School [source: Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, Allen County, KY]. The colored Moonlight School was held at the Zion School in Scottsville. There was also a county colored school in Maynard, it was a Rosenwald School built next to the Caney Fork Baptist Church around 1922. The school was closed in 1933 when the Allen County colored schools were merged with the colored city school in Scottsville. A photo of the Maynard School and additional history is available at the Flickr site by Kenny Browning. The teachers mentioned at the Flickr site are Garnett Holder, Jessie Hudson, Clara Whitney, Sarah Hughes, and Nintha Shipley Ponds. Other Scottsville school teachers mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal are Miss Lottie M. Hughes, Miss Lucy V. Lee, and Mrs. Chlora B. Whitney (all in the April 18-21, 1923 issue). The Negro teachers in Allen County listed in the 1940 U.S. Federal Census were Nintha Ponds, principal of the Maynard School, and Geannie P. Smith at the Scottsville School. The Scottsville Independent schools were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Zion School
  • Maynard School
  • Moonlight School
  • Scottsville School 

See a photo of the Maynard Colored School, a Flickr site by Kenny Browning.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Anderson County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
There were colored schools in Anderson County, KY prior to the year 1900 and the exact date of the first colored school is not known. In 1880, 21 year old John Trunt(sp) was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as a school teacher who lived in the East District of Lawrenceburg, but there is no indication as to where the school was located. Trunt(sp) was a boarder with the John Penny family. {Trunt may not be the correct spelling of the last name, it is difficult to read the handwriting of the census taker}. There were still colored schools in Anderson County in 1895, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...for the two years beginning July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, there were five districts, each with one school that was taught five months per year. Three of the school buildings were frame structures, and the other two schools were taught in churches or other buildings. The colored schools were under the county system. There were six teachers and an average of 113 students attending school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were still five districts with five schools and six teachers [source: Biennial Report...beginning July 1, 1899 and ending June 30,1901]. One of the schools was taught more than five months. In 1901, there were four school buildings, one made of log and three frame structures, and the fifth school was taught in a church, or rented building, or in the teacher's home. The average attendance was 169 students for the school year 1899-1900, and the teachers earned an average of $46.61 per month. There was an average attendance of 135 students from 1900-1901, and the teachers earned an average of $41.55 per month. For both years, the Negro teachers earned more than the white teachers. There was one student from Anderson County who graduated from the State Normal School for Colored Persons for the scholastic year 1900 and 1901 [now Kentucky State University]. In 1916, there were two teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916: Mary W. Coleman [known as Mrs. Wally], p.26; and J. C. Diggs, p.27. By 1926, Raymond I. Pleasant had replaced J. C. Diggs and the Lawrenceburg Colored School was located in the Grove, it was Pleasant's first teaching job and he would become principal of the school. His wife, Catherine Utterback Pleasant taught at the Georgetown School in Anderson County, the school was in the African American community of Georgetown located off Lock Road in the area known today as the Georgetown School Road. Catherine and Raymond Pleasant are listed in the History and Families, Anderson County, Kentucky, by Turner Publishing, p.139. By 1935, William Coleman was a teacher and would become principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, v.6, no.1, p.52]. Prior to his arrival, Raymond I. Pleasant and Mary Coleman had added an unaccredited 2 year high school to the Lawrenceburg Colored School and there were 3 students [sources: Turner Pub., p.136; and KNEA Journal, Feb. 1931, v.1, no.3, p.11, and v.2, no.1, p.24]. William and Mary Coleman continued the unaccredited high school department, though in 1936, the school was still referred to as a city elementary school [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1936, p.40]. Mrs. Lorelia C. Spencer was a teacher at the school in 1938 and she was principal of the high school department [source: KNEA Journal, v.9, no.1-2, p.52, and v.9, no.3, p.14]. According to historian Gary Brown, it was also in 1938 when the Lawrenceburg Colored School in the Grove burnt down and the new school was built on Lincoln Street. W. M. Thomas was a teacher at the school, and he left in 1939 to become principal of the Knob City High School in Russellville, KY [source: KNEA Journal, Jan.-Feb 1940, v.10, no.2, p.34]. L. L. Owens was principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School in 1940 [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1940, v.11, no.1, p.32]. Mrs. C. B. Daily was principal in 1945 [source: KNEA Journal, April-May 1945, v.16, no.2-3, p.29]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Anderson County were William Coleman, Catherine Pleasant, and L. L. Owens [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, William M. Coleman was principal of the junior high grades of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, March 1949, p.19]. The Anderson County colored schools were consolidated around 1950 and students from the county were bused to the Lawrenceburg Colored School on Lincoln Street. William M. Coleman would again be named principal of the school. There was never an accredited high school for Negro children in Anderson County and the unaccredited high school department at the Lawrenceburg Colored School were dropped in 1945. According to Lawrenceburg resident Ethel Thurman and historian Gary Brown, Anderson County paid for Negro high school students in Lawrenceburg to be bused to Lincoln Institute in Shelby County and to Simmons High School in Versailles, and there were a few students bused to the old Dunbar High School in Lexington. The Anderson County Schools began to integrate in 1963 when Negro high school students were given the option of attending the white high school in Lawrenceburg, or Lincoln Institute, or the high school in Versailles. According to historian Gary Brown, the following year, all other grades were integrated, and Robert Bird was the Superintendent of Schools. For this entry, assistance with geographic locations and names, the names of teachers, and school integration information were also provided by Jane Jones and Cathy L. Green.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Georgetown School
  • Lawrenceburg School (burnt in 1938)
  • Lawrenceburg School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ballard County, KY
Start Year : 1888
End Year : 1962
In 1888, there were eight colored schools in Ballard County, KY, according to author William H. Baldree in his thesis, History of Education in Ballard County, p. 41. The schools were said to be in poor condition. In 1916, R. H. Johnson of Wickliffe was a school teacher in Ballard County [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1923, the teachers were Miss. Pauline Herron of La Center, Mrs. Iola Carruthers of Barlow, Miss Ophelia M. Durrell in La Center, and Miss Sault Reeves of Wickliffe [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.55, 57, 62, & 72]. Mrs. Early Lee Harris, Mrs. Callie Tounley, and Mr. Dave Williams were the school teachers at Kevil in 1927 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 20-23, 1927, pp.47, 61, & 63]. Author Baldree got a more favorable report about the colored schools in 1931 when he interviewed County Superintendent V. W. Wallis. There were six frame school buildings and seven teachers for the 137 children attending the schools [p. 60]. The schools were supported by the state and the Julius Rosenwald Fund. There were no colored high schools in Ballard County in 1931; 12 students were attending high school in another county. The following year, there was a high school, Ballard County High, and Loretta Spencer was hired as the principal. Shortly after Spencer arrived at the school, the building was burnt down. Spencer successfully campaigned for funding to build a new school, and she received assistance from the Slater Fund and from the Parent-Teachers Association. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ballard County were Modena Crice and Tallie Townley [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Ballard Memorial High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Wickliffe School
  • Barlow School
  • La Center School
  • Kevil School
  • Ballard County High
  • Central School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Bandana School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Bethel School
  • Lovelaceville School
  • Robinsontown School

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Barbourville and Knox County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
As early as 1895, there were 6 colored schools in Knox County, KY, and the schools were in session for 5 months of each year with one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.479-483]. The average attendance was 195 for 1895-96, and 141 for 1896-97. The Barbourville Colored School was taught by Zuetta Minor in 1907 and by Prof. Edward Kirtley in 1908 [source: "Colored School," Mountain Advocate, 12/25/1908, p. 1]. The seven colored schools in Knox County, KY, included the new brick school building in Barbourville, and there were plans to combine two of the school districts [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1905-1907, pp. 135-137]. In 1910, the Barbourville School, considered a county school, had 35 students on the first day of classes; Mary Dee Robinson was the teacher [source: "Colored School Opens," Mountain Advocate, 07/15/1910, p. 3]. The Bertha Colored School held its commencement in January of 1910. Miss Laura Gibson had been the school teacher for two years [source: "Commencement: Colored School of Bertha," Mountain Advocate, 01/14/1910, p. 3]. Gibson lived in Emanuel [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p. 59]. The Barbourville schools had been overseen by a white school board until 1921, when the Board of Council of the City of Barbourville ordained that the white school have a white board of education, and the colored school have a colored board of education [source: "Ordinance," Mountain Advocate, 09/16/1921, p. 4]. In 1940, R. H. Thompson was principal of the Rosenwald High School in Barbourville [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, October-November 1940, p. 32]. The Negro teachers in Knox County in 1940 were Benjamin F. Brown, Grace Etter, Laura Gibson, and Horace J. Neal [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Miss Laura Gibson retired from teaching at Barbourville Independent in 1942 [source: "Honor to whom honor is due," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, November-December 1942, p. 7]. The Barbourville Independent Schools were first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.438.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Barbourville Independent School
  • Barbourville School
  • Bertha School
  • Emanuel School
  • Rosenwald High School
  • Rosenwald Elementary School

  See photo image of teacher and basketball students at Rosenwald Elementary School in 1950 on p. 94 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Knox County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Barren County, KY
Start Year : 1875
End Year : 1957
According to Richard Alsup Palmore's thesis, History of Education of Barren County, Kentucky, p. 109, "In the early history of Negro schools in Barren County it was difficult to maintain the schools. There were no school buildings and practically no funds with which to provide buildings. Salaries for teachers were extremely low and there were no qualified teachers." Palmore got his information from the 1875 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, by R. H. Collins. The school teachers in 1880 were Vina Woods and Hardy O. Jones in Glasgow; and Samuel Nuckols in Roseville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In spite of the poor condition of the schools, there continued to be colored schools in Barren County; they are mentioned in the 1886 superintendent's report. The schools were still in poor condition in 1891; most of the schools were held in churches [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, vol. 2, by Lucas and Wright, p. 108]. From 1892-1918, there were more than 20 colored schools in Barren County, with a high of 27 schools from 1892-1894, and a low of 18 schools in 1918 [Palmore, pp. 110-111]. In 1911, there was also a Colored Moonlight School at Union Hill [see the NKAA entry for Moonlight Schools]. Glasgow Colored School was considered the best colored school in the county; there was a graded school and instruction in high school subjects along with instruction in home economics and manual training [Palmore, p. 116]. A male principal oversaw four female teachers. The Glasgow Colored School had the only high school for Negroes in Barren County. Another school mentioned in Palmore's thesis, on p. 117, is The Ratliff Industrial Institute, an independent secondary school that was supported and managed by the Colored people of Glasgow. The school was established in 1926 and closed around 1931. The Negro teachers in Barren County in 1940 were Clara Anderson, Margaret Anderson, Queva Barlow, Irene I. Brents, Artanzie Britt, Susie Lee Curry, Green V. Curry, Clara C. Farmer, George Mitchell, Mary Lucy Murrell, Richard Sewell, Willa Southers, Luska Twyman, and John Moss Wood [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, were the Caverna Independent Schools, 1957-58, listed on p.615. Below is a list of colored schools in Barren County that includes those schools listed by Sandi Gorin on the Kentucky African Americans Griots website and the schools listed on p. 212 of the Barren County Heritage: a pictorial history of Barren County, Kentucky, compiled by the South Central Kentucky Historical and Genealogical Society, Inc. and edited by C. E. Goode and W. L. Gardner, Jr. For more information about the colored schools, students and teachers of Barren County, see Barren County African-American Schools by Sandi Gorin at the Kentucky African Americans Griots website; the Ralph Bunch Community Center Oral History Project (FA455) at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives: there are ten interviews with African Americans who attended the segregated Ralph Bunche School in Glasgow, Kentucky; and the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.211-215.

  • Moonlight School
  • Glasgow School
  • Ratliff Industrial Institute
  • Bakers School
  • Boyds Creek School
  • Georgetown School
  • Rocky Hill School
  • Hiseville District
  • Jacksonville District
  • Shady Glen District
  • Harlow's Chapel District
  • Walton Academy District
  • Pleasant Oak Ridge District
  • Horse Well (Little Kettle) District
  • Cave City District
  • Glasgow Junction District
  • Gum Springs (Slash) District
  • Buck Creek District
  • Lucas District
  • Statenfield (Buck) District
  • Chestnut Ridge District
  • Poplar Grove (Black Hill) District
  • Paynesville District
  • Pleasant Union District
  • Oak Grove District
  • Boyd's Creek District
  • Queen's Chapel (White's Chapel) District
  • Bristletown District
  • Duke District
  • Beckton District
  • Henrytown District
  • Temple Hill District
  • Baptist Normal School
  • Park City School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Ralph Bunch School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Horse Cave Elementary and High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.419]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bath County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Bath County, KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census, Elijah Grigsby was the teacher in Owingsville and Walace Smith was the teacher in Sharpsburg. By 1886, there were eight colored schools in Bath County, KY [source: NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886], and in 1897, there were ten schools, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, pp.216-219. All were rural elementary schools under the county school system. The schools were in session for nine months, and there were nine frame school houses and one made of logs. There were 11 school teachers, two of whom were female, and the Owingsville school teacher was M. C. Lasswell. In 1897, the average monthly salary for the female teachers was $32.91, and the wages of the male teachers was an average of $31.84 per month. The average attendance was 152 students in 1897, and four students graduated (from 8th grade). The number of colored schools had declined by 1925, there were six schools with seven teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and the numbers had declined again by the 1936-37 school term when there were four teachers, and there were three teachers during the 1940-41 term. The names of teachers at the Owingsville School can be found in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal for the years 1925-1941. The Negro teachers in Bath County in 1940 were Carrie L. Clemons, Alice Dotson, Everrett Jones, and Anna M. Jones [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following information comes from the Bath County News-Outlook newspaper. The newspaper copies and the research were provided by the Bath County Memorial Library in Owingsville, KY. -- In 1953, there were 32 students enrolled in the Owingsville Colored School, and 75 students at the Bethel and Sharpsburg colored schools [article: "1500 are enrolled in county schools," 09/10/1953, p.1]. Mrs. Nannie M. Powell was the teacher at the Owingsville Colored School as early as 1953, and Mrs. Carie Lee Clemmons and Mrs. Mary F. Williams were the teachers at Sharpsburg Colored School [article: "Owingsville School," 09/03/1953]. Beginning in 1958, Mrs. Clemmons and Frank C. LaPrelle were the teachers at the Sharpsburg Colored School [articles: "Teachers placed," 04/30/1958; "Bath County schools to open Monday, August 29," 08/25/1960; and "County schools start Sept. 7, teacher list is announced," 07/26/1962]. In 1954, it was recommended that contractual arrangements be made for Negro high school students to attend the Negro high schools in adjacent counties or Lincoln Institute in Shelby County [article: "Negro schools," 02/18/1954]. The Owingsville Colored School on Harrisburg Street was the last one-room school house in Bath County, the school had students in grades 1-8 [article: photo caption "One big family," 01/12/1961], the school building was sold to George Harris for $1,555 in 1963 [article: photo caption "'Little Red Schoolhouse' auctioned to high bidder," 10/24/1963]. The Sharpsburg Colored School property was on the south side of Montgomery Street in Sharpsburg, and was to be sold at public auction after the Owingsville Colored School was sold [article: "5 Surplus schools go under auction hammer," 10/10/1963]. -- There was never a high school for Negro students in Bath County. The schools in Bath County were integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Owingsville School
  • Sharpsburg School
  • Bethel School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bath County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bell County, KY
Start Year : 1892
End Year : 1956
According to journalist C. J. Harte, the first colored school in Middlesboro, KY, was established in 1892 and continued until 1907 [source: Harte, C. J., "Coming home, Lincoln School 100th Anniversary," The Middlesboro Daily News, 2008, front page]. The school was known as Middlesboro Colored School, and it is mentioned in the 1901 superintendent's report [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1899-June 1901]. The Colored School was replaced by the newly erected Lincoln School in 1907. The Lincoln school continued until 1964 when the Middlesboro school systems were integrated. Long before integration, in 1921, the Middlesboro public schools system expansion made provisions for a new school for the Negroes [source: History of Bell County Kentucky by H. H. Fuson]. While in Pineville, John Moore led in the lawsuit against the city, demanding that the city provide for the education of all colored children. The case of City of Pineville et. al. v. John Moore et. al. was decided in the Court of Appeals of Kentucky in February of 1921. In 1925, there were 7 colored schools in the Bell County; 4 teachers in the Middlesboro colored elementary school and 2 in the high school; 2 teachers in the Pineville colored elementary school and 1 in the high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67-69]. Almost 15 years later, according to author H. H. Fuson, during the 1939-40 school term, there were three colored schools in Bell County, KY. One of the schools was Straight Creek Colored School and the school building was still standing in 1985 [source: "Classifieds Work, Tract No.II," The Daily News, 07/04/1985, p.4]. Straight Creek and the Pineville Independent Schools were the first schools in Bell County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.420]. In 1939, the Pineville Colored School had had grades 1-12 with four teachers, 110 students, and Alvantus Gibson was principal. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Bell County were Thelma Baughan, Earl Baughan, Maxine Baughan, Odessa Baughan, Mattie Belle Bryant, Oneil Bernas, John M. Burnside, Maud Colman, Alvantus Gibson, Hattie Hazely, M. C. McKenney, Evelyn Miller, Kayla Miller, Helen Michael, Frank Smith, Leddis Smith, and Nina Thompson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1948, there were six high school students in the Roland-Hayes School in Pineville [source: William T. Gilbert's thesis titled The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky]. According to Gilbert, the school for high school students in Middlesboro was named Lincoln [misnamed as Liberty in source], and the one in Pineville was named Roland-Hayes. The teachers at the Pineville school and the Middlesboro school are mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Lincoln School (Middlesboro, 1907-1964)
  • Middlesboro School (1892-1907)
  • Pineville School
  • Roland-Hayes School (Pineville)
  • Straight Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boone County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
There was at least one school in Boone County in 1880; Melisse Clore was the teacher in Florence, KY according to the U.S. Federal Census. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature passed an act for the benefit of the colored schools in Petersburg, KY, granting that lots 172 and 173 be used for schools for the colored children. The lots had belonged to Samuel Yowell, who died without any heirs in 1872 and the property was taken over by the state. Petersburg is an unincorporated community in Boone County, KY. It is not known if a school house was ever built on the lots. In 1883, the African Americans in Florence, KY, had a picnic benefit for their school [source: Boone County Recorder, 05/30/1883]. In 1894, the Hopewell Baptist Church in Beaverlick was also used as a school [source: Mr. Robert Lett, "Hopewell Baptist Church," former website at the Boone County Public Library]. By 1886, there were 9 colored schools in Boone County with an average attendance of a little over 100 students taught by 8 teachers 1895-96, and 9 teachers 1896-97 [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.222-226]. In 1891, the school superintendent had complained that the schools were poorly financed and there were no school buildings amongst the three districts and the school sessions were held in churches [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, v.2 by G. C. Wright, p.108]. In 1895, there were nine districts and the schools were still being held in church buildings. In 1911, the average salary for the teachers was $42.31 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911, p.48]. Blanche Robinson was a teacher in Boone County in 1935, and Wallace Strader was the principal of Boone County High School, located in Burlington, KY, in 1937 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal - October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.21 and January-February, 1937, pp.14 & 16]. In 1954, there were 11 students in the Burlington Colored School, and there were two students attending Lincoln Institute, their tuition was paid by the school board ["Walton-Verona parents vote integration now," Louisville Courier Journal 07/09/1954 - online at nkyviews.com]. There was also a colored school in Idlewild. Most of the schools in Boone County were listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.420.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Boone County High School
  • Burlington School
  • Idlewild School
  • Hopewell Baptist Church School
  • Florence School
  • Beaver Lick School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Walton School

See photo image of colored school near Idlewild at the Northern Kentucky Views website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boone County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boyd County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the earliest schools for African Americans in Boyd County was the American Missionary Association School, which was supported by the U. S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The school was established between 1866-1870. The Catlettsburg Colored Common School District was established by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873 [source: Common School Laws of Kentucky: 1922 by the Kentucky Department of Education]. The colored school in Ashland was established in 1874. According to W. B. Jackson in his thesis, the colored school districts were established in 1874; there were no school houses, yet school classes were held for two months at an unspecified location in Catlettsburg and in Ashland [source: The History of Education in Boyd County, by W. B. Jackson, pp. 56-60 & 128-133]. The following comes from W. B. Jackson's thesis: In 1877, there were 99 students in the two colored schools with an average attendance of 100%. There were two male teachers who earned $18.63 per month. The school records for the Ashland colored school start with the year 1881 when the school classes were held in the Methodist Church on Central Avenue. The school was supported by donations from the African American community. The teacher's salary had increased to $20-$25 per month. There were three African American trustees who were appointed by the County Commissioner of Education. Both the Catlettsburg and Ashland colored schools operated independently until about 1894 when the schools came under the City Board of Education. William Reynolds was the school principal at Ashland, and there was one teacher. The school classes were held in a rented building at the corner of Fourteenth Street and Winchester Avenue. A school building was later built at Nineteenth Street and Greenup Avenue. In 1903, a new brick building, Booker T. Washington School, was constructed in Ashland at Seventh Street and Central Avenue, with J. J. Rogers as principal. The teacher was Effie Carter, who was joined by a second teacher. The Booker T. Washington School and the Catlettsburg School had grades 1-8. The two school districts were merged in 1912 when the Acts of 1912 by the Kentucky Legislature established the act to repeal the act that had established the Colored Common School District in Catlettsburg. The district was dissolved, but the school continued. In 1922, Principal Rogers, at Booker T. Washington School, was replaced by C. B. Nuchols, who had been a teacher at the Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes. Nuchols added an industrial department to the Booker T. Washington School, along with a two year high school. In order to accommodate the new courses, two additional rooms were added to the Booker T. Washington School in 1923, and two more teachers were hired. The first high school graduation was held in 1925. Catlettsburg students in the 8th grade could go on to high school at Ashland at a cost of $30 per semester. In 1927, a teacher/football coach/voice teacher was hired at the Booker T. Washington School. In 1931, the two year high school became a four year high school, one of the 16 approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky [see NKAA entry High Schools, Eastern Kentucky, 1948]. There were 179 students at the Booker T. Washington School in 1932, and 28 of the students were in high school. The school staff members were C. B. Nuchols, principal; J. H. Cooper, teacher and coach; Emma B. Horton, teacher; Georgia B. Richmond, teacher; R. W. Ross, teacher; and Sue M. Thomas, teacher and home economics instructor. In 1932, a modern school building was constructed in Catlettsburg on the east side of the city. There were 18 students the first year. Mrs. Daisy Keeton was the teacher, and she was succeeded by Willa Lee Preston. [See also the NKAA entry Catlettsburg Colored Common School District.] The Negro teachers in Boyd County in 1940 were Decora Asher, John D. Cooper, Helen L. Daniels, Robert W. Ross, Sue Thomas, and Alice Thomas [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421, were Ashland Independent Schools at Bayless, Crabbe, Means, Wylie, Ashland Sr. High, and Holy Family. The Boyd County schools were fully integrated in 1962.

  • American Missionary School supported by the Bureau
  • Catlettsburg School
  • Methodist Church School
  • Ashland School
  • Booker T. Washington School
     

     See photo image of Booker T. Washington school and additional information on p. 104 in Images of America: Ashland, by J. Powers and T. Baldridge.


     See Kentucky Historical Marker for Ashland Booker T. Washington School, a Waymarking.com website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boyle County, KY
Start Year : 1837
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least four colored schools in Boyle County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. According to William F. Russell's thesis, The History of Education of Boyle County, pp. 217-221, Willis Russell taught the first colored school in Danville, located in a frame house on Green Street (around 1837); a second school on Green Street was taught by Gib Doram. There were also schools taught at the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Baptist Churches. There was also a private school that cost $2.00 per month. The colored schools in Boyle County were counted in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In 1881, John W. Bate came to Danville and took over teaching at what had been the Danville Freedmen School [source: Russell thesis, pp. 218 & 228]. The school house was described as a "barn-like frame structure" that was replaced by a brick school building in 1912. The school was under the county school system until 1892 when it was placed under the newly established city school system; all other colored schools remained under the county system. During the 1920s, the Danville Colored School had over 400 students in grades 1-12 taught by 12 teachers, four of whom taught the high school classes [source: Russell thesis, pp. 219-221]. High school students were bused to the school from Lancaster and Stanford, KY. In the county school system, from 1880-1881, there were seven colored schools reported by the county commissioner of schools [source: Russell thesis, pp. 208-210, & 227]. Four of the teachers were Martha Tadlock, Robert Turner, Lizzie Green, and James Hughes [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. The schools had one room with one teacher. More county schools opened after 1881 and there were 12 in 1895, with 11 schools taught for five months and 1 school taught for more than five months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.236-239]. One school was held in a log building and the others were held in frame buildings. There were 15 teachers 1895-96, and 16 teachers 1896-97. The highest average attendance for the two year period was 633 sudents in 1895. In 1900, the highest average attendance for all schools in Boyle County was 1,009 students [source: Russell thesis]. By 1925, the high school had been renamed Bate High School, it was a Class 1 school, and J. W. Bate was the principal and one of the four high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.39 & 69]. By 1928 many of the elementary schools had been discontinued and there were only six in the county and one in Danville. Another school that had been established in 1885, for colored deaf children, was within the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb, located in Danville [see NKAA entry Early Schools for Negro Deaf and Blind Children]. The colored school for the deaf was actually a department, it opened on February 2, 1885, with eight pupils, Morris T. Long as teacher and supervisor, and his wife, Nannie R. Long was the matron [source: Russell thesis, pp. 149-155]. In 1929, the instructors were Mrs. Mary Fosdick and A. D. Martin. Between 1885 and 1929, there were never more than 16 students in the *colored department. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Boyle County were Margaret Andrews, Lucill Bennifield, Lillian Caldwill, Sophia Craig, Lala M. Dele, Gerogia Dannaher, Malinda Doneghy, Horase Epperson, John Fisher, Florence Ingram, Maggie E. Jones, Susie Lich, Ella M. Marshall, Eliza Mitchell, Elizabeth Parr, Jesse Raach, Sanford Raach, Frances Richardson, Zula Sanders, Gertrude Sledd, Sara Sutka, and Earnest Wofford [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421, were Danville High School and The Kentucky School for the Deaf. The Danville schools were fully integrated in 1964.

  • Danville Freedmen School
  • Bate School
  • Danville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Parksville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Shelby City Freedmen School
  • Danville School #1 on Green Street (Willis Russell)
  • Danville School #2 on Green Street
  • Methodist Church School
  • Presbyterian Church School
  • Baptist Church School
  • Stony Point School
  • Wilsonville School
  • Perryville School
  • Zion Hill School
  • Atoka School
  • Junction City School
  • Colored Department of the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb

*See the Biennial Reports of the Kentucky Institute for Deaf Mutes, 1887-1903 for more information about the Colored Department.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Deaf and Hearing Impaired, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bracken County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866, there was one colored school in Bracken County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. This was probably the American Missionary Association School in Augusta that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1880, Zebedee Frazier was a school teacher in Brooksville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1912-13 school term, there were 73 Colored children enrolled in school in Bracken County [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p.110]. Mrs. Nettie H. Grant was the school teacher at the Augusta School in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.60]. High school students were bused to the high school in Maysville, KY, and their tuition was paid by the Augusta Board of Education. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Bracken County was Anna L. Hinton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Two schools in Bracken County were noted as integrated in the Kenucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421: Bracken County High and Germantown School.

  • American Missionary Association School in Augusta, supported by the Bureau
  • Augusta School
  • Brooksville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bracken County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Breathitt County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
In 1886, there were two colored schools in Breathitt County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1907, there was one colored school with 100 children, the school was located in Jackson [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. According to McClure's Magazine, October 1922, v.54, no.8, p.17, the Breathitt County inter-racial committee secured three acres of land and built a school for the Negroes of Jackson. During the 1930-31 school term, the colored school had an enrollment of 27 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.51]. There is also mention of the colored school in Jackson on pp.6-7 in the report titled "Education - Jackson City Schools," a WPA document written sometime around the 1938-39 school term [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Breathitt County Education]. The school was a two classroom room frame building that was in bad condition, the school building was old, it was located on the west slope side of Yo Hill. One room was sometimes used as a gymnasium and was fitted for basketball. There were also two small dressing rooms and a small room that had been used as a kitchen, workshop, library and store room. The school had grades 1-8 taught by Mrs. Katheryn Gatewood. Outside the school was a playground of hard packed red clay about 50 x 50 feet. There were also two outside toilets, one for the boys and one for the girls. In a 1940 letter from the Breathitt County Board of Education, written to the Kentucky Writer's Project, it was reported that that there were 49 Negro children in the city and 7 in the county [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Breathitt County Education, Letter from Marie R. Turner, County Superintendent, Breathitt County Board of Education, pp.1-2]. The county school system did not have a colored school, but rather paid tuition to the city school board for the county students who attended the Jackson colored school. According to the title Breathitt County by S. D. Bowling, p.54, the elementary Rosenwald School in Jackson was located on Hurst Lane. The Rosenwald School probably replaced the former school because there continued to be only one colored school in Jackson. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Breathitt County was Katheryn Gatewood [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Breathitt County. The Breathitt County Schools are noted as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.402.

  • Colored School
  • Jackson School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Breathitt County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Breckinridge County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least two Freemen Schools in Breckinridge County, one in Cloverport and one in Hardinsburg [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1867, a Colored School in Breckinridge County was burned on December 24 [source: Index to Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the United States, 1871, p.49]. In 1880, Stark Bradford was the school teacher in Hardinsburg; W. H. Talbot was the teacher in Bewleyville; and Ada Willis was the teacher in Stephensport [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1895-97, there were 14 colored schools in Breckinridge County and all were in session for 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.248-252]. The average attendance was 339 students for both school terms, and they were taught by 16 teachers. By 1907 there were eleven colored schools reported by the school superintendent, Joel H. Pile [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, p.99]. Included in the list below are the county schools that existed in 1909 and 1910 [source: "County Board of Education," The Breckinridge News, 01/27/1909, p.3; and "Governor Willson...," The Breckinridge News, 03/02/1910, p.5]. The Class 3 colored high school was located in Hardinsburg in 1925, W. C. Jackson was principal, and the school had 1 teacher and 10 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-26, p.40]. In 1933, Breckinridge County student Nora A. Poole came in 10th place at the spelling contest directed by G. H. Brown of Louisville during the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Conference [source: "Fifth General Session," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1933, vol.4, issue 1, pp.8-9]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Breckinridge County were Hazel Beard in Hardinsburg, and Chester Luney, Jens E. Miller, and Orlie Scoth in Irvington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as "integrated and white" in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.422, were Breckinridge County High School and Irvington School.

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Stephensport School
  • Bewleyville School
  • Cloverport School
  • Cloverport Freedmen School
  • Colored Graded School (city)
  • Colored Normal School
  • Garfield School
  • Gleandeane School
  • Hardinsburg Freedmen School
  • Hardinsburg School
  • Irvington School
  • McQuady School
  • Robards School

Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Breckinridge County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bullitt County, KY
Start Year : 1827
End Year : 1956
According to author Daniel Buxton*, in his article, "African American Education in Bullitt County," schools for African Americans were attempted as early as 1827. Other early schools in Bullitt County were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, from 1866-1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools - Kentucky]. The schools were not welcomed; the teacher at the Shepherdsville Freedmen School was threatened, the Noble School was burnt down in 1867, and the schools held in churches resulted in the churches being burnt down. In spite of the resistance that was encountered, there were still colored schools in Bullitt County, with eight schools in 1880 [source: Ockerman, p. 127], and the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction noted seven colored districts in the county. In 1890, the industrial school, Eckstein Norton University, opened in Cane Springs. The school was founded by William J. Simmons and Charles H. Parrish, Sr. both of whom would become president of the school. Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N Railroad) gave $3,000 toward the development of the school, and in return the school was named for Eckstein Norton, a banker and president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad [source: The History of Education in Bullitt County, by H. N. Ockerman, pp. 76-96]. The school was situated along the Bardstown Branch of the L&N Railroad on 75 acres of land that had been purchased from Austin Speed. L&N Railroad built a station [Lotus, KY] just for the students and school personnel. There were seven buildings on the campus: the main building, a brick structure, and six frame buildings that were used as dormitories, a printing office, a laundry, and a blacksmith shop. There was a primary department, grades 1-5; a training department, grades 6-8; a normal and preparatory department, grades 9-12; and the college department, which offered a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Bachelor of Sciences degree. In 1911, Eckstein Norton University merged with Lincoln Institute, and the Eckstein Norton campus was closed in 1912. The school had awarded 189 bachelor's degrees. During the 12 years that Eckstein Norton existed, there were still seven colored public schools in Bullitt County, including the Copera Hollow School mentioned in the article by Daniel Buxton. After the closing of Eckstein Norton, the Bullitt County Board of Education established a contract with Lincoln Institute for the education of high school students. According to Buxton, the number of county public colored schools was six by 1905, reduced to four schools by 1910. According to Ockerman [p. 127], three colored school districts were eliminated in 1913. Another school opened around 1922: Central Christian Institute, owned by the Christian Woman's Board of Missions of the Disciples of Christ United Missionary Society; that school closed in 1927. It had been one of the five schools in Bullitt County for African Americans, along with Shepherdsville Colored School, Lebanon Junction Colored School, Mt. Washington Colored School, and Bowman Valley Colored School, which opened around 1916. All of the public colored schools were taught by African American women teachers; in 1908 their average monthly salary was $26.14 [source: Ockerman, p. 115]. Many of the county public schools were consolidated beginning in 1922, and in 1932 Bowman Valley Colored School became the only school for African American children. The school building was located between Shepherdsville and Bardstown Junction. In 1940, Henry Owens was listed as the Negro school teacher in Bullitt County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1947, the teachers were Miss Maggie Owens and Miss Mattie Owens [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, (March-April, 1947), p. 27]. The schools of Bullitt County began to integrate in 1956 with Lebanon Junction, Mount Washington, St. Aloysius, and St. Benedict [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.422.

  • Shepherdsville Freedmen School [teacher threatened]
  • Noble School supported by the Bureau [burnt down in 1867]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [church was burnt down]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [2nd church burnt down]
  • Colored School Districts (8)
  • Eckstein Norton University (1890-1912)
  • Copera Hollow School
  • Shepherdsville School
  • Lebanon Junction School
  • Mt. Washington School
  • Bowman Valley School
  • Central Christian Institute (c.1922-1927)

   See the photo images of schools and students at the Bullitt County History website.

*Note: The article "African American Education in Bullitt County" by Daniel Buxton is a well researched article that includes the names of teachers at the various schools, photo images, and a list of references, all available online at the Bullitt County History website.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bullitt County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Butler County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1886, there were seven colored schools in Butler County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1896, Ulysses S. Porter was a school teacher in one of the schools [source: Fascinating story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan, p.441]. W. M. Johnson was the school teacher in Morgantown in 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1925, there were three colored schools in Butler County, each with one teacher, and there was a total of 94 students at the three schools. [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67-69]. All of the colored schools were elementary schools under the county school board, and in 1927, a fourth school was opened [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.63]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Butler County. In 1929, Ada M. Porter was the teacher at the Morgantown Colored School, and in 1937, she was the principal of the school [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 17-20, 1929, p.52, and October-November 1937, p.55]. In 1940, Ada Porter was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as the only Negro teacher in Butler County. All of the Butler County schools are listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, pp.844-845.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Morgantown School
  • Sugar Grove School

See photo image of students and school in Sugar Grove, KY at the Old Family Photo Album website by Wm. R. Jones.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Butler County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Caldwell County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1962
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a freedmen school in Princeton, KY [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen School]. There are several photo images of colored schools in Caldwell County, taken during the 1880s-1890s. The images are within the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives, and includes the schools in Chapel Hill, Freedonia, Princeton, and Walnut Grove. Ella O'Hara was the school teacher at the Princeton Colored School in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 13 colored schools in Caldwell County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.262-266]. There were 16 teachers and an average attendance of more than 650 students. The teachers' average monthly wages were $42.24 for 1895-96, and $34.72 for 1896-97. The colored school in Princeton was one of the few in Kentucky to have a Colored superintendent in 1925 [see NKAA entry Colored Superintendents]. During the school term, there were four colored schools in the county, with five teachers and 547 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67 & 69]. There were also four elementary schools in Princeton, and Princeton High School, all with a total of 264 students. The high school was later named Dotson High School. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Randall Acton, William Cridder, Henry Crow, Willie Crutchfield, Lula Mae Grinter, Lula Hampton, Annie Scott King, and Joanita McNary, all at Princeton; and Ollie Barber at Freedonia. The St. Paul School in Princeton is listed in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63 as the first school in Caldwell County to become integrated. The public high schools started to integrate in 1963 [source: Patricia George interview in the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society website].

  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Freedmen School supported by the Bureau
  • Princeton School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives] / later Dotson School
  • Chapel Hill School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School (1926-1948, image at westernkyhistory.org website]
  • Walnut Grove School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Dotson School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.845]

See photo image of Caldwell County colored school and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
See 2nd photo image of Chapel Hill School and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Caldwell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Calloway County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
In 1886, there were eight colored school districts in Calloway County, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky,school year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.125. In 1895, there were 6 colored schools and in 1896, there were 7 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.267-271]. The schools were in session 5 months of each year. Two of the schools were held in log buildings and the remainder were held in frame structures. The average attendance was 169 students taught by 7 teachers 1895-96, and 195 students taught by 8 teachers 1896-97. The colored schools are also mentioned in Waylan F. Rayburn's thesis History of Education in Calloway County, Kentucky. On p.49 of Rayburn's thesis, there is a breakdown by year, 1892-1917, the value of the school houses and grounds, and the furniture and apparatuses. In 1925, there were three colored schools in the county and one in the city, each school had one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. The Negro teachers in 1940 were Ruth Keys, Ione Finsley, Madge Green, Elizabeth King, Jessee McGeehee Jr., Sarah Sleet, and Fanny Willis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1941, there were two colored schools in the county, still with one teacher at each school, and in Murray, there was a graded school and a high school [source Rayburn, p.60]. In 1946, the three colored schools are identified as Buffalo Graded School, Murray Graded School, and Douglass High School [source: "Schools in Calloway County (Graded and High Schools)" a one page unpublished document in the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Calloway County Education]. During the 1956-57 school term, the Almo High School and the Murray High Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.422-423].

  • Colored schools (8)
  • Buffalo School
  • Murray School
  • Douglass School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Calloway County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Campbell County, KY
Start Year : 1873
End Year : 1955
Within Mary Lee Caldwell's thesis, History of Education of Campbell County, KY, p.44, it was stated that all African Americans in Campbell County lived in Newport, which was not entirely true. African Americans also lived in Ft. Thomas, Alexandria, and Dayton. The African American children from these communities attended the colored school in Newport. The school was established around 1873 and Elizabeth Hudson was the teacher [source: History of the Public Schools of Newport, Kentucky by James L. Cobb]. The school was located in a cottage near Saratoga Street and Washington Avenue. In 1880, the colored teachers in Campbell County were Emma Dyonne in Highland; and Annie Henderson, Lulu Henderson, and Minnie Mosby in Newport [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Campell County was one of the few counties to not have any data for the colored schools in the commmon school report statistics within the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.272-275. There continued to be very little or no statistical data in each of the biennial reports for the colored schools into the early 1900s, though there was one or more colored schools in Campbell County, KY in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1916, the teachers were Emma J. Blanton, W. S. Blanton, A. J. Cox, and L. A. Ellis [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25-27 & 39]. In 1936 the school was placed under the independent graded districts [source: Caldwell, p.45], by which time the school had been moved to Southgate Street, and the school was named Southgate Colored School. In 1941, there were 131 students taught by four teachers for grades 2-8, and first grade was taught at Corinthian Baptist Church in Newport. There was also a three-year high school from 1901- 1920, and it was taught by one teacher. After 1920, the Newport Board of Education provided the high school students with transportation and tuition to William Grant Colored High School in Covington, KY. The Southgate School was closed in 1955 when the Campbell County Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.206.

  • Newport School
  • Highland School
  • Southgate School
  • Corinthian Baptist Church School
  • Southgate High School (1901-1920)

See photo image of the Southgate school [near bottom of page] at Nothern Kentucky Views website.

See photo image of students and additional information about Southgate School at rootsweb. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Campbell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carlisle County, KY
Start Year : 1899
End Year : 1962
In 1899, there were three colored school districts in Carlisle County, KY, and one was located in Bardwell [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1, 1899-June 30, 1901]. The teachers earned an average of $33 per month in 1900, and there were 66 students attending the three schools in 1901. There were still three colored elementary schools in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. There continued to be three colored schools for several decades until the Negro population in Carlisle County began to decrease, and in 1955, there was one colored school with 15 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.206]. There was not a high school for Negro students in Carlisle County. In 1961, Mrs. Harriett W. Crawford was the teacher at the Negro school in Bardwell, the school had grades 1-8 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.846]. The following school year, the Bardwell schools and the Carlisle County High School were integrated [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.107]. See photo image of Bardwell Colored School on p.5 of The Carlisle Weekly, 09/02/2003.

  • Colored Schools (3)
  • Bardwell School 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carlisle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carroll County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
When R. W. Bevarly was completing his master's thesis in 1936, articles about the colored schools of Carroll County in 1879 were located in the Carrollton Democrat newspaper; the colored school at Liberty Station was attended by children in the day and by adults at night; in Carrollton, Maggie Woods was the teacher [source: History of Education in Carroll County by R. W. Bevarly, p.66]. There were three schools in 1880, the teachers were Ady Pack in Ghent, and Maggie Woods in Carrollton and Prestonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1881 there were 226 students in the four colored schools [source: Bevarly, p.50]. In 1882 there were 268 students in the schools located in Carrollton, Ghent, Above Ghent, and Liberty Station [source: Bevarly, p.51]. There were five colored school districts in 1885: No.1 Carrollton, No.2. Ghent, No.3 Lynan Craigs, No.4 Sanders, and No.5 Worthville [source: Bevarly, p.30]. All of the schools were under the county school board with the largest colored school in Carrollton and James K. Polk was the teacher. Polk was a graduate of Gaines High School in Cincinnati, OH [source: Bevarly, p.66]. He taught at the colored school for one year and was replaced by J. E. Jackson, and in 1889 Jackson was replaced by Fred W. Burch, also a graduate of Gaines High School. There continued to be five colored schools in Carroll County until 1900 when there was six, and by 1933, there were two [source: Bevarly, p.94]. Dunbar Colored School, in Carrollton, was a brick building and was under the city school board, Bessie Whitacker was the teacher and had a monthly salary of $69, while her husband Dudley Whitacker had a salary of $75 for teaching at the Ghent Colored School that was held in a rented building that was in poor condition [source: Bevarly, p.94]. After WWII, a new colored school building was constructed in Ghent and it served as the county school for all African American children. There was never a colored high school in Carroll County, and the city and the county provided transportation for high school students attending Lincoln Institute [source: A History of Carroll County, Kentucky: containing facts before and after 1754 by M. A. Gentry, p.53]. The school systems of Carroll County began to integrate in the 1960s, starting with the first grade students [source: "Schools due to integrate at Carrollton," Louisville Courier-Journal, 04/22/1961]. The schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, were the Carrollton Elementary and High School on p.846.

  • Carrollton School
  • Prestonville School
  • Dunbar School
  • Ghent School
  • Above Gent School
  • Lynan Craigs School
  • Sanders School
  • Worthville School
  • Liberty Station School

See photo image of Dunbar Colored School, Hawkins and Ninth Street, at the Carrollton Schools website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carroll County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carter County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1956
For many decades there was only one colored school in Carter County, KY, beginning as early as 1874 when the Grayson colored school was mentioned in volume 1 of History of Kentucky by L. Collins and R. Collins. In 1886, the colored school was included in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.166. There was not a school building; the school was held in a church and had an average attendance of 20 students. The school still existed in 1891 and was still held in a church, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, four scholastic years ended June 30, 1891, p.166 [online at Google Books]. In 1906, there were two colored schools, and by 1908, the two colored school districts (two schools) had been consolidated [source: History of Education in Carter County by D. W. Qualls pp.65 & 85]. Between 1890 and 1930, the student enrollment fluctuated from a high of 35 to a low of 16 [source: History of Education in Carter County, pp.94-95]. The school teacher did not have a college education, but was state certified for the years 1916-1919. The students were in grades 1-7; there was not a colored high school in Carter County. W. R. Calloway was the teacher at the Grayson Colored School until 1922 [source: "Grayson," The Bourbon News, 07/21/1922, p.7]. With the continued decrease in the number of colored school children, Qualls stated in his thesis that there would soon be no need for a colored school in Carter Count; however, there continued to be one colored school listed for Carter County in the Kentucky Public School Directory from 1925-1949. The first school to be listed as "integrated & white" was the Prichard School in Grayson [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.424]. The Gregoryville School is listed in the 1961-62 directory as a Negro school on Rt. 1 in Grahn.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Grayson School
  • Gregoryville School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.847]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grayson, Carter County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Casey County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1958
In 1880 there were four colored school districts in Casey County, KY, with two schools and 190 students on the enrollment list [source: History of Education in Casey County, Kentucky, Lloyd Bryant Cox, p.111]. In 1885, there were five colored schools [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1896, pp.295-298]. The average attendance was 80 students 1895-96, and 113 students 1896-97. In 1890, there were still five colored schools, each with one teacher, and there were 94 students on the enrollment list. There were six schools during the 1901 and 1902 school terms [source: Cox, p.112]. By 1914, there were two schools, one in Liberty and one in Indian Creek, and by 1931, there was an average attendance of 23 students for both schools [source: Cox, p.113-114]. High school students from Casey County went to the colored high school in Stanford, KY. In 1936, there was one colored school in the county [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1936-37, p.41]. Beginning in 1957, there were no colored schools listed for Casey County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.620.  The following year, the Liberty Independent Schools were first to be listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.996].

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Liberty School
  • Indian Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Casey County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Christian County, KY
Start Year : 1845
End Year : 1952
Between 1845 and 1856, 40 school districts were sketched in Christian County, KY, by Enoch A. Brown, the County School Commissioner (who was white), according to Claybron W. Merriweather's, "Hopkinsville Colored Schools," pp. 293-295 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham. After the Civil War, the number of districts were increased from 40 to 84 by G. A. Champlin, the new commissioner. Between 1866-1870, there was a Freedmen School in Hopkinsville [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. By 1881 there were 41 colored school districts with 23 schools, most of which were log buildings in poor condition. The Booker T. Washington Colored School was located on 2nd Street in Hopkinsville. In 1884, G. A. Champlin wrote "The Colored Schools," an essay that appeared on p. 252 in Counties of Christian and Trigg, Kentucky. According to Champlin, the first colored common schools in 1875 were located within five school districts, and there were 500 school-age children counted in the colored school census. The schools were a result of the Kentucky Colored School Law, which provided the bare minimum of school funding from taxes and fines collected from colored people. Similar information about the colored schools during the year 1876 was included in Charles J. Petrie's thesis, The History of Education in Christian County, pp.93-98. According to Petrie, the County Commissioner's report showed that there were only two teachers in the colored schools, and prior to 1881, most of the colored schools were not free and the best schools were located in Hopkinsville. The Booker T. Washington School was constructed in 1882, a two story frame structure, and in 1930 a third story was added [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County, Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, p.11]. By 1889, there were 55 teachers at the colored schools, the male teachers earned an average of $44.76 and the female teachers earned an average of $35.70 [Petrie, p.96]. The leaders of the Christian County Colored Teachers Association in 1891 were Ephraim Poston, president; T. C. Woosley, vice president; Miss Augusta Brewer, secretary; T. S. Gaines, assistant secretary; and P. A. Hamby, treasurer [Petrie, p.98]. In 1899 there were 54 colored school districts [source: Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/23/1899, p. 5], one of which was Crofton Colored School with teacher George Robinson [source: "Crime of Cain," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/31/1899, p. 1]. In 1890, A. H. Payne was principal of the Colored school in Hopkinsville and there were six teachers [Petrie, pp.135]. The school was considered the best colored school in the county, it operated within the common school system with a nine month term and with a Colored school board. In 1908, the school was placed under the white school board and supported by Negro property taxes [Petrie, p.122]. The school held grades 1-8 in a two-story building on E. Second Street. In 1912, the school was moved back under the county system and two years of high school were added. The trustees were Edward M. Glass, Frank Boyd, and Ned Turner. Julien Colored School was also a county school [source: Dr. Stanley Dean," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 04/17/1906, p. 8]. Teacher Nina Anglin was removed from the Lafayette Colored School in 1906, and she filed suit against the superintendent and the trustees [source: "Circuit court," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 10/25/1906, p. 1]. The Clarksville Colored School was one of three schools to receive an improved chemical fire extinguisher in 1910 [source: "Here and there," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/30/1910, p. 4]. The number of school districts had increased from 52 in 1890, to 54 in 1900, to 75 in 1910 [Petrie, p.132]. There was an average attendance of 2,034 students in 1909 [Petrie, p.134]. Attucks High School was built in 1916 at First and Vine Streets and the school had the first four-year high school for Negroes in Hopkinsville [Petrie, p.183]. The early principals were L. A. Posey, J. W. Bell, P. Moore, and B. E. Perkins [Kentucky Education Collection (KEC), Series 1, pp.11-12]. The county school system contracted with the city school board for students to attend Attucks High School [KEC, Series 1, p.9]. In 1939, the Attucks High School had 227 students, 11 teachers, and 35 students graduated [Petrie, p.188]. The Male & Female College in Hopkinsville, KY, opened in 1883 [now Hopkinsville College of the Bible]. In 1896 there were 70 colored teachers in the county schools [source: "Colored institute this week," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/18/1896, p. 1]. During the 1911 election of colored trustees, Peter Postell and Lucian Dade were re-elected, and George Leavell became the newly elected trustee [source: "The Colored election," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 05/09/1911, p. 8]. In 1909, a colored graded school and high school were opened in Pembroke, and the school served as a training school for teachers up to 1924 [Petrie, p.122]. In 1914, the legality of the staff election for the Pembroke Colored School was called into question, and the finding was in favor of the school [source: 2nd paragraph of "Railroad case begun," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/06/1914, p. 1]. In 1924, the Pembroke School was moved back to the county administration and the school's two-year high school course continued until 1929. The high school was re-established in 1936 and operated under the independent graded school system with one or two teachers and 20-25 students. At the end of 1911, the colored school house near Sinking Fork was burned by an incendiary [source: "Suspicious fire," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/07/1911, p. 8]. In 1912, Ephraim Poston had almost completed the school census of colored children and found that there were 1,396 students, which was 188 more students than had been incorrectly counted the previous year, all of which meant that the schools would receive about $800 more from the state [sources: "Colored school census," 05/11/1912, p. 5, and "1411 Colored children," 05/18/1912, p. 4, both articles in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian]. It was expressed in Petrie's thesis that the school census for colored children may have been "padded" [p.132]. The Zion Colored School was destroyed by fire in 1916, the fire started by a stranger in town who went by the name of Katherine Denton. She was badly burned and later died from her injuries [source: "Woman died Thursday," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/02/1916, p. 1]. In 1928, there were five male teachers and 51 female teachers in the colored schools, and in 1937, the average attendance was 1,055 students [Petrie, pp.178 &180]. The names of other colored schools in Christian County, KY, can be found on pp. 292-293 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham, who was also editor of the Hopkinsville Kentuckian newspaper. There is also a list of the schools and the names of the head teacher/principal during the 1938-39 school term, all on p.23 of Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County. In 1940, there were at least 90 teachers in the schools in Christian County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The names of the schools, including those that held classes in churches, are listed below. A later school, the Fort Campbell Dependent School, was the first school in Christian County to be listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory (1952-53, p.418) as having both white and colored students, though the term "integrated" was not used. The second school to be listed with students of both races was in the 1954-55 directory, the SS. Peter and Paul School, a parochial school in Hopkinsville [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1954-55, p.563]. Both schools are listed as integrated in the 1956-57 directory. All of the schools in Christian County are listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, pp.101-102.

  • Attucks High School
  • Banneker School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.848]
  • Barkers Mill School
  • Beech Grove School
  • Booker T. Washington School
  • Blue Springs School [photo image, p. 12, Rosenwald Schools]
  • Brent Shop School
  • Canton Heights School
  • Carver School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.848]
  • Caskey School
  • Cedar Bluff School
  • Center Point School
  • Chopped Hickory School
  • Clarksville School
  • Crofton School
  • Dyers Chapel School
  • Durretts Avenue School
  • Elmo School
  • Edgefield School
  • Fairview School
  • Forks of Road School
  • Foston's Chapel School
  • Gainesville School
  • Garrettsburg School
  • Gee School
  • Gracey School
  • Hensleytown School
  • Herndon School
  • Hopkinsville Freedmen School
  • Hopkinsville School
  • Julien School
  • Kelly School
  • Kentucky Trade Institute Automotive Mechanics for Colored Men [source: "Announcing the opening of the Kentucky Trade...," Kentucky New Era, 08/24/1949, p.10 - online]
  • Lafayette School
  • Male & Female College
  • Massies Chapel School
  • Moonlight School
  • McClain's Chapel School
  • Mt. Herman School
  • Mt. Vernon School
  • New Zion School
  • Oak Grove School
  • Pee Dee School
  • Pleasant Green School
  • Pleasant Grove School
  • Pleasant Hill School
  • Pembroke School
  • Reeves Chapel School
  • Salem School
  • Sinking Fork School
  • Spring Hill School
  • Walnut Grove School
  • West Union School
  • White Oak Grove School
  • Zion Hope School

See image of Attucks High School on postcard at University of Kentucky Special Collections.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clark County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
According to the personal interviews conducted by Fred Allen Engle for his 1928 education thesis, there were some slaves who received an education in Clark County, KY. The slaves were taught by their owners, Judge Charles Stephen French, Mrs. Telitha Clay, Laura Bramlett, Mrs. Josephine Peterson Rogers and Mr. Samuel Rogers, and Philip B. Winn [source: The History of Education of Clark County (thesis) by F. A. Engle, pp. 28-29]. Engle also notes that, in 1866, at the first colored school in Clark County, (located in Winchester), classes were held in a rented building; it was the only colored school in the county for a few years. The teacher was Mrs. Amanda Faulkner [source: Engle, p. 43]. In 1869, the Freedman's Bureau provided funding for a new school building that was constructed on a lot at the corner of Broadway and Wall Streets; the land was secured from money raised by the African American community. The school was built by Kirkpatrick Brothers, a plumbing business [source: Engle,p. 43], and by the time the building was completed, the school teacher, Mrs. Amanda Faulkner, had died of tuberculosis and was replaced by John C. Hubbard. The new school was referred to as a Freedmen School [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The school term was four months and was extended to nine months, and there would later be three African American trustees who oversaw the school: J. T. Taul, Dan Baker, and M. M. Bell [source: Engle, p. 117]. Other city schools included a log school building at the corner of Maple and Washington Streets and a third colored school at No.24 Second Street [source: Engle, pp. 43-44]. In addition to Mrs. Amanda Faulkner and John C. Hubbard, the first colored teachers in Winchester were George Cary, Miss Delilah Culbertson, Miss Malinda Smith, Miss Sue Henry, and James S. Hathaway. School teacher George Cary had replaced John C. Hubbard; Cary was from Canada and was remembered for his brilliance and for greatly increasing the enrollment and attendance at the Freemen School. A disagreement of some sort arose between George Cary and members of the African American community, resulting in the construction of the Washington Street Colored School with Miss Delilah Culbertson as the teacher. Culbertson was later replaced by Miss Melinda Smith, who was replaced by Miss Sue Henry in 1877. George Cary left the Freedman School in 1882 and was replaced by James S. Hathaway and Miss Sue Henry. During this period, colored schools were begun in the county; one of the first was located at Howard's Creek around 1870, a log building later replaced by a frame building [source: Engle, p. 29]. The following quotation comes from the 1884 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p. 28: "Some of the districts depend on their churches as school-rooms. Immediate wants: School-houses and smaller districts." The report contains a discrepancy as to the number of school-aged children in Clark County [source: 1884 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Colored. Table II. p. XXVII]: 967 children between the ages of six and 20 were reported to the auditors by the assessors for 1885; 1,628 children reported to the superintendent for 1885; there was a difference of 661 children. "Schools were taught in every colored district except one; there the house was not completed in time for school. Teachers were comparatively well-qualified. A majority were educated at Berea College, in the adjoining county." -- [source: Engle, p. 22]. In 1886, 11 colored schools were located in Clark County, KY, according the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The schools were supported by taxes, subscription fees, and donations [source: Engle, p. 30]. Additional information about the Freedmen School and the names of the teachers and principals can be found on p. 45 of The History of Education of Clark County (thesis), by F. A. Engle. In 1893, there were 15 colored school districts in the county with an average attendance of 575 students, and half the schools were still being taught in churches and other buildings. In the 1880s there was a disagreement: the African American community spoke out about the condition of the city colored schools, which resulted in all of the colored school buildings being closed. According to author F. A Engle (p. 118), in response to the closing of the schools, the African American community opened a new school in an old laundry building at the corner of Washington and Oliver Streets, and Mrs. G. S. Benton, a teacher and Berea College graduate, opened a school in her home on Third Street. Mrs. Benton had been the school principal at the Freedmen School. The interim schools continued until a bond issue was successfully voted into action by the city for a new colored school building on Oliver Street. The Oliver Street Colored School opened in 1892 and closed in 1969. The first principal, Mrs. G. S. Benton, was replaced the following year by J. H. Mingo, a graduate of the Chandler School in Lexington. The teachers were Miss C. N. Willis, Miss Flora Z. Barbee, Miss Willie Woodford, Mrs. Nettie David and Mrs. Julia A. Benton. In 1894, Principal Mingo was replaced by James H. Garvin. Within the Oliver Street School, the students were taught music, cooking, sewing, shoe making, brick laying, and business and literary courses [source: "The Colored School," Winchester News, 10/12/1908, p. 3]. Both Prof. Garvin and his wife, Lillie B. Garvin, were school teachers. Prof. Garvin was principal at the school for 24 years, retiring in 1918 [source: "Education," The Crisis, March 1918, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 215]. Stanley R. "Fess" Williams was a teacher at the school around 1917-18 [source: WWI Draft Regisration Card, 1917-18]. The Oliver Street Colored School contained grades 1-12. Early pictures of the Oliver Street Colored School are on pp. 123-124 of The History of Education of Clark County (thesis), by F. A. Engle. Another school, the Clark County Moonlight Colored School, was first held in 1915; considered one of the four best Moonlight Schools for Negroes in Kentucky, it had an enrollment of 203 students [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. The colored school in Indian Fields was taught by Maggie Kidd in 1919 [source: Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, Fanny Curry - Clark County Agent, 07/01/1919]. In 1924, there was a Rosenwald School in Jouett's Creek; a photograph of the school can be seen on p. 13 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [online .pdf]. In 1928 the Freedmen School building was still standing; it was used as a manual training shop for the city colored school [source: Engle, p. 29]. A picture of the school building is on p. 125 of The History of Education of Clark County(thesis), by F. A. Engle. The Negro teachers in Clark County in 1940 were Howard Allen, Howard Buckner, Juanita Callery, James Callery, Julia Colerane, Elizabethe B. Curry, Jennie Didlick, Lula Diggs, Minnie Downey, Lettie P. Green, Mildred E. Henderson, Lillian Holmes, Katherine K. January, Eshter Laine, Mary Miller, Chalmer Owens, Missouri Quisenberry, Letilla Rannels, James Ray, Mary Robinson, Charles F. Sloan, Fannie Sloan, Vivian Taylor, and Marie Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Oliver Street High School was closed in 1956, and in 1957 the Clark County high schools began to integrate. The remainder of the Oliver Street School continued until 1969.

  • Slaves educated by owners
  • Colored School (1866)
  • Winchester Freedmen School (Broadway and Wall Streets)
  • Maple & Washington Street School
  • Second Street School
  • Howard's Creek School
  • Colored Schools (1884)
  • Washington & Oliver Street School
  • Mrs. G. S. Benton's School
  • Indian Fields School
  • Moonlight School
  • Oliver Street School 
  • Jouett's Creek School (photo image, p. 13, Rosenwald)

See photo image of Negro school in Winchester, KY, in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clark County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clay County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
In 1886, there were four colored school districts in Clay County, KY [see African American Schools, 1886]. There were five colored schools in 1897; two of the school houses were made of log and three were frame buildings [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.308-311]. There was one teacher at each school, a little more than 200 total students were enrolled in the schools, and about half attended school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were six colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-June 1901, p.198]. In 1923, Mrs. Mattie A. Clarke was the school teacher at the Manchester Colored School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. By 1925, the number of colored schools had been reduced to three schools with five teachers and 129 students, and two years later, there was only the one colored school in Manchester with two teachers and 74 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67, and 1927-1928, p.63]. By 1932, there were three teachers. In 1940, one of the Negro teachers was Margaret Drake [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Unlike many counties, the number of Negro children enrolled in the colored school did not continue to decline in Clay County. During the 1955-56 school term, there were 123 students and four teachers. In 1961, the school had grades 1-8, still with four teachers, and the head teacher/principal was William Croley [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.849]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Clay County, KY. The Clay County High School was integrated during the 1962-63 school term, and the Manchester elementary schools started to integrate during the 1964-65 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, pp.109-108, and 1964-65, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (6)
  • Manchester School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clay County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clinton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
There was one colored school in Clinton County, KY in 1866, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. Between 1895 and 1897, there were two colored schools in Clinton County, one school was constructed of logs and the other was a frame building [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.312-316]. There was one teacher at each school and the schools were in session for five months. During the 1896-97 school term there was an average attendance of 52 students. During the 1925-1926 school term, there was one school with one teacher and 10 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. The school continued with one teacher and around nine students into the 1950s. There was no high school for Negro children in Clinton County, KY. During the 1956-57 school term the Clinton County Schools were listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, though the colored school was listed until the 1957-58 school term. The Albany Independent School also was integrated during the 1957-58 school year.

  • Colored Schools (2)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clinton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Crittenden County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
In 1880, 20 year old Belle Clark, and James Johnson were school teachers in Marion, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1890, Lollie Bingham was the school teacher at the Marion Colored School. There were two school districts, and Simpson Colored School was led by Adella Pippin. In 1894, there were eight colored school districts in Crittenden County, Ky; there had been nine districts, but no.9 was merged into no.6. A new school district had been added in southwest Marion in 1894. The school house was to be built on the farm of A. H. Cardin; he had donated the land and was to pay half the cost of constructing a school building. The trustees were Sam Parmer, John Hatcher, and William Braddock. In 1895, the Marion Colored School had 166 students, 33 more than the previous year. By 1933, there were two colored schools in Crittenden County, according to John S. Brown in his thesis titled History of Education of Crittenden County, Kentucky, p.58. The school in Marion was under the city school system, and there was a school in the county. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Cirttenden County included Verna Cofield and Laura Mitchell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The colored school in the county continued until the 1946-47 school term when there were only five students enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.634]. The schools in the city of Marion began to integrate during the 1956-57 school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.425]. For more see "The Marion Colored School...," Crittenden Press, 05/09/1895, p.3; "For the school year ending June 30, 1894," Crittenden Press, 03/01/1894, p.3; "The colored school opened Monday," Crittenden Press, 09/11/1890, p.1; "Marion had two colored school districts." Crittenden Press, 09/18/1890, p.1; and "A colored school district...," Crittenden Press, 01/11/1894, p.3.

  • Cardin School
  • Marion School
  • Colored Schools No.1-9
  • Simpson School
  • Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.850]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marion, Crittenden County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Cumberland County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1959
Record of the first colored school in Cumberland County was for the school built by white citizens in Burkesville, KY, between 1866-1870. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1870, Mag Taylor was the school teacher [see NKAA entry Migration from Canada to Kentucky]. Taylor was from Canada and lived with the Owsley family in Burkesville [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were six colored school districts in Cumberland County [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. One of the schools was located in Marrowbone, today within the Marrowbone Historic District. Other colored schools were located in Bakerton, Beech Grove, Burkesville, Clay Lick Bottom, Coe, and Lawson's Bottom [source: History of Cumberland County by J. W. Wells]. John E. Burbridge (1867-1914), from Adair County, was the school teacher at the Burkesville Colored School for several years, until his death in 1914 [sources: "Last week we wrote a notice of the death of John Burbridge..." The Adair County News, 06/03/1914, p.1; and Kentucky Death Certificate, File No. 12587]. In 1923, the school teachers were J. M. and Kate Alexander at Burkesville; Miss Stella Baker at Waterview; Mrs. Flora V. Allen at Leslie; Thomas E. Cox at Black Ferry; Mrs. Eliza Ellington at Marrowbone; Mr. W. J. Lawson and Miss Susie Lee Scott at Bakerton [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.49, 50, 55, 57, 66, & 74]. The number of colored schools would decrease to where there was only the one in Burkesville. There was not a high school for Negro children in Cumberland County. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Cumberland County included Thomas Campbell and Eliza Ellington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Cumberland County Schools began to integrate during the 1959-60 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.784], and the Cumberland County High School was noted as integrated the following school year. John W. Burbridge was principal of the Burkesville Negro School, grades 1-8, and both the school and the principal are listed in the Kentucky School Directory up to the 1966-67 school term.

  • Burkesville Freedmen School
  • Burkesville School
  • Marrowbone School
  • Bakerton School
  • Beech Grove School
  • Clay Lick Bottom School
  • Coe School
  • Lawson's Bottom School
  • Waterview School
  • Leslie School
  • Black Ferry School

See photo image of Marrowbone Colored School by Bill Macintire, a Picasa web album.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Cumberland County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Daviess County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866-1870, there was a Freedmen School in Owensboro, KY, the building was made of brick [see NKAA entry for African American Freedmen Schools]. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. In 1868, the Negro Educational Convention was held in Owensboro and Marshall W. Taylor was named president of the organization [see NKAA entry for Negro Educational Convention]. Brothers, Charlie Jackson and William Jackson were teachers in the colored schools in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There were four colored schools in Daviess County in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. One of the schools was located in Owensboro as early as 1883 when Edward Claybrook and others successfully sued the City of Owensboro to desegregate the use of the public school funds [see NKAA entry Claybrook v Owensboro]. Though there were only four schools, there were at least 19 colored school districts. In 1885, school had been held for the entire school term in District 19, but no report of the school had been forwarded to the Superintendent of Public Instruction; therefore, no school funds were provided from the treasury to pay the teacher. The teacher's salary was paid by four members of the community: Park Haynes, Robert Wilson, J. W. Montgomery, and Washington French [source: volume 2 of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1885, Chapter 1090, pp.623-624]. The men were reimbursed the $40.30 by an act passed by the Kentucky General Assembly on May 4, 1886. During the school years 1899-1900, and 1900-1901, there were still 19 colored school districts, and the number of colored schools had increased to 14, and the schools were in session less than five months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1,1889-June 30, 1901]. The average attendance was between 336 and 441 students. The Negro teachers earned an average salary of $29.00 per month. There was one student from Daviess County who graduated from the State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University]. In 1916, there were at least 28 colored school teachers in Owensboro, including Samuel L. Barker, Birdie Bohler, Lula Coleman, Madeline Elliot, A. O. Guthrie, S. R. Guthrie, Virginia Herald, L. O. Hathaway, Ethel Helm, A. M. Lee, Bertha Lee, Rida McMicken, Edith Moorman, Myrtle Moorman, Hattie Richardson, Robinson, Lula Valentine, M. J. Wheatley, R. F. White, Theresa Wilhite, and Leona Willingham [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.24-39]. In 1919, there were 12 students enrolled in the Moonlight Colored School held at the Western School house in Owensboro and A. O. Guthrie was the teacher [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1925, there were 10 colored schools in Daviess County, and there were 12 elementary teachers and 5 high school teachers in the Owensboro colored schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. Mrs. Ella H. Jackson and Miss Sadie Jackson were the school teachers at the Whitesville Colored School in 1924; Mrs. Ella H. Jackson was the teacher in 1925 and 1928; and Miss R. G. Stone was the teacher 1926 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.54; April 22-25, 1925, p.63; April 21-24, 1926, p.58; and April 18-21, 1928, p.44]. Mrs. Edna Ford Howard was the teacher at the Maceo Colored School as early as 1916; along with Ella M. Hawes in 1923; Mrs. J. Francis Wilson, 1923-1924; Miss Arbella McCreary in 1925; and a host of other teachers up through 1938 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.30; April 18-21, 1923, p.61, p.63, & p.80; April 23-26, 1924, p.67; April 22-25, 1925, p.67; April 18-21, 1928, p.44; and March-April, 1938, p.4]. Mrs. Ana G. Johnson was the teacher at the Utica Colored School in 1924, and Mrs. Elizabeth Brannon, Miss Theodore Jackson, and Miss Evie Tinsley in 1925, and Miss Alma May in 1927 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.54; April 22-25, 1925, p.51, p.64; p.79; and April 20-23, 1927, p.53]. Samuel L. Barker was the principal of Western High School in 1934, and he had also been a teacher and principal at Dunbar School. In 1940, two Sisters of Charity of Nazareth opened the Catholic Colored High School at the corner of 5th and Plum Streets in Owensboro [source: The Roman Catholic Diocese of Owensboro, Kentucky by Turner Pub.], and the school also had elementary grades. The Negro teachers in Daviess Countyin 1940 were Inez Agnew, Lanetta M. Baker, Camille Berkley, Mary Lucille Burns, Vitula Clement, Mattie F. Coffey, Marilyn Crowe, Sedalia Crowe, Emma V. Earl, Emma Edwards, Mary Lee Fisher, Jessie T. Gatewood, Viola Gordon, Lee Oma Hathaway, Martina Hicks, Jessie Howard, Rosina Hunt, Rida V. McMickans, Taylor T. Murray, Joe Perkins, Sue Pape, William Robinson, Elsie M. Robinson, Christine R. Smith, James E. Thruston, Merle L. Thruston, Edward R. Tinsley, and E. Wilder [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The St. Mary of the Woods School in Daviess County is listed on p.208 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56 as having both white and colored students, though the term integration is not used. The first listing of integrated schools in Daviess County is on pp.425-426 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57: Masonville School, St. Mary of the Woods School, both in Daviess County, and Owensboro High School, and Owensboro Technical High School.

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Dunbar School
  • Western School
  • Western High School
  • Whitesville School
  • Maceo School
  • Utica School
  • Catholic High School (Blessed Sacrament)
  • Carver School, Daviess County [source: Kentucky Public Directory, 1938-39, p.39]
  • Colored Consolidated, Daviess County [source: Kentucky Public Directory, 1937-38, p.49]
  • Moonlight School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Daviess County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Earlington, KY (Hopkins County)
Start Year : 1891
End Year : 1964
Earlington Colored School was open as early as 1891; it was mentioned in a special report, "Masons Made - Mass Meetings - Visitors." Freeman, 02/28/1891, p.6. The school reopened for the year in September of 1892 [source: "School opens," Bee, 09/08/1892, p.6]. In 1894, A. R. Bailey was principal and J. E. Todd was his assistant [source: Bee, 03/22/1894, p.3]. The Colored school was located in District 7, there were 158 students enrolled with an attendance of 126, and the school was in session for nine months. In 1895, C. W. Merriweather was the assistant principal of the school. J. W. Bell was the principal in 1911 [source: "Prof. J. W. Bell...," Bee, 07/18/1911, p.5]. He was still the principal in 1920 when there were 14 students in Earlington High School (grades 9 and 10), according to author H. Ardis Simons' thesis, The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky. From 1923 to 1941, the principals were Edward Dean, W. E. Strader, T. W. Austin, R. R. Buckner, Theodore Daly, W. B. Edwards, Austin Edwards, and S. S. Morris. The school still existed in the late 1940s and is mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.  As early as 1938, the school was named  J. W. Million [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-1938, p.46]; the elementary school had 5 teachers and the high school had 4 teachers. The J. W. Million School was listed as a Negro school in the Kentucky School Directory right up to the last issue of the publication that indicated race [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65, p.105.], and all other schools in Hopkins County, except the Earlington Elementary school for whites, are listed as integrated. See also NKAA Database entry African American Schools in Madisonville and Hopkins County, KY.

  • Earlington Colored School
  • J. W. Million School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Earlington, Hopkins County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Edmonson County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1963
As early as 1886, there were four colored schools in Edmonson County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1899-1901, there were five colored school districts in Edmonson County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899 - June 1901, and the Negro teachers earned an average monthly salary of $24.49 for the school year 1899-1900, and $21.69 for the school year 1900-1901. The average attendance at the colored schools during the 1906-1907 school term was 61 students [source: Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907]. There were still 4 colored elementary schools in Edmonson County in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. Mrs. Zemmie Bransford was the school teacher at the Mammoth Cave Colored School in 1924 and was joined by Mrs. Alice C. Garvin in 1925 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.70; and April 22-25, 1925, p.58 and p.84]. Mr. M. W. Bransford was a teacher at the school in 1927 [April 20-23, 1927, p.38]. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Edmonson County was William S. Coleman [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The last colored school in Edmonson County was Icy Sink in Smiths Grove, the teacher was Mrs. Mattie P. Starks, and there were 17 students [source: Kentucky School Directory,1962-63, p.112]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Edmonson County, the county board of education paid to have the students transported to High Street High School in Bowling Green, KY. The Edmonson County schools integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.105].

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Mammoth Cave School
  • Icy Sink School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Edmonson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Elliott County, KY
There is not a record of a colored school or Negro students in Elliott County, KY [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory; Kentucky School Directory; Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. It is unclear if the children attended school with the white children, or attended the colored schools in a nearby county, or there were other arrangements. In the 1870 U.S. Federal Census, there were seven Collins children between the ages of 5 and 17, and two Howard children ages 10 and 7, all in Elliott County. In 1880, there was one African American child of school age; in 1900 there were five Leadenham children of school age; and in 1920 there were four children of school age.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Elliott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Estill County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
There was one colored school in Estill County, KY, for the year 1866, as reported in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. There was still one elementary colored school in Irvine during the 1905-07 school terms, with an average of 13-15 students, and the Negro teachers earned an average of $24.30 per month for 1906-07, and an average of $24.00 per month for 1905-06 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905-June 1907]. Mr. L. R. Diggs and Mrs. Nora Park were teachers at the colored school in 1924 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.49 & p.70]. In 1925, there were 25 students in the colored school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.69]. The school enrolled students from the county and the city, and there was one teacher. Mrs. Nancy Covington was the teacher in 1935 [source: KNEA Journal, v.6, no.1, p.52]. There were years when less than 10 children were enrolled in the school. During the 1955-56 school term, there were four students, and during the 1956-57 term, the Irvine Independent Schools integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.209; and 1956-57, p.426].

  • Irvin School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Estill County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Fleming County, KY
Start Year : 1884
End Year : 1956
As early as 1884, there were colored schools in Fleming County, KY, when the Kentucky General Assembly passed an act to support the schools with fines and forfeitures from the courts [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, v.1, Chapter 356, pp.652-653]. In 1886 there were six colored school districts in Fleming County, the schools were held in churches [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. During the 1909-10 school term, there were 241 students in the colored schools, grades 1-8 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in Kentucky, 1909-1911, Part I, p.14]. The average monthly salaries for the Negro teachers during the 1911-12 school term was $67 for the male teachers, which was the highest salary in the county, and $39.91 for the female teachers, which was the lowest salary in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, p.47], and there were at least 6 colored schools [p.56], and the colored high school was located in Flemingsburg, it was rated as a 2nd class high school [p.330]. In 1923, the six Fleming County teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, were Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Adams in Flemingsburg [p.49], Miss Bertha Brown in Flemingsburg [p.52], Mr. Abel N. Hewitt in Shurburne [p.62]; Mrs. Alma Iles in Flemingsburg [p.63]; and Mr. E. L. Moore in Flemingsburg [p.69]. In 1925, there were three colored elementary schools and one high school, with a total of seven teachers, two of whom taught in the high school, all in the rural area of Fleming County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. Three of the teachers were listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925: Mrs. Romania Flournoy in Nepton [p.58]; Mr. E. L. Moore in Flemingsburg [p.70]; and Miss Emma L. Walker in Flemingsburg [p.80]. In 1936, there were two colored elementary schools, one in Nepton and one in Flemingsburg, both listed on p.39 in A Study of School Attendance Areas in Fleming County, Kentucky by the Department of Education , Frankfort, KY, 11/01/1936 [within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 15]. The Nepton School had one teacher and the Flemingsburg School had three teachers. The colored high school was closed by 1936 and the students attended the colored high school in Maysville, KY [A Study, pp.24-25]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Fleming County were Lucy Herrington, Blossom Lee Martin, and Wardell White [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1955, there were still two colored schools in Fleming County with 57 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.210]. The Fleming County High School was integrated in 1956 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.427], and the city schools began to integrate in 1959 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1959-60, p.786]. After the schools integrated, there was a a court case that went before the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1964 to determine the rightful owners of the property where a colored school had been located, for more see "Fleming County Board of Education et. al., Appellants, v. Martha V. Anna Hall, Widow, et. al, Appellees."

  • Colored Schools (6)
  • Shurburne School
  • Nepton School
  • Flemingsburg School
  • Flemingsburg High School (closed in 1936)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Fleming County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Floyd County, KY
End Year : 1956
The first school for African Americans in Floyd County was taught in a church, though the year is not given in Chalmer H. Frazier's thesis. There would later be a colored grade school in Wheelwright. There were 3 colored elementary schools in Floyd County in 1925, with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The following year, there were 4 colored schools and 4 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.81]. The Palmer-Dunbar Colored High School, in Wheelwright, was organized in 1936; the school was named in part for Palmer Hall, the school superintendent. By 1939, the high school offered four years of study. W. T. Gilbert was principal, and there were three teachers, one of whom was Mrs. Mannie N. Wilson. There were 41 students in the high school [source: The History of Education of Floyd County, Kentucky (thesis), by Chalmer Haynes Frazier]. In 1940, there were 5 Negro teachers in Wheelwright according to the U.S. Federal Census: Gera Kaywood, Lillie Beele Daw, Gladys Edwards, Sarah Moran, and Mary A. Reed. In 1956, two schools in Floyd County were listed as "white & integrated," Betsy Lane and Wheelwright [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.427-428]. 

  • Church School
  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Wheelwright School
  • Palmer-Dunbar School

 

   See 1946 photo image of children playing at the Wheelwright Colored School, Kentucky Digital Library.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Floyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Frankfort and Franklin County, KY
Start Year : 1820
End Year : 1956
According to author Marion B. Lucas, there was a day school for Black children in Frankfort, KY as early as 1820, a grammar school was established in 1859, and there were five schools in Franklin County prior to 1900 [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, pp.141, 144, & 266]. That total may include the Freedmen School in Frankfort that was constructed between 1866 and 1870, and supervised by the Bishop of the Episcopal Church [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1871, Mattie E. Anderson opened the Frankfort Female High School, using her own money. The school trained students to become teachers. In 1880 the teachers at the colored schools were Martha Dillon, Lizzie Hocker, Mittie Johnson, Sarah Smith, and Reuben Washington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. A colored high school was located on Clinton Street in the 1880s, and in 1907, the Board of Education had an addition built onto the school for the teaching of domestic science: cooking, sewing, and general housekeeping. The school principal was W. H. Mayo and the teachers were Winnie A. Scott, Margaret E. Gray, Bianca Parker, Sadie M. Kirby, Katie Smith, Virginia M. Madison, Julia M. Spencer, Lettye A. Williams, Martha E. Williams, Charity A. Boyd, and Annie L. Fairs. In 1887, State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University] opened to train teachers. In 1892, George Halleck was over the colored night school in Frankfort [source: "Public school teachers," Frankfort Roundabout, 07/08/1892, p.4]. In 1895, there were 8 colored schools in Franklin County with one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1896, pp.361-365]. The average attendance was 262 students for the 1895-96 session, and 224 students for the 1896-97 session. In 1925, there were 2 colored elementary schools in the county, and the colored schools in Frankfort had 9 teachers in the elementary grades and 5 high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67 & 69]. By 1940, Franklin County had one of the highest number of Negro educators in the state of Kentucky: Ludye Anderson, Walter Anderson, David Bradford, Stenson Broadus, Louella Bush, Henry A. Keene, Mack Carmichael, Nancy Carter, H. E. Cheaney, Hubert B. Crouch, Virginia Falls, Aneta Fields, Ben D. Fruch, Howard Jason, Anne J. Heartwell, Yvonne Jackson, William Jones, Ralph Lee, J. J. Mark, Arletter McGoodwin, Manson Melton, Malcolm Perkins, Alexis Richards, Harold Smith, Robert Whiter, Bettie H. White, Violet Wilson, and Charlotte Wilson, all at Kentucky State College for Negroes [now Kentucky State University]; Lawrence Hitcher at Kentucky State Model School; Samara Hurd, Sue Tyler, and John Tyler, all at the Feeble-Minded Institute; and A. Elinton Bishop, Etta Blanton, W. S. Blanton, Katie H. Brown, Ota Case, Laura F. Chase, Mary Collins, Murray Conda, Dorothy Gay, Grace Grevious, Abaline Hays, James W. Henry, Mary C. Holmes, Clarence S. Johnson, Dorothy Jones, Asberry Jones, Lucy Jones, Annie Scott King, Emma E. Lindsay, Grace Morton, LaBlanche Nelly, Mary Peay, Florence Roberts, Marie Robertson, Ethel Robertson, Eugene Raines, Patty L. Simpson, Bessie R. Stone, Leota Thomas, Lula Ward, Cornelin Warren, Mary O. Warren, Roberta H. Wilson, and Arnold Wright, all educators in Frankfort and Franklin County [source: U.S. Federal Census].  For more see "Improvement of Colored School," The Frankfort Roundabout, 01/12/1907, p.3; "The commencement of the High School for girls..." The Frankfort Roundabout, 07/04/1891, p.6; and "Colored School," The Frankfort Roundabout, 06/22/1907, p.4. In 1948, the Kentucky Training Home was first listed as having "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1948-49, p.683]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.428, were Bridgeport, Elkhorn, Frankfort High, Kentucky Training Home, and Good Shepherd. 

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Clinton Street High School (1882-1928 - Replaced by Mayo Underwood School)
  • County Schools No.1-5
  • Day School
  • Female High School
  • Frankfort School
  • Frankfort School [Freedmen School under Bishop of Episcopal Church]
  • Frankfort Night School
  • Mayo Underwood School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University]
  • Kentucky State Model School
  • State Feeble-Minded Institute (Colored Division)

See photocopy image of Frankfort School on p.13 in Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].

See photo image of Clinton Street School [1880s-1890s] in the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Fulton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1958
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a colored school in Hickman, KY, the school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. In 1880, the teachers  in Fulton County were James Chochran at Johnsons, and Nannie Johnston at Hickman [source: U. S. Federal Census]. In 1887, Steve L. Brooks founded the Brook's Chapel School. He was the school teacher, as well as the pastor of Brook's Chapel. The school was burned by Night Riders in the 1920's, and afterward, classes were held in the chapel. Today Brooks Chapel Baptist Church is located at 230 Brooks Chapel Road in Fulton, KY. A picture of the Brook's Chapel School and the students, taken in 1888, is on p.13 in Fulton by E. R. Jones. There were other African American schools and teachers in Fulton County, they are listed below [source: "Fulton County School Census 1898," The Hickman Courier, 05/27/1898, p.3]. In 1890, the Kentucky General Assembly authorized the payment of $127.28 to teacher Mrs. Daisy E. Harvey. The Fulton County Superintendent had refused to pay Harvey her salary because she had missed the teachers' civil government exam due to an illness in her family. Harvey was a teacher in Colored common school district number six in Fulton County. For more see Chapter 64, pp.110-11 of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1890]. In 1895, there were 8 colored schools in Fulton County, KY [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.366-370]. The average attendance was 245 students in 1895-96 taught by 11 teachers, and 251 students in 1896-97 taught by 10 teachers. From 1899 to 1901 the average attendance at the Fulton County Colored Schools was 261 to 271 students, and the teachers earned an average monthly salary between $33.81 and $36.12 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1899-June 1901, pp.63, 426 & 454]. There were three teachers that taught in the districts that held classes for at least five months. The Colored common school graduates for July 1897- July 1900 were Aida Williner, William Thompson, Mary Plumer, Beatrice Nichols, Roy Atwood b.1883 (brother to Rufus Atwood), Ora McCutchen, Alvin Barksdale b.1884, D. H. Anderson, Ernest Henry Nichols, Lou Anna Lauderdale b.1886, Blanche Lee Atwood b.1885 (sister to Rufus Atwood), Pinky Lee Alexander, Nannie Milner, Disune Smith, and Lillian Metta Wright. Beginning In 1910, the Fulton Colored School was the only location in Kentucky that served as a Traveling Library Station for African Americans [source: see p.6 of the Bulletin, vol.1 by the Kentucky Library Extension Division at Google Book Search; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones]. In 1911, J. L. Northington was the custodian of the collection. The first high school for African Americans, built in 1905, was the result of fund raising by D. H. Anderson. The high school was located in Hickman [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.61]. Hickman School was one of the few in Kentucky to have an African American superintendent in 1925, his name was G. T. Halliburton, he was the father of Cecil D. Halliburton [see the NKAA entry for Colored School Superintendents]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Fulton County were Hattie Beltra, Mary Compton, J. D. Compton, Annie Gale, A. W. Green, Bessie A. Green, Elizabeth Moore, Lydia Moore, Plumer Nichols, Allie D. Wilson, Blanche Iralda Wilson, T. Essa Williams, and Ada Yates, all in Hickman; Ledora Kove, Ruth Jones, and Angie Tucker, all in Fulton; and James N. Milliner, Lauis Uplham, and Beatrice Uplham, all in Fulton County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school to be listed as integrated was Fulton High School on p.1000 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59.

  • Johnsons School
  • Hickman School
  • Brooks Chapel School
  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Alexander District
  • Bowden District
  • Cayce District
  • Fulton District
  • Sassafras Ridge District
  • Sharp or Maddox District
  • Upshaw or Lynch District
  • Phillips School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • Riverview School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • Milton School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]

  See photo image of Elder Steven Lee Brooks on p.13 in Fulton by E. R. Jones.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Gallatin County, KY
Start Year : 1869
End Year : 1957
In 1869 there were two colored schools in Warsaw, KY, and one of the schools was established by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools in Kentucky]. There was a school in the Parkridge community and according to author Anderson Bell Moore, the school was a log building "erected by free[d] slaves and southern sympathizers." [source: History of Education in Gallatin County Kentucky by A. B. Moore, p.49]. The teacher was Rev. J. P. Maxwell who taught at the Warsaw school for two winters [source: The Sons of Allen by H. Talbert, p.97] The other school was first located upstairs in the Methodist Church, the school did not have a name, and the teacher, Mr. Sim Craig, was a Yale University graduate who taught the students Latin and geometry [source: Moore, p.52]. The tuition was $3 per month. There would later be a colored school building in Warsaw. In 1880, the teachers at the Warsaw Schools were William T. Brassfield and Jennie Smith, and the teachers at Sparta School were Julia Colman and Gertrude Harris [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1892, there were four Negro districts with three teachers at two schools [source: Moore, p.51]; 1895-97 there were 4 colored schools, each with one teacher, and an average attendance between 135 and 158 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.371-374]; and in 1900 the average attendance was 68 students [source: Moore, p.52]. In 1908, there were two colored schools with one teacher at each school [source: Moore, pp.62 & 63]. In 1935, the Parkridge and Warsaw Schools were consolidated into one school in Warsaw and transportation was provided for the students [source: Moore, p.71]. Annetta Warren was the Negro school teacher in 1940, according to the U.S. Federal Census. There was not a colored high school in Gallatin County. The first school to be listed as integrated in Gallatin County, was the Gallatin County High School and Elementary School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.624].

  • Parkridge School
  • Methodist Church School
  • Warsaw Schools (2)
  • Sparta School
  • Colored Schools (4)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Gallatin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Garrard County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
According to author Richard D. Sears, there was a freemen's school in Garrard County, KY in 1869, conducted by Berea student Angus Burleigh. This may be the same school that was established between 1866 and 1870; an American Missionary Association School in Lancaster [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, Joseph Chavis was a school teacher in Brandy Springs; and Samuel Logan was the teacher at Bryantsville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 14 colored schools in Garrard County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.376-379].  The average attendance was 431 and there were 15 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 426 students and 16 teachers during the 1896-97 school term. The teachers' average monthly wages were $45.28 for males and $46.00 for females, during 1895-96; and $37.40 for males and $30.50 for females during 1896-97. In 1898, L. A. Leavell was removed as head of the Lancaster Colored School, and replaced by R. W. Fletcher who was assisted by Miss Willie B. Lackey. In 1900, James A. White was principal of the Lancaster Colored School and the teachers were Miss Mary V. Richey and Miss Willie B. Lackey. The school year closing exercises were held at the courthouse and E. M. Embry gave the address for the graduation held for five students who completed the common school course. E. M. Embry was an African American lawyer in Richmond, KY, and editor of the Rambler newspaper. In 1906, H. E. Murrell was the teacher at the Lancaster Colored School. The school building had burned years ago and the school was held in a location that limited the number of students. The new school was located on Totten Avenue. In 1912, there were 152 students enrolled in the Lancaster Colored School. The principal was J. H. Burns and the teachers were Dora Beverly of Alabama and Isabel Overstreet of Lancaster. In 1923, the teacher at the Marcellus School was Mr. George Gaines [source: "K. N. E. A. Enrollment, 1923," Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.59]. Prior to 1924, students who wanted to go to high school had to pay the tuition to attend at Bate High School in Danville or some other city, so parents petitioned the school board for a colored high school [source: Tommie Merritt oral history interview, #810H72, History of Garrard County Schools, at Eastern Kentucky University Oral History Collection]. In 1925, there was a colored high school in Lancaster; J. P. Griffey was the principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. It was a Class 3 high school with one teacher and 9 girl students. Lancaster High School, later known as Mason High School (1950), opened in 1939 in Duncantown, and there were two teachers for the 56 students and the school was within the Lancaster Independent School System [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.501]; Mrs. Tommie F. Merritt was a teacher at the school and served as principal from 1944 until the Garrard County schools were integrated in 1964. The Negro teachers in Garrard County in 1940 were Henry Kincaid, Susie Letcher, Lilly B.Mason, Cabel Merritt, Charles Payne, Carl M. Peters, Virginia Peters, and William Smith [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Closing of Colored School," Central Record, 05/11/1906, p.1; "Colored School closes," Central Record, 04/26/1912, p.1; "The Colored School," Central Record, 03/01/1900, p.1; "Change in Colored School," Central Record, 01/07/1898, p.1; see p.65 in Garrard County by R. M. Fox; A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91;

  • Freemen School
  • Lancaster American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Boone's Creek School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Brandy Springs School
  • Bryantsville School
  • Davistown School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Flatwoods School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Lancaster School
  • Lowell School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Marcellus School
  • Mason School
  • Scott's Fork School in Buckeye [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • White Oak [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]


See the 1938 photo image of the Lancaster Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky: Lancaster

African American Schools in Grant County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Grant County, KY; the teacher was Peter Farwell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The date of the first Negro school report in Grant County is said to be 1881 according to Samuel Elmore King's 1934 thesis titled A History of Education in Grant County, Kentucky, p.61. There was one school and one school district located in Dry Ridge [source: King, p.65]. There was a school census of 100 Negro children. One of the colored schools was located in Williamstown in 1891, the teacher was Miss Grace Lewis [source: "The Williamstown Colored School," Williamstown Courier, 01/19/1891, last page]. By 1892, there were five colored schools and two were taught in school houses [source: King, p.62]. In 1895, there were four school districts [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky , pp.380-383]. All of the schools were held in frame buildings. There was an average attendance of 84 students 1895-96, and 74 students 1896-97. There was 1 teacher at each school. The number of school districts was reduced to three by 1905, and a County Institute for Colored Teachers was held in Grant County in 1907-1908 [source: King, p.64]. There would be only the one colored school in Dry Ridge by 1934, and Zadah Thompson was the teacher [source: King, p.89]. The Dry Ridge Consolidated Colored School was restored as a project of the Northern Kentucky African-American Task Force and the building opened in June of 2011 as the Grant County Black History Museum [source: N. Jameson, "White woman's passion leads to black history museum," Associated Baptist Press, 06/20/2011]. The museum was burned down by an unknown arsonist in October 2012 [source: "Arson destroys Black History Museum in Grant County," kypost.com, 10/15/2012]. The first school to be listed as integrated in Grant County schools was the Williamstown Independent School in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.428.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Dry Ridge School
  • Williamstown School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grant County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Graves County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1956
Prior to the end of slavery, there were no colored schools in Graves County, KY, according to the thesis of Hubert H. Mills, The History of Education of Graves County, p.64, and there were very few slave owners who taught their slaves reading, writing, and arithmetic. An early school was attempted by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870, the freedmen were beaten and whipped, and the teacher was run out of town [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The first colored schools and capita for Negro students came in 1875, followed by the first school report in 1879 [source: Mills, p.65-66]. There were 12 county school districts with 11 schools that were in session for two months with an average of 276 students who attend the schools on a regular basis. There were 7 log school buildings, 3 frame, and 1 box, with 10 male teachers and 2 female teachers. The male teachers' salaries were $18.68 per month and the female teachers earned $15.67 per month. In 1880, the teachers were Mary Boone, Sandy H. Slayam, and Andrew Carman [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1922, both the male and female teachers were earning $81.90 per month, and in 1937, they were earning $85.51 per month [source: Mills, p.79]. The highest number of colored schools in Graves County was 20 in 1905; 18 frame buildings and two log buildings [source: Mills, p.67]. In the city of Mayfield, in 1908, two elementary schools were established for Negro children, one in east Mayfield and one in southwest Mayfield. In 1917, the two schools were merged and a high school was added [source: Mills, p.147]. A new school had been constructed in 1917, in preparation for the school merger; the building was a two-story brick structure with 12 rooms and located on eight acres of land in southeast Mayfield. The school was named Dunbar Colored School. The building cost $35,000 of which $1,600 was contributed by the Rosenwald Fund. In 1927, a gymnasium and auditorium were constructed in a separate building and was financed by a $40,000 bond issue voted on by the people of Mayfield. In 1928, Dunbar Colored School had an enrollment of 89% of the elementary school-age, Negro, children in the city of Mayfield.  This was one of the highest enrollment percentages of African American elementary students in the state of Kentucky. The students were taught by five teachers, all of whom met the requirement of two years of normal school training and two years of teaching experience. There were 86 students in the high school in 1928, and four graduated. From 1917-1928, there were 31 total graduates from Dunbar Colored High School, and half of the graduates had gone on to college [source: Mills, p.146]. The high school students were taught by four teachers, one of whom was the principal, and all met the requirement of a college degree and two years of teaching experience. The grade school teachers earned an average salary of $70 per month; high school teachers earned $85 per month; and the principal earned $125 per month [source: Mills, pp.145-146]. There were 12 colored schools in the county in 1928, and nine of the schools had male teachers and three with female teachers. The school term was seven months. The newest county school building had been constructed 1926 in Water Valley and the Rosenwald Fund contributed $400 toward the cost of construction. Hickory Colored School was built in 1925. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Graves County were Christine Crawford, Asbury Dawson, Artice England, Henry T. Frazell, Mary Anna Frizzell, George Hale, Jesse K. Killebrew, Salene Murphy, Ruby Sapp, Henry H. Schofield, Brady M. Schofield, Fredrick E. Stiger, Ocala Taylor, Bonnie Taylor, Inez C. Utterback, Myra Williams, and Verna Word [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Mayfield High School for whites was the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429]. 

  • Colored Schools (20)
  • Dunbar School
  • Hickory School
  • Mayfield Schools (2)
  • Water Valley School
  • Pleasant Hill School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.856]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Graves County

African American Schools in Grayson County, KY
Start Year : 1877
End Year : 1956
In 1940, the available records indicated that the first colored school in Grayson County, KY, was located in Leitchfield, according to the thesis of E. E. McMullin, History of Education in Grayson County, p.79. There is mention of the school on p.293 in Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky. History of Kentucky, published in 1877. There were never more than three colored schools in Grayson County. There was never a colored high school in Grayson County. In 1901, there were two colored schools [source: McMullin, p.54]. During the 1895-97 school terms, there were four schools, each with one teacher, and three of the schools were taught for five months: the average attendance was 102 students the first year, and 86 students the second year [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.390-393]. In 1908, there were three colored schools, one each in Leitchfield, Grayson Springs, and Caneyville [source: McMullin, p.126]. By 1940, there was only the one colored school in Leitchfield which had been under the county until 1934 [source: McMullin, p.79]. There were 18 students and the teacher was Miss Annie Clements [source: McMullin, p.79] and, in 1945 she was Mrs. Annie C. Johnson and still the Leitchfield Colored School teacher [source: KNEA Journal, v.16, April-May 1945, no.2-3, p.29]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429, were the Leitchfield Independent Grade and High Schools.

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Leitchfield School
  • Grayson Springs School
  • Caneyville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grayson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Green County, KY
Start Year : 1812
End Year : 1956
In 1812, there was a slave school in Greensburg, KY, operated by a slave named Joe, the school was forced to close [see NKAA entry for Slave School in Greensburg, KY]. In 1880, the teachers were Henry Hazell and Unice White [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1893, Green County, KY had 14 colored school districts with 14 schools, 9 made of logs and 5 that were frame, and 270 regular students who were taught by 13 Negro teachers, according to the thesis of Thomas Franklin Hamilton, The History of Education in Green County, pp.55-58. There had been as many as 17, one room, one teacher, colored schools in Green County [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. The first colored teachers institute was held n 1885 with 15 teachers in attendance [source: Hamilton, pp.97 & 101]. By 1893, the Negro teachers had more college credit hours and more teaching experience, and they were paid a higher monthly salary than white teachers in Green County [source: Hamilton, pp.58 &76-77]. In 1919, there were three Colored Moonlight Schools, one each held in the colored schools in Ote, Gresham, and Whitewood [see NKAA entry for African American Moonlight Schools]. There would continue to be 14-15 colored schools until the Negro population in Green County started to decline, and in 1942 there nine colored schools, grades 1-8 [source: Hamilton, p.98]. The school teachers were Florida M. Blackburn, Anna D. Calhoun, Extell F. Curry, Mrs. Extell F. Curry, Lettie J. Curry, Mrs. Ulyses Golder, Ada J. Groves, Fannie M. Curry Ivery, and Lana William [source: Hamilton, p.100]. With the decline in the number of colored schools, the students who had been attending school in Hazel Ridge were transported to the school in Summersville, and the students at Liletown were transported to a colored school in Metcalfe County. There was never a colored high school in Green County; there were contracts with colored high schools in surrounding counties for the instruction of Negro students from Green County [source: Hamilton, p.98-99]. Transporting and boarding students in homes in nearby counties was a hardship and costly, and few Negro students from Green County attended high school. In response, the Green County Board of Education formed an agreement with the Campbellsville Board of Education for the teaching of Negro high school students in Campbellsville. Transportation was provided to and from the school, and in 1941-42, there were 22 high school students in Green County, and 25 students the following school year. The Negro teachers in Green County in 1940 included Lettie Curry and A. Golder [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Green County schools started to integrated in 1955 with the Greensburg High School for whites [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429].

  • Slave School by Joe
  • Hazel Ridge School
  • Summersville School
  • Liletown School
  • Ote School
  • Gresham School
  • Whitewood School
  • Greensburg School
  • Pleasant Run School
  • Pleasant Hill School
  • Owen's Ridge School
  • Mt. Moriah School
  • Meadow Creek School
  • Little Pitman School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Cidar Top School
  • Moonlight Schools (3)
  • Summersville School #2 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.857]

 

See photo image of Greensburg Colored School and historical maker at the flickr site by The Feedman.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Greenup County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the earliest known colored schools in Greenup County, KY, was in session in 1866, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1866]. The first colored school districts in Greenup County were established in 1874, per capita funding for the students came about in 1875, and in 1876 the city of Greenup had 1 school district with 73 students, and in Fulton there were 2 school districts with 54 students, all according to The History of Education in Greenup County, Kentucky by Benjamin F. Kidwell, pp.45 & 62-63. The school teachers were hired from up north, and were consider unprepared for teaching in the colored schools. By 1891, there was a school in Wurtland, and the two school districts in Fulton no longer existed. During the 1895-1897 school terms, there were two colored schools in Greenup County with one teacher at each school, and the schools had an average attendance of 37-38 students, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.400-403. The Wurtland School was merged into the Greenup School in 1911 [source: Kidwell, pp.158-160]. The Greenup and Wurtland colored schools had had an all time high of 51 students in 1891, and by 1928, when there was only the Greenup Colored School, there were 27 students. The decrease in students was said to be due to Negro families leaving the area for work in the mines in Ohio and West Virginia. The Greenup Colored School was referred to as School Number A, and during the 1928-29 school term, there was one teacher and 57 students [source: Kidwell, p.159]. In 1930, Martin W. Nelson was the school janitor [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1936, Sallie Churchill was the school teacher in the Greenup Colored School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.43]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Greenup County.  Greenup High School for whites was first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Greenup County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hancock County, KY
Start Year : 1887
End Year : 1956
In 1887, there was "a bill for the benefit of Hawesville colored school in Hancock county."--[source: Journal of the House of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1887, p.1210]. In 1895, Hancock County had four colored districts with one school in each district and one teacher at each school, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.404-407. Two of the schools were made of log and two were frame buildings. The schools were taught for five months, and there were a total of 101 students 1895-96, and 133 students 1896-97. In 1918, the charter for one of the Hawesville colored schools was repealed; the colored schools were consolidated [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1918, p.406]. By 1925, there were two colored elementary schools [source:Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. Mrs. Mary B. Perkins was a teacher in 1928, she lived in Lewisport, and Mrs. Carrie J. Poole was the teacher in Hawesville [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, pp.51 & 52]. In 1930, there were 42 students regularly attending the two colored schools in Hancock County, and two high school students were attending school elsewhere [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.64]. In 1940 the Negro teacher in Hancock County was Mary B. Perkins [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1944, there were 34 children enrolled in the one colored school in Lewisport, and there were 13 high school students attending school elsewhere [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1944-1945, p.359]. During the 1956 school term, the Hawesville and Lewisport Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.430].

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Hawesville School
  • Lewisport School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hancock County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hardin County, KY
Start Year : 1867
End Year : 1956
The first colored school in Hardin County, KY, is thought to have been located in Elizabethtown in 1867, according to the thesis of Hubert W. Comer, History of Education in Hardin County, p.74-75. The school term was three months and there was an average attendance of 45 students. The teachers' average monthly salary in 1893 was $26, and by 1908, the average salary was $37. The first school may or may not be the same school that existed in 1869, referred to as the African School of Elizabethtown by author Lottie Offett Robinson in The Bond-Washington Story, on p.28. The African School was a subscription school and members of the African American community had purchased a lot to build a school house at the corner of Lincoln and Kennedy Avenue. Another school mentioned in Robinson's book, was run by Reverend George W. Bowling (b.1849 in VA), classes were held in a two room cabin on Dixie Avenue [source: Robinson, p.28]. Another school, District A School, came under the county jurisdiction, but was located in town [source: Robinson, p.36]. In the county area, there were 11 colored schools in 1880, and that would increase to an all time high of 15 schools with 17 teachers in 1893 [source: Comer, p.76]. The number of county schools had decreased by 1908 to 10 schools with 11 teachers. The average attendance was about 50% of the overall colored school student census. Two of the county colored schools were located in Glendale [source: Robinson, p.57]. There was also the West Point Colored Independent School, grades 1-8. In 1933, the county teachers' average monthly salary was $82.30, and in 1935, there were four teachers with an average salary of $85.36 [source: Comer, p.114-115]. The only colored high school in Hardin County was located in Elizabethtown, it was named East Side High School [source: Robinson, p.40]. The school opened in 1921 with a two year curriculum, and became a four year high school in 1926 [source: Comer, p.115]. There were four teachers and 31 students. Two years later, the high school was renamed Bond-Washington High School in honor of James M. Bond and Booker T. Washington [source: Robinson, p.40]. The high school was attended by African American students within the entire Hardin County area, and those in LaRue County who paid tuition, and those from Ft. Knox whose tuition was paid by the military. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Hardin County were Ethel R. Lomax, Mary L. Martin, Sadie M. Rend, John B. Robinson, Mary S. Smith, and Bessie Thompson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Ft. Knox Reservation School (private), later listed as the Ft. Knox Dependent School, was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1948-49, p.685. The Ft. Knox Dependent School was also among the first four schools in Hardin County to be listed as integrated in 1956, the other three were Elizabethtown High School, Elizabethtown Catholic High School, and the West Point Independent Schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.430.  Also, the Glendale School, Sonora School, and Vine Grove School were listed as "white & integrated." See also Educating rural African Americans in pre-brown decision America: one-room school education in Hardin county, Kentucky 1941-1954 by E. J. Hill

  • Colored County Schools (15)
  • African School
  • Reverend Bowling's School
  • District A School
  • Glendale Schools (2)
  • East Side High School
  • Bond-Washington High School
  • West Point Independent School

See photo image of West Point Colored School on p.20 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 (.pdf).

See photo image of dilapidated West Point Colored Independent School at the flickr site by Steph M. Clark.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hardin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Harlan County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1890, there were two colored schools in Harlan County, KY, with 70 students, according to the thesis of Lottie McCoy, History of Education in Harlan County, Kentucky, p.118. In the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Harlan County is included in the list of counties that had a colored school [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1918-1919, there were only three Negro teachers in the county school system, and in Camp No.3, the coal mine superintendent had set aside an old building to be used as a school for the 12 Negro children [source: see the section "Negro Schools," pp.357-358 in the M. B. Ellis article, "Children of the Kentucky coal fields," The American Child, v.1, May 1919-February 1920]. In Lynch, there was a colored school held in temporary quarters and classes were conducted by two teachers. The colored school in Benham was held in an old church with an average attendance of 65 students, though there were 135 Negro children of school age. During the 1918-1919 school term, there were six children in the 8th grade at the Benham Colored School. Plans were discussed for a $6,000 brick school house to be built with a playground. In 1919, Rosenwald funds were available and a colored school was built in Harlan that had a class B high school, there were four teachers and 240 students [source: McCoy, p.118]. In 1923 a school was built by the U. S. Coal and Coke Company and leased to the Lynch Colored Common Graded School District [source: R. Creech, "Historical marker honors Lynch Colored School," Harlan Daily Enterprise, 2003]. The Lynch Colored School had 567 students, 13 teachers, and the school had a four year high school with a class B rating [source: McCoy, p.118]. The high school was attended by students from both Lynch and Benham. The school was considered the best colored school in southeastern Kentucky, and many of the teachers were graduates of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. The Lynch mines schools system was one of the few to have a colored school superintendent, B. B. Smith [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Other colored schools in Harlan County were located in Closplint, Verda, Shields, Louellen, Kildav, Coxton, Tway, Liggett, Benham, Yancey, Black Mountain [source: McCoy, p.118]. All of the colored schools were under Lela Virginia Becker, the first colored school supervisor in Harlan County. The Benham, Harlan, and Lynch high schools were among the approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky between 1918-1940, and Lynch Colored High School had the highest number of students [see NKAA entry African American High Schools, Eastern Kentucky, 1948]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Harlan County were Vivian Baker, William Boyant, Georgia Bradshaw, Vivian Breedlove, Edward E. Brewer, Julius Burrell, Helen Carroll, Ben Caise, John V. Coleman, Alma Dallas, Judith Davis, T. Leory Davis, Lydia Gray, S. Henry Hagnes, Mary P. Houston, Mary L. Jackson, Lillian King, Alberta Leavis, L. C. McCrery, Ruth Mathews, Lorene McClinnick, Lovey Mitchell, Franklin Moore, Hannah Moore, Alice Parsons, Joseph Perry, Ercell Powell, Addie G. Reed, Johnnie M. Riggins, Sanford Scott, Mary Sheabe, Edythe Spencer, Henrietta Sweat, Geneva Tapp, Virginia Tichenor, Johnnie B. Ware, Mary J. Williams, Clara Woolfork, Johnnie Wood, William M. Wood, Jessie Howard, and Jennie B. Hall [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Harlan County Area Vocational School was the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 859.

  • Harlan School
  • Lynch School
  • Closplint School
  • Verda School
  • Shields School
  • Louellen School
  • Kildav School
  • Coxton School
  • Tway School
  • Liggett School
  • Benham School
  • Yancey School
  • Black Mountain School
  • Evarts School  [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • West Main (Lynch) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.860]
  • Camp Number 1 School (Lynch) [source: Steve Andriga Oral History recording #1986OH275 at UK Libraries Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History]
  • Camp Number 3 School (Lynch)

See photo image of Harlan Negro School at Explore UK.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky.

African American Schools in Harrison County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
According to the 1866 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, there was a colored school in Harrison County in 1866. It may have been one of the two schools in Cynthiana that were funded by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. A history of the colored schools was found in the Harrison County Historical Society files and reprinted in the Harrison Heritage News, with editing by William A. Penn. The original author is unknown. According to the article, it was thought that the first colored school in Harrison County opened in 1868 and was the beginning of formal education for African Americans in the county. The school was located on the "Commons" near the river [source: History of Education in Harrison County, by Mrs. H. E. Young, p.115]. According to the article in the Harrison Heritage News, a second school was located on Water Street. In 1870, a colored school was constructed in Cynthiana by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, and in December of 1869, there was an American Missionary Society (AMS) school [source: Tenth Semi-annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1870, by J. W. Alvord]. A teacher at the American Missionary Society School in Cythiana was C. C. Vaughn, from Virginia. Vaughn was at the school for two years and left in 1870 to continue his education at Berea College [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.104-105]. The schools were independently managed, and it was after 1875 that the colored schools came under the Harrison County Board of Education [source: History of Education in Harrison County, pp.32-33]. In 1880, the school teachers were Laura Brown in Leesburg; Janie Harding, Ella Asberry, and Frank Howard in Cynthiana [source: U.S Federal Census]. In 1885, there were nine colored school districts with eight schools. The teachers were from Xenia, OH. In 1892, there were 11 colored school districts with 11 common schools, and the school terms lasted for 3 months (2 schools), 4 months (2 schools), 5 months (5 schools), and more than 5 months (2 schools) [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1892, p.357-361]. Three of the school buildings were made of log, seven were frame structures, and 1 was made of brick. There were 1,165 school age children, of which 602 were enrolled in the colored common schools and they were taught by 13 teachers. In 1890, there was an all time high of 14 teachers in the colored elementary schools [source: History of Education in Harrison County, p.70]. In 1893, a new colored school was opened, bringing the total number of schools to 12; ten of the schools were taught for 5 months, and two were taught for more than 5 months. All but one of the schools was located in the county. Beginning in 1895, the colored schools were in session for nine months [source: History of Education in Harrison County, p.121]. By 1908, there were eight colored school teachers. The city school, Cynthiana Colored School, had three teachers, and was soon overcrowded. In 1921, the Board of Education purchased the old hospital in Cynthiana, had the building remodeled, the name Cynthiana Colored School changed to Banneker School, and two years of high school were added to the curriculum [source: History of Education in Harrison County, pp.116-124]. Mr. Newsom was principal. At the end of the school term in 1925, there were 150 students enrolled in Banneker School. The teachers earned a little more than $400 annual salary and the principal earned $1,000. By 1926, the number of colored teachers had decreased to 5, and the reason given was due the decrease in the African American population in Harrison County. The first high school graduation took place in 1928 [source: Harrison Heritage News]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Harrison County were Ernest Alexandria, Jessie Crawford, Vivian David, May H. Fields, James F. Hillard, Ethel L. Jones, and Lucindia Lewis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1956, the first schools in Harrison County to be listed as integrated were Buena Vista, Connersville, Harrison County High School, Oddville, Renaker, and Cynthiana High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.431]. For more see "African American Education in Harrison County," Harrison Heritage News, vol. 6, issue 2, February 2005 [available online]; and Welcome to Harrison County, KYGenWeb [online]. 

  • Banneker School, 1921-1963
  • Cynthiana American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Cynthiana Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Cynthiana School, ?-1921
  • Leesburg School
  • Water Street School


See photo images in Cynthiana by M. B. Kennerly, pp.51-55, via Google Books.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hart County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were two colored schools in Hart County, KY, a freedmen school in Munfordville and one in Woodsonville. The schools were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. There were two districts with colored common schools in 1875, when the school commissioner failed to report the schools to the Superintendent of Public Instruction and no appropriations were made from the public fund, thus the school commissioner had to pay $36 for the 146 students and he was later reimbursed [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1875, v.2, Chapter 798, pp.575-576]. The Halltown Colored School opened around 1878 and closed in 1953, according to the marker outside the school house that was restored by the Mt. Gilboa Baptist Church; it was the last one room colored school in Hart County. In 1880, Maria Cox was a school teacher in Hardyville, along with John W. Harlow who was also a preacher, and in 1900 Lettia Rowe was a school teacher in Priceville [sources: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1886, Hart County had 10 colored school districts [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. Two years later, there were 15 colored schools: 12 schools held for 5 months; 2 schools held for three months; and no teacher was found for the school in the smallest district [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1888, pp.185-187]. During the 1901-02 school term the Negro teachers earned an average monthly salary of $31.56, and during the 1902-03 term they earned an average of $29.67 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1901-June 1903, p.354]. In 1925, there were 10 colored elementary schools in Hart County, each with one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. During the 1932-1933 school term, a 3rd class high school was added to the Horse Cave Colored School and there were 15 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.49]. In the 1940 U.S. Census, the following Hart County teachers were included: Verd R. A. Butler; Henrietta G. Best; Newton S. Thomas in Horse Cave; Miss Mae Willie Wood in Munfordville; and Gladys Woodson. Newton S. Thomas was the school principal at Horse Cave Colored School from 1937-1957, he was also the basketball coach [source: Kentucky Civil Rights Oral History Project, Interview with Newton Thomas, May 28, 2002, Conducted by Betsy Brinson .pdf]. When Thomas arrived at the school, there were grades 1-12 with 128 students taught by 6 teachers and Thomas taught the high school with one other teacher. In 1955, Carter Dowling in Munfordville was the largest colored elementary school in Hart County, with 195 students and 5 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.214]. The Memorial High School and Munfordville High School began to integrate during the 1956-57 school term according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, pp.627-628.

  • Colored Schools (15)
  • Munfordville Freedmen School
  • Woodsonville Freedmen School
  • Hardyville School
  • Priceville School
  • Horse Cave School
  • Halltown School
  • Carter Dowling School

See photo image of Halltown Colored School and the marker at the flickr site by The Freedman.

See photo images of students of the Horse Cave Colored School, at the Horse Cave Stories website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Henderson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a school in Henderson County, KY, that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. The school didn't last: the teachers were threatened and run out of town [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. There was a colored school in Cairo in the early 1870s [source: Starling, p. 378], and Dr. Pickney Thompson is credited as the author of the 1871 act that created a colored school in the city of Henderson, KY [source: History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling, p. 719]. The act was amended in 1872 because of a wording error, "...be so amended as to read between the ages of six and twenty years, instead of between the ages of sixteen and twenty years..." -- [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1871, Chapter 112, p. 194]. The trustees of the school were all white: Dr. Pickney Thompson, H. S. Park, A. F. Parker, Jacob Held Jr., and Y. E. Allison [source: History of Education in Henderson County, Kentucky, by Hal E. Dudley, pp. 91-92]. A school house was built on the lot located at the corner of First and Alves Streets; the lot was purchased by the Trustees. Classes started September 2, 1872, and Samuel Harris, who was also white, was the superintendent and one of the teachers. He was assisted by Mrs. E. P. Thompson, an African American, who resigned after three months. She was replaced by Mrs. Mary W. Letcher, also African American; she had been a school teacher in Henderson County since before the 1871 colored school opened in the town of Henderson. Both Mary Letcher and William W. Gilchrist were two of the African American teachers in Henderson County as early as 1870, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Teacher John Mason had also been employed as the Henderson colored school superintendent in 1874, and his wife Martha was the assistant teacher [source: Dudley, p. 92]. There were 145 students attending the school [source: Dudley, p. 93]. The Masons were from Louisville, KY, and had been teachers at Runkle Institute in Paducah, KY. Runkle Institute was one of the early schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Four years after the Masons arrived in Henderson, KY, in 1878 another room was added to the Henderson colored school and Miss Virgie D. Harris, a graduate of the school, was added to the teaching staff. In 1880, the teachers listed in the census were Mary Letcher, Addy Letcher, Elija Ash, John K. Mason, and William H. Hall who lived at the home of Aaron Cabell. During the 1882-83 school term, another addition was made to the Henderson colored school, and there were four teachers: the Masons, Miss Alice B. Moting, and William H. Hall. Two other schools in Henderson were the High Street School built in 1881 and the Alves Street School, which was built in 1889; a colored high school was established on the third floor of the Alves Street School [source: Dudley, p. 93]. The county colored schools were developed after 1871, and in the year 1880 there were 16 colored schools, and in 1892 there were 37 [source: Dudley, p. 121]. By 1908, there were 663 students enrolled in the Henderson County colored schools [source: Dudley, p. 93]. In 1916, the expected attendance at the Anthoston Colored School was 19 [source: Library of Congress, PPOC]. In 1935, the number of county colored schools had decreased to 15 one-room schools and a three-room school. [source: Dudley, p. 177]. The school in Corydon had three teachers, and there was also a two-year high school. The new Douglass High School, built in 1931-32 on the corner of Alvasia and Clay Streets, was in the city of Henderson and served as the high school for all the other colored schools in Henderson County [source: Dudley, pp. 177 & 155]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Henderson County were Annette C. Brown, Martha Bunch, Adella Cabell, Geneva Caldwell, Henry Ellis Cheaney, Thelma Clark, Jolene Collins, Anna Mae Dixon, Fannie Dixon, William Dixon, Adella Early, Laura Early, Hazel M. Fellows, Nellie Garland, Edward Gloss, Rosa C. Green, Ella Hill, Lorenza D. Jones, Herbert Kirkwood, O'Herl Laugley, Shelton Laugley, Florence LaVette, Eugene Mundy, Helen Neeley, Willa M. Reeder, Albert W. Settle, Tommie Soper, Walter H. Story, Mary Sweatt, Pasey Taylor, Lee Thomson, Lorene Towler, Flora A. J. Walker, and Willa Mae West [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1951, G. Brisco Houston was principal of the Henderson County Consolidated Schools [source: "Notes on district officers," KNEA Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 6 (online at Kentucky Digital Library)]. In 1956, the first schools to be listed as integrated were Weaverton, Central Grade School, and Seventh Street Grade School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.431].

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (37)
  • Henderson School
  • Eighth Street School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1933-34, p.46]
  • High Street School
  • Alves Street School
  • Douglass High School
  • Cairo School
  • Anthoston School
  • Corydon School
  • Henderson County Consolidated Schools
  • Henderson County Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-38, p.45]
  • J. Boyd School [see p. 23 in Kentucky Historic Schools Survey by R. Kennedy and C. Johnson]
  • Scuffletown School [see p. 23 in Kentucky Historic Schools Survey by R. Kennedy and C. Johnson]
  • St. Clement's Mission School - The church grew out of Sunday afternoon Sunday School held at a home with teachers Mary Jane Gaines and Charlotte Lyne. The mission was established in 1887 by Rt. Rev. Thomas U. Dudley, and the lot was given and the building was funded by Mrs. Virginia Barnett Gibbs so that a day school could be added. Rev. Churchill Eastin was the 1st priest in charge of the mission [sources: "Churches" a sheet in File: Henderson County - Education, Box 16, of the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, University of Kentucky Special Collections; and Journal of Proceedings of the 63 Annual Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Diocese of Kentucky, May 20-22, 1891].

 

   See photo images of the Anthoston Colored School and students, the images are within the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog [PPOC].

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Henry County, KY
Start Year : 1871
End Year : 1956
From 1871-1875, Elijah P. Marrs taught at a colored school in New Castle, KY, the school was in session from January-June of each year [source: Life and History of the Reverend Elijah P. Marrs, pp.88-108]. Other Negro teachers at the colored schools were Ben Booker at Jericho, George Ecton at New Castle, John Styles at Eminence, and Ada Straws at Pleasureville [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, the New Castle School was opened by the Church of Christ; the property where the school stood was purchased in 1884 and the church constructed the school two years later [source: Churches of Christ by J. T. Brown, pp.173-174]. Dr. J. M. Mainwaring was the teacher for one year. T. August Reid was the school president the following year and continued up to 1892 when the school closed. From 1895-1897, Henry County had 10 colored school districts with one school in each district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.434-438]. The schools had an average attendance of 342 students with 12 teachers, 1895-96, and an average of 371 students with 13 teachers, 1896-97. A few years later, during the 1910-11 school term, there were 410 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent, p.111]. Mrs. Essie Gaskins was the teacher at the Campbellsburg School in 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.28 (NOT Campbellsville)]; along with Elizabeth Jenkins [p.30] and A. L. McKane [p.31] at New Castle; Olivia A. Long [p.32] and R. D. Roman [p.35] at Eminence; and Lula M. Willis [p.38] at Pleasureville. By 1925, there were 6 colored elementary schools with 8 teachers and 326 students enrolled in the rural schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. Five years later, the colored school in Eminence had an average attendance of 76 students in the elementary grades, taught by 2 women teachers who earned total salaries of $978, and there was a Class III high school with three students taught by one male teacher who earned a total salary of $704 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.67]. The Negro teachers in Henry county in 1940 were Nannie M. Armstrong, Hattie Clackson, and Louis Spradling [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Both the county and city schools in Henry County remained segregated until integration began at the Eminence High School for whites during the 1956-57 school term, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.432.

  • New Castle Colored School [taught by Elijah P. Marrs, 1875]
  • New Castle School [Church of Christ, 1886-1892]
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Jericho School
  • Campbellsburg School
  • New Castle School
  • Eminence School
  • Pleasureville School
  • King Street School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.628]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hickman County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Between 1866 and 1870 there was a Freedmen School in Columbus, KY, [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. Six Hickman County colored schools are included in the title Hickman County, Kentucky, One Room Schools by LaDonna Latham. The schools are listed below. In 1880, Myra Ashley was a teacher at the Clinton School, and George E. Nall, from Alabama, was a teacher at the Columbus School [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 10 colored schools in Hickman County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.439-443. The average attendance was over 450 students taught by 13 teachers. Beginning in 1911, the Clinton colored school served as a traveling library station, and there was a second station for African Americans in Columbus, both in Hickman County [source: Kentucky Library Commission, Biennial Report, 1910-1929]. A new brick school house was completed in 1915 for the colored students in Clinton, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1915]. In 1928, there were seven teachers in the Hickman County colored schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 18-21, 1928, p. 25]. There were nine teachers during the 1933-34 school term, two of whom had two years of college and four had one year of college, and there were two new school buildings constructed in the county for the colored children [source: History of Education in Hickman County, Kentucky (thesis), by V. A. Jackson, pp. 121 & 127]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Hickman County were Emma Kane, Georgia Cromwell, Christine Dorrel, Lena Harper, Edgar Jones Jr., Laculia Jones, Vera Rash, and Harriett Webb [source: U.S. Federal Census].  In 1947, the Hickman County school teachers listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, p. 28, were Mrs. Christine Cole, Mrs. Vivian Jones, Grant Martin Jr., Mrs. Melvan Martin, and Mrs. Susie M. Powell. The first school to be listed as integrated was Hickman County High School on p.114 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Clinton School
  • Columbus Freedmen School held in rented school house
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Columbus School
  • Hailwell School
  • Hayes School
  • Moscow School
  • Oakton School
  • Springhill School
  • Wolf Island School
  • Kane School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Sunshine Hill School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hickman County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Jackson County, KY
Start Year : 1882
The Pine Grove College in Jackson County, KY, was founded by Berea College in 1882. It was an integrated school. Colored and white children had been attending the same school even before Pine Grove College was established. There is not a record of a colored public school in Jackson County, KY [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory; Kentucky School Directory; Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. Jackson County was established in 1860, and according to the U.S. Federal Census, in 1870 there were six African American children between the ages of 5 and 10, they lived in Horse Lick and Coyle. In 1900, there were nine African American children between the ages of 10 and 18, they lived in Horse Lick and Pond Creek. It is not known when Pine Grove College closed. In the 1940 U.S. Census, there are no African American children of school age.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jackson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Jessamine County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1963
One of the earliest African American schools in Jessamine County, KY, was Arial Academy, founded in 1868 at what had been Camp Nelson then renamed Arial. The school was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools). Ariel Academy was open to both girls and boys, then became an all girls school. The school was renamed Camp Nelson Academy, and in 1871, it became Fee Memorial Institute, organized by Rev. John G. Fee about a mile from the national cemetery on Danville Pike, according to the thesis of James Edward Nankivell, The History of Education of Jessamine County, pp.111-121. The school had an independent board of trustees before it was turned over to the Presbyterian Church. There were 12 acres of land, a three story framed dormitory, and a school building. The school contained grades 1-8, and any continuing students went to Berea College for high school. The three teachers earned between $10-$12 per month, with free room and board. In 1904, Berea College was segregated. Fee Memorial Institute continued with grades 1-8, until 1916 when a normal school training program for teachers was added, and the graduate students would do their practice teaching at Fee Memorial Institute. In 1924, fifteen acres of land was purchased on the eastern border of Nicholasville and a new brick school house was constructed. The cost was $10 per month, per student, for room and board. In addition to Fee Memorial Institute, a second colored school in Jessamine County was established in 1873 in Sulphur Well [source: Nankivell, p.121]. By 1880, there were seven colored school districts in the county: three with frame school houses, districts 5-7; school was held in a tent in district 4; and there were no school houses in districts 1-3. The tuition was between 60 cents and $2.28 per three months of instruction [source: Nankivell, p.122]. The Nicholasville school had the lowest attendance with 11 students, and the Lee and Hervytown Schools had the highest attendance with 30 students. All of the teachers were males, and they earned between $12-$27.68 per month. In 1888, a Colored Teachers Institute was organized [source: Nankivell, p.123-127]. By 1890, there was a school house in all of the colored school districts [source: Nankivell, p.128]. In 1891, there were four more schools, and there would be as many as 12 colored school districts before the number was reduced to seven by 1927. All of the schools, except the one in Nicholasville, were under the county board of education and had grades 1-8 [source: Nankivell, pp.130-134]. The Nicholasville school was under the city board of education and had grades 1-8 and a two year high school program. A new school building was constructed in 1930. A private school, Keene Industrial Institute, was opened in 1900 by Prof. W. H. Parker [see NKAA entry for Keene Industrial Institute]. The school was moved to Beattyville in 1903. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Jessamine County were Mattie M. Byrd, John C. Caldwell, Mattie D. Crutcher, Bettie M. Frye, Emma J. Guyon [Emma Jean Guyn Miller], Roberta Miller, Albert Myers, Cecil Payne, L. Payne, Molly Payne, Elna Pitts, Weldon Smothers, and Sadie Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Jessamine County were integrated in 1963 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.121].

  • Arial Academy
  • Camp Nelson Academy
  • Fee Memorial Institute
  • Sulphur Well - District 6 (frame school house)
  • Nicholasville School - District 1 (no school house)
  • Hervytown School - District 2 (no school house)
  • Keene School - District 3 (no school house)
  • Lee School - District 4 (school held in a tent)
  • Camp Nelson School - District 5 (box structured school)
  • Marble Creek School - District 7 (frame school house)
  • Troutman School - District 8
  • Troy School - District 9
  • Hickman School - District 10
  • Clear Creek School - District 11
  • Wilmore School [source: R. G. Harden, "Rosenwald-Dunbar 50th Anniversary Reunion," July 18, 2013, p.4  - copy provided by Hallie Miller]
  • Vineyard School [source: Carrie Mae Burdette Oral History Interview at University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.] [source: Hallie B. Miller - "Weldon Smothers was a teacher at the Vineyard School."]
  • Keene Industrial Institute
  • Rosenwald-Dunbar School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jessamine County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Johnson County, KY
Start Year : 1927
End Year : 1956
There is not a record of colored schools or Negro children in Johnson County, KY, prior to 1927 [sources: Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. Though the children are not listed in the education reports, in 1870, there were at least five Negro children between the ages of 5 and 18, and in 1920, there were fifteen [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The children may have attended school in a nearby county. It would be several more years before there was a report of one colored elementary school in Johnson County with 12 students and one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.63] The school was located in Van Leer. The next report is of one colored student on p.51 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1934-35. A little more than two decades later, the Mayo State Vocational School in Paintsville is listed as having both white and colored students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory,1955-56, p.218]. The term "integration" is not used until the following year in reference to Mayo State Vocational School in Paintsville and Our Lady of the Mountains School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.436]. The Mayo State Vocational School continued to be listed consistently as the integrated school in Johnson County.

  • Van Leer School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Johnson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Kenton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were schools for African Americans held in churches in Kenton County, KY, and there were schools led by the American Missionary Association and a Freedmen School that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. After the Freedmen's Bureau left Kentucky, the Covington Board of Education hired the first African American teacher in 1873, she was paid $30 per month according to the thesis of Howard H. Mills, A History of Education of Covington, Kentucky, p.65. Classes started the first Monday of September in the Second District School on Greer Street. The school had been used by white students up until 1871. Several years later, in 1879, the African American school had grown considerably, there was an average attendance of 173 students who were instructed by the principal and two teachers [source: Mills, p.72]. In 1880, the teachers in Covington were Edward Trail from Kentucky, amd John S. McLeod and Della Williams from Ohio [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was also a teacher at the school in Milldale, in 1883 there was a search for a new teacher [see NKAA entry for Milldale Colored School]. In Covington, the colored school was moved to the southside of 7th Street between Scott and Madison Streets [source: William's Covington and Newport Directory,1882, p.15], it was named 7th Street Colored School and Samuel R. Singer was the principal [source: William's, p.134]. Clara B. Grandstaff, from Cincinnati, was a teacher at the school [source: William's, p.65] along with Minnie Moore who was also from Cincinnati [source: William's, p.107]. In 1884, Andrew Jackson was the janitor at the school [source: William's, 1884, p.95]. A new school building for the 7th Street Colored School was completed in 1888 [source: B. L. Nordheim, Echoes of the Past]. By 1893, there was an average attendance of 287 students taught by nine teachers: Samuel R. Singer, Principal; Minnie Moore; Lillian Armstrong; Tillie Young; Laura A. Tray; Mary E. Allen; Annie Price; Charles Haggard; and Edwin H. Ball [source: Mills, p.82]. A woman teacher taught high school classes beginning in 1895, the program was named William Grant High School. William Grant (info at nky.com) was a Kentucky Legislator from Covington who had followed through on his promise of an African American public school in exchange for the African American vote in 1876. The first William Grant High School graduation was held June 21, 1889, with two graduates, Annie E. Price Hood and Mary E. Allen [source: "Lincoln-Grant School" by T. H. H. Harris in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, pp.552-554]. Both graduates had been elementary school teachers at the 7th Street Colored School.  In 1909, the city of Latonia was annexed to Covington and the Lincoln Colored School in Latonia was merged with the 7th Street Colored School in Covington, and the combined school was named Lincoln-Grant School, while the high school kept the name William Grant [source: "William L. Grant" by T. H. H. Harris on p.413 in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky]. The number of school age children increased to 44 high school students and 360 students in the elementary grades [source: Mills, p.103]. In 1914, the night high school was established in Covington for students who had completed 8th grade and were at least 14 years old [source: Mills, p.107]. In the colored night school, students were taught basic English and arithmetic. By 1924, within the colored day school, there were 519 students with a teaching faculty of 4 high school teachers and 18 elementary teachers [source: Mills, p.114]. The number of students would outgrown the size of the building, and in 1928, a bond was issued and passed with $250,000 approved for the building of a new colored school on Greenup Street, to be completed by September of 1930 [source: Mills, p.117]. The plans had to be changed due to the down turn in the economy and the school was completed in 1932. [For an early history of the William Grant School see "History of the School" on pp.1 and 2 of The Lincoln-Grant Herald, v.1, no.1, January 1913.] Another colored school in Covington was the United Bible School at 801 Russell Avenue, it opened around 1940 and is listed in William's Covington (Kenton Co., Ky) City Directory. In 1943, J. M. Gillian was the teacher at this school [source: Williams, p.411]. There was also a school for African American children in Elsmere, KY, Wilkins Heights. The head teacher was Rosella F. Porterfield who is recognized for encouraging the integration of Elsmere schools in 1955. Dunbar School was also located in Elsmere at 421 Spring Street with Thomas R. Lewis as the teacher 1936-1939 [source: William's Elsmere Directory for 1936-37, p.599, and for 1938-39, p.562]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Kenton County, KY, were Roscoe C. Baught, Martha Bishop, Alberta E. Booker, William Craig, Maggie Fisher, Nathan Fleming, Eliza W. Gooch, William Hargraves, Elenora Henderson, Etta L. Hundley, Jewell Jackson, James H. Johnson Sr., May Fortes Kelly, Coleman Kelly, Laura E. Lewis, Mamie Memy, Ella Mitchell, Nan Mae Orben(?), Paul Redden, Chester A. Rice, Ednice Simpson, Melvin W. Walker, Catherine Williams, and Clarence Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Kenton County schools that began to integrate in 1956 were Kenton Elementary, Simon Kenton High School, La Salette Academy, Covington Catholic High School, Elsmere Elementary, Erlanger Elementary, Lloyd Memorial High School, and St. Henry Grade School and High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.436-437]. St. Henry High School, La Salette Academy, Covington Catholic High School, and Northern Kentucky State Vocational School, had all been listed as having "white and colored" students during the 1955-56 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.219]. See also The Life and Legacy of Lincoln-Grant School, Covington, Kentucky, 1866-1976 by J. M. Walton.

  • Church Schools
  • American Missionary Association Schools
  • Freedmen School
  • Second District School
  • 7th Street School
  • Lincoln Colored School in Latonia
  • Lincoln-Grant School in Covington
  • William Grant High School
  • Milldale School
  • United Bible School
  • Wilkins Heights in Elsmere
  • Dunbar School in Elsmere
  • Our Savior [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.868]


See photo image of the 7th Street Colored School and additional information at the Greater Cincinnati Memory Project website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Kenton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Knott County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
Knott County, KY, was formed in 1884. From 1885-1887, there were no colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1886 and 1887]. Ten years later, there was a report of one colored school district with one school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.474-477]. The school was taught for five months by one teacher. There was an enrollment of 37 students and the average attendance was 12. In 1925, there was still the one school with one teacher and with 83 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1925, p.67]. Two years later, there were two colored schools, each with one teacher, and a total of 57 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.81]. July 1, 1930- June 30, 1931, Knott County was one of twelve counties to receive aid from the Rosenwald Fund for the extension of the school term to 8 months; $58 was received for the colored schools at Breeding Creek and Yellow Creek [source: "Counties Aided on the Extension of Terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.11, no. 2, January 1932, p.27]. In 1936, there were still 2 Negro teachers in Knott County, and they were members of the 7th District Negro Education Association [source: "District Education Association of the K. N. E. A.," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.7, no.1, October-November, 1936, p.57]. By 1955, the Yellow Creek School was closed and there were 38 students enrolled in Breeding Creek Colored School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.219]. Carr Creek High School for whites began to integrate the following year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.437]. The elementary grades continued to be segregated until 1963 when the Knott County School Board came under federal court order [U.S. District Judge Mac Swinford] to integrate the schools [source: "Knott County Board told to integrate," Park City Daily News (Bowling Green, KY), 09/12/1963, p.9 - article online]. The lawsuit was filed by 14 Negro students who had been denied enrollment at the Carr Creek Elementary School for white children, the case was represented by attorney James A. Crumlin. Godloe Adams was the only Negro teacher in the county, he taught at the Breeding Creek School for Negro children, which had 11 students, grades 1-6.

  • Breeding Creek School
  • Yellow Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Knott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Larue County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
In 1880, Molly Clagett was a teacher in the colored school in Hodgenville, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There is a paragraph written about the colored schools in Larue County, KY, on page 72 in the 1885-1887 Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky. By 1895, there were 4 colored schools, and the following year, there were 5 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.484-487]. Each of the schools had one teacher. The school term was five months and all the buildings were frame structures. The average student attendance was 106 in 1895-96, and 113 in 1896-97. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School held in the school house in Buffalo, KY, the teacher was Bessie Ford, and there were 12 students [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. Some of the teachers at the colored schools are listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal: B. H. Larke in Hodgenville (1916, p.31); Miss Lucile Curle in Upton (1928, p.37); Rev. Claud and Mrs. Cecilia Taylor in Hodgensville (1929, p.55); and Mr. Amos Lasley in Hodgensville (1935, p.58). There was not a high school for Negro students, the students attended Bond-Washington High School in Hardin County. Below are the names of the colored schools that were in Larue County, KY, [sources: Old Schools in LaRue County by Edward Benningfield, and the 1914-1915 Census of LaRue County Schools (Colored Schools) by L. L. Salsman and C. L. Owens]. The Negro teachers in Larue County in 1940 were Lucy Curle, Meaner Hughes, Amos Lasley, Cecil Lasley, Omer Lasley, Mabel Lasley, and Ollie Lasley [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Buffalo, Hodgenville, and Magnolia, were listed as white and integrate in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.436. It would take several years of effort for all of the schools in Larue County to be desegregated in 1967.

  • Buffalo School
  • Hodgenville School
  • Knob School
  • Lincoln Springs School
  • Lyons Station School
  • Moonlight School in Buffalo
  • Orrender School
  • Upton School
  • Siberia School
  • Georgetown School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.870]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Larue County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Laurel County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
The one colored school in Laurel County was included in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. By 1880, there were two colored schools, according to the thesis of John Milburn Taylor, History of Education in Laurel County, Kentucky, p.140. One school was located in London and the other was in East Bernstadt. The school term for the colored schools was two months and there were 62 students enrolled in the schools. In 1895, there were three colored school districts, each with one school [source: Taylor, p.115]. The two female Negro teachers earned the highest monthly salary of all teachers: white males $33.74, colored male $41.12; white females $39.99, colored females $45.90 [source: Taylor, p.117]. A new school opened in London in 1900, and in Altamont in 1901 [source: Taylor, p.140]. The Altamont School closed in 1909. There were five teachers at the colored schools in 1900, and they earned an average of $37.85 per month. With the closing of the Altamont School, the county was left with four teachers for an average of 104 regularly attending students. By 1925, the average attendance was 71 students, the East Bernstadt School was closed, and one of the schools in London had closed [source: Taylor, p.141]. The school closings left only the one colored school in London. Two years later a two year high school was added to that school, and there was a library with 90 books. There was one teacher for all ten grades. The school term was eight months, and the teacher earned $816 for the term. In 1931, the teacher's salary was increased to $914, and the library had 365 books. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Laurel County were Steven Griffin, Emily S. Williams, Orange Yokley, and Raytha Yokley. In 1955, London High School was listed as having white and colored students, on p.220 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The following year, the first school to be listed as integrated was Sue Bennet College Trade School on p.438 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57

  • Colored School
  • London School
  • London School (2nd school)
  • East Bernstadt School
  • Altamont School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Laurel County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lawrence County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Education for African Americans in Lawrence County, KY, began after the Civil War. The early schools were held in the homes of ministers and by sympathetic whites, according to John E. Elkins in his thesis, The History of Education of Lawrence County. "Later Negro teachers were secured and the school was conducted in the church." --[source: Elkins, p.101]. In 1886, there were two colored schools in Lawrence County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887. At some point after 1887, there was only the one school in Louisa [source: Elkins, p.101]. Though the school was located in Louisa, it came under the county school system. In 1900, the teacher's salary was $28.79 per month, and the student enrollment was 45. There were 44 students in 1916, and by 1935, there were 30 students. The first colored school building was constructed in 1923, it was a one-room frame building that cost about $1,500, of which $800 was received from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and the remainder was paid by the Lawrence County Board of Education. Grades 1-8 were taught at the school. In 1933, the school teacher was Mrs. Bertha Murphy who was a graduate of Kentucky Institute for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University] and her salary was $84 per month. There was not a colored high school in Lawrence County; the county board of education paid $50 per year for Negro high school students from Lawrence County to attend Booker T. Washington High School in Ashland, KY. In 1935, there were four students who traveled each school day from Lawrence County to attend high school in Ashland. The Louisa Elementary and High School were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.438.

  • Early Church Schools
  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Louisa School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lawrence County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lee County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1961
In 1880, Carter Lightfoot was a teacher at the colored school in Lee County, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Five years later, during the 1885-86 school term, there were two colored schools, one was held in a church and the other in a log building [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. There is a paragraph written about the schools on p. 72 of the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, school-year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, pp.499-502]. The average attendance at the colored schools was 45 students for 1885-86, and 37 for 1886-87. In 1903, the Beattyville Industrial Institute opened; the school had previously been located in Keene, KY, and was named Keene Industrial Institute. By 1915, there was one colored school in Lee County [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1913-1915, p.38]. Mr. G. A. Chandler was the school teacher in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. During the 1927-1928 school term, there was again 2 colored elementary schools in Lee County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.63]. The schools had one male teacher and one female teacher, and the teachers earned a total salary of $608, and the average attendance for both schools was 30 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory,1930-1931, p.74]. There would again be only one colored school in Lee County in 1939 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.508]. In 1940, Lena Lightfoot was the only Negro teacher in Lee County who was listed in the U.S. Federal Census. In 1948, the Green Hill School and the teacher, Mrs. L. E. Embry, held membership in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.17, no.2, pp.26 & 27]. The first school to be listed as integrated was Lee County High School on p.872 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lee County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Leslie County, KY
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1943
There was only one colored school in Leslie County, KY, and it existed as early as 1883, when H. C. Napier, the school commissioner, failed to report that there were 11 colored children attending school in the county [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, 1883, chapter 405, p.731]. As a result of the oversight, the Superintendent of Public Instruction authorized that $15.40 be withdrawn from the common school fund and be paid to the teacher of the Leslie County colored school, approved March 17, 1884. Eleven years later, there was still one colored school in Leslie County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.504-507. There was one teacher for an average of 31 students 1895-96, and for 33 students 1896-97. In 1925, there were 12 students in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The listing for a colored school in Leslie County came and went in the 1930s; on p.51 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1935-36 there is a listing of one school, but there was not listing for 1936-37, though the one school was listed again starting on p.51 in the 1937-38 directory and continuing until the 1942-43 directory. The school was not listed in the 1943-44 directory. During the year 1943, the Asher v Huffman case went before the Kentucky Court of Appeals in an attempt to allow Bruce Asher to attend the Leslie County School for white children, rather than forcing him to attend a colored school. There were 2 Negro students counted in Leslie County as late as 1958, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1011, and there were no schools in the county listed as integrated prior to 1965 according to the 1964-65 directory.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Leslie County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Letcher County, KY
Start Year : 1911
End Year : 1963
In 1911, the Whitesburg Colored Graded School held its commencement March 23 and March 24 [source: "Whitesburg Colored School closes with entertainment," Mountain Advocate, 03/31/1911, p.1]. The school teachers were Miss S. P. Lewis of Fairfield, and Ellen B. Adams of Barbourville. The Whitesburg Colored School was one of the few in kentucky to have a colored superintendent, J. Neil Burnside [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Fleming Colored School was located in Letcher County [source: Mountain Eagle, 02/04/1960 and 09/05/1963, school mentioned in articles titled "County School Financial Statement"]. Burdine Colored School was part of the Jenkins Independent School System of Negro Schools located in Jenkins, Burdine, and Dunham. According to the 1939 thesis by Frances Rolston, the colored schools in the Jenkins School System were developed due to the influx of Negro coal miners working for Consolidated Coal Company. The first Jenkins Colored School was established in 1916 with one teacher and 58 students. In 1928 there were 528 students in the colored schools in Letcher County. During the 1936-37 school year, there were 374 students in 3 schools. The end of school year report included Fleming one room school with one teacher and 36 students; Carbon Glow one room school with one teacher and 25 students; and Haymond two room school with two teachers and 70 students. For a number of years, Dunham Colored High School, under the Jenkins School System, was the only high school for African Americans in Letcher County. Tom Biggs Colored School was located in McRoberts, KY. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Letcher County were Camilla Elliott, Alfred Greenwood, Mattie Greenwood, M. L. Jackson, Blanche McSwain, Clemintine Masby, William Mudd, Marion Nelson, Marie Price, William Stovall, and Clara Whitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more information see the thesis History of Education in Letcher County, Kentucky by F. Rolston. The first school in Letcher County to be listed as integrated was St. George, a Jenkins Independent school on p.128 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Burdine School
  • Carbon Glow School
  • Dunham School
  • Fleming Neon School
  • Haymond School
  • Jenkins School
  • Tom Briggs School in McRoberts
  • Whitesburg Graded School


See the 1921 photo image of the Burdine school children, Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Letcher County, Kentucky: Burdine, Carbon Glow, Dunham, Fleming, Haymond, Jenkins, McRoberts, Whitesburg

African American Schools in Lewis County, KY
Start Year : 1885
End Year : 1959
In 1885, there was one colored school in Vanceburg, KY, the school was held in a church [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. At times, there were two colored schools, one in each of the colored districts, though the County Superintendent was not always able to verify that the schools were in session, and he wrote that the majority of the colored students did not go to school on a regular basis [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1885-1887, p.128 and pp.193-194]. By 1895, there were two schools with an average attendance of 19 students 1895-96, and an average of 11 students 1896-97 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.513-516]. There was one teacher at each school. The average attendance was about the same for the next several years. The average salaries for the teachers were $33.66 from 1909-10, and $33.08 from 1910-1911 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1909-11, p.49 and p.151]. By 1925, there was one colored school in Lewis County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The Lewis County Schools started to integrate during the 1959-60 school term, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.799, and Indian School was the first to be named as integrated in the 1961-62 directory, p.874.

  • Colored Schools (2)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lewis County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lexington and Fayette County, KY
Start Year : 1798
End Year : 1956
Often mentioned as one of the early schools for African Americans in Lexington, was a school taught by a white man from Tennessee around 1830. But an even earlier school was a Sunday school taught in 1798 at the old home of Colonel Patterson on High Street [source provided by Yvonne Giles: "A Sunday School," Kentucky Gazette, 10/16/1798, p.3. col.2]. Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least four schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1867 two of the schools in Lexington were Howard School on Church St and Mitchell & Talbott School on Upper Street. In 1867, the Independent African Church School had been opened by Rev. Frederick Braxton, and H. C. Marrs left the colored school in Lagrange, KY, to teach at Braxton's school in Lexington [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116]. In 1880 the colored teachers in Lexington and Fayette County were C. J. Braxton at South Elkhorn (son of Rev. Frederick Braxton); William Jackson at Briar Hill; John Jackson at Sandersville; George Newman; and in Lexington there was Chapman Mourse; Annie Warde; S. Jane Washington, who was teaching prior to the Civil War and had her own school; Mary B. Hawkins; Louisa McMillan; J. A. Ross; Ella Ross; Julia Shows; Lou Simpson; Lucy W. Smith; Ada Trotter; Sarah M. Turner; and Emily O. Warfield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first commencement for the Fayette County colored schools was held at the courthouse on June 1, 1894 [source: Programme: 1st Commencement of Fayette County Colored Schools]. The graduates were Cora B. Simpson, Coleman Greene, Sallie Coleman, Mary Greene, all from Uttingertown School. Frank Byrd and Bessie J. Cooper graduated from Fort Spring School. G. S. Johnson, Green Seals, Garfield Sanders, and Claude W. Strider were all graduates from Cadentown School. In 1896, there were 16 colored schools in Fayette County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.347-351]. Five of the schools were held for five months and 11 of the schools were in session for more than five months. One of the schools was a training school for colored teachers. The average attendance at all of the schools was 1,011 students who were taught by 16 teachers (one teacher at each school). The teachers' average monthly pay was $70 for male teachers and $52 for female teachers.  In 1925, the colored high school was located at Dunbar School in Lexington and W. H. Fouse was the principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.39]. The school was rated an "A" high school. The Maddoxtown School was a county training school for teachers, L. W. Taylor was the principal [p.65]. In 1925, there were four teachers who taught at the Maddoxtown training school which had a 4 year high school. The teachers' average salary was $1,088 for a nine month term; it was the highest average salary of all the teachers at the colored training schools in Kentucky.  The supervisor of the industrial teachers in Fayette County in 1925 was Mrs. E. Birdie Taylor [p.66]. In 1925, there were 13 colored elementary schools in Fayette County, with 1 high school, all taught by 18 teachers [p.67]. In Lexington, there were 39 elementary teachers and 15 high school teachers [p.69]. By 1932, there were high schools at Douglas School, rated an "A" high school with 5 teachers; at Russell School, an unrated high school with 7 teachers; and at Dunbar School, rated an "A" high school with 13 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-33, p.45]. In 1940, there were 113 Negro teachers in Fayette County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, there were two schools listed as having white and colored students: Kentucky Village and University School, both state schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, pp.209-210]. The following year, there were several schools listed as integrated: Athens-Shelby, Briar Hill, Bryan Station (integrated & white), Clays Mill, Kenwick, Lafayette Sr. High, Linlee, Russell Cave, Yates, Kentucky Village, Ashland, Henry Clay, Johnson, Lexington Jr., and Lexington Catholic High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.426-427].

City Schools

  • Bethesda Normal and Industrial school - [established by Rev. O. L. Murphy on the corner of Alford and Smith Streets - source: Lexington Leader, 12/04/1906, p.1, c.2] - provided by Y. Giles
  • Canadian and Ohio Industrial School - [opened at Colored Methodist Church at Race and Corral Streets - source: Lexington Leader, 08/31/1907, p.1. c.2] - provided by Y. Giles
  • Carver School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.853]
  • Chandler Normal School [photo]
  • Christian Church School (on 4th Street, became Mitchell & Talbert School)
  • Colored Industrial School (Negro WCTU)
  • Colored School No. 2
  • Colored School No. 3
  • Constitution Street School
  • Corral Street Normal (1868), supported by the American Missionary Association - [source: Congressional Serial Set, Executive Documents of the House, 2nd Session of 46th Congress, 1879-'80, v.2, Education no.1, part 5, v.3, p.80 (online in Google Books)]
  • Douglass School
  • Dunbar School
  • Forest Hill School
  • Fourth Street School
  • Independent African Church School (Frederick Braxton entry in NKAA)
  • Jane Washington School (on 2nd Street, opened prior to the U.S. Civil War) (supported by Lawyer Andrew Bush)
  • Ladies of the Episcopal Church School [source: Kentucky Gazette, 12/28/1867, p.3]
  • Lexington Freedmen School
  • Lexington High School (supported by the Freedmen's Bureau)
  • Lexington Polytechnic Institute [source: Kentucky Leader, 0/15/1894, p.7]
  • Lexington Sabbath School (established by the Episcopal Church & supported by the Freedmen's Bureau)
  • Lower Street School (1883)
  • Patterson Street School
  • Mitchell & Talbott School [Mrs. E. Belle Mitchell-Jackson and Mrs. Talbert]
  • Pleasant Green Church School (closed around 1876, and reopened as Patterson St. School)
  • Russell School No. 1
  • St. Andrew's Colored Episcopal Parochial School [source: Lexington Daily Transcript, 02/01/1891, p.7]
  • St. Peter Claver School
  • St. John's School (opened 1888) [source: Lexington Daily Press, 06/18/1889, p.4]
  • Sunday School (1798)
  • Booker T. Washington School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.853]

County Schools

For more see The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 by C. G. Woodson; Maydwell's Lexington City Directory 1867; Emerson and Dark's Lexington Directory 1898-9; "Colored school location," Leader, 08/10/1883, p.1; "Colored county schools," Leader, 09/06/1903, p.3 and other articles in the Lexington Leader newspaper between 1895-1911; and Educational History of the Negroes of Lexington (thesis) by William Henry Fouse, which includes information on teacher  S. Jane Washington. See Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky 1917-1932 by A. Turley-Adams, Kentucky Heritage Council and Kentucky African American Heritage Commission. See also Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.106-107 & 111-114].


  See 1929 photo image of students in the lunch line at Maddoxtown Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lincoln County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Crab Orchard, KY [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. It was one of the early schools for African Americans in Lincoln County. There were two colored schools in 1875, according to the thesis of Morris B. Vaughn titled History of Education in Lincoln County, Kentucky, p.123. There were 12 schools In 1880; 13 schools in 1881; 16 schools in 1887 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky]; and in 1902 there were 17 colored schools in Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.123]. In 1880, the teachers at the colored schools were Emily Gogins in Hustonville; Belle Graham at Turnersville; and Ester Kincaid in Walnut [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1931, several of the schools had been consolidated and there were nine colored graded schools in the county. The consolidated schools were located in Stanford, Halls Gap, Hustonville, and McKinney. According to the title Lincoln County, Kentucky by Turner Publishing Company, p.121, the first colored school house in Crab Orchard, KY, was thought to have been built behind First Baptist Church on Cedar Street around 1890. The first school bus was thought to be the one used to transfer students from Cedar Ridge to the Crab Orchard Color School [see p.130]. The next school building was constructed in 1924 on Highway 150. The third building was constructed in 1937 by the Second Christian Church, located on Cedar Street, the school was off to the side and behind the church. Within the same title, on p.124, there is mention of a Colored School in District A in 1897, located in Stanford, KY. There had been a colored school in Stanford as early as 1879, it was established by the African American community that had also hired a teacher who graduated from Berea [source: "Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/06/1879, p.3]. The teachers hiring included a school examination, followed by a parade and a festival [source: "The Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/13/1879, p.2]. In 1925, Lincoln High School in Stanford was a Class 3 school with one teacher and 16 students, and W. D. Tardif was the school principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. Another school, McKinney Polytechnic Institute, opened in 1911 with three students from Iowa [source: "The McKinney Polytechnic Institute...," Stanford Interior Journal, 11/10/1911, p.1]. During the 1930s, the high school students in Stanford were bused to Bate High School in Danville; there had been a high school within Stanford School up to the 1930-31 school term, but it was deemed to be more cost efficient to bus the 22 students to Danville. The Lincoln County Board of Education paid Bate High School $5 per month for the instruction of the high school students from Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.124]. The Logantown School and Hubble School were merged with the Stanford School. According to the Handbook of Kentucky by the Kentucky Bureau of Agriculture for 1906-1907, p.515, there were 17 colored school districts in Lincoln County. In 1909, School No.16, located in Preachersville, was merged with the school in Walnut Flat [source: "Preachersville," Interior Journal, 06/25/1909, p.1]. The colored school in Hubble was located on Cherry Street, the building was sold in 1914 [source: "Hubble," Interior Journal, 03/13/1914, p.2]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Lincoln County were Katie Coulter, Joe A. Gaines, Mary T. Good, Houston Graves, Thelma Graves, Susie Harris, Estella Jarmon, Elizabeth Perkins, Florence Stepp, Cordelia Wood, and Maggie Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school in Lincoln County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62 was Crab Orchard High School on p.875.

  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Crab Orchard Freedmen School
  • Crab Orchard School
  • Halls Gap School
  • Hustonville School
  • Hubble School
  • Logantown School
  • Lincoln School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.874]
  • McKinney School
  • McKinney Polytechnic Institute
  • No. 16, Preachersville School
  • Stanford School [including a high school, name changed to Lincoln]
  • Tunersville School
  • Walnut Flat School

 See photo image of the Crab Orchard Colored School on Cedar Street, built in 1937, a Flikr website by Road Trip.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lincoln County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Livingston County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
There were colored schools in Livingston County as early as 1879 when the county clerk collected 95 cents and the sheriff's office collect $135.95, both for the Colored School Fund, and funds were withdrawn for the Negro teachers total pay of $108.96 [source: Auditor's Report, School Fund - Colored, p.135, p.138, and p.149 in the 1879/1881 Biennial Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of Kentucky - online at Google Books]. In 1895, there were 6 colored schools in Livingston County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.523-527]. The average attendance was 125 students 1895-96 and taught by 7 teachers, and 138 students 1896-97 taught by 6 teachers. Male teachers' average monthly pay was $42.00 during 1895-96, and $26.78 during 1896-97.  Female teachers' average monthly pay was $25.50 during 1895-96, and $20.34 during 1896-97.  By 1905, there were still six colored schools, one in each district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1905-1907, p.343]. In 1910, the trustees of the Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, took its case against school superintendent Charles Ferguson to the Kentucky Court of Appeals. The trustees, who won the appeal, were fighting to share in the 1909 school tax Livingston County received from the Illinois Central Railroad Company [source: "Commonwealth, for use of Trustees of Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, v. Ferguson et. al." in The Southwestern Reporter, v.128, June 8-July 6, 1910, pp.95-96 - online at Google Books]. At one point in time, there were as many as seven colored school districts according to the title Livingston County, Kentucky, p.114. The colored schools were listed as sub-district schools, A, B, C, D, E, F, and Beach Hill. In 1925, there were five colored schools in Livingston County with a total of 116 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and two years later, there were four colored schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.81]. The Negro teacher in Livingston County in 1940 was Clara N. Moore [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Livingston County schools started to integrate in 1961 with Livingston Center High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875].


See photo image of colored school in Smithland, KY, at Explore UK.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Livingston County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Logan County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
The colored school in Logan County, KY, was one of the 13 counted in the 1866 publication titled Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. Between 1866 and 1870, there was to be a colored school established in Auburn and supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, but the plans were scrapped due to a mob's reaction. In spite of the opposition, by 1872, there was an African American school in Russellville, KY, the teacher was C. C. Vaughn [Cornelius C. Vaughn, 1847-1923; Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 93]. Vaughn, who was born in Virginia, was a Berea College graduate and he had been a school teacher in Cynthiana, KY [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.104-105]. C. C. Vaughn would remain in Russellville for more than 50 years; he was a leader in the community and he was in charge of the public education of Negroes in Russellville. In 1879, there were 26 colored school districts in Logan County, according to the thesis of Charles Thomas Canon, History of Education in Logan County, p.43. The enrollment and attendance records, if they ever existed, were no longer available when Canon completed his thesis in 1929. However, records from 1881 showed that there were 18 log house buildings and 9 frame houses [source: Canon, pp.47-48]. In 1880, the colored teachers in Logan County were Carry Smith in Adairville; Lewis Temple, James F. Gray, and Carl C. Vaughn in Russellville; and William Turner in Keysburg [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were 21 teachers in the colored schools in Logan County, and many of the schools were taught in churches [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. By 1901, there were 9 log house schools and 16 frame schools [source: Canon, p.92]. In 1917, the number of log house schools had decreased to 2 and there were 21 frame schools. Between 1917 and 1932, Logan County would have more Rosenwald structures than any other Kentucky county; there were 8 schools and a library [see NKAA entry for Rosenwald Schools]. The school in Adairville was supported by the Jeanes Fund and had a two year high school that was attended by 8 students in 1925 (Logan County Trade School), and there were 155 elementary students [source: Canon, pp.66-68]. The county school system would pay the tuition of students who wanted to attend Russellville City High School, a four year high school. The highest attendance at the Logan County colored schools was 1,049 for the school terms in 1904 and 1905 [source, Canon, pp.93-94]. In 1925, Margaret Holland was the county spervising industrial teacher in Adairville, she served for 7 months [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. By 1927, the attendance had decreased to 459. In 1930, the colored school in Knob City was taught by John Cooper [see M. Morrow, "The History of Russellville's Uncovered Cabin," News Democrat Leader, 03/04/2009, Opinions section, p.A4 [available online]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Logan County were Lee Butler, Jonella Dickerson, Alice Dunnigan, Vera H. Eidson, Helen First, Elisa Funt, Anna King, Heddy B. Lewis, Mattie McReynold, Frank Orndorff, Stella Ernestine Procter, Alice Ruth Procter, John William Roberts, Edwin Smith, Nannie Sweatt, Katherine Turner, James P. Walker, and George H. Wards [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.439-440, were Russellville High School and Sacred Heart. The schools listed as "white & integrated" were Adairville, Auburn, Lewisburg, and Olmstead.

  • Colored Schools (27)
  • Adairville School
  • Adairville Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Auburn Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Johntown Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Keysburg School
  • Knob City School
  • Logan County Trade School [principal A. M. Todd - source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926]
  • Russellville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Logan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Louisville and Jefferson County, KY
Start Year : 1827
End Year : 1956
Some of the earliest schools for African Americans in Louisville, KY were established in the 1820s. In 1865, there were 7 colored schools with 12 teachers and 730 students [source: H. C. Burnett and H. S. Foote, "From Kentucky (4th paragraph)," New York Times, 07/23/1865, p.5]. There were at least three schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In the 1870s there were at least 15 schools. The first high school for African Americans in Kentucky was located in Louisville in 1873 and was mentioned in several leading newspapers in the United States [source: "The First Colored high school in Kentucky," The New York Times, 10/09/1873, p.1]. In 1880, there were more African American teachers in Louisville and Jefferson County than any other Kentucky town/city or county. The Jefferson County and Louisville teachers in 1880 were Silas Adams, Bell Alexander, Lucy Booker, Sallie Bowman, Thomas Brown, Albert Burgess, Isaac Caldwell, John Collins, Addie Couisins(?), M. F. Cox, L. C. Cox, Lucy Duvall, James Gray, Allen W. Henson, Martha Johnson, William A. Kenzie, W. P. Lewis, Mary Meed, Clarence M. Miller, Isidora Miller, William T. Peyton, Elizabeth Smiley, Mary S. Spradling, Mamie Sublett, Joseph Taylor, John Thomas, Frank Thomas, Tilda Walker, Anna Walker, Jenney Wise, E. C. Wood Sr., Silas Adams, Ada Bedford, Martha Buckner, Virginia Burks, Louretta Carter, Joseph M. Ferguson, Daniel Gaddy, Nancy Hickman, Mack McKinley, I. M. Maxwell, Eliza Jane Mitchell, Elizabeth Morris, Lizzie Patterson, Charles Preston, Mary Robeson, Larry Scott, Nellie Slaughter, Rebecca Smith, and Martha Webster [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 23 colored schools and 22 teachers in the public school systems in Louisville and Jefferson County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.457-461. {The number of schools, students, and teachers were undercounted by the superintendent.} The average attendance was 905 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 651 students during the 1896-97 school term. In 1925, there were 13 elementary schools in Jefferson County with 20 teachers, and in Louisville there were 155 elementary teachers and 32 high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. In 1940, there were more than 400 Negro teachers in Louisville and Jefferson County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Schools listed as having "white & colored" students in 1955 were Kentucky School for the Blind and St. Agnes [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]. The first schools to be listed as integrated are on pp. 432-436 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57: a total of 88 schools were noted as integrated, 17 schools in the Jefferson County School system, and 71 schools in the Louisville Independent School system.

  • Bannecker School
  • Bond School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • California School
  • Central School
  • Colored High School
  • Colored Normal School
  • Convent of the Good Shepherd - 518 S. 8th Street**
  • Cotter School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Frederick Douglas School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.49]
  • Dunbar School
  • DuValle Jr. High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Eastern School
  • Eight Ward School
  • Ely Normal School supported by the Bureau
  • Forest School (Anchorage) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.862]
  • Highland Park School
  • Immaculate Heart of Mary School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.218]
  • Industrial School of Know Mission for Colored Children - [founded in 1886, located at 1122 Madison Street, Louisville, KY, conducted by the Women's Missionary Society of the Presbytery of Louisville, KY]*
  • Industrial School of Reform, Colored Girls Building
  • Alexander Ingram School (Jeffersontown) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.862]
  • Jacobs School (Harrods Creek)
  • Jeffersontown School
  • Jackson Street School
  • Lincoln School
  • Louisville Christian Bible School - [opened in 1873 by W. H. Hopson, conducted by P. H. Morse for four years, school was an experiment] - - The Apostolic Times, 09/18/1873, p.4, col.s 2-3
  • Louisville Free Kindergarten Association, Colored Normal Department
  • Louisville Teacher Training School
  • Madison Street School
  • Maiden Lane School
  • Main Street School
  • Moore School
  • Newburg School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.70]
  • Parkland School
  • Pearl Street School
  • William H. Perry School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Portland School
  • Portland Freedmen School
  • Ridgewood School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.216]
  • Shelby Street School
  • South Louisville School
  • Special for Boys School [Prima F. Washington, Principal, school located at 13th and Liberty, source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.51]
  • St. Augustine School - 1314 W. Broadway**
  • St. Mark's High School - [incorporated in 1867 by trustees Rev. B. B. Smith, Joseph S. Atwell, N. B. Rogers, Jesse Meriwether, and John C. Towels, and as ex-officio, the Bishop of the Episcopal Church, school operated under the auspices of the Episcopal Church] - - Approved March 8, 1867, Chapter 1806, "An Act to Incorporate St. Mark's High School" in Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, 1867, v.II, pp.342-343.
  • St. Peter Claver - 532 Lampton Street**
  • Jane Grey Cannon Swisshelm School (1838)
  • Talbert School
  • Taylor School
  • Twelfth Ward School
  • Twenty-ninth Street School
  • Twenty-seventh and Cedar Streets School
  • Virginia Avenue School
  • Booker T. Washington School
  • Western School
  • Western Girls' High School
  • Wheatley School
  • Wilson Street School
  • Young School

 

See image of the Industrial School of Reform, Colored Girls Building, from Weeden's History of the Colored People of Louisville, at NYPL Digital Gallery.

 

 

For additional information about the early Colored schools in Louisville, see the entry "African American Education" in the Encyclopedia of Louisville, by J. E. Kleber; and see the references to "colored schools" within chapter 17 in volume 2 of History of the Ohio Falls Cities and Their Counties by L. A. Williams & Co.

 


Sources: *see Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1896-1897, p.765, for more on the Industrial School of Know Mission for Colored Children in Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 18, 0000UA129, File: Negro Schools. Located in the University of Kentucky Special Collections; **see "Mailing List: Catholic City Schools - 1935-1936" by the Diocese of Louisville, in Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 18, 0000UA129, File: Negro Schools. Located at the University of Kentucky Special Collections; see "Don't forget the date," Courier-Journal, 08/20/1906, p.2; "Teachers and their salaries," Courier-Journal, 05/28/1909, p.6; Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, 1909 and 1911; see the NKAA entry Early School in Louisville, KY; see photocopy image of South Park School in Jefferson County on p.30 at Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf]; and see the Kentucky Public School Directory. See also "Still I rise!" Public discourse surrounding the development of public schools for African Americans in Louisville, Kentucky, 1862 – 1872 by M. B. Robinson (dissertation).
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lyon County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Lyon County, KY. William M. Smith was the teacher in Eddyville, and William Silvie was the teacher in Parkersville, both according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1886, the county had 11 colored school districts, with most of the school sessions held in churches [see the NKAA entry African American Schools 1886]. In 1895 another colored school district was added, bringing the total to 12 colored schools with seven log buildings and three frame buildings; nothing was mentioned about the other two school buildings in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp. 532-535. There was one teacher at each school with the average attendance of more than 250 students for all 12 schools each school term. From 1899-1903, there was one student from Lyon County, KY, studying at the Normal School for Colored Persons in Frankfort, KY [source: Biennial Report, 1899-1901, p. 144, and 1901-1903, p. 81]. The average attendance at the Lyon County colored schools fluctuated from year to year; during the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance was 200 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 407]. The teachers' average monthly salary was $27.00 in 1906 [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 431], and in 1910, $45.55 for male teachers and $34.58 for female teachers [source: Biennial Report, 1909-1911, p. 151]. There was a school in the African American community of Kansas in Lyon County, and pictures of the school children and what is thought to be the remains of the school house can be viewed at a Flickr site by The Nite Tripper. In 1916, Lucy Bond and R. H. Bond were the school teachers at the Eddyville colored school [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 25]. In 1925, there were seven colored schools in Lyon County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. In 1940, there were at least three Negro teachers in Lyon County: William Henderson in Eddyville; Christine Holland in Eddyville; and James Mathew in Kuttawa [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1962-63 school term, the Lyon County Elementary School in Eddyville became the first integrated school in Lyon County [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p. 140].

  • Parkersville School
  • Eddyville School
  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Kuttawa School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Oakland School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Kansas School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lyon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Madison County, KY
Start Year : 1825
End Year : 1956
In his master's thesis, History of Education in Madison County, Robert E. Little wrote that in the first quarter of the 1800s, slave owner Green Clay taught his Negro overseers to read and write [p.42]. Also according to Little, it was around 1850 that slave owner Cabell Chenault built a school on his property for his slaves [p.42]. Chenault and his daughter taught at the school. It was in 1866 that the first public colored school was held in Madison County with as many as 34 students [sources: History of Education in Madison County, p.43; the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Education in Kentucky; and the NKAA entry African American Schools - Kentucky, 1866]. According to author Richard D. Sears, John H. Jackson taught a school class in Madison County in 1868, and Cornelius C. Vaughn taught at a freedmen's school in Richmond in 1870 [source: A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91]. There were several colored schools in Madison County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, the teachers in Madison County were William Crawford, Elizabeth Crawford, Mary E. Crawford, and Milley Crawford, all in Glade, KY; Belle Bleston in Richmond; and  John Harper in Kirksville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1880 to 1881, there were 14 colored schools and 14 teachers [Little, p.44], the schools were taught in churches and rented buildings, and there were only two or three colored school buildings [Little, p.45]. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature approved the Act that would allow Samuel Watts, Sydney Campbell, and Madison Tevis to build a school house for colored children in District 12, on land given to them by W. C. Peyton, which was less than a mile from the white school Silver Creek Academy also known as the Blythe School [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Regular Session - November 1881, v.II, Chapter 1327, p.878]. According to Little, in 1886, there were 27 colored schools [Little, p.172]. In 1888, there were still 27 colored school districts in Madison County, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887]. There were as many as 34 colored schools in 1893 and in 1897 [Little, p.172], and the highest attendance was during the 1893-94 school term with 975 students [Little, p.174]. In 1903, there was a colored school in Berea [source: "Berea and vicinity," The Citizen, 11/26/1903, p.6; and the Joshua Crenshaw Report on the Berea Colored School 1905-06]. Within the Black American Series title, Berea and Madison County by J. G. Burnside, there are pictures of former students, teachers, and principals at Madison County colored schools. The pictures were taken prior to school desegregation in Bobtown, Farristown, Middletown, Peytontown, and Richmond. Also included are students and faculty at Berea College prior to segregation in 1904. Other Colored schools in Madison County in 1912 were Concord School, Richmond City School, Valley View School, and Calloway Creek School [source: "Graduation Diplomas," Richmond Climax, 02/07/1912, p.4]. During the school year 1932-33, there were 14 colored schools in Madison County [Little, p.172-173]. The Madison County Board of Education paid $4 per month, per county high school student who attended Richmond Colored High School; there was not a colored high school in the county. In 1940, the teachers in Madison County were Elizabeth Baten, Robert Blythe, Lena Blythe, Willie Campbell, Warfield B. Campbell, Bessie Cavington, Millie Embry, Mcgustar Estell, Margaret Fletcher, Jarman Haynes, Bessie Irvine, Charles M. Irvine, R. H. Jackson, R. L. Johnson, Roanna Maupin, Cabal Merritt, Andrew Miller, Jarnie Moran, George W. Parks, Rev. F. H. Shipes, Katherine Taylor, Anna Turner, Georgie Walker, Julien A. Walker, Alitha White, Dorothy White, Hazel White, Maggie B. Wilson, and Estilla Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.440, were Central High School, and Foundation School (Private), and Madison-Model High School was listed as white & integrated. The Madison County schools were fully integrated in 1963.

  • Green Clay Slave School
  • Chenault Slave School
  • Colored Schools (34)
  • Berea School [also referred to as Pasco School, records at Berea College Archives]
  • Berea Freedmen School
  • Bobtown School
  • Brassfield School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Calloway Creek School
  • Concord School
  • Farristown School
  • Glade School
  • Grapevine School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Kingston American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Kirksville School
  • Middletown School
  • Peytontown School
  • Richmond American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Richmond Freedmen School
  • Richmond High School
  • Valley View School 

Subjects: Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Madisonville and Hopkins County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1957
According to the 1866 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, there was one colored school in Hopkins County. In 1880 there were several more schools and the teachers in Nebo were G. B. Barnett and Albert Morrow; Elsie Cooper was in Madisonville; and Mary O'Bryan was in Kitchen [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1888, there were 18 colored school districts [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. March 26, 1888, the Kentucky General Assembly approved an act for the city of Madisonville to establish a system of public schools for Colored children [source: Chapter 689, pp.472-475, Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, Regular Session, v.2, 1888]. The system was to cover all points one mile from the center of the city, and the school district covered two miles out. The act outlined the structure of a Colored school board which would be responsible for the hiring of the teachers, the curriculum, and the operation of the school. Colored children only, between the ages of 6-20, would be allowed to attend the schools. The first school trustees were John R. Ross, George H. Speed, Alex Mitcheson, Ephraim Porter, and Edward Nisbet. A poll tax was to be collected from Colored property owners for the building of a school. A second poll tax was to be levied against the Colored male, head of households to pay the teachers' salaries and other expenses. The Earlington Colored School opened in 1891. The Atkinson Literary and Industrial College opened in 1892 in Madisonville. The Zion High School was located in Madisonville in 1893 [source: "Mrs. Celia Dunlap visited the Zion High School at Madisonville...," Bee, 02/23/1893, p.2]. In 1895, there were 24 colored schools in Hopkins County with 27 teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.444-448]. The average attendance was 940 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 850 students during the 1896-97 school term. Clarence Timberlake was superintendent of Colored schools in 1918, according to the Proceedings and Reports for the Year Ending 1918 by the John F. Slater Fund. Teachers and principals of the Madisonville Colored Schools are listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal (KNEA Journal), 1916-1950. In 1925, there were 9 elementary schools in the Hopkins County school system; and there were 6 elementary teachers and 3 high school teachers in Earlington; and 8 elementary teachers and 2 high school teachers in Madisonville [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 and p.69]. On the cover of the KNEA Journal, dated January-February 1933, vol.3, issue 2, is a picture of the newly built Rosenwald High School in Madisonville. William E. Lee was the principal of the 10 room school, which had an industrial department with brick-laying, mechanical drawing, and home economics. Other principals of the Madisonville Colored School from 1922 to 1941 were Nora B. Ross and Pearl M. Patton [source: The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky by H. Ardis Simons]. The Negro teachers in Hopkins County in 1940 were Nettie M. Bass at Nortonville; Agnes Brasher at Dawson Springs; Laura Frazier, Grace G. Howard, Ida M. King, Lester Mimms, and Georgie B. Orton, all in Earlington; Mayme Parker, Vesta Pollard, Vader Pritchett, Nora Ross, Grace Noel Smith, Anna Lou Smith, Frances Talbert, Juanita Talley, Thomas J. Wheeler, Helen Noel, Mabel Lester, Mary Lovan, John Grace, Ruth Harvey, Alma Chambers, Rose J. Blythe, Ora B. Clements, and Ola Crowley, all in Madisonville [source: U.S. Federal Census].  See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Earlington, KY. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Dawson Springs elementary and high school that had been for white students, on p.629 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58.

  • Colored Schools (24)
  • Atkinson Literary and Industrial College
  • Branch Street School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Dawson Springs School
  • Earlington School
  • Kitchen School
  • Madisonville School
  • J. W. Million School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Nebo Schools (2)
  • Nortonville School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Rosenwald High School
  • Zion High School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hopkins County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Magoffin County, KY
Start Year : 1881
End Year : 1941
There was never more than one colored school in Magoffin County, KY, according to author Edgar W. Bailey in his thesis, History of Education in Magoffin County, pp. 34-35, 64-66. In 1881, there were 25 colored students in the school, and $14.50 was appropriated to the school by the state. The school was mentioned in the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. For some years the school was taught in one section of Magoffin County for half a school term, and then taught in another section of the county for the latter half of the school term. The school had elementary grades only and was supported by the state for the most part, with very little local support. There was never a colored high school in Magoffin County. Author Bailey explains that, "Negro population is very sparse in the county. The colored census is gradually decreasing." --p.67. Between 1884 and 1931, the highest number of colored students who attended school was in 1902 with 17 students. The lowest number was 3, for the years 1914-16 and 1917-18. The teachers' average salary ranged from to a low of $19.77 during the 1896-97 term, to a high of $36.75 during the 1911-12 school term. In 1925, there were no data for the colored school in Magoffin County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926. By 1930, there was again one school listed with an average attendance of 9 students taught by one teacher who earned $518 for the school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.78]. In 1935, Mr. Erin Patrick, in Gullett, was one the three teachers in Magoffin County, according to the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.45 & p.61. In 1938, there were still three Negro teachers in Magoffin County, according to the "1938 K.N.E.A. Membership by counties" in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1938, v.9, no.1-2, p.54]. The three teachers continued to be noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory until the 1941-42 directory. The first school in Magoffin County to be listed as integrated was the Kentucky Mountain Gospel Crusade School, on p.120 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Magoffin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Marion County, KY
Start Year : 1824
End Year : 1956
Around 1824, Father Nerinckx, a Catholic priest and educator in Kentucky, started a Negro sisterhood in Loretto, KY, that in the long run was to provide a teaching sisterhood for the education of the colored race [source: The Growth and Development of the Catholic School System in the United States, by Rev. J. A. Burns, pp.232-233]. Several Negro children were adopted and educated, and in May of 1824, three of the girls were admitted to the religious veil. Father Nerinckx died a few months later and the project ended. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freemen School in Lebanon, Ky [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1869, the trustees of what was referred to as the African School of Lebanon, KY, were Senaca Wade, John McElroy, and Allen G. Drake; the trustees exchanged a lot of land with John Goggin, and the new land was thought to be a better location for the future colored school house [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Adjourned Session 1869, chapter 1634, pp.539.540]. The Lebanon School for Colored Children was opened in 1872 by the Sisters of Loretto [source: Loretto: annals of the century by A. C. Minogue, p.236]. In 1880, Ella Maskes was the school teacher at the Lebanon Colored School [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was a colored school in Raywick in 1888, but without a building or a teacher, and the school trustees did not accept the offer of a Sister from the Loretto Convent [source: Ten Years a Priest by Rev. John Culleton]. It took until January of 1890 for an agreement to be formed between the school trustees and Rev. Culleton; the colored school would be turned over to the Catholic Church and Rev. Culleton would see that a school house would be built in Raywick and a teacher from Ohio, Ms. Anna Culliton, would teach the school with one of the Sisters from the Loretto Convent [p.65]. It was agreed that until the colored school was completed, the Negro children would be taught in an unused room in the white school house. In response, The Louisville Times newspaper accused Rev. Culleton of ordering Negroes in Raywick to take charge of half the St. Martha School for white children. The new colored school building in Raywick opened during the spring of 1890. In 1894, the Poplar Corner School was constructed by the Marion County Board of Education, according to the history provided Ken Bell on his website Bells Chapel Restoration Project, August 2007. Ken Bell's aunt, Cleo Bell Spalding, was a teacher at the school. From 1895-1897, there were 13 colored schools in Marion County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.545-548]. Most of the schools were in session for 5 months. Though there were over 1,000 Negro children counted in the school census, the average attendance was 293 for 1895-96, and 286 for 1896-97. The schools were taught by 13-14 teachers each year. The average salary for 1895-96 was $50.72 for male teachers and $32.61 for female teachers, and the following school year, the salaries were $49.11 for males and $23.04 for females. The colored common schools graduates (grade 8) for the years 1897-1901, were Walker Roberts, Daniel Burton, Charles Johnson, Early Ray, James B. Maxwell, and Annie Carter [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1899-1901, p.66]. In 1916, Ms. Emma Rice, J. W. Roberts, and Ms. Georgia Thomas were the teachers at the Lebanon Colored Schools [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.34 & 36]. Also around 1916, there were two Catholic colored schools, St. Francis Xavier School in Raywick with 67 students and one teacher, and St. Charles School in St. Mary with 65 students and one teacher [source:Negro Education: a study of private and higher schools for Colored People in the United States, Department of the Inferior, Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1916, No. 39, V.II, p.278]. In 1925, there were 6 colored schools in Marion County, and 3 elementary schools and one high school in Lebanon [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-69]. The principal of the high school was J. B. Sterrett, and it was an A (accredited) school with five teachers and 143 students [Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.62]. In 1932, Ms. Nettie Lee Hughes was principal of the new Rosenwald School built in Lebanon, KY, the school was featured on the cover of the KNEA Journal, October-November 1932, v.3, no.1. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Marion County were Helen P. Foster, Mary D. Henderson, Mary E. Lancaster, Lelia R. Lyons, and Mary Smth [source: U.S. Federal Census]. St. Augustine School was the first in Marion County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.440.

  • Sisterhood of Loretto - Negro Sisterhood School
  • Freedmen School
  • African School
  • Raywick School (pre-1890)
  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Lebanon School
  • Lebanon School for Colored Children (Sisters of Loretto)
  • St. Augustin Ladies' Academy in Lebanon [source: Progress of a Race, p.640]
  • St. Francis Xavier School
  • St. Charles School
  • St. Mary School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.877]
  • St Monica School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.223]
  • Rosenwald School
  • Banks Chapel / School
  • Poplar Corner School / Bells Chapel

See photo image of the Banks Chapel AME Zion Church / School at The Freedman flickr site.

See photo image and read the history of Poplar Corner School / Bells Chapel at the Bells Chapel Restoration Project, August 2007 website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marion County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Marshall County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1928
The colored school districts in Marshall County, KY, were established in 1866, but with no schools until 1874, which was the only year that the two schools were open according to the thesis of Tullus Chambers, History of Education in Marshall County, p.39. The reason given for the closing of the schools was that there were too few students. Though attendance may have been low, there were more than a few Negro children in the county; according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were more than 100 Negro children in Marshall County between 5 and 18 years old in 1870 and in 1880. In 1886, there were still 3 colored school districts [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. There is a photo image online of the Walnut Grove, No.2 Colored School, the picture was taken between the 1880s and 1890s [source: Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives Electronic Records Archives]. There were still more than 100 Negro children of school age in Marshall County in 1900, according to the census records, but the numbers would be greatly reduced as Negroes left Marshall County for other locations. The last colored school is listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory for 1927-1928, p.64; it was a county school with eight students and one teacher. In 1935, Tullus Chambers noted that there were only 5 Negro children in Marshall County, and the prior year, one of the children had attended the colored school in McCracken County because there was no longer a colored school in Marshall County [p.57]. The child's tuition had been paid by the Marshall County Board of Education. There was only one child of school age listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census and none in the 1940 Census. In 1938, there was a colored school at the Negro Village Site in Gilbertsville, KY; the school was part of he African American community that had been established by the Tennessee Valley Authority for work on the Kentucky Dam Project [see NKAA entry Negro Village Site]. The school was not included in the public school directory. The first school to be listed as integrated in Marshall County was St. Paul X, on p.141 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1962-63.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Negro Village School
  • Walnut Grove School [photo image at KDLA Electronic Records Archives

 

There are African American children on the far right of the picture of school children in Marshall County, KY. The photo image is in the Cora Wilson Stewart Photographic Collection, ca. 1900-1940, within the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marshall County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Martin County, KY
There is no record of a colored school in Martin County, KY, though there were African American children of school age in the county [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory, Kentucky School Directory, Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. In 1880, there were about 18 children of school age, including the four children of William and Mahala Davidson. None of the children are listed in the U.S. Federal Census as being in school, and the older boys are listed as working on the farm. There continued to be a few African American children of school age in Martin County; it is not known if the children attended school in a neighboring county. In the 1940 U.S. Census, the Simpkins family had lived in Martin County in 1935 but had since moved to Grant, WV, where their children were enrolled in school. There is no listing of Martin County schools being integrated before 1965 in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Martin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mason County, KY
Start Year : 1865
End Year : 1956
According to Kentucky author Marion B. Lucas, freemen in Maysville, Kentucky, opened a school prior to the end of the Civil War. There were at least four schools in Mason County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, two of the colored school teachers were Annie B. Simpson in Orangeburg, and Wyatt N. Stewart in Maysville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. According to Elizabeth Jefferson Dabney, in her thesis, The History of Education in Mason County, Kentucky, "There is little statistical material available in regard to the general report of the Negro schools. The only years between 1874 and 1890 for which a report could be found were the years 1880 and 1881" [p.68]. There were nine colored schools in Mason County in 1880, and 12 schools in 1881 [Dabney, p.68]. A year later, in 1882, one of the colored schools had a high school, and there were 40 students. The principal D. L. V. Moffitt resigned at the end of the school year [see citation below]. In 1891, there were 15 colored schools [Dabney, p.160], one of the schools was in Maysville led by Charles Harris, the principal, and three assistants, Miss Britton, Miss Barbee, and Miss Smith. Another school was in the community of Washington and was led by Miss Belle F. Chew, from Cleveland, OH, and she was assisted by Miss Mary Bookram from Oberlin, OH [source: "About men and women," Cleveland Gazette, 05/09/1891, p.3]. According to author Dabney, the 1891 superintendent's report stated that most of the teachers at the Mason County colored schools came from Cincinnati, Dayton, Cleveland, and Stubenville, Ohio [p.160]. Other colored schools that existed during the 1890-1891 school term are listed in Dabney's thesis as Dover School No.106; Minerva School No.105; Mayslick District No.101; Charleston No.109; and Murphysville No.110 [pp.171-172]. The Maysville Colored School continued into the 1900s, and in 1904, there was a complaint made to the Maysville Board of Education that there were not enough teachers at the colored school [source: "There was no business...," Evening Bulletin, 10/01/1904, p.1]. In 1915, the Maysville Colored Moonlight School was reported by Cora W. Stewart to be one of the best for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools by Y. H. Baldwin]. In 1925, there were two colored high schools in Mason County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. At the high school in Mayslick, Mrs. L. F. Berven was principal; it was a Class 3 school with one teacher and 7 students. In Maysville, there was also a Class 3 high school. There was also a county training school in Mayslick with Mrs. L. F. Brown as the principal along with 3 teachers who earned an average salary of $853; there were 2 years of high school and an 8 month school term [p.65]. By 1930, there were eight colored schools according to Dabney [p.160]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Mason County were James Batly, Ethel Boulden, Elizabeth Bowens, Edna Cunningham, Virginia Doley, Charlton Fields, Virgil Ford, Emory Gentry, Tioltha Howard, Jesse R. Howell, Bertie Howell, Helen L. Humphrey, Beatrice Lewis, Eleanor Mathias, Adeline Mlecher(?), Meria J. Smith, and Ida Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, was the Orangeburg High School, on p.441. Also listed were schools with the notation of "white & integrated": Mayslick High School (previously a school for whites), Minerva High School, Washington Jr. High School, and Maysville High and Center Graded School. For more see A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. Lucas; see "D. L. V. Moffitt...," and "Our public schools," both articles in the Evening Bulletin, 06/01/1882, p.3; "The Colored school commencement in every way excellent - interesting program rendered," Evening Bulletin, 06/14/1902, p.1; and see the c.1910 photo image of the Maysville and Mason County colored schools at the Northern Kentucky Views website.

  • Colored Schools (15)
  • Charleston School
  • Dover School
  • Mayslick - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Mayslick School
  • Maysville School
  • Maysville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Maysville Freedmen School
  • Maysville John Fee High School
  • Minerva School
  • Moonlight School
  • Murphysville School
  • Orangeburg School
  • Washington School
  • Washington Freedmen School

See photo image (near bottom of page) of Maysville Colored High School at the Northern Kentucky Views website.

See photo images (mid-way down the page) of the Mason County colored schools at the Northern Kentucky Views website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Maysville and Washington, Mason County, Kentucky

African American Schools in McCreary County, KY
Start Year : 1925
End Year : 1951
McCreary County, formed in 1912, was the last county established in Kentucky. It is not known when the colored school in McCreary County, KY, opened. In 1925, there were 6 children enrolled in the one colored elementary school in Stearns [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68; and subsequent volumes]. The school is listed in the 1926 Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, p.64. In 1936, McCreary County was listed as having one Negro teacher in the 9th District of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1936, p.58]. The independent colored school located in Stearns, would never have more than 20 students. During the 1946-47 school term, there were only 4 students enrolled [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.647]. The 1950-51 school term of the colored school, which had 3 students, was the last with a teacher listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.977. The 1952-53 term was the last with a listing of Negro children in the school census for McCreary County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.433]. There were no schools in McCreary County listed as integrated prior to 1965 in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory.

  • Stearns School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: McCreary County, Kentucky

African American Schools in McLean County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
Within the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, it was reported that McLean County had five colored district schools that were taught in churches [see the NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. The schools were held three to five months [source: A History of Education in McLean County, Kentucky by Leonard C. Taylor, p.33]. There were seven colored schools in 1890, and by 1939, there were three [source: Taylor, pp.58 & 62]. The Livermore Colored School operated for nine months and had 17 students. The other colored schools were in Calhoun and Sacramento [source: "Sacramento Black School by Janey Johnston - 1992" in Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky]. Miss Geneva Clayborne, Miss Mary E. Eads, and Mrs. M. L. Humphrey, all of whom lived in Calhoun, were the teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.54, 57, & 63. The Sacramento school was a one room building located behind the Sacramento Methodist Church. There is a picture of the teacher and students on the page titled "Sacramento Black School 1918-1920" in Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky. There was not a colored high school in McLean County; the high school students were transported each day to Western High School in Owensboro, and the transportation was paid by the county board of education. In 1939, the school attendance for Negro children in McLean County was 40 and five were high school students [source: Taylor, p.63]. Siblings Betty Jean and Henry Thomas were the first Negro students from Sacramento, KY, to graduate from high school [source: Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky]. In 1940, there was one Negro teacher, Myrtle Green, listed in the U.S. Federal Census for McLean County. Myrtle Green was at Calhoun. The prior year, there had been three Negro teachers in McLean County, and in 1940, there were two, one in Calhoun and one in the Livermore Independent Colored School [sources: "K.N.E.A. membership by counties," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1939, v.9, no.s 1-3, p.53; and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1940-41, p.866]. The Sacramento Colored School had closed, leaving the Calhoun Colored School that had an enrollment of 18 students, and the Livermore Colored School that had an enrollment of 15 students. The Livermore Colored School was last listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1949-50, p.541; there were four students enrolled in the school. The listing of the last colored school in McLean County is on p.224 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56; there was an enrollment of 15 students.  The following year, there was the first listing of integrated schools: Calhoun, Livermore, and Sacramento, on p.442 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Livermore School
  • Calhoun School
  • Sacramento School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: McLean County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Meade County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, at least two freedmen schools existed in Meade County, KY, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. One school was located in Brandenburg, the other in Haysville. Both of the school buildings were burnt down by those opposed to schools for African Americans; however, the school in Brandenburg continued in a rented building. In 1880, Edward Williams was the school teacher in Meadville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1895-1897, there were nine colored schools in Meade County, with three schools held in log cabins and six in frame buildings in 1895 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp. 572-576]. About 200 students attended the schools during the five month school term. There was one teacher at each school: three male teachers and six female teachers. The African American teachers' average monthly salary for the school term 1896-97 was $25.72 for the males and $24.89 for the females. By 1907, the average monthly wages for the teachers at the colored schools was $24.00 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Schools, 1905-1907, p. 431]. In 1916, A. L. Poole was the teacher in Brandenburg, J. A. Starks at Ekron, and S. W. Starks at Sirocco [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp. 34 & 36]. In 1923, Professor S. W. Starks was still the teacher in Sirocco, and Mr. J. A. Starks was still the teacher in Ekron [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p. 75]. Meade County would have as many as six Negro teachers during the 1920s, according to various issues of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA) Journal. In 1931, there was a two-year high school program at the Brandenburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, February 1931, vol. 1, no.3 , p. 11], with seven students in the high school program, all taught by one teacher who earned $840 for the school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p. 81]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Meade County were Anna B. Payne and John Lewis Pool, both in Brandenburg, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The Meade County Schools began to integrate during the 1956-57 school term at Meade County High School, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p. 442.

  • Brandenburg Freedmen School
  • Haysville Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Brandenburg Elementary and High School
  • Meadville School
  • Ekron School
  • Sirocco School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Meade County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Menifee County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1955
There was one colored school in Menifee County, KY, from as early as 1886 [see NKAA entry African American Schools 1886]. In 1895, the school house, made of log, was located in the one colored school district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1895-June 1897, pp. 577-580]. The average attendance of eight students (1896-97) was taught by a single teacher. There continued to be one teacher in the one colored school from 1928-1939 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p. 27, up to Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1939, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 53]. The colored school is listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory up to 1955 when there were six students enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1954-55, p. 579]. There were no schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory prior to the 1964-65 school term.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Menifee County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mercer County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866 there was a colored school in Mercer County, KY, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky. An early teacher, Susan Mary Craig, was one of the first African American school teachers in Harrodsburg, KY, according to the thesis by William M. Wesley: The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, pp. 186-201 and p. 205. Susan Mary Craig had attended a white school and taught students in Harrodsburg before the Civil War. She opened a school after the war, located on Fort Street and later moved to Greenville Street. Another teacher was Landonia Simms from Ohio, who was hired by Craig to teach at her school. After the death of Susan Mary Craig, Sallie Ann Taylor began teaching at the school. Taylor is often noted as the first African American teacher in Harrodsburg. Another teacher was a Dr. Jackson, who moved the Craig School to the basement of the New Methodist Church. The school was later taught by Dr. I. H. Welch. Another school was started by Ellen Craig Harris, the daughter of Susan Mary Craig. Classes were held in Ellen Harris' home for 40-50 students who paid $1 per month for instruction. The State Association of Colored Teachers was formed in 1877, and the second annual meeting was held in Mercer County, August 7, 1878 [source: The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, p. 185]. The colored schools in Mercer County were still operating independently in the 1870s. In 1880, the teachers at the colored schools were Samuel Gill at McAfee; Nathan Singleton at Salvisa; and George Craig (son of Susan Mary Craig), James T. Harris, and Mattie Nerick, all in Harrodsburg [source: U.S. Federal Census]. W. E. Newsom would become a teacher in Mercer County, teaching from 1888-1891. During this time, the city of Harrodsburg had at least two colored schools, one in the basement of St. Peter's Church and one at the corner of Lexington and Warrick Streets. By 1893, there were 10 colored schools in Mercer County, according to the county superintendent's report. In 1903, A. L. Garvin became principal of Harrodsburg Colored School, and a new school building was constructed on four acres of land. There were Colored Moonlight Schools in every colored school district in Mercer County in 1911. There were eight school districts [source: 1911 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. Principal A. L. Garvin left Mercer County in 1920, and Maynette M. Elliott became principal of Harrodsburg Colored School; she was the granddaughter of Susan Mary Craig. (Her name is given as Mattie Elliott in the census records.) By 1929, there were five colored schools in Mercer County, including Rosenwald Schools in Maye, Salvisa, and Unity; and schools in rented buildings in Burgin and Robinson Row. In 1930, Maynette M. Elliott was principal of the newly constructed West Side School in Harrodsburg. The school held the elementary grades and the approved four-year high school grades. The cost of the school was covered in part by $4,000 from the Julius Rosenwald Fund [source: "Counties aided on buildings," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 2, issue 2, p. 23]. A picture of the school is on the cover of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 2, issue 1 (October-November 1931), and additional information about the school is on p. 6. Another school in Mercer County was Wayman Institute, established in 1890 just outside Harrodsburg, KY; it was owned by the Kentucky Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E.) [source The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, pp. 196-201]. The first school teacher for Wayman Institute was Dr. I. H. Welch, who had resigned as the school teacher of the New Methodist Church School. Dr. Welch taught the first class of Wayman Institute in the lecture room of St. Peter's Church. The students came from surrounding counties and boarded with families in Harrodsburg. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Mercer County were Helen Boston, Florence Coleman, Jane Franklin, Mary Franklin, Carol Franklin, Nellie C. Gillispie, Annie R. Hayes, Cecelia Jackson, Bertha Lewis in Burgin, Beulah Sallee, Janetta Taylor, and Lesta Washam [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools in Mercer County to be listed as integrated were the Mercer County High School, Burgin Independent (integrated, colored, and white), and Harrodsburg High School, on p.442 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Susan Mary Craig School
  • Ellen Craig Harris School
  • McAfee School
  • New Methodist Church School
  • St. Peter's Church School
  • Lexington / Warrick Street School
  • Harrodsburg School
  • Maye School
  • Salvisa School
  • Unity School
  • Burgin School
  • Robinson Row School
  • Moonlight Schools (8)
  • Wayman Institute
  • West Side School
  • Mayo School

 

  See photo image of the Mayo School, in Kentucky Digital Library. 

 

 

Access Interview Listen to the Mercer County African American Oral History recordings for more about colored schools in Mercer County, KY, at "Pass the Word" a Kentucky Historical Society website.  
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Mercer County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Metcalfe County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, a colored school in Edmonton, KY, employed a 30 year old teacher named Ellen J. Butler, a widow who was a boarder with the John Jones family [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were seven colored school districts in Metcalfe County, KY [see the NKAA entry for African American Schools 1886]. Thomas J. Ray was a teacher in Edmonton as early as 1916 and at least as late as 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 34; and April 18-21, 1923, p. 72]. There were still seven colored schools in 1925, all elementary schools, with one teacher each [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. The following year, another colored school was opened, and there were nine teachers at the eight schools [source: Kenucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p. 82]. In 1931, there were 10 Negro teachers in the Metcalfe County schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1931, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 19]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Metcalfe County included Zenobia Brewes and Lola A. Mitchell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Another teacher was Robert Lee Smith, who retired in 1942 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, November-December, 1942, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 7]. During the 1942-43 school term, the number of colored schools had fallen to six [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1942-1943, p. 1116]. The Metcalfe County High School was listed as the first integrated school in Metcalfe County in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p. 134].

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Edmonton School
  • Blue Springs School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Cedar Top School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Summer Shade School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Metcalfe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Monroe County, KY
Start Year : 1846
End Year : 1963
In 1846, the Mt. Vernon Church was built in Gamaliel, KY, and the building also served as a school [source: Black Heritage Sites by N. C. Curtis, pp.99-100]. The church and school were established near Freetown, and the dual purpose log structure was built by George Pipkin, Albert Howard, and Peter West. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Tompkinsville, KY, supported by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; however, the school was burned down [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1886, there were five colored schools in Monroe County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 9 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.591-594]. Four of the 9 school houses were made of logs, and 5 were frame structures, and during the 1896-97 school term another colored district was added, but classes were not held because there was not a school house or a teacher. During the 1895 school year, there were 80 students attending school regularly, and the following year there was an average of 133 students each school day. Each of the 9 schools had one teacher. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School in Monroe County [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1926, the teachers at the Gamaliel Colored School were Mrs. Elma and Mr. Roscoe W. Pipkin [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.54], classes were still held in the Mt. Vernon Church [source: Curtis, p.100]. The African American children of Monroe County attended high school in Hickory Ridge [source: Curtis, p.100]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Monroe County were Kate Barkesdale, Vera Edwards, Roscoe W. Pipkin, Elma Pipkin, and Winfred Pipkin [source: U.S. Federal Census]. School integration started during the 1963-64 school term at the following schools: Fountain Run, Gamaliel Elementary and High School, and Tompkinsville High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.134].

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Tompkinsville Freedmen School
  • Gamaliel School
  • Fountain Run School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Moonlight School
  • Roy's Chapel School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22, File: Monroe County, Title: WPA 3, Monroe Co. - Education (Lenneth Jones-643-4), List of Schools, p.4, July 16, 1939]
  • Forkton School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Tooley's Ridge School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Bethlehem School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]

  See photo image of the Mt. Vernon Church and School at Gamaliel, at the flickr site by The Freedman.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Monroe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Morgan County, KY
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1907
It is not known when the first colored schools opened in Morgan County, KY, but there were 7 free Blacks attending school in Morgan County in 1850, according to author M. B. Lucas in his book A History of Blacks in Kentucky, 2003, p.145. In 1906, there were at least five Negro teachers who received teaching certificates in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907, p. 421]. During the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance at the one colored school was 11 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, pp. 407 & 345], and there was one teacher in the school, it was the teacher's first year teaching in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p.427]. Very little data about the colored school, teachers, and students in Morgan County were published in the biennial reports from the Kentucky Superintendent's Office. The colored school is not mentioned in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926 or any of the subsequent volumes. During the 1961-1962 school term, the Salem Schools were the first in Morgan County to integrate [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 882].

  • Colored School (1850)
  • Colored School (1906)
  • Salem School

*This entry was completed with assistance from Morgan County, KY, historian Ron Gevedon.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Morgan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
Between 1866 and 1870, there were two schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The first school for Colored children in Montgomery County was thought to be established in 1881 with Mrs. Anna Thompson as the teacher, according to Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. The school was held in a one-room building located at the corner of Queen and Locust Streets in Smithville, the present location of Keas Tabernacle CME Church. There was actually other colored schools in Montgomery County; in 1880 the teachers were Anna Belle Botts and Victoria Clarke, both in Mt. Sterling; Alex Davis in Aarons Run; and Sarah Jackson in Smithville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first commencement of the Mt. Sterling Colored School was held in 1891, and Professor J. S. Estill had completed his first year as principal of the school. In 1892, J. Green Trimble offered a lot on his farm for a colored church, and he also offered for sale, at the lowest price, a lot for a colored high school [source: "Highland Park," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 07/05/1892, p. 4]. There were 12 colored schools in Montgomery County in 1895 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp. 595-598]. The average attendance was 696 students taught by 17 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 900 students taught by 19 teachers for 1896-97. The average wages for male teachers was $34.00 and the female teachers earned $33.00 per month, 1895-96, and the following year, male teachers earned $38.00 and female teachers earned $35.00. The majority of the teachers were fairly well educated and more than two-thirds of them held a first class teaching certificate. In 1899, Professor Estill presented diplomas to the graduates during the commencement exercises at the court house [source: "Colored School commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/09/1899, p. 3]. It was reported in the Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/04/1900, p. 7, that there were no colored county schools in Montgomery County, "as there are not exceeding ten colored children of school age in the county." This wasn't exactly true; according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, in Montgomery County, KY (including Mt. Sterling) there were at least 891 Blacks who were 10 to 20 years old. In 1914, the Colored Moonlight School held classes in the Mt. Sterling Colored School: there were 75 students, the most at any one Moonlight School in Montgomery County [source: "Moonlight schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1914, p. 1]. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Mt. Sterling Colored Moonlight School was one of the best for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. In 1918, the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal was Prof. George W. Adams, who had come to the school in 1914. At the end of the school year in 1915, the school had the first grammar school commencement [sources: Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/01/1918, "The School children of the city...," p. 1, and "A Nice compliment," p. 2; and "Commencement exercises of colored school," 06/02/1915, p. 1]. The previous principal, Professor Estill, had left in 1914 for a teaching position at the Colored Normal School [today Kentucky State University]; his replacement was Prof. George W. Adams, who came from the Glendale Reform School in Lexington [source: "Goes to Frankfort," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/14/1914, p. 5]. Professor Adams resigned in 1918 to take a position with the National Benefit Life Insurance Company in Washington, D.C. and was replaced by Mrs. Robert [Cathryn] Gatewood [source: "Colored principal resigns," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 01/29/1918, p. 4]. Prof. George W. Adams was back in 1919, serving as superintendent of the Mt. Sterling colored schools [source: "Colored commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/20/1919, p. 9]. Professor Adams return coincided with the organizing of the colored county school system in Montgomery County, one of the schools was named Prewitt School, mentioned under the heading "Prewitt Descendants" on p. 25 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. In the fall of 1919, plans were made for the construction of the Colored Training School to serve Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County [source: "The Right spirit," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1919, p. 5]. J. W. Muir was the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal in 1922, and the new teachers were Miss Barnes, Miss Coons, and Miss Keller [source: "Teachers selected for city schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 06/08/1922, p. 1]. In 1930, there were two high schools: Montgomery County Colored School and Mt. Sterling Colored School [source: "Colored high schools--Kentucky, 1930-31," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 23-24]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Montgomery County were Anna J. Black, Dwena Carrington, Viola Chenault, Robin Hamilton Davis, Judia Davis, William Ethel, Katherine Gatewood, Amilda Gatewood, William Hawkins, Wayman Hockett, Margaret Hockett, Susie Jones, Cornie McClure, and Melinda Preevitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The two Negro high schools were consolidated in 1952, and in 1964 the schools in Montgomery County were fully integrated after DuBois High School was burned down. The St. Partick School in Mt. Sterling was the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1015. For more on the history of the colored schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, see the "Schools - 1881-1964" on pp. 17-18 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Aarons Run School
  • Smithville School
  • DuBois School (built in 1939)
  • Montgomery County High School
  • Moonlight School
  • Mt. Sterling American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Mt. Sterling Freedmen School
  • Mt. Sterling School
  • Mt. Sterling High School
  • Prewitt School
  • Training School of Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County

  See photo image of the Montgomery County Training School on p. 32 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Muhlenberg County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
One of the teachers at a colored school in Muhlenberg County was William H. Ross, who left teaching in 1887 to open a grocery store.  Between 1891 and 1893, there were 14 African American teachers in Muhlenberg County colored schools, with an average monthly pay of $29.06 for male teachers and $28.10 for female teachers [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. Sallie L. Waddleton Campbell was a school teacher at the Central City Colored School in 1894; she was the wife of William J. Campbell. The school houses and grounds were valued at $1,258.00 and the furniture at $74.50. There was a new school built in 1893 that cost $25. In total, there were 13 school districts with 13 schools: 2 schools in session for 3 months; 2 in session for 4 months; and 9 in session for 5 months. Six of the schools were log buildings and three were frame, and there was no mention of where the remaining schools were held. None of the schools were in good condition (not including the new building) [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. There were 14 colored schools in Muhlenberg County again in 1895, according to Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.603-607. Six of the schools were held in log buildings and 4 were held in a frame structure, and there is no mention of where the remaining 2 schools were held. The average attendance was 309 students 1895-96, and 333 students 1896-97. In 1909, the colored schools at Bevier and Drakesboro needed furnishings and repairs, and the same was true for most of the colored schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "A Plea to the members of the fiscal court," The Record, 03/18/1909, p. 3]. Professor William Holloway was the principal of the Drakesboro Community School in 1937; the school was the result of the consolidation of rural schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "1937 K.N.E.A. Honor Roll" on p. 14, and "Education since the War of 1917" on p. 22, in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1937]. The Negro teachers in Muhlenberg County in 1940 were W. E. Bennett, Jennie V. Bord, Drusilla Dulin, Blanche Elliott, Willie Hightower, Amelin Jones, Louis Littlepage, Richard McReynolds, Robert Martin, Goward Mathis, Cathonia Morris, Eligh Render, Mabel W. Render, Sophronia Robinson, Corrie L. Smith, Leslie S. Smith, Naomi Smith, Lillian Tichenor, Iva Y. Traylor, Vernetta Walker, Eloise Walker, James Waterfield, and James Watson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, the colored school in Greenville had Mrs. Blonnie Shelton as the teacher, and C. L. Timberlake was principal of the County Teachers Training School [source: "The New president at the West Kentucky Vocational Training School, Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, March 1949, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 12 & 18]. The St. Joseph Elementary and High School were the first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.146.

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Bevier School
  • Central City School
  • Drakesboro School
  • Drakesboro Community School
  • Greenville School

Central City Negro School See photo image of the Central City Negro School, in the Kentucky Digital Library online.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bevier, Central City, Drakesboro, and Greenville, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Nelson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were three colored schools in Nelson County, KY, funded by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. There was a Freedmen school in Bardstown and one in Bloomfield, and a school run by the American Missionary Association in Springfield [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The New Haven School for Colored Children opened in 1869, it was a Catholic school managed by the Sisters of Loretto [source: Loretto: annals of the century by A. C. Minogue, p. 236]. In 1871, St. Monica's School for Colored Children opened in Bardstown and was run by the Sisters of Charity [sources: The Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Kentucky by A. B. McGill, pp.287 & 399; and The History of Catholic Education in Nelson County (thesis) by Sister M. R. O'Leary, pp.94-95]. In 1880 there were at least 7 Negro school teachers in Nelson County; Daniel Peppers in the Bardstown; James Richardson in Bloomfield; 17 year old Fannie Davis in Bloomfield; Mollie Johnson in Boston; Henry Miller in Nelson Furnace; and J. W. Richards and his wife Florida in Bloomfield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The number of colored schools in Nelson County continued to grow, and by 1895, there were 16 schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.609-612]. There was one teacher at each of the schools, and in 1895, there was an additional teacher at the two schools with a high school program. The teachers' average pay, 1899-1900, was $48.37, and for 1900-1901, it was $39.55 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1899-1901, p.455]. Six students from Nelson County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons during the 1902-1903 school term, and 400 or more students attended the colored schools in Nelson County 1901-1903 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1901-1903, pp.81 & 329]. In 1916, the school in Fairfield was taught by Nelson Bryant, and the school in New Haven was taught by Willa F. and M. B. Claggett [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.26]. The school in Cox's Creek was taught by Mrs. Dora Hutchinson in 1929 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.46]; Mrs. Hattie Davis was the teacher in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.53]; and in 1947, Miss Dora Davis was a teacher at the school, she is listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal as a sustaining member of KNEA, on p.36 of the January-February issue, v.18, no.1. Lena Berry Whitney was a teacher at Chaplin in 1940; she is listed as an honor member of KNEA in 1943 and 1944 [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census; Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1943, v.13, no.2, p.31, and February-March 1944, v.15, no.3, p.23]. The Negro teachers in Nelson County in 1940 were Bell Bauman, Jessie B. Cherry, Hattie Davis, Hattie Hansford, Elizabeth Hardin, Sallie P. Lewis, Martha Lewis, Richard Lee Livers, Steve Samuels, Sherman L. Smith, Fannie B. Smith, Lena B. Whitney, and Charles Woodson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first Nelson County schools integrated during the 1956-57 school term were New Haven School, Nazareth Academy, and St. Joseph Preparatory School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.443].

  • Bardstown Freedmen's School
  • Bloomfield Freedmen's School
  • Springfield American Missionary Association School (funded by the Bureau)
  • New Haven Catholic School
  • St. Monica School
  • Colored Schools (16)
  • New Haven School
  • Boston School
  • Nelson Furnace School
  • Fairfield School
  • Chaplin School
  • Cox's Creek School
  • Eli H. Brown, Jr. School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.225]
  • Bardstown Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.225]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Nelson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Nicholas County, KY
Start Year : 1867
End Year : 1955
One of the earliest colored schools in Nicholas County, KY, was located in Carlisle, it was a Freedmen School supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The year 1867 is the date given as the beginning of the colored school system in Nicholas County by author Mary Bradley Moss, in her thesis The History of Education of Nicholas County, p.104. In 1880, Samuel Mitchell was the teacher at Head Quarters [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first report about the schools was recorded in 1881. There were four colored schools, one of which was held in the old jail house in Carlisle, and the other three were held in log cabins [source: Moss, p.104]. The school sessions were held for 2-3 months per year. By 1891, there were seven colored school districts with one school in each district, and the overall attendance ranged from 228 students to 150 students. Male teachers earned $30.16 per month and female teachers earned $30.47 per month [source: Moss, p.105]. In 1897, the school in Henryville was replaced with a new two story, frame building and there were two teachers [source: Moss, p.106]. The number of colored schools began to decrease in 1894, and by 1928, there were four: Henryville (2 schools), Moorefield, and Headquarters [source: Moss, p.107]. The principal at the Henryville Colored School taught the high school department and two female teachers taught the other grades [source: Moss, pp.107-108]. At the Henryville school, the principal was a high school graduate and earned $75.00 per month, while the female teachers had two years of college and earned $93.15 per month. All three were the highest paid teachers at the colored schools. The colored schools were under the county school system [source: Moss, p.109]. In 1916, Mary E. White and Mary F. Williams were two of the three teachers who were members of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.38]. Mrs. Lizzie D. McGowan was one of the school teachers in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.67]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Nicholas County were Ethel L. Jones, Carrie D. Murray, and Mary Francis Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Prior to the beginning of school desegregation at the Carlisle High School in 1955, Negro high school students in Nicholas County were bused to Western High School in Paris, KY [source: Finding the Fifties by D. J. Dampier; and History of Nicholas Countyby J. W. Conley]. The Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p. 444, lists the Carlisle Independent High School as the first in the county to start integrating the student population.

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Carlisle School
  • Henryville School (2)
  • Moorefield School
  • Headquarters School
  • Booker T. Washington School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.883]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Nicholas County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ohio County, KY
Start Year : 1878
End Year : 1962
In 1878, there was a bill in the Kentucky Senate to authorize the building of a colored school in District 1 of Ohio County [source: Journal of the Regular Session of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1877, p.764]. The bill was said to have passed due to the Democrat vote, according to the article "Colored voters remember..." in the Hartford Herald, 08/01/1877, p.2. The school teacher at the Hartford Colored School in 1880 was Joe C. H. Taylor and the school year began in September [source: Hartford Herald, "The colored school...," 09/01/1880, p.3]. Prof. McDowell from Bowling Green, KY was the teacher at the Hayti Colored School [source: "Prof. McDowell...," Hartford Herald, 09/10/1884, p.3]. In 1886 there were 11 colored schools in Ohio County, according to the Kentucky Superintendent Report, and by 1899 there 8 school districts reported in the article "Statistics" in the Hartford Republican, 06/02/1899, p.3. In 1892, there was an investigation by the Hartford Herald on behalf of the colored schools and the colored teachers who had not received their pay. The newspaper reviewed the bookkeeping of the Ohio County school superintendent and determined the colored teachers were owed their pay [source: "In case a suit is brought..." and "Cowering beneath the Herald's revelations" both in the Hartford Herald, 10/26/1892, p.2] The debate about the disposition of the colored school fund became a political disagreement between the Democrats and Republicans as to which had done more for the Negro. Other schools in Ohio County included Rockport Colored School in District 9 with P. A. Gary as the teacher [source: "Report," Hartford Republican, 11/17/1893, p.4]. The Sulphur Springs Colored School teacher was Samantha Bracken during the 1893-94 school year [source: "Program," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.2]. There was a colored school in McHenry as early as 1894 when Miss Charlotte Eidson was the teacher [source: "McHenry Colored School," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.1]. L. W. Smith was the McHenry school teacher in 1904 [source: "The Guess candle," Hartford Herald, 01/20/1904, p.3]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ohio County were Delois Eidson, Kenneth Eidson, William C. Jackson, Mittie K. Render, and Ethel Tichenor [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated were  Beaver Dam Elementary and High School; Hartford Elementary and High School; and Wayland Alexander School, all on p.147 of the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63

  • Bruce School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.883]
  • Hayti School
  • Hartford School
  • McHenry School
  • Rockport School
  • Sulphur Springs School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ohio County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Oldham County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
H. C. Marrs is credited for one of the earliest colored schools in Oldham County, KY; the school was in session in 1866, and the following year, Elijah P. Marrs took over the school for his brother, H.C Marrs, who left to teach in Lexington, KY [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116].  Between 1866 and 1870, there were two colored schools supported by the Freedmen's Bureau in Oldham County, KY: one school in LaGrange and one in Peewee Valley [see the NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. In 1880 two of the teachers in the colored schools were Lewis E. Carter, who lived in Brownsboro, and Lulie Booker who lived in Covington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The number of colored schools had increased by 1895 when there were 8 schools with 9 teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.624-629]. During the two year period, 1895-1897, all but one of the schools was in session for 5 months, and the remaining school was open longer. There was an average attendance of 232 students for 1895-96, and an average of 224 students for 1896-97. During the 1900-01 school term, three students from Oldham County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.144]. For the school year 1910-1911, the Negro teachers' average monthly salary was $60 for male teachers and $37.43 for female teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Instruction, p.48]. In 1916, Romania Booker was the teacher at the Pewee Valley School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.25], and by 1924, the teacher had married and her name was Mrs. Romania Flournoy [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.50]. The Pewee Valley School was one of the colored schools selected to received funding to extend the school term to 9 months [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]. In 1925, Mrs. George Retter was the teacher at the Goshen School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, p.85]. Retter was one of 6 Negro teachers in Oldham County, when there were 242 children in the schools, and there were seven elementary schools and a high school at the LaGrange School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. In 1928, Mrs. Georgia Taylor, was the teacher in the Crestwood School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p.61]. Another Crestwood teacher was Mrs. Ethel Howell, who also taught at Brownsboro [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.46]. In 1930, J. V. Coleman was principal of the LaGrange Colored High School (Class 3) which had 14 students taught by one teacher who earned an annual salary of $810 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, pp.27 & 85]. By 1940, according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were at least 6 Negro teachers in Oldham County: Louise Coldwell; Ms. Lang; Grace Parrett; Melvin Strong; Maude Vaughn; and James T. Cooper who was principal of the LaGrange School, and he had been a teacher at the Crestwood School in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.52]. The LaGrange Colored High School continued to serve the entire county, with less than 20 students being taught by one teacher until 1947 when there was an enrollment of 23 students, which was the last year the high school existed [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1947-1948, p.487]. Integration of the schools began in 1956 in the county school system with LaGrange Elementary School and St. Aloysius [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.444].


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Oldham County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Owen County, KY
Start Year : 1877
End Year : 1958
During the 1877-78 school term, there was a total of three colored schools in Owen County, KY, according to the thesis of Capitola Simpson, History of Education in Owen County, p.111-119. One school was located in Owenton and two in New Liberty, and the following school year, two more schools were established, one in Harrisburg (Long Ridge) and one in Dallasburg. In 1880, two of the teachers were Joseph Johnston and Robert Langford, both in New Liberty [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Gratz Colored School was added during the 1881-1882 year and over the next few years there were also schools in New Columbus, Sparta, Monterey, Maple Grove, and Buck Run. The earlier schools were taught in churches, and later in log cabins, frame buildings, and a box building. The teachers were brought in from other states because it was felt that there were no qualified Negro teachers in the county. The schools were in session two or three months in the 1880s; five months starting with the 1893-94 school terms; and six months starting with the 1907-08 school term when there was an average school attendance of 145 students. The teachers' average monthly salary during the 1893-94 term was $33.00 for Negro male teachers and $25.00 for Negro female teachers. The salaries would fluctuate over the years, and during the 1908-09 school term, the average monthly salary for Negro males was $32.00 and Negro females earned $30.00. By 1912, the number of colored schools decreased to seven; there were five schools in 1913; and four in 1915 [source: Simpson, p.222-228]. The average daily attendance for the term 1915-1916 was 100, and by 1929-1930, the average attendance was 86, with 15 students in high school. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Owen County were Daisy Fitzgerald, Priscilla Henry, and Ethel Ware [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Owen County began to integrate in 1958 with Owen County High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1017]. 

  • Owenton School
  • New Liberty School
  • Harrisburg School
  • Dallasburg School
  • Gratz School
  • New Columbus School
  • Sparta School
  • Monterey School
  • Maple Grove School
  • Buck Run School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Owen County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Owsley County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1953
The Sag School was the only colored school in Owsley County, KY [source: The History of Education in Owsley County, by Eugene Field Gabbard, p. 112]. The school was located in District 14, which is where the majority of the Negro population lived in Owsley County. In 1895, the school was included in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.632-635. The school was held in a frame building and the average attendance was 11 during the 1896-97 school term. There was only one teacher whose average monthly salary was $20.81 during the 1895-96 school term, and $19.71 during the 1896-97 school term. In 1925, there was still the one school with one teacher for the 12 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. The 1939 school enrollment at Sag School was 19 students. The school was located on land the county school system purchased from Billie Hall. The African American community built the school and raised the money for the seats and equipment. The teacher was Sanford Scott, who encouraged students to continue their education at Kentucky Normal School [at present day Kentucky State University] in Frankfort, KY. Two of the students who attended the normal school were Jack Jett, who in 1922-23 was a farm agent in Jefferson County, and Lena Guess Lightfoot, who returned to teach at the Sag School during regular terms and attended the normal school in the summer [source: Gabbard, p. 113]. A picture of the Sag School, a one-room school house, is on p. 127 in Gabbard's thesis. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Owsley County was Lena Lightfoot [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The one colored school in Owsley County continued to be listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, but was not counted in the 1952-53 directory on p.435. It was again counted in the 1953-54 directory, p.805, but was not counted in the 1954-55 directory or any subsequent directories. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Owsley High School and Grade School on p.444 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.  

  • Sag School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Owsley County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Paducah and McCracken County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the early colored schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, was Runkle Institute located in Paducah, KY, established between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freemen Schools]. The act to establish public schools for African American children in McCracken County was approved by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873. There would be an annual tax to support the schools: 20 cents on each one hundred dollars of property owned by persons of color, and a poll tax or per capital tax of $1 for each Colored male resident over the age of 18. In 1880, the colored teachers were Charles Brooks, William Clark, Matilda Fletcher, Columbus Holland, James Owens, George Owens, and Samuel Reed [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1893, there were 13 colored school districts with 13 school houses in McCracken County: 6 log buildings, 1 frame building, and 6 brick buildings [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky by Francis M. Irwin, pp.63-66]. There were 13 teachers, 7 males and 6 females, who taught an average of 340 students each day during the 8 month school term. In 1925, Lincoln High School in Paducah was a Class 1A school with Mrs. M. R. Phillips as principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. The high school had 6 teachers and an enrollment of 127 students. There were 9 elementary schools with 9 teachers in the county school system meant to serve 1,741 students; and in Paducah, there were 18 elementary teachers and 7 teachers at Lincoln High School, all meant to serve 1,166 students [pp.68-69]. Sixteen years earlier, in 1909, Dennis Anderson began building West Kentucky Industrial College, the school offered secondary education (high school) and junior college for the training of teachers. In 1928, the school had 11 faculty members and their annual salaries were as follows: D. H. Anderson, President, $3,000; H. S. Osborne, Dean, $2,000; W. W. Maddox, $1,233; Mrs. M. J. Egester, $1,080; J. A. Walker, $1,110.78; Mrs. A. H. Anderson, $1,008; Mrs. M. V. McGill, $900; R. W. Daevson, Manual Training, $1,008; Mrs. S. E. Poston, Domestic Science, $810 (second wife of Ephraim Poston); Miss M. A. Robison, Matron and Teacher, $540; Mrs. B. A. Dawson, $945 [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky by Francis M. Irwin, pp.110-112]. The school had an average attendance of 343 students, and there were extra-curricular activities such as football, tennis, croquet, basketball, and volleyball. Lincoln High School opened in 1908, and in 1926, there were four teachers, all graduates of a four year college [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky]. In 1916, Paducah Public High School (Lincoln) was listed in the Bureau of Education Bulletin on Negro Education. J. B. F. Prather was principal of the four year high school and the eight elementary grades that were also within the school. There were 39 students and four teachers. There had been a public high school for African Americans in Paducah since the 1890s. By the 1940s, the city of Paducah had seven public schools for Colored children; the schools were listed in Caron's Paducah, KY City Directory, 1941 and 1942: Dunbar School at 2510 Yeiser Street (Lexie B. Mays was the teacher); Garfield School on Harris, southeast corner of Ninth Street, (Mattye O. Strauss was the principal); Lincoln School on the west side of Eighth Street and Lincoln Jr. High and Lincoln High School, both at 1715 S. Eighth Street (E. W. Whiteside was principal of all three schools); Rowlandtown School at 1400 Thompson Avenue (Henrietta Brogwell was the teacher); and Sanders School on the east side of Levin Avenue, north of 32nd Street (Kate O. Smith was the teacher). In total, there were at least 68 Negro teachers in McCracken County in 1940 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The West Kentucky Vocational School was the first to be listed as having both "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.224]. The following year, the schools listed as integrated were Clark, Jefferson Jr. High, Longfellow, and Paducah Tilghman, on p.441 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57. For more see Chapter 998, pp. 509-510, Acts Passed at the ... Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth, 1873 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; and Paducah Public High School on p. 280 in Negro Education, Bulletin, 1916, No. 39, vol. 2, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education. See photocopy image of Union Station School in McCracken County on p.31 at Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].
 

  • Runkle Institute
  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Dunbar School
  • Garfield School
  • Lincoln School
  • Northside School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879]
  • Paducah Public High School (1890s)
  • Rosemary School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879]
  • Rowlandtown School
  • Sanders School
  • Southside School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879]
  • Union Station School
  • West Kentucky Industrial College 
  • West Paducah School
  • Woodland School

  See photo image of West Paducah Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library - images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Paris and Bourbon County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Some of the early colored schools in Bourbon County were built and supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The Negro common schools began around 1874, according to James R. Welch in his thesis titled The History of Education of Bourbon County. In 1880, the school teachers were George Nelson in North Middletown; Eugene Jones, Reuben Butler, and Henry L. Gowen in Paris; Elisha Lewis in Millersburg; A. Wm. Knowx in Clintonville; and Annie Trotter in Hutchison [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following comes from Welch's thesis: In 1881, there were 1,765 colored school age children counted in the school census, and not many of them attended school. There were 16 colored school districts, with 15 schools. In 1885, there were 22 colored schools. In 1886, there were 24 colored schools, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.227-230. All of the schools were held in full session [5 months] up to the 1893-94 school year, which was about a decade prior to the beginning of a continuing decrease in the number of schools and students [source: The History of Education of Bourbon County]. The number of school districts held constant between 1890 and 1908, with 22 to 24 colored school districts and a daily attendance from a high of 1,063 students in 1893-94, to a low of 532 students in 1902-03. The attendance numbers picked up, but started to slip again in 1906. From 1908-1919, the number of colored schools decreased from 20 to 12. The following is a compilation of newspaper items on the history of Paris and Bourbon County colored Schools; the articles contained quite a bit more information than was printed in most other Kentucky newspapers for the same time period. Reverend Graves, who died in 1902, had come to Paris, KY in 1901 to become principal of the Paris Western Colored School. There were 248 students and seven teachers, and the numbers would remain consistent for the next several years. The prior year there was a high school graduating class of eight: Katie L. Long, Anna E. Parker, Fannie B. Buford, Dora B. Kimbrough, Jimmie R. Fields, James B. Woodward, and Keatha R. Williams. Graduation ceremonies were initially held at the Opera House in Paris, KY, with admission costs of 10 cents, 15 cents, and 25 cents. A smaller school system was the Millersburg Colored School, where in 1901 there were three graduates: Frank R. Lewis, Lucile Jefferson, and Hattie B. Mayburry. Manual training was introduced in the Paris school in 1907 with 26 men and boys enrolled in the newly established night school; the Colored teachers' wages for the year totaled $2,550. Mrs. Nettie H. Grant was the school principal at the Claysville Colored School in 1907, which was the year that the Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association held their meeting at the school [source: "Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association," Bourbon News, 11/12/1907, p.4, col.6]. In Paris, at the end of the school year in 1909, there were two graduations, one for 7th graders held at a local African American church and one for high school graduates held in the school auditorium. In 1909, new colored schools were scheduled to be built in Ruddles Mills and Jacksonville. The following year, several colored schools in the county were consolidated: Ruddles Mills School with Glentown School; Millersburg School with Shipptown School (the school location was undecided); and Houston School with Amentsville School. By 1910, a new school was being built in Centerville, and the Sidville School was to be repaired if church members would agree to help raise funds for the repairs. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Paris Colored Moonlight School was one of the best in the state for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools by Y. H. Baldwin]. See photocopy image of Cumensville School on p.12 at Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf]. The following is additional information from Welch's thesis. The total number of students had continued to decrease. During the 1908-09 school term the average elementary school attendance was 587 colored students, and by the end of the 1932-33 term, the average attendance was 296. An industrial training school opened in Little Rock in 1914, it was established with support from the Slater Fund. It was developed into the Bourbon County Training School for colored persons in 1918, and was also referred to as the Little Rock Training School. For more see The Bourbon News articles - "Colored School Commencement," 06/12/1900, p. 1.; "Millersburg," 02/15/1901, p. 2; "Commencement items of the Paris High Schools," 05/31/1901, p. 3; "New board elects teachers," 07/05/1901, p. 3; "A tribute," 05/02/1902, p. 5; "City Schools," 09/09/1902, p. 5; "Meeting of school board," 06/14/1907, p. 1; "Expenditures," 07/16/1907, p. 8; "800 pupils," 10/08/1907, p. 6; "Calendar of Colored School," 06/04/1909, p. 1; "School Improvement League in session," 08/24/1909, p. 3; "County School Board," 11/16/1909, p. 4; "County School Board meets," 05/10/1910, p. 1; and "Recent meeting of the County Board," 08/12/1910, p. 1.

 

In 1925, G. W. Adams was principal of Western School which had 9 elementary teachers and 5 teachers at the Class 1 Level B high school that had an enrollment of 112 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 69]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Bourbon County were Mattie F. Alexander, Howard Allen, Minerva Bedford, Charles R. Bland, Nora S. Bland, Sallie F. Brooke, Charles Buckner, Jessie Buford, Mary Butler, Nannie Butler, John Derrickson, Dewese Grant, Dorothy Hankins, Ola Delle Jacobs, Mary Elizabeth Kellis, Anna McBonner (sp), Carrie Murray, William Reed, Minnie Steele, Ennis Toles, Elizabeth Thomas, Archie Thomas, Mattie Whaley, Betty Williams, Lily Mae Williams, Clara Mae Woods, and Willa Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in Bourbon County were Bourbon County High School, North Middletown High School, and Paris Independent 7th Street Schools, all in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842.
 

  • Amentsville School
  • Baptist Church School (James. M. Thomas' School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Bourbon County Training School [Little Rock]
  • Brentsville School
  • Browntown School (submitted by Myke Carter; photo image by The Feedman)*
  • Caneridge School
  • Centerville School
  • Claysville School
  • Clintonville School
  • C. M. Clay's School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Cumensville School
  • Currentsville School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Glentown School
  • Houston School
  • Hutchison School
  • Jacksonville School
  • Jackstown School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Little Rock School
  • Methodist Church School (Reuben Butler's School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Monterey School
  • Millersburg School
  • Millersburg Freedmen School
  • Moonlight School
  • North Middletown School
  • Paris American Missionary Association School
  • Paris Freedmen School
  • Ruckerville School
  • Ruddles Mills School
  • Shipptown School
  • Sidville School
  • Western School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842]

 See photo image of Clintonville Colored School building at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
 
*Browntown was an African American Community on Townsend Valley Road in Bourbon County, KY, from the 1800s-sometime in the 1900s [source: The Feedman, Browntown Church Flickr site].
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Pendleton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1952
The first colored school in Pendleton County, KY, was probably the American Missionary Association School supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The first school mentioned in the thesis of Elbert Wallace Richmond, A history of Education in Pendleton County, Kentucky, pp.48-49, was established in 1878 in Falmouth. The teachers in Falmouth were George Black and Polly Southgate, according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1885, there were two other schools, one in Levengood and one in Clays Run. The first colored school report for the three districts in Pendleton County was filed in 1888. The school terms were three months, and the average monthly salary of the three teachers was $25. By 1900, two of the schools had closed, leaving only the Falmouth school [source: Richmond, p.71]. The county school board provided transportation for the children in the county to attend the school in Falmouth. A new school house was constructed in 1907 [source: "Pendleton County" on p.161 in Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky for the Two Years Beginning July 1, 1905 and Ending June 30, 1907]. In 1916, the teachers were Grace Ayers and Imogene Ayers [source: "Membership Kentucky Negro Educational Association 1916," Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.24]. In 1932, the teacher was Mrs. Bertha Chambers [source: Richmond, p.71]. The average salary was $80 per month and the average attendance was 33 students with a school term of seven months. There was not a colored high school in Pendleton County, KY. The Negro teachers in Pendleton County in 1940 were Amanda Hinton and Anna L. Hinton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, the Falmouth Colored School had closed, the building was sold, and the students were bused to the colored school in Harrison County [source: "Pendleton County Public Schools" on p.708 in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky]. The Falmouth Colored School had closed in 1952, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1951-52, p.709. The St. Frances Xavier School was the first listed as having "white and colored" students, on p.226 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The first school to be listed as integrated was Morgan, on p.444 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Falmouth School
  • Levengood School
  • Clays Run School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pendleton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Perry County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
In 1895, there was one colored school in Perry County, KY, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.641-645, and the average attendance was between 31 and 16 students. During the 1899-1900 school term, the Negro teacher's average salary was $32.57 per month, and the following term the salary was $21.60 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-1901, p.455]. During the 1905-06 school term, the teacher's salary had increased to $49.44, and the following term the salary was $34.66, and the school had an average attendance of 27 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905-June 1906, p.431 & p.407]. In 1928, the colored school teachers included Mr. Elmer Williams in Hazard [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p.59]; Miss Delinia Barker in Hazard [p.32]; Anna Hood in Hazard [p.44]; Rev. J. T. Martnee in Hazard [p.49]; and Miss Corina South in Blue Diamond [p.55]. During the 1930-31 school term, the Vicco Colored School received $40, and the Hazard Colored School received $80 from the Rosenwald Fund in support of the school libraries [source: "Counties aided on school libraries," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, p.25], and in 1932, the Vicco School received aid in order to extend the school term to 8 months [p.24]. A colored school mentioned in history books about Perry County, KY, is the Town Mountain School in South Hazard [sources: History of Perry County, Kentucky by E. T. Johnson, pp.116-117; and Observations of God's Timing in the Kentucky Mountains by R. Huston, p.119]. Author E. T. Johnson also mentions the Liberty Street Colored School, which had a high school that was open to students from the county [p.117]. The Liberty Street School was built in 1936 in Hazard as part of the Work Progress Administration projects, the school closed in 1963 [source: B. Richards, "Former Liberty students reunite at memorial," Hazard Herald, 07/2013 - online]. The Higgins Colored School also had a high school, the school was located in Vicco and the high school was an approved 3 year county high school [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1937, v.8, no.2, p.55; and October-November 1931, v.2, no.1, p.24]. The Vicco teachers were Mr. A. J. Williams in 1929 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.58]; Mr. C. A. Colerane in 1935 [source: The Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.52]; and Mr. and Mrs. A. D. Puryear in 1935 [p.61]. In 1940, the Vicco Colored School was merged with the Hazard Colored School system [source: The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky (thesis) by W. T. Gilbert]. According to the U.S. Federal Census, in 1940, there were at least 10 Negro teachers in Perry County: Lou Visa Cannon in Bulan; Pearl B. Cornett; Rankine J. Dearmond in Blue Diamond - Hervyton; Lillian Green; Cregan Herald and her husband Bergen Herald; Betty Kelly in Bulan; Mary Tate from Alabama, lived in Hazard; Carl Walker in Hazard; and Florence Zimmerman in Blue Diamond - Hervyton. School integration is indicated as starting in 1956 at the Perry County Schools, the Hazard Independent Schools, and the Hazard High School, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445.

  • Higgins School in Vicco (Higgins School merged into Liberty Street School in 1940)
  • Hazard School (before 1936)
  • Blue Diamond School
  • Town Mountain School
  • Liberty Street School
  • Kodak School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.885]
  • Tribey School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.885]

 

  See photo image of students at Town Mountain Colored School at the Hazard, KY and Perry County: a photo history website. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Perry County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Pike County, KY
Start Year : 1875
End Year : 1956
The colored school in Pike County, KY, was established prior to 1875, according to Herbert Woodson Crick in his thesis, History of Education in Pike County, Kentucky, p. 47. The school was located in Pikeville. In the 1890s, Effie Waller Smith was a teacher at the Pikeville Colored School. There were 63 Negro children and one Negro teacher in Pike County in 1890; 83 students in 1910; 87 students in 1920; and 83 students in 1930 [source: Crick, p. 106]. The Pikeville Colored School offered two years of high school. There were four teachers in the county colored schools. William R. Cummings was principal of the Perry A. Cline School in 1938 when he wrote "History of the Perry A. Cline High School," which appeared on p. 49 of the KNEA Journal, vol. 9,no. 1-2. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Pike County were Edwin Pearson who was a grade school teacher in Millard; Albert J. Cummings; Jesse Wyler; and Mary L. Whitefield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Perry A. Cline School would become a four year high school and then close in 1966 when the Pike County schools were fully integrated. Prior to that, the Pikeville College Trg. School was listed as having "white & colored" students in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.227. The following year Belfry School was listed as having "white & integrated" students, and there were three schools listed as integrated: Majestic, Mullins, and Pikeville High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445]. 

  • Perry Cline School
  • Pikeville School
  • Pike County Schools (4)
  • McAndrews School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.886]
  • Northside High School on Hellier Street, 1929-1932 [source: M. F. Sohn, "The Black Struggle for Education and Learning," Appalachian Heritage, v.16, Fall 1987, pp.35-42]

   See photo image of 1938 Pikeville Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library-Images.



   See photo image and bio of W. R. Cummings on p. 16 in KNEA Journal, January/February 1942, vol. 12, no. 2.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pikeville, Pike County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Powell County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
There were three African American schools in Powell County, KY, in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1906, the examination for Colored school teachers was held in Stanton, KY [source: "Examination for colored school teachers...," Clay City Times, 06/24/1906, p. 3]. Within the Powell County Educational Division No. 1, the teacher at West Bend Colored School was Valeria Samuels in 1916, and the Clay City Colored School teacher had not been selected [source: "Teachers selected," Clay City Times, 06/08/1916, p. 4]. In 1925, there were 2 colored schools, one in West Bend and one in Clay City, each with one teacher, and there were 69 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. The Clay City School was replaced with Rosenwald school that was built 1926-27 [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.66]. In 1927, Scott Mitchell was the teacher at West Bend Colored School, which included a two year high school [sources: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association,  April 20-23, 1927, p. 53, and April 8-21, 1928, p. 19]. By 1932, there were still 2 colored elementary schools with a total of 80 students, and the West Bend Colored High School which had 9 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.57]. The school term 1932-33 was the last for the West Bend High School; though the high school students continued to be counted in the Kentucky Public School Directory. Perhaps the high school students attended school in a nearby county.  In 1941, Allie Gentry was the principal at West Bend Colored School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 11, issue 2, p. 19]. By 1943, one of the two colored schools was closed [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1943-44, p.541]. The last colored school in Powell County, believed to be the West Bend School, was noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1959-60, p.806; there were 14 students enrolled in the school that was taught by one teacher. According to the title Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, pp.65-66, the West Bend Colored School was a Rosenwald School located on Turley Road, built between 1917 and 1920, and the school closed in 1960. The school had closed during school integration in Powell County. The process had started with the Powell County High School noted as being "white & integrated" in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445, and the following year the same school is listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.642.

  • Clay City School
  • Stanton School
  • West Bend School

  See the 1927 photocopy image of the Clay City Colored School on p. 40 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Powell County, Kentucky: Clay City, West Bend, Stanton

African American Schools in Pulaski County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One or the earliest colored schools in Pulaski County, KY was the Freedmen School located in Somerset. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. Not too long after the school was established, the teacher at the Freedmen School was run out of town, but that did not deter the effort for there to be colored schools. In 1880, there were schools with the following teachers: William P. Barker who was 15 years old; Charlie Goings; and Robert Owens [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886 there were 6 colored schools [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. Ten years later, there was a court case concerning clarification on the appropriation of taxes between white and colored schools in Pulaski County: "Board of Education of Somerset Public Schools v. Trustees Colored School District No. 1, Pulaski County" [online at Google Books]. The taxes were needed to support the 10 colored schools that had an average attendance of 224 students for the school year 1895-96, and 256 for the 1896-97 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.653-657]. There were 11 Negro teachers at the 10 schools, they earned an average monthly wage of $34.79 during the 1895-96 school term, and the following year, male teachers earned $28.33 per month, and female teachers earned $20.17 per month. Nine of the 10 schools were taught for 5 months, and one school was held more than 5 months. Seven of the school buildings were log cabins, and three of the schools were held in frame buildings. One student from Pulaski County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) during the 1900-01 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-June 1901, p.144]. The following biennium, there were 5 students from Pulaski County at the State Normal School for Colored Persons [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1901-June 1903, p.81]. During the same time period, in the Pulaski County colored schools, the teachers' average monthly salaries were $31.00 for 1901-02, and $22.87 for 1902-03 [p.355]. In 1925, there were 4 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher in the colored schools in Somerset, KY, and two teachers in the rural schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68-69]. By 1927, the teachers in the various colored schools listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 20-23, 1927, were Miss Arneeda Gilmore and Mrs. Ollie M. Gilmore [p.45]; Mrs. Bertha Bogle [p.37]; Mrs. Blanca Brown [p.38]; Miss Virginia E. Lackey [p.50]; and Mrs. Betty McClasky and Prof. E. B. McClasky at Dunbar School [p.51]. More than a decade later, there were at least nine Negro teachers in Pulaski County, KY, according to the 1940 U.S. Federal Census: Ernest Alexandria who had lived in Cynthiana, KY in 1935; Christine Barger; Mae Brown; Bertha Dorye; Virginia Lackey; Perry McDowell; Maggie Smith; Hatha Weat; and G. P. Wilson who was the principal at Dunbar School. In 1956, Pulaski County schools started to integrate their student populations at the county schools, Somerset High School, and St. Mildred School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].

  • Freedmen Colored School in Somerset
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Dunbar School (built in 1909)
  • Bourbon School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, pp.11 & 84]
  • Garner School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, p.30]
  • Owens School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, p.11]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pulaski County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Robertson County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1946
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Mt. Olivet, KY; William Crosby was the school teacher and he was also a farm worker according to the U.S. Federal Census. William Crosby was a Kentucky native, he was a husband, and father of three. In 1886, there were two colored schools in Robertson County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. During the two year period 1895-97, there were still two colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97,  pp.657-660]. There was one teacher at each school and the school terms lasted five months. Both the male and the female teacher earned $24.39 the first school year, and during the second year, they each earned $19.17. At one school, classes were held in a log building, and the other school was held in a frame building. There were 34 students enrolled for the school term 1895-96, and 39 enrolled for the 1896-97 term; less than half the students attended school on a regular basis. By 1907, there was only one colored school in Robertson County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, pp.166-167].  Mr. R. L. Diggs was the school teacher at the Mt. Olivet Colored School in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.56]. Beginning in 1947, the colored school in Mt. Olivet was no longer listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory [source: 1947-48 volume, p.488]. Integration of the student population began in 1956, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446; the Deming School is listed as integrated with 5 Negro children in the school census.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Mt. Olivert School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Robertson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Rockcastle County, KY
Start Year : 1865
End Year : 1938
A colored school in Rockcastle County, KY, was established several years prior to 1884, according to the thesis of Egbert F. Norton: History of Education in Rockcastle County, Kentucky, pp. 57-58. Norton estimated that the colored school house had been built in 1865 [source: Norton, p. 79]. In 1886, there were two colored schools; one in Brodhead and one in Mt. Vernon [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1899, the teacher of the colored Mt. Vernon school was Remetha Ford [source: "The colored school here..." in the column "LOCAL and OTHERWISE," Mount Vernon Signal, 11/17/1899, p. 3]. By 1903, there was only one colored school, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky For the two years beginning July 1, 1901, and ending June 30, 1903, p. 232. In 1906, it was reported in the Mount Vernon Signal that there were 23 colored students in Rockcastle County [source: "Kentucky's Annual School Census," 07/13/1906, p. 3]. One of the last terms for a colored school in Rockcastle County was noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.64; there was one school, one teacher, and 19 students enrolled in the school. According to E. F. Norton, by 1930, there were nine Negro children of school age listed in the school census of Rockcastle County, and the average school attendance was 0. There may have been a 0 attendance because there was no school for the children. Norton stated, on p. 79 of his thesis, "Colored education in Rockcastle became less serious during this period, because of the gradual decrease in colored population in the county." There were 79 Blacks listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census for Rockcastle County, KY, including 17 children between the ages of 6 and 18. Looking at prior years, the U.S. Census population in Rockcastle County, KY, listed 92 Blacks and 38 Mulattoes in 1910; 71 Blacks and 35 Mulattoes in 1920; 79 Blacks in 1930. By 1933, there was another colored school in Rockcastle County; the school was located in Mt. Vernon and had an enrollment of 11 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1933-34, p.58. Miss Lena Marshall was the school teacher in Mt. Vernon in 1935 [source: KNEA Journal, vol. 6, no.1, p. 59], and she was the first teacher from that county to enroll in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. The 1937-38 was the last term of the school; there was one teacher and 7 students were enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-38, p.56]. In 1940, there were still Negro children of school age in Rockcastle County: 14 year old Genena Jacker had completed the 7th grade; 10 year old Joyce Jacker had completed the 3rd grade; 14 year old Pete L. Jarber had completed the 7th grade, he was working, a farm laborer; 11 year old Morris Newcomb had completed the 1st grade; and there was no school information about 8 year old Sallie Newcomb [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There are no notations in the Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65, that the Rockcastle County Schools integrated prior to the end of the school term.

  • Brodhead School
  • Mt. Vernon School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Rockcastle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Rowan County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1930
The colored schools in Rowan County, KY, seemed to come and go from the late 1800s to about 1930. As early as 1895, there was one colored school in Rowan County, KY, the school was taught for five months, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.665-668. No more than 10 students attended the school on a regular basis. The teacher's average monthly pay was $24.39, 1895-96, and $19.44, 1896-97. By 1912, the colored school had closed and reopened with an enrollment of 10 students, 1911-12, and 8 students, 1912-13 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-12, p.4; and 1912-13, p.112]. In 1920, Beatrice Mance, a Kentucky native who was 19 years old, was the school teacher [source: U.S. Federal Census].  Mance was a boarder with the Luke and Lizzie France family in Morehead. The family was among the 21 Blacks and 2 Mulattoes listed in the 1920 census for Rowan County, with the France children as the only school age children between the ages of 5 and 18. Luke France worked at a mechanical shop, and both he and his wife could read and write. By 1925, no school was listed in the school directory.  In 1930, there was again one colored school in Rowan County and there was an enrollment of 9 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.89]. The teacher was Kentucky native, 20 year old Agatha Chennault who lived with the France family on Railroad Street in Morehead, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The following year, 1931, there was no longer a colored school listed for Rowan County in the school directories. The first school in Rowan County to be listed as integrated was the Breckinridge Training Schools in 1961 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.889].

  • Morehead School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Rowan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Russell County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Parker H. Jackman was one of the first teachers in the colored schools in Russell County, KY; he began teaching after the Civil War ended. It is not known how long the school existed or where it was located. By 1895, there were four colored schools in Russell County, KY, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.669-672]. One of the schools was taught in a log cabin and the other three were taught in frame buildings. The average attendance was 40 students and there were 4 teachers, 1895-96, and there were 35 students and three teachers, 1896-97. The teachers' average wages were $24.12, 1895-96, and $19.08, 1896-97. During the 1902-03 school term, there was one student from Russell County who attended the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-03, p.81]. The average attendance at the Russell County colored schools was 38, 1901-02, and 48, 1902-03 [p.329]. In 1905, the students attending Russell Springs Colored School moved from their old school building to the school that was used by the white students [source: Russell County, Kentucky: history & families by Turner Publishing Company, p.156]. A new school had been built for the white students who attended Russell Springs Academy, a private school. Their old school, where the colored students would be attending, was located on North Main Street near the Christian Church. Several years later, a new school building for the colored students was constructed on S. Highway 379. There were 3 colored schools in Russell County in 1925 with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68], and the following year, there were 2 colored schools [1926-1927, p.82]. In 1935, Miss Thelma Simpson was a school teacher in Jamestown [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.6, no.1, October-November 1935, p.63]. There continued to be two colored schools in Russell County, until 1953, when Greens Chapel was the one remaining school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1953-1954, p.807]. In 1955, the Russell County High School was the first to report having both white and colored students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.228], and the following year the school was listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Russell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Scott County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866, there was an American Missionary School for the freedmen of Scott County, the school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. According to Apple, Johnston, and Bevins, freedmen in Scott County had to secure a building before the Freedmen's Bureau would consider establishing and maintaining a school in Scott County [source: Scott County Kentucky: a history edited by L. Apple, F. A. Johnston, and B. Bevins, p.249]. The community organized a colored school board of directors in the spring of 1866 and rented a house for the school. Classes started in October of 1866 with 20 students and the cost was $1.50 per student, except for orphans and poor children who attend for free. In 1873, Charles Steele was head of the Georgetown Colored School. One of the teachers at the school was Allen Allensworth [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.120]. In 1884, the Graded School for Colored Children opened and the name of the school was eventually changed to Chambers Avenue School, Charles Steele was head of the school until his death in 1908 [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. In 1880, the teachers in the colored schools were Charles Blackburn, a Kentucky native who was 20 years old; Quincey Bailey, also 20 years old; and Charles Steele who was 25 and married with a one year old son [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, one of the colored schools was held in a rented building [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1891, two additional schools were built [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, School Year Ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.213]. By 1895, there were 15 colored districts with 9 colored schools, with 10 teachers, and an average attendance of 442 students; and one additional district was added the following school year, still with 9 schools, 10 teachers, and an average attendance of 465 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.673-676]. The teachers' average wages were $46.53 for males and $41.83 for females, 1895-96, and the following school year, the wages were $40.08 for males and $34.74 for females. Around mid-October of 1898, the Peach Orchard Colored School in Scott County burned down [source: Kentucky Gazzette, 10/15/1898, p.3]. During the 1900 and 1901 school terms, there was one student from Scott County who attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.144]. During the same period, within the colored schools of Scott County, the teachers' monthly pay was $40.90, 1899-1900, and $35.87, 1900-1901 [p.455]. From 1902-03, there were two students from Scott County attending State Normal School for Colored Persons [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903,  p.81]. The average attendance at the colored schools in Scott County was 464 and the teachers' average monthly wages was $44.14, 1901-02 [pp.329 & 355]; and the following school year, 1902-03, there was an average of 437 students and the teachers' average monthly wages was $34.12 [pp.329 & 355]. In 1908, Edward B. Davis replaced Charles Steele as principal of the Chambers Avenue School, and Davis remained as the principal until his death in 1934 [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. According to Apple, Johnston, and Bevins, the white community of Stamping Ground, KY helped the African American community to buy the land and build the Stamping Ground Colored School [source: Scott County Kentucky: a history edited by L. Apple, F. A. Johnston, and B. Bevins, p.249]. Between 1917 and 1920, Rosenwald Schools were built in Sadieville and New Zion to replace older colored school buildings [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 by the Kentucky Heritage Council, and the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission].  From 1921-1922, there were Rosenwald Schools built in Boydtown, Great Crossing, and Watkinsville [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.27]. In 1925, there were 7 colored schools in Scott County, KY, and the high school was located in Georgetown in the Chambers Avenue School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-67; and 1927-1928, p.56]. An additional elementary school was added in 1926 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, pp. 82-83]. In 1926, Ruth A. Takecare was the teacher in Stamping Ground [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.62]. In 1929, the Chambers Avenue School was renamed Ed Davis School, and after Ed Davis died in 1934, his wife, Betty Webb Davis served as principal of the school [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. The Rosenwald School in Zion Hill was built 1929-30 [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.29].  In 1940, there were at least 18 Negro teachers in the colored schools in Scott County: Ella Arrington; Ida Mae Chinn; Bettie Davis; Katy C. Generals; Lucille Goosey; Estella Hawkins; Julia B. Johnson; Rhodea Lightfoot; Raymond McClellan; Mary Neal; Benjamin Patterson; Celia Scott; Mary Somers; Sallie P. Tilford; Mattie Mae Warner; Margaret L. White; Virginia Williams; and James P. Wilson [U.S. Federal Census]. Integration of the schools in Scott County started in 1956 with Scott County High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].

  • American Missionary School supported by the Bureau
  • Georgetown Colored School
  • Graded School for Colored Children
  • Peach Orchard School
  • Chambers Avenue School
  • Stamping Ground School
  • Ed Davis School (1929-1956)
  • Zion Hill School [see NKAA entry for Zion Hill]
  • Sadieville School
  • New Zion School
  • Boydtown School
  • Great Crossing School
  • Watkinsville School

  See photo image of c.1920 photo image of New Zion Rosenwald School on p.40 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 by the Kentucky Heritage Council, and the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Shelby County, KY
Start Year : 1849
End Year : 1956
As early as 1849, a colored school was attempted in Shelbyville, KY; Rev. C. W. Robinson was flogged in the school room by the Shelby County chief patrol officer for Robinson's daring to have a Sunday School for free Negroes and for slaves who were given permission to attend the school. Another early colored school in Shelbyville, was the American Missionary Association School, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedman Schools]. The teacher at the school was assaulted by the county judge and run out of town. Still, there were colored schools established in Shelby County, KY.  In 1880 there were four teachers: Sarah Clark in Shelbyville; Lucy Gwinn in Christianburg; P. Charles Jones in Shelbyville; Lewis Lawson in Shelbyville; and Ada Mumford in Shelbyville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1886, there were 13 colored school districts with 13 colored schools, and two of the schools were open for eight months [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, June 1886 and June 1887, pp.64, 76, & 92-93]. Most of the schools were taught in churches. A new school, Colored Common School No.14, in Drewsville was built on land William M. Blackwell sold to the school trustees in 1887 [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.63]. The number of colored schools continued to increase and by 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Shelby County, KY [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.677-680]. There was an average attendance of 708 students, 1895-96, and 1,020 students, 1896-97. There were 25 teachers employed in the schools, and their average monthly salaries were $42.12, 1895-96, and $28.35, 1896-97. In 1898, there were 20 colored schools in Shelby County [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.280].  From 1907-1919, Daisy Morgan Saffell was the school principal at the colored school in Shelbyville, and her husband George W. Saffell Jr. was a teacher at the school [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.170].  In 1912, Lincoln Institute opened in Lincoln Ridge, KY. The school came about after Berea College became segregated by court order. In 1925, J. W. Roberts was the superintendent for the colored city schools; Shelbyville was one of eight city school systems in Kentucky to have a colored school superintendent [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. J. W. Roberts was also the principal of the Shelbyville Colored High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. It was a 3rd class high school with 2 teachers and 26 students. There were 9 elementary schools in the county, and 6 teachers in Shelbyville [pp.68-69]. In 1936, the Shelbyville School System devised a contract for providing high school education to colored students; transportation was provided to Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. The arrangements were made between the schools of Shelbyville, Shelby County, Henry County, and Eminence. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Wil Allen in Shelbyville; Beatrice Boyd in Shelbyville; Marie Brown in Shelbyville; Joseph and Kathleen Carroll in Simpsonville; Katherine Freeman in Simpsonville; Mary Greenfield in Simpsonville; Lamont Lawson in Simpsonville; Lula McCampbell in Simpsonville; Herbert McCoy in Simpsonville; Martha Nuckols in Simpsonville; A. G. Pinbury in Simpsonville; Jewel J. Rabb in Shelbyville, wife of Dr. Maurice F. Rabb, Sr.; James Ray in Simpsonville; Helen Shouse in Simpsonville; James Taylor in Simpsonville; and Whitney Young, Sr. in Simpsonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1945, fire destroyed the Shelbyville Colored School and a new school was built at the corner of 11th and High Streets in Martinsville [source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. Shelbyville Elementary School was the first to be noted as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.447.    

  • Colored Schools (20)
  • Shelbyville Sunday School
  • American Missionary Association School (supported by the Bureau)
  • Shelbyville School
  • Christianburg School
  • School No.14 in Drewsville
  • Simpsonville School
  • Chestnut Grove School
  • Stringtown School
  • Olive Branch School
  • Todds Point School
  • Southville School
  • Scotts Station School
  • Buck Creek School
  • Harrisonville School
  • Benson School
  • Clarks Station School
  • Logans Station School
  • Evansville School
  • Bagdad School
  • Clayvillage School
  • Rockbridge School
  • Clear Creek School
  • Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville
  • Lincoln Model School (closed in 1940 - source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, pp.281-282)
  • Montclair School (replaced Lincoln Model School)
  • High Street School
  • Mulberry School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.890]
  • Waddy School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Simpson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Elijah P. Marrs is credited with opening the first school for Negros in Simpson County in 1866; Marrs had returned home from service in the American Civil War [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.115-116]. The students paid $1 per month to attend the school, and Marrs was paid $25 per month salary. The school lasted for one year; Marrs left in 1867 to teach school in Lagrange, KY. Between 1866 and 1870, Simpson County, KY, had a Freedmen School that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. The school was located in Franklin. The school teacher was mobbed and had to be saved by U.S. Troops. In spite of the mobbing, there continued to be colored schools in Simpson County, and in 1880 three of the teachers were Henry Bogan, Joe Perdue, and Eoline Malory [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Between 1885-1887, there were 10 colored school districts in the county [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, School Years Ending June 30th 1886 and June 30th 1887, p.130]. A decade later, there were 12 colored schools with 15 teachers, and the schools were held in three log cabins and nine frame buildings with an average attendance of 363 students during the 1895-96 school term and 400 students during the 1896-97 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.681-684]. Between 1899 and 1901, there was one student from Simpson County at the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p. 144]. For the 1909-1910 term, the Negro teachers earned an average wage of $47 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1909-1911, p.50]. In 1919, there were 68 adult students in the Simpson County Colored Moonlight School that were taught by Gertrude Mahin, Iola Ryons, and Bessie Lawrence, all of whom were also teachers at the colored schools for children. Harlem Renaissance poet, Blanch Taylor Dickinson, born in Franklin, was a school teacher in 1916 up through 1923 when she taught in Franklin along with Miss Effa B. Dixon, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Mr. T. B. Williams, Mrs. W. L. Lawrence, Miss Lizzie Moore, and Mr. A. E. Robinson,  [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.37; and April 18-21, 1923, pp.51, 56, 66, 69, 72, & 80]. [Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County.] In 1925, the Franklin Colored Schools was one of ten systems in the state to have a colored superintendent, the Franklin superintendent was T. C. B. Williams [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Williams was over the 4 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher in Franklin, and the 8 elementary schools in rural Simpson County were under the county school system and there was one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, pp.68-69]. The school teachers included Mr. T. J. Dixon, Mrs. Effie Dixon, Prof. D. T. Wright, Miss Cora Mae Barlow, Mrs. Lula Bradley, Mrs. Mary Burrs, Mrs. G. G. Mahin, Mrs. L. B. Payne, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Prof. T. C. B. Williams [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, pp. 49, 50, 51, 53, 56, 68, 72, 82, & 83]. By 1940, the teachers at the colored schools were Josephine Berry; Lula Bradley; John Bradley; Mary E. Burrus; Virgie L. Burress; Cathrin Douthett; George Douthett; Hulean Gumm; Wilson Hale and Mary Hale; G. B. Housten; Cora M. Jackson; Hubert Neal; Margrette Neal; Tom Payne; Mary E. Stringer; Blanch Taylor (Dickinson); and Tucker Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Simpson County Schools are first listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.143.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Elijah P. Marrs School
  • Franklin School
  • Lincoln School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Spencer County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1957
Spencer County had colored schools as early as 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 1886 and school year ending June 1887 [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. One of the schools was located in Taylorsville (District 1) and the superintendent reported that attendance was extremely low at the school (pp.213-214). By 1895, there were 9 colored school districts, each with one school, and 2 of the schools were in session more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.685-688]. Four of the schools were held in log buildings and 5 of the schools were held in frame buildings. The average attendance was 207 students (1895-96), and 206 students (1896-97). The eight female teachers' average monthly wages were $25.20 (1895-96) and $26.45 (1896-97). The one male teacher earned $24.03 (1895-96) and $18.81 (1896-97). Four students from Spencer County attended the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University), 1900-1901; two of the Negro teachers in Spencer County were graduates of a normal school; and 8 of the teachers taught in Spencer County for the first time during the 1900-01 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, pp.144, 445, & 451]. In 1916, the teachers in the Spencer County colored schools included Emma Taylor and Zueta Taylor; Eva M. Shelburne, Ruth D. Shelburne, and Sue Pery Shelburne; and Lorena E. Brown. [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25, 32, & 35]. All of the teachers were in Taylorsville. By 1925, there were 4 colored elementary schools with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68].  Fifteen years later, according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were 3 Negro teachers in 1940: Charity Mason, Monroe Miles, and Mabel Miles. The Spencer County schools started to integrate in 1957, as mentioned in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.644.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Taylorsville School 

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Spencer County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Taylor County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Taylor County, KY; the teacher was Robert Hubbard at the Campbellsville school [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There were still schools during the 1886-87 school term [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1888, p.130]. In 1895, there were 10 colored schools in Taylor County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.689-692]. The average attendance was 281 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 252 students during the 1896-97 school term. There were 11 teachers. In 1916, the following school teachers were listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916: Fannie B. Gaddie and J. H. Gaddie, Saloma (p.28); Norian E. Harris, Campbellsville (p.29); Ethel Von Lewis, Campbellsville (p.31); C. B. Nuckolls [or Nuchols], Campbellsville (p.33); and Maxwell Philpott, Campbellsville (p.34). Mrs. G. E. Philpott taught the Colored Moonlight School in Campbellsville, beginning in 1915, with students between the ages of 18 and 55 [source: "Mrs. G. E. Philpott...," Freeman, 02/13/1915, p.3]. Robert L. Dowery conducted night school for colored soldiers at Camp Zachary Taylor during WWI. In 1937, there were seven, one room, colored elementary schools in Taylor County, KY, according to the thesis of John Albert Jones, History of Education in Taylor County, p.77. One of the schools was in Campbellsville and in 1939 that school was replaced by the newly constructed Durham School, grades 1-12; the school received funding from the Rosenwald Fund and it housed the second high school for African Americans in Taylor County [source: Images of America: Campbellsville by DeSpain, Burch, and Hooper, p.92-93]. The earlier high school, Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes, existed in 1922 when teacher C. B. Nuchols [or Nuckolls] left the school for a teaching job with Booker T. Washington School in Ashland, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools in Boyd County, KY]. The Taylor County Industrial High School, located in Campbellsville, was established between 1911 and 1919, and was funded by the John F. Slater Fund [source: A History of Education in Kentucky by W. E. Ellis, p.179]. Margaret Ray was the teacher at the Taylor County Industrial School in 1925, the term of service was 9 months and the school received $450 from the Jeanes Fund [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. Also in 1925, C. V. Haynes was the principal of the Taylor County Training School in Campbellsville  [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 65]. The training school was a Class 3, two year high school with 1-3 teachers and 6 students. The high school was in session for 9 months and the teachers' average salary was $630. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Taylor County were Flora Bell, Ethel Lewis, Rodney K. Ivery, Ortie L. Miller, Helen Miller, Margaret Ryan, and Melvin Strong [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, the school named Our Lady of Perpetual Help was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students, on p.229 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The Negro student at the school was Wallace Williams, who would become an Olympic marathon runner. The following year, Our Lady of Perpetual Help would become the first school in Taylor County to be listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.447]. In 1961, basketball player Clem Haksins transferred from Durham High School to Taylor County High School, which was the year Taylor High School was listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.890. See also the unpublished manuscript [1939-1940] titled "Public Education in Taylor County (con.)" by Nelle B. Crawley, 507 Central Avenue, Campbellsville, KY., p.4, section Colored:, in the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, 0000UA129, File: Taylor County Education, at the University of Kentucky Special Collections.

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes
  • Durham School
  • Campbellsville Colored Moonlight School
  • Camp Zachary Taylor Colored Night School
  • Taylor County Training School
  • Shady Grove School
  • Burdick School
  • Smith Ridge School
  • Saloma School
  • Sweenyville School
  • Old Pitman School
  • Pleasant Union School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Taylor County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Todd County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
At least two colored schools were established in Todd County, KY, by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. One school was located in Hadensville, and another in Trenton. In 1880, there were several more schools and the teachers were Henry Beid at Kirkmansville; Filmore Gaugh, Euclide Loving, and Jarusha Russell at Elkton; and Ben Mansfield and Wilson Hunter at Trenton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1920, Nannie Samuel was the school teacher at the Fairview School [source: U.S. Federal Census].  Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County. There were 17 colored elementary schools in Todd County in 1925, each with one teacher, and there was one high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.83].  There were 21 teachers at the 17 elementary schools during the 1926-27 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.82]. The class 3 colored high school was located in Elkton and J. W. Waddle was the principal during the 1927-28 term, the high school had 2 teachers and 11 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.57]. The Elkton School held both the elementary and high school. J. W. Waddle had been with the Elkton School as early as 1916, along with J. S. Henderson, Robert M. Small, Emma Stoner, and Rhoda Hall; and T. Henderson and P. T. Frazer in Allensville [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.28, 29, 30, 35, 36, & 37]. In 1940, there were 15 Negro teachers in Todd County, KY according to the U.S. Federal Census: Bonnie H. Bell, Leon Bell, Ora Ferguson, James P. Griffin, Hattie L. Griffin, Rhoda Hall, Manice Gladdiak, Iola Marrow, Mazella Marshall, Bertha Mae Morehead, Inez Russell, Robert Small, Daveny F. Smith, Larizza Terry, and Massey Ward. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Todd County Central High School, on p.143 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Hadensville Freedmen School
  • Trenton Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Kirkmansville School
  • Elkton School 
  • Fairview School
  • Guthrie School
  • Allensville School
  • Todd County Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.229]
  • Trenton Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, p.891]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Todd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Trigg County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, D. M. Brown was a school teacher at the colored school in Cadiz (Trigg County), KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Brown was from Tennessee; he was married, and had three children. By 1886, there were 3 colored school districts in Trigg County [source: see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. In 1887, Rev. Wendell H. McRidley founded and was the first president of the Cadiz Normal and Theological College. The number of colored schools continued to grow, and in 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Trigg County, with two of the schools were in session for more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.698-702]. Nine of the schools were held in log buildings and 10 were held in frame structures. The average attendance was 1,218 students, who were taught by 21 teachers, 1895-96, and 1,054 students taught by 22 teachers, 1896-97. The teachers' average monthly wages were $67.18 for males and $43.00 for females, 1895-96; and $46.70 for males and $31.40 for females, 1896-97. In 1900, the teacher at the Montgomery colored school was George Danden from Tennessee [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The class 2 high school for Negro students was located in Cadiz, the principal was J. E. Bush in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 39]. The high school had 2 teachers and 23 students. There were 14 teachers at the 13 elementary schools [p.68]. Mrs. Thelma Brooks was the school teacher at the Cerulean Colored School in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, (1935), v.6, no.1, p.50]. Fourteen year old, Lillie H. Bingham was a student at the Cerulean School in 1935 when she won the 1st prize of $10.00 in the student spelling bee held during the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Conference in Louisville, KY [source: "Elementary School Department," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.6, no.1, p.21]. In 1940, there were seven Negro teachers in Trigg County, according to the U.S. Federal Census: Martha Caudle, Susa A. Cunningham, Susa Mae Cunningham, Lillie V. Curlin, Plumb Maston, Cora P. Reed, and Reuben Tinsley. The Trigg County High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentaucky

African American Schools in Trimble County, KY
Start Year : 1833
End Year : 1925
In 1833, there was a Miss Davis in Trimble County, KY, who opened a school for slaves, she gave them books and was teaching them to read, which caused a stir and the school was shut down [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas, pp.141-142]. In 1874, there was a colored school in Trimble County with Maria F. Carter as the teacher. There were three colored school districts in 1895, each with one school, and one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, p.703-706 ]. The average attendance was 55 students 1895-96, and 28 students 1896-97. During the 1899-1900 school term, the average salary for the teachers was $24.91 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.15]. The following school year, the average salary was $24.10. During the 1901-02 school term, the average attendance at the colored school was 24 and the school teacher's average monthly wages were $24.50; and the following school term the average attendance was 25 and the teacher's average monthly wages were $20.79 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903, pp.329 & 355]. The colored school in Trimble County was still in operation during the 1912-1913 school term when there was an enrollment of 5 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, pp.112 & 122]. By 1925, there was no longer a colored school in Trimble County, KY, though the school census listed 7 colored school-age children in the county [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. There is no mention as to where the children attended school or if they attended school. In 1930, there were no children of school age listed for Trimble County in the U.S. Federal Census. The Milton Elementary School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

  • Miss Davis' School for Slaves (1833)
  • Colored School (M. F. Carter)
  • Colored Schools (3)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Union County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1957
As early as 1880, there were colored schools in Union County, KY; the teachers were Mollie Kirk, and Pamelia H. Wynn in Caseyville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were 9 colored school districts and 6 of them had schools; three of the school districts were too poor to afford schools [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 11 school districts, nine of the districts had a school, and 2 of the schools were in session for more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.707-710]. Two of the schools were held in log buildings and 7 were held in frame buildings. There were 13 teachers in the 9 schools. The schools had an average attendance of 368 students 1895-96, and 389 students 1896-97. During the two year term of 1899-1901, the teachers' average monthly wages were $45.11 the first year, and $35.50 the following school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.15]. In 1931, there was a colored high school in Sturgis, KY, with an average daily attendance of 10 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.74]. There was also a colored elementary school at Sturgis with an average daily attendance of 91 students taught by 2 women teachers.  Dunbar School was located in Morganfield, and was named for poet Paul L. Dunbar. There had been a colored high school in Morganfield since 1932 when there were 14 students taught by 1 teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.58]. There were three teachers in the Dunbar High School in 1941 and two grade school teachers; the high school students from around the county were transported by bus to Dunbar High School [source: "Dunbar Colored High School," information by C. L. Timberlake, Principal of School, and reported by Sarah D. Young of Sturgis, typed 05/20/1941. Found within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, File: Union County]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Union County were John M. Hoke, Alphonso Lovelace, Elizabeth McCulley, Amos Parker, Emma Peppin, Mary L. Reed, John Robinson, Hattie Robinson, Dorothy Slaughter, Clarence Timberlake, and George Wakefield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, there were four graduates from the Blessed Martin School located near Waverly, KY [source: Union County Advocate, 05/19/1955]. The graduates were Joseph Curry, Betty Chambers, Hershel Harris, and Frances Hammond. The total student enrollment was 26 high school students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.229]. There was also an elementary school with an enrollment of 51 students taught by 2 teachers. The colored school in Uniontown had an enrollment of 13 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.448]. The Sturgis school for whites was the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.644]. For more about the desegregation of the Sturgis School see Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky education by John M Trowbridge and Jason Lemay. 

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Caseyville School
  • Blessed Martin School
  • Dunbar School 
  • Sturgis School
  • Uniontown School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Union County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Warren County, KY
Start Year : 1800
End Year : 1958
One of the earliest schools for slaves in Kentucky was established by Peter Tardiveau (d.1817), a Revolutionary War volunteer from Bordeaux, France. Tardiveau was a friend and fellow Revolutionary War veteran of Robert E. Craddock. The school was located in Warren County, KY, around 1800 for the slaves of Robert E. Craddock [see NKAA entry Willis Russell]. One of the first schools for the freemen was established between 1866 and 1870 in Bowling Green with support from the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The school teacher was run out of town. During this same time period, a school was held within the Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church which was established in 1866 [see NKAA entry Stoney Point]. The school was moved in 1908 to a newly built school house in Stoney Point, and the school continued to serve the community for about 20 more years before it was closed and the children were bused to the Smith Grove School. In 1880, the colored teachers in Warren County were Andrew Bowles; Frances Buckley in Woodburn; George D. Loving; C. R. McDowell; Tobias Sweeney; Willis Tisdale; J. B. Henderson; Maria J. Mayo; and Alex Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1895, the Simmons Memorial College was in operation, headed by Robert Mitchell [see NKAA entry American Baptist Home Missionary Schools; and Rev. Robert Mitchell in Lexington Herald, 10/08/1926, p.16]. In total, there were 30 colored schools in Warren County in 1895 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.712-715]. Warren County had the highest number of colored schools recorded in the 1895-1897 biennial report of the Kentucky Superintendent, more than any other Kentucky county. All but one of the schools were held for 5 months, and the remaining school was held for more than 5 months. Each of the schools had one teacher and the male teachers' average monthly pay was $39.93, 1895-96, and $31.56, 1896-97. The female teachers average monthly pay was $37.93, 1895-96, and $27.41, 1896-97. The average attendance was 709 students, 1895-96, and 863 students, 1896-97. In 1902 a school was opened in the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Bowling Green, KY. The school was later moved into a building on State Street and named Bowling Green Academy. Other communities with colored schools were Sunnyside, Freeport, and Oakland [see NKAA entry African American Communities in Warren County, KY]. In the 1930s, a report completed by Kathryn S. Coleman lists twelve colored schools in Warren County, along with the enrollment numbers, and the number of teachers per school. The title of the report is "Public Schools," and on pp.10-11 is the section titled "Warren County, Colored Public Schools" [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, 0000UA129, File: Warren County, at the University of Kentucky Special Collections]. Within the Shake Rag District in Bowling Green was the State Street High School [see NKAA entry Shake Rag]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Warren County were Robert Barlow, Christine Barlow, E. Hortense Bathnic(?), Ethel Buford, Virginia Cabell, Lula Carpenter, Clara Cole, Addie J. Edmonds, Lutisha Frierson, Willie Gossom, Lena Hudson, C. A. Hutcherson, Latter Huston Cox, Eva Kuykendall, Lila Bell Lee, Frances Luvalle, Charity McCrutchen, Emma Milligan, Mabel Moore, Frank Moxley, Claude Nichols, Alroma Nichols, Mattie Patticord, A. L. Poole, Ethel Ray, A. P. Williams, Delorese Williams, Clara Bell Yarbrough, and Henry Yost [source: U.S. Federal Census]. St. Joseph School was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students, on p.230 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, and the school is the first to be listed as integrated on p.1021 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59. For more on the school integration in Warren County listen to the George Esters interviews (High Street School) within the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society website.

  • Colored Schools (30)
  • Peter Tardiveau School on Craddock Plantation
  • Freedmen School
  • Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church School
  • Smith Grove School
  • Simmons Memorial College (Baptist)
  • Bowling Green Academy (Presbyterian)
  • Loving Union School (in Sunnyside)
  • Woodland School (in Freeport)
  • Kepley School (in Oakland)
  • Oakland School
  • State Street High School
  • High Street School
  • Bristow School
  • Cosby School (in Alvaton)
  • Rockfield School
  • Woodburn School
  • Salem School (in Rockfield)
  • Dellafield School (in Bowling Green)
  • Robert Mitchell School for Ministers
  • H. D. Carpenter School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.891]

 
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Warren County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Washington County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1956
The first Negro school in Washington County was established in 1868, according to the thesis of William L. Case, A History of Education in Washington County, Kentucky. The colored school district had an average of 29 children attending each colored school during the five month school term. According to author Case, between 1879 and 1880, there were seven school districts with seven schools; 1 log building and six frame buildings. The colored school teachers earned an average monthly salary of $25.44. The the first school report from the county school commissioner was in 1880. The colored teachers in 1880 included Leotta Meaux and R. W. Christian [source: U.S. Federal Census]. It was in 1883 that the colored students and the white students of Washington County received the same per capita amount, $1.30 per student. The colored schools still existed in Washington County, KY, in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In the 1895-97 Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, on pp. 716 & 718, there were 13 colored schools in 13 districts. Ten of the schools were held in log or frame school houses, with about 200 students attending the schools during each term. The first commencement of the Springfield Colored School was held at the Opera House on July 17, 1902 by Principal M. B. Givens; reserve seats cost 25 cents, general seats 15 cents [source: "Commencement exercises," News-Leader, 07/17/1902, p. 3]. In 1905, the school principal was Mrs. Eliza Davison, and her assistant was Miss H. E. Wells [source: "The Entertainments given by the pupils of the Springfield Colored School...," News-Leader, 02/16/1905, p. 5]. That same year, a school was held in Randall's Chapel in Springfield, KY [source: "Will Best, a Negro...," Springfield Sun, 01/25/1905, p. 5]. In 1908, an election for the formation of a new colored school district was held in Washington County [source: "Election Notice! of colored graded school," Springfield Sun, 10/07/1908, p. 2]. There was a two year high school, the Washington County Training School in Springfield, with Principal C. V. Haunes who earned $125 per month [source: A History of Education in Washington County, Kentucky]. There were 19 high school students and the school was in session for eight months of each year. In 1925, L. L. Rowe was the principal of the Springfield Colored High School, a Class 3 school that was also a county training school with 4 teachers over the 2 year high school that was in session for 8 months, and the average salary was $712 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp. 41 & 65]. In 1931, Prof. G. W. Adams was the principal of the Washington County Training School; he was previously the principal of the colored school in Paris, KY [source: Prof. G. W. Adams...," KNEA Journal, vol. 2, issue 1, p. 26]. Mrs.Catherine Gowdy was the teacher at the Washington County Supervising Industrial School in Springfield in 1925 [p.66]. The term of service was 8 months and the school received $400 from the Jeanes Fund. In 1935, there were 402 children in the colored county school district and the Springfield district [source: "Letter on salary schedule," KNEA Journal, vol. 5, issue 2, p. 20]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Washington County were David E. Carmon, Ada Hughes, Ann Philips, and Nancy Ray. A pioneer teacher in Washington County was Mrs. Elizabeth Goodloe Clark, who died in 1942; she started teaching at the age of 16 at the Mackville Colored School [source: "The Late Mrs. E. G. Clark, Historian, Kentucky Negro Education Assn.," KNEA Journal, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 19-20]. St. Catherine Academy was the first school to be listed with "white & colored" students, on p.230 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, and the following year it was the first school to be listed as integrated, on p.448 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Mackville School
  • Randall's Chapel School
  • Springfield School
  • Washington County Training School
  • High Street School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.892]

 

  See photo image of the Washington County Training School in Springfield on p. 20 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [available online in .pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Washington County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Wayne County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1956
According to an article in Overview, both African American and white settlers of Shearer Valley and Simpson Branch (then called Turkey Ridge) came together to build the first church/school house for colored and white children in Wayne County, KY. The school was built in 1868 and was named the Little Flock School and Church [source: History of Public Education of Wayne County, 1842 to 1975 by Ira Bell]. William Simpson, who was white, was the first teacher. The names of 76 Negro teachers, beginning in 1885, are listed on pages 18-19 in History of Public Education of Wayne County, 1842 to 1975 by I. Bell. There was one colored school in Wayne County in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Later other African American schools were established in the county in Dogwood, Duncan Valley, Mill Springs, Monticello, and Meadow Creek. According to the thesis of Harry F. Young, History of Education in Wayne County, pp.35-37 and 69-73, in 1890, all of the colored school buildings were log structures that in total were valued at $700. The schools were poor and the teachers were not very well prepared. During the  1895-96 school term, there were 7 colored schools in Wayne, and the following school term there were 8 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.721-725]. There was one teacher at each school. Male teachers' average monthly pay was $24.75 during 1895-96, and $18.74 during 1896-97. Female teachers' average monthly pay was $25.06 during 1895-96, and $19.17 during 1896-97. The average attendance was 143 students 1895-96, and 165 students 1896-97. Looking at the 37 year period, from 1890-1927, the highest average enrollment at the colored schools in Wayne County was 191 students during the 1920-21 school term, and the lowest average attendance was 60 students during the 1917-18 school term. There were never more than 8 teachers in the colored schools in Wayne County. In 1925, L. Iva White was the supervising teacher of the Wayne County Industrial School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. The school was located in Monticello and the teacher's term of service was 7 months. The school received $350 from the Jeanes Fund. In 1931, there was a high school in the Monticello School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.78]. It was a Class 3 high school with one teacher and an average attendance of 6 students. William E. Didlicks was principal of the Monticello School. In 1940 the Negro teachers in Wayne County were Edna Bertram and Carl M. Burnside [source: U.S. Federal Census]; they were 2 of the 4 Negro teachers in Wayne County [source: "K.N.E.A. membership by counties," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.9, no.1-3, p.54]. For more see "Negro Schools," Overview, vol. 13, issue 1, 1992. Overview is published by the Wayne County Historical Society in Monticello, KY. In 1955, there were three colored schools in Wayne County, and Wayne County High School was listed as having both "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.230]. The following year, the Wayne County High School and the Rocky Branch School were listed as integrated, and the Monticello Independent Schools were noted as "white, colored, and integrated" [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.448].

  See 1937 photo image of Monticello School in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Wayne County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Webster County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1957
As early as 1880, there were colored schools in Providence, Webster County, KY; the teachers were Kentucky natives C. Haughton, born around 1858, and Mandy Stanley, born around 1863 [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. There were 11 colored schools with 12 teachers in 1895, and 2 of the schools were held in a log building, and 9 were held in a frame building [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.725-728]. The average attendance was 277 for 1895-96, and 355 for 1896-97. The male teachers' average monthly wages were $40.97 and females received $37.86, 1895-96; and the following school term, males received $33.99 and females received $30.69. In 1900, Ida Bell Shackleford was a school teacher in Dixon [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1905-1907 school terms, the average attendance was 471 students, and the teachers average monthly salaries were $44.76 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, pp.407 & 431]. In 1916, Webster County colored teachers included Owen Brooks and William D. Brooks, both in Dixon, and J. V. Coleman in Providence [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25 & 26]. By 1925, there were 9 colored rural schools in Webster County, and the school in Providence had 4 elementary teachers and 3 teachers in the Class 1 high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 68-69]. W. O. Nuckolls was the principal of the high school, which had 30 students. In 1931, the Webster County Training and Rosenwald City High School was constructed in Providence, KY, with W. O. Nuckolls as principal [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1931, v.1, no.3, p.16]. In 1938, the new Sebree Colored School was constructed by the WPA [source: waymarking.com]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Webster County were Curtis Bishop, Vatula Bishop, Gurner Bishop, Owen Brooks, Laura Campbell, Claudine Drake in Slaughtersville, Francis Finley, Geneva Fergurson, Leslie Hayes Jr., Comagell Marton, Gertrude Mitchell, Ovenus Mitchel, Dorothy Mitchell, Helen Nuckolls, Martha Helen Nuckolls, Harvey Saieva, James R. Shearer, Virginia Springfield, Deborah Woolfork, and Louis Woolfork [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In December of 1956, the Sturgis and Clay school systems were directed by U.S. District Judge Henry L. Brooks to submit their desegregation plans by February 4, 1957. Both school systems complied and in September of 1957, Negro students were admitted to the schools. For more about the desegregation of the Clay Elementary School see the NKAA entry James and Teresa Gordon (siblings).

  • Colored Schools (11)
  • Providence School
  • Dixon School
  • Sebree School [source: Goodman-Paxton Photographic Collection at UK Special Collections]
  • Slaughtersville School
  • Webster County Training and Rosenwald City High School (in Providence)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Webster County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Whitley County, KY
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1956
In 1883, the American Missionary Association (AMA) opened a church and a school in Williamsburg, KY, that was attended by both Negroes and whites [see NKAA entry Williamsburg (KY) Colored Academy]. In 1885, there was a school teacher at the colored schools, the teacher was a normal school graduate [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, end of school years, June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.110]. Ten years later, 1895-96, there were 5 colored schools with 7 teachers, and the following term, there were 8 schools, each with one teacher [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.729-733]. The schools were open 5 months of each year. The average attendance was 85 students 1895-96, and 100 students 1896-97. The teachers' average monthly wages were $26.89 for 1896, and the following school term, the teachers' wages were $21.12 for males and $19.78 for females. By 1925, there were 4 colored schools in rural Whitley County, each with one teacher, and 1 colored school in Williamsburg with one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-69]. Though, according to the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, p.50, there were two teachers at the Williamsburg Colored School: Henry W. Bond and his daughter Ruth A. Bond. There were three Negro teachers listed in the 1940 U.S. Federal Census: Benjman Barrus, Evelyn Griffey, and Thelma Lewis. The Williamsburg Independent Schools were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.449. For additional information about the teachers of the Williamsburg Colored School see the NKAA entry Williamsburg (KY) Colored Academy.

  • AMA School
  • Williamsburg School
  • Colored Schools (8)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Whitley County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Wolfe County, KY
Start Year : 1885
End Year : 1925
In 1885 the colored school in Wolfe County had 55 students [source: "Our county schools," The Hazel Green Herald, 04/01/1885, p. 3]. In 1886 the school was included in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. P. E. Davenport was the school teacher in 1891 [source: "The Following endorsement ...," The Hazel Green Herald, 12/11/1891, p. 5]. In 1897, Prof. Austin from Paris, KY, was the school teacher at the Daysboro Colored School [source: The Hazel Green Herald, "Prof. Austin began teaching the colored school Monday," and "Prof. Austin of Paris...," 12/09/1897, p. 1]. It was the only colored school in the county [source: Document No. 11, Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp. 733-737]. The building was a log cabin with furniture worth $20; it was to seat the 43 students studying at the elementary level. Wolfe County had no high school for African Americans. The teacher, Prof. Austin, was paid $24.57 per month. W. C. Crawford, also from Paris, became a school teacher in Wolfe County in 1898 [source: "W. C. Crawford, of Paris...," The Hazel Green Herald, 07/28/1898, p. 3]. During the school term 1901-02, the average attendance at Wolfe County colored common schools was 19 students and the teacher's average monthly pay was $22.32, and during the following school term, the average attendance was 8 and the teacher's average monthly pay was $24.48 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903, pp.329 & 355]. During the 1911-12 school term, there were 22 students enrolled in grades 1-8 of the colored school, and the teacher's average monthly pay was $37 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, pp.14 & 49]. The following year, the enrollment was 25 [p.112]. By 1925, no schools were listed for Wolfe County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926. There were no schools listed for Wolfe County in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1916-1952; perhaps the teacher in Wolfe County did not participate in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. There is a single notation of Wolf County Schools being integrated on p.449 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, though the notation does not appear again; all schools in Wolfe County are designated as "white" in the subsequent issues of the Kentucky Public School Directory and the Kentucky School Directory.

  • Daysboro School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Daysboro, Wolfe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Woodford County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
A Colored School in Midway, KY, had its exhibition attacked by a mob on July 31, 1868 [source: Index to the Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the United States, 1871, p. 49]. The school may have been one of the two Freedmen Schools in Woodford County established between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In the Kentucky superintendent's reports for the years 1881-1886, there were 16 colored school districts; the Versailles Colored School was said to be a model school [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1881-1886]. In 1880, the teachers in Woodford County included Jason Jefferson, Mary Taylor, P. Bronham, J. C. Hawkins, and George Jackson, all in Versailles, and Wallace Lewis in Midway [source: U.S. Federal Census]. According to the Simmons Elementary School website [no longer available], the Simmons School existed in the late 1890s along with the Woolridgetown School and 17 other colored schools in Woodford County. When the Woolridgetown School burned, students attended school at a church in Big Spring Bottom. Within the Hifner Photo Collection are pictures of all the Colored schools in Woodford County in 1892, including Simmons and Big Spring. The collection was created for the educational exhibit at the World's Fair and is available online via the Hifner Collection at the Kentucky Historical Society Digital Collections web page. During the 1895-97 school terms, there were as many as 18 colored schools, and the average attendance was 525, 1895-96, and 628, 1896-97 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.739-742]. There were 20 teachers in the colored schools, and the average monthly pay for male teachers was $55.82, 1895-96, and $41.78, 1896-97. For the female teachers, the average monthly pay was $48.19, 1895-96, and $27.57, 1896-97. Various colored schools in Woodford County are mentioned in issues of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, available full-text in the Kentucky Digital Library - Journals. In 1916, the teachers listed in the journal were Emma D. Hale and Katie Hancock in Midway; and Pearl E. Arnold in Versailles [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.24-29]  In 1925, the Simmons Street School in Versailles had a Class 1 high school with J. L. Bean as principal, and the high school had 2 teachers and 59 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. There was no colored high school in the county among the 9 elementary schools taught by 11 teachers [p.68]. In Versailles, there were 5 elementary teachers and two high school teachers [p.69]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Woodford County were Jennie A. Bean, Gladys Carter, W. J. Christy, Ada B. Crawford, Elene Jackson, Rose I. Johnson, Ethelbert McClesky, Emma Minnie, Lula Rowland, Ada Scruggs, and Robin Stepp [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated are Versailles High School, St. Leo, and Midway Independent Schools, all on p.449 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57. See also the KHS to Dedicate Historical Marker to Honor Midway Colored School, a Kentucky.gov website.

  • Colored Schools (19)
  • Big Spring Bottom School (church)
  • Davistown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Elm Bend School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Fermantown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Fort Spring School
  • Frazier School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Jacksontown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Midway School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Midway School (Hadensville, 1911-1958)
  • Midway Freedmen School
  • Milville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Mortonsville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Mount Vernon School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Nashville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Simmons School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Versailles School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Versailles Freemen School
  • Woolridgetown School

Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Woodford County, Kentucky

[African American Schools] Negro Public Elementary Schools , 1931
Start Year : 1931
The following information comes from the 1931 master's thesis by Pleasant Moore titled The Status of the Negro Public Elementary Schools of Kentucky, #33 at Indiana State Teachers College, pp.40-46, & 65-68. The data is from the Kentucky Department of Education for the school year ending June 30, 1929. Pleasant Moore's thesis is thought to be first scientific study of the public elementary schools for Negroes in Kentucky. It was the author's hope that his work would be used to address many of the problems, such as school terms that were less than the state required time period, lack of sufficient schools, and more responsibility for the education of Negro children on the part of independent school systems and cities of the 5th and 6th class. 

 

Largest Total Elementary Enrollment  
Louisville (city) 6986
Christian County 1978
Lexington (city) 1760
Paducah (city) 1110
Harlan County [610 average attendance] 840
   
Largest Average Daily Attendance  
Louisville (city) 5400
Lexington (city) 1354
Christian County 1205
Paducah (city) 907
Hopkinsville (city) [694 total enrollment] 625
   
Highest % of Attendance Based on Enrollment  
Marion County  [247 attendance] 100%
Rowan County  [6 attendance] 100%
Lee County  [27 attendance] 93%
Sturgis (city)  [81 attendance] 93%
Ballard County  [77 attendance] 91%
Laurel County  [67 attendance] 90%
Paris (city)  [343 attendance] 90%
Pike County  [199 attendance] 90%
Elkton (city)  [198 attendance] 89%
   
Highest Average Annual Teachers' Salaries
 
Kenton County  [21 teachers] $1526.67
Jefferson County  [259 teachers] $1407.63
Campbell County  [4 teachers] $1275
Fayette County  [90 teachers] $1050
Clark County  [20 teachers] $994.33

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools: Ralph Bunche Community Center Oral History Project (FA 455)
Start Year : 2008
End Year : 2009
The following information comes from the collection notes about Ralph Bunche Community Center Oral History Project (FA 455): "This collection consists of ten interviews done with African Americans who attended the Ralph Bunche School when it was still a segregated school in Glasgow, Kentucky. The interviews were conducted by Jessica Bonneau; Barry Kaufkins served as the faculty advisor on the project. Interviews were arranged alphabetically by the informant. The interviewees discuss the importance of the school in the African American community, the values taught at the facility, teachers and teaching, prejudice, segregation and integration, and general attitudes toward African Americans. Concurrently the interviews also reveal information about African American culture in Glasgow. The interviews are on CD’s (compact discs). This project was funded by the Kentucky Oral History Commission, Frankfort, Kentucky." The collection has 1/2 box, 11 folders, 21 items, conaining the originals and compact discs. All items are available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscrips and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky

Anderson, Dennis H.
Birth Year : 1869
Death Year : 1952
Dennis Henry Anderson was originally from Tennessee. A graduate of Lane College in Tennessee, he became a Methodist minister. His wife was Artelia Harris Anderson. Dennis Anderson came to Kentucky and opened schools in Graves and Fulton counties. He raised funds for the building of the first high school in Fulton County in 1905. Anderson also initiated the building of West Kentucky Industrial College [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College], starting the building with his bare hands in 1909. The school, located in Paducah, KY, became a state institution in 1918. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones; Fifty Years of Segregation: Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1904-1954, by J. A. Hardin; My West Kentucky, by J. M. Blythe; and Dennis Henry Anderson, Founder of West Kentucky Technical College, a Jackson Purchase Historical Society website.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky / Graves County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Tennessee

Anderson, Mattie E.
Birth Year : 1853
Mattie E. Anderson, who was born in Ohio, used her own money to open Frankfort Female High School in 1871 to provide African American teachers for Franklin, Fayette, and Woodford Counties in Kentucky. Anderson was the principal and a teacher at the school. She is listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census as a school teacher who was boarding at the home of Peter and Julia Smith. Peter Smith was a barber and his home was located on Broadway in Frankfort. Mattie Anderson is listed as a mulatto, in some sources, her race is given as white. Another teacher boarding at the home was Lucretia Newman from Michigan, who was also listed as a mulatto woman. The third person boarding at the house was 14 year old Winnie Scott who would become a teacher in the Frankfort Colored School. For more see "Miss Mattie E. Anderson" in Noted Negro Women: their triumphs and activities, by M. A. Majors; Library Services to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones, p. 18; and "Frankfort: Miss Mattie E. Anderson, Teacher," The American Missionary, vol. 32, issue 9 (September 1878), p. 276 [available online at Cornell University Library, Making of America website]. See also the NKAA entry for African American Schools in Frankfort and Franklin County, KY.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Ohio / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Fayette and Woodford Counties, Kentucky

Ariel/Hall (Camp Nelson, KY)
After the Civil War, the refugee camp at Camp Nelson became the community known as Ariel. The school, Ariel Academy, was founded in 1868, with initial funding support coming from the Freedmen's Bureau and teachers supplied by the American Missionary Association. The school was led by Howard Fee, son of John G. Fee and Gabriel Burdette, a former slave from Garrard County, KY. The community of Ariel was later named Hall. For more see Historic Jessamine County, The Hall Community, an official Jessamine County website; and A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky: integration and social equality at Berea, 1866-1904, by R. B. Sears.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Camp Nelson, Jessamine and Garrard Counties, Kentucky / Ariel, Jessamine County, Kentucky / Hall, Jessamine County, Kentucky

Asher v Huffman
Start Year : 1943
Seven-year-old Bruce Asher was the son of Boyd and Hattie Asher. His parents wanted him to attend the school for whites in Leslie County, KY. He looked to be what was considered a white child, but Roy Huffman, the school principal, refused to let Bruce attend the school because, according to Huffman, Bruce was colored. The Asher's sued Huffman, hoping that a mandatory injunction would allow Bruce to attend the school. It was determined by the Kentucky Court of Appeals that Bruce Asher was indeed a colored child because his maternal great-grandmother had been a Negro slave. The Kentucky Constitution, KRS 158.020 sec.187, was used to require that separate schools be maintained for white children and Negro children [children wholly or in part of Negro blood or having any appreciable admixture thereof, regardless of whether they show the racial characteristics of the Negro]. Judge Roy Helm of the lower court had ruled in favor of Huffman, and the Ashers appealed. The Appeals Court affirmed and adopted the lower court's decision, the injunction was refused, and Bruce Asher was not allowed to attend the school for white children. For more see Asher et al v Huffman, Court of Appeals of Kentucky, 295 Ky. 312, 174 S.W. 2d 424, 1943 Ky; and KRS 158.020 - Separate schools for white and colored children. Repealed, 1966 (.pdf). [available online]
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Leslie County, Kentucky

Atkins, Calvin Rupert and Dora G. Graham Atkins
Calvin R. Atkins (1870-1923) was born in Hadensville, KY. He was the husband of Dora G. Graham Atkins (1875-1923), who was born in Pembroke, KY. In 1895, Calvin Atkins became a certified teacher for the Todd County Colored School District [see his copy of certification, IHS]. Dora Atkins was also a certified teacher in Todd County [copy of certification, IHS]. In 1900 the family had moved to Anderson, IN, according to the U.S. Census. Dr. Atkins practiced medicine there for a few years, and in 1904, the family moved to Indianapolis. Dr. Atkins received his license to practice in Indianapolis on August 2, 1905; he was an 1895 graduate of Howard University Medical School [now Howard University College of Medicine], according to the 16th Annual Report of the Indiana State Board of Medical Registration and Examination [full view at Google Book Search]. Dr. Atkins was a physician for the Flanner House, which was founded in 1898 to provide health, social, and educational assistance to African American families migrating from the South to Indianapolis [archival information, IHS]. His dedication to the Flanner House is mentioned in a speech given by Aldridge Lewis around 1918 [digital copy of speech, IHS]. He was one of the promoters and vice president of Lincoln Hospital, a hospital for African Americans founded in 1909 in Indianapolis on North Senate Avenue. The hospital had both doctors and dentists, and there were 12 rooms that could hold up to 17 patients. The hospital also had a nurses training program. Dr. Atkins was involved in establishing a similar hospital in Marion, IN. Dr. Atkins was a prominent member of the city of Indianapolis for 19 years before he was murdered in June of 1923. For more see "Calvin R. and Dora G. Atkins" entry in Who's Who in Colored America 1927; Indiana Blacks in the Twentieth Century, by Thornbrough and Ruegamer; the Papers of Calvin R. Atkins and the Dora Atkins Blackburn Papers, some items available online in the digital collections at the Indiana Historical Society; "Suspected slayer who shot himself soon after murder dies," The Indianapolis Star, 06/18/1923, p. 16.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Hadensville, Todd County, Kentucky / Pembroke, Christian County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Atkinson Literary and Industrial College [H. V. Taylor]
Birth Year : 1892
H. V. Taylor was one of the presidents of the Atkinson Literary and Industrial College in Madisonville, KY. The school was founded in1892 and was dedicated in 1894 by Bishop Alexander Walters, who led the effort to build the school, along with the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church. According to author H. Ardis Simons, there were 145 students and five female graduates in 1897 [source: The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky by H. A. Simons]. The school was originally located on two acres at Seminary and Lake Streets in Madisonville, and in 1903, the school trustees sold the property and moved the school outside the city. The school was located on 36 acres and had eleven grades, three of which were at the high school level. There were 2 two-story buildings that served as dormitories and classrooms. There were five college graduates in 1906. According to author Simons, the school staff members were Bishop Clinton who was the school president; Mr. Shaw, principal; S. F. Collins; Mrs. M. E. Littlepage; Mrs. W. E. Shaw; and Miss C. M. Shirley. James Muir was president of the school in 1917. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927; Atkinson College, Madisonville, dedicated, Nov. 16, 1894; "Atkinson Literary and Industrial College" on pp.269-270 in Negro Education, v.2, by the Department of the Interior [available at Google Books]; and Bulletin: announcements for ... by the Atkinson Literary and Industrial College. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Madisonville, Hopkins County, Kentucky

Austin, Jacqueline
Austin has been principal of the John F. Kennedy Elementary School in Louisville, KY, since 1990. Under Austin's direction, the school became the first public school in the state to adopt the Montessori teaching method. This and other reforms helped improve academic performance, attendance, and parental involvement at the school. Austin also expanded school services to include GED adult education classes. In 1996, Austin was chosen as a Milken Family Foundation National Educator Award recipient. For more see Jacqueline Austin at the Milken Family Foundation website, and "KERA: A tale of one school," Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 79, issue 4 (Dec. 1997), pp. 272-276.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Barker, Samuel Lorenzo
Birth Year : 1878
Death Year : 1971
According to the Kentucky Birth Records, Professor S. L. Barker was born in Christian County, KY, the son of Ellin Sumers? and Bob Barker. [Tennessee is also given as his birth location in the Census Records.] Barker is best remembered as an education leader. In Owensboro, KY, he was a school teacher and principal of Dunbar School, and he became principal of Western High School in 1934. He was a long-time member and leader in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA), first serving as assistant secretary in 1916. He was the 2nd District organizer for the Association of Colored Teachers beginning in 1925. He was the KNEA reporter in 1928, served on the Board of Directors 1930-1935, and was president of the board 1939-1940. He chaired the Legislative Committee in 1933, ran unsuccessfully for president of the association in 1935 and 1937, and in 1939 successfully became president of KNEA, serving 1939-1941. He also served on the Kentucky governor's committee for higher education for Negroes in 1940. Professor S. L. Barker served on various KNEA committees until the organization was subsumed by the Kentucky Education Association in 1956. In his political life, Barker served as a delegate to the Republican National Convention from Kentucky in 1952. S. L. Barker was the husband of Callie Coleman Barker (b. 1878 in TN), who was a teacher and seamstress. They were the parents of nine children, one of whom was Roberta L. Barker Woodard, who is listed in The Black Women in the Middle West Project, by D. C. Hine, et al. For more on Samuel Barker see the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1916-1952. For more on the Second District Association of Colored Teachers of Kentucky see "Colored Column" in The Bee, 12/05/1911, p. 2. Both sources are available full-text at the Kentucky Digital Library.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky / Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Bate, John W.
Birth Year : 1854
Death Year : 1945
John William Bate was born in Louisville, KY, son of John Bate (slave owner) and Nancy Dickerson (slave). Bate graduated from Berea College in 1881 and again in 1891. His first teaching job took him to Danville's one-room shanty school building, which John Bate transformed into an accredited standard high school with many rooms, including an auditorium that seated 700 persons. Bate was principal and teacher at the school for 59 years; in his honor the school was renamed Bate High School. In 1964, following integration, the school became Bate Middle School. A Kentucky Historical Marker [#2186] has been placed on the Bate High School grounds. John W. Bate was the father of Langston F. Bate, and the husband of Ida Lindsey Bate who died in 1910. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915; and "Rites Held for Prof. John W. Bate, Educator," The K.N.E.A. Journal, vol. 17, no. 1 (Oct-Nov 1945), p. 24.

See photo image and additional information about John W. Bate at "Our alumni are the coolest: the story of John W. Bate" by apeach, 01/15/2013, at Hutchins Library Highlights blog.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Bates, Susie Sweat
Birth Year : 1947
Susie Bates was born in Richmond, KY. She is a graduate of Eastern Kentucky University with a B.S. in Speech Pathology and Audiology. Bates taught at the Kentucky School for the Deaf in Danville, KY, from 1980-1990. She was the first African American at the school to teach daily speech classes in the classroom setting. She also developed a curriculum of basic, everyday living skills for low-functioning deaf students, including teaching the students about the causes of deafness and blindness and providing them with a means of communication. Bates was also the cheerleading coach during football season. For more information contact Susie Bates at bates@insightbb.com.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Deaf and Hearing Impaired, Blind, Visually Impaired
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Blanton, William Spencer
Birth Year : 1878
Death Year : 1945
Reverend William Spencer Blanton was a Baptist minister, an educator, and an education leader. He was born in Woodford County, KY, the oldest of eight children born to John and Eliza Woodley Blanton, and according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, the family lived in Versailles, KY. William S. Blanton attended the colored school in Versailles and was a teacher at the school while studying at Kentucky State Normal School [a teacher training school, now Kentucky State University]. He was a 1906 graduate of Kentucky State Normal and also a graduate of Simmons University (Kentucky), and he was earning his master's degree at the University of Cincinnati when he died in 1945 [source: "The Late W. S. Blanton," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1945, v.17, no.1, p.12]. Blanton had been a teacher in the Kentucky colored schools in Henderson, Columbus, Shelbyville, Newport, and in Frankfort where he was also principal of the Mayo-Underwood High School, a building that was the result of Blanton's campaign efforts for a new school. He upgraded the school to an accredited high school and it was listed with the Southern Association, an accrediting body for high schools. He also led the campaign for the new school building in Shelbyville, and he secured funding for a new playground in Newport. Blanton taught during the summers at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], he also served as a dean at the school, and at the time of his death, he was a teacher at the Oliver Street School in Winchester, KY [source: "Professor W. S. Blanton Passes," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April-May, 1925, v.16, no.2-3, p.25; and Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky for 1914, 1915, and 1916, p.49]. Blanton had twice served as president of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, 1935-1936 and 1936-1937, and he was chairman of the College and High School Department in the mid-1920s. He was a member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Board of Directors as early as 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.1].  Blanton was also a Mason.  He was a short man, standing 5 feet 4 1/4 inches when he enlisted in the U.S. Army in Versailles, KY, on October 7, 1898 [source: U.S. Army, Register of Enlistments, 1798-1914]. He was a veteran of the Spanish-American War, having served with the 24 Infantry. Blanton received an Honorable Discharge on January 31, 1899, at Fort Douglas, Utah. Blanton was a private and received the remarks of "Very Good" in reference to his military service.  William Spencer Blanton died April 6, 1945 at the W. A. Scott Memorial Hospital in Frankfort, KY [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death, State File No. 9802]. He was the husband of Etta R. Banks Blanton, she was also a school teacher in Kentucky. The couple lived at 200 Blanton Street in Frankfort, KY. Blanton Street was in the "Craw" area of Frankfort [source: "A petition of numerous citizens of "Craw" was presented...," The Weekly Roundabout, 07/17/1880, p.4].

 

  See photo image of William Spencer Blanton on p.12 of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1945, v.17, no.1.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky / Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky / Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky

Bond, Henry
Birth Year : 1865
Death Year : 1929
Henry Bond was born in Anderson County, KY. He was a teacher and lawyer, and it was believed that he had political influence over the African American Republican vote in Williamsburg, KY. Bond was the principal and lone teacher of the Williamsburg Colored Academy for a number of years. The school was a one-room cabin with grades 1-8. In 1929, Henry died ten days before his brother, James M. Bond; both were sons of Jane Arthur, a slave, and Reverend Preston Bond. Henry Bond is buried in the Briar Creek Cemetery in Williamsburg. For more see The Bonds, by R. M. Williams. *Additional informaiton from Carrie Stewart of Williamsburg, KY; Stewart's mother and her mother's siblings attended the one room school and they were students of Henry Bond.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Voting Rights, Lawyers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky / Williamsburg, Whitley County, Kentucky

Bourbon County Training School (Little Rock, KY)
Start Year : 1911
The Bourbon County Training School was located in Little Rock, KY. The school began as an idustrial course at the colored school prior to becoming the industrial training school in 1914. The school was supported by the Slater Fund [source: The History of Education of Bourbon County by J. R. Welch]. Ms. Maggie L. Freeman was the principal as early as 1911. The industrial school was to provide advanced training for students in the county. In 1915, there were 70 students and three teachers. The students were provided a nine grade course with elementary work in the first eight grades and secondary subjects and practice teaching in the ninth grade. Industrial training included cooking, sewing, gardening and poultry farming. According to J. R. Welch, the Bourbon County Training School was established in 1918, it was a consolidation of the colored school district in Little Rock. C. T. Cook was the school principal in 1919. The school was located on two acres on Mt. Sterling Pike, there was a frame school house with six rooms and an auditorium. The building had electric lights. The building and property were valued at about $3,000. By 1933, there were near 80 students, some were transported by school bus. In addition to the courses, there was P. T. A., a dramatic club, and a music club, and there were basketball, baseball, and track teams. The school was still open in 1933 when Professor William J. Callery was principal, and the school had become an accredited four year high school. For more see "Bourbon County Training School" on pp. 264-265 in Negro Education by the Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1916, NO. 39, Volume II [available full-text in Google Books]; and The Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 25-26, 1919, p.4, and v.3, issue 2 (January-February 1933), p.22 [available online at Kentucky Digital Library - Journals]. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Little Rock, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Bowling Green Academy (Bowling Green, KY)
Start Year : 1902
End Year : 1933
The Bowling Green Academy School opened in 1902 with 57 students in the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Bowling Green, KY. Rev. R. L. Hyde was the school's president. The school was later moved into a building on State Street. "The object of this school is threefold (1) education in general of all negro children, especially in Kentucky, who desire the advantage of a first-class institution at reasonable rates; (2) education along special lines which shall fit our young men to fill more efficiently the pulpits of our churches; (3) to develop the negro youth into good Christian citizens by educating the head, heart and hand." The school attendance grew to more than 150 students before it closed in 1933. For more information see Bowling Green Academy, and "Bowling Green Academy" in the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Bradley, Mollie McFarland [Midway Colored School]
Birth Year : 1933
Mollie M. Bradley is a historian and writer who was born in Jefferson City, TN, the daughter of Leroy and Emma Cunningham McFarland. She is past matron of Cecelia Dunlap Grand Chapter, O.E.S., P.H.A. She is the author of A Bright Star: a biography of Cecelia Dunlap, and she wrote several articles for the Order of Eastern Star publication The Phyllis Magazine. The magazine is the voice of the Phyllis Chapter of the Phylaxis Society, PHA Inc., which was organized in 1983, and Mollie Bradley served as the first executive secretary. The Phyllis Chapter of the Phylaxis Society, PHA Inc. researches and studies the history of the Prince Hall Eastern Stars. Mollie Bradley is also a contributing writer for The Woodford Sun during Black History Month; her husband had been the Black History Month contributing writer, and after he died in 2004, Mollie Bradley took over the writing of the articles. Though born in Tennessee, Mollie Bradley was raised in Bourbon County, KY, by her aunt and uncle, Jennie P. Harris and Reverend James C. Harris, pastor of Zion Baptist Church [previously part of the African Baptist Church] in Paris, KY. Mollie Bradley is a graduate of Western High School in Paris, KY, and Central State University, where she majored in journalism. She was the wife of the late Walter T. Bradley, Jr. from Midway, KY; they owned the first laundrette in that city. Customers could leave laundry to be cleaned and folded, and the laundry would be ready to be picked up later in the day. Customers could also do their own laundry. Three washers and three dryers were available with a cost of 25 cents per wash load and 10 cents per dry cycle. The laundrette was located in the building that the couple owned and lived in, which had been the Midway Colored School, located in Hadensville from 1911-1954. The school had grades 1-8. Prior to being used as a school, the building was home to the Colored Baptist Church [later named Pilgrim Baptist Church], which had 900 members. The church building was constructed in 1872 by the Lehman Brothers, a German Company. The congregation outgrew the building and it was sold to Woodford County in 1911 to be used as the Colored School. In 1936, it was sold to the Midway Board of Education and became the Midway Elementary School for Colored children. In 1954, the school was closed and the children were bused to Simmons School in Versailles, KY. The Bradleys purchased the school building in 1959. They leased space within the building to a number of businesses, including a beauty shop and a shoe shop. There had also been a lodge hall, lodge offices, and apartments. Mollie Bradley also taught piano lessons; her mission was to provide lessons to those who wanted to learn but could not afford piano lessons. Her husband, Walter T. Bradley, Jr., and their sons also played the piano. On June 25, 2011, the Midway Colored School was honored with a Kentucky Historical Society Marker. Mollie M. Bradley is a member of the Midway Women's Club. For more information read the press release, KHS to Dedicate Historical Marker to Honor Midway Colored School, 06/13/ 2011, a Kentucky.gov web page.

Access Interview Read about the Mollie M. Bradley oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.

Subjects: Authors, Businesses, Communities, Cosmetologists, Beauty Shops, Hairdressers, Beauty Supplies, Historians, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Kentucky African American Churches, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Jefferson City, Tennessee / Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Hadensville in MIdway, Woodford County, Kentucky

Bradley, Walter T., Jr.
Birth Year : 1925
Death Year : 2004
Walter Thomas Bradley, Jr. was born in Midway, KY, to Walter T. Sr. and Sarah J. Craig Bradley. He was an Army veteran and in 1977 became the first African American on the Midway City Council. Bradley served on the council for 24 years. He was a past Grand Secretary of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge F. & A.M. of Kentucky, and was editor of the lodge's newspaper Masonic Herald. Bradley was employed at Avon Army Depot where he was an electrical engineer inspector. He was the husband of Mollie McFarland Bradley, and the couple owned and lived in the building that had housed the Midway Colored School. Walter Bradley had been a student in the school, and purchased the building in 1959. He and his father did all of the repair work. Bradley and his wife leased space within the building to a number of businesses, including a beauty shop and a shoe shop, and there was a lodge hall, and apartments. The couple were owners of the first laundrette in Midway. The building was also home to the offices of the Most Worshipful Prince Hall Grand Lodge F. & A.M. during Walter Bradley's tenure as grand secretary. Walter T. Bradley, Jr. was also a member of a male singing group from Midway, KY called the "Five Royalties of Song." He was a piano player, as is his wife and their sons. He was a contributor writer for The Woodford Sun newspaper during Black History Month. His wife, Mollie Bradley, continues to write articles each year. In 1989, Walter T. Bradley, Jr. was the first African American deacon at the Immanuel Baptist Church in Lexington, KY. The Walter Bradley Memorial Park in Midway, KY is named in his honor. For more see "Middlesboro city councilwoman top vote-getter," in 1988 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Seventh Report, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights, p. 28; W. Bradley, "Black Free Masonry's Founder Never a Slave," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/25/2002, Commentary section, p. A8; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1988-2004.

Access Interview Read about the Walter T. Bradley oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.
 
Subjects: Businesses, Cosmetologists, Beauty Shops, Hairdressers, Beauty Supplies, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Military & Veterans, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky

Braxton, Frederick [Bracktown] [Main Street Baptist Church]
Death Year : 1876
Rev. Frederick Braxton, born in Kentucky, was a slave, a blacksmith, and became pastor of the First African Church in 1854. In 1864, the church was located on Short Street, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1864-65. Rev. Braxton succeeded Elder London Ferrill, who had organized the congregation in 1822; Elder Ferrill died in 1854. During Rev. Braxton's tenure, the church continued to grow and had over 2,000 members by the beginning of the Civil War in 1861. The following year the First African Church split, with 500 members following Rev. Braxton as he founded the Independent African Church. The new church was located at the corner of Main and Locust Streets, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1864-65, and for a brief period, Rev. Braxton was pastor of both his new church and the First African Church. New church members were baptized in the Poor House Pond that was located in the southern part of Lexington [the pond was also used for the baptisms of the Pleasant Green Baptist Church]. In 1867, Rev. Braxton organized a school with nearly 300 students at the Independent African Church; it was managed by Negro teachers. Later the Independent African Church was located at the corner of Main and Merino Streets, according to the Lexington City Directory 1873 and 1874. The name of the church would be changed to Second Colored Baptist Church (1876), to Main Street Independent Baptist Church, and then later renamed the Main Street Baptist Church. Rev. Braxton was also a land owner: he owned part of the Stonetown property on Leestown Pike in Fayette County, KY, where the community that became known as Bracktown (named for Rev. Braxton) was established. He began purchasing land in 1867 and continued up through 1874. Rev. Frederick Braxton died January 31, 1876. He was the husband of Keziah "Kessie" Ware Braxton, and they were the parents of Cary Braxton (d. 1913) and Charly J. Braxton (d. 1923) [source: Kentucky Death Certificates]; Molly Braxton (d. 1876) and Merritt (d. 1901) [source: Yvonne Giles]; Henderson A. W. Braxton [source: Freedmen's Bank Record]; Betsy Braxton; Sara J. Braxton; and Ella Braxton [source: 1870 U.S. Census]. After Rev. Braxton's death, his widow, Keziah, and daughter Betsie (or Betsy) Braxton, lived on Bolivar Street, the 2nd house east of Broadway [source: William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82]. Keziah (or Kesiah) Braxton died in 1898 [source: Yvonne Giles - Death Certificate #3041]. For more see A History of Kentucky Baptist, Vol. 2, by J. A. Spencer; A Brief History of the First Baptist Church (Black), by H. E. Nutter (1940), a Baptist History Homepage website; "Under the law...," Lexington Observer and Reporter, 10/02/1867, p. 3; "Five thousand people," The Kentucky Leader, 04/18/1892, p. 7; Kentucky Place Names, by R. M. Rennick; and "A Hamlet and a Railroad Town" within the African Americans in the Bluegrass website. For a photo image of Rev. Frederick Braxton, see the First Baptist Church Souvenir Bulletin in the Sallie Price Collection at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Library. See photo image of baptism at the Lexington Work House Pond [also called the Poor House Pond] in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

 

Deed BooK - Braxton Property on Leestown Road, Lexington, Kentucky.  Information provided by Yvonne Giles.

  • Deed Book 43 p.561 01/16/1867 7 acres
  • Deed book 43 p.425 04/10/1867 4 acres
  • Deed Book 45 p.160 02/22/1868 3 acres
  • Deed Book 47 p.62   04/01/1869 7 acres
  • Deed Book 53 p.295 05/20/1874 19 acres
  • Deed Book 53 p.393                   2 acres

 

Braxton family members buried in African Cemetery No.2.  Information provided by Yvonne Giles.

  • Frederick Braxton d. 01/31/1876
  • Mollie Braxton d. 03/11/1876
  • Kesiah (Keziah) Braxton d. 09/14/1898
  • Cary W. Braxton d. 03/31/1913
  • Mary Ellen Prior Braxton [wife of Cary W.] d. 11/09/1924
  • Charles (Charly) Jefferson Braxton d. 06/05/1923
  • Charles C. Braxton [son of Charles J.] d. 03/02/1917
  • Katherine Braxton [daughter of Charles J.] d. 1880 *may be buried in African No.2
  • Nora Braxton [daughter of Charles J.] d. 1888 *may be buried in African No.2
  • Margaret Braxton [daughter of Charles J.] d. 1887 *may be buried in African No.2
  • Fred Braxton [son of Charles J.] d. 1887 *may be buried in African No.2
  • Maria Edmonds Braxton [wife of Charles J.] d. 07/26/1931
  • Merritt Braxton d. 01/01/1901

 


Poor House Pond

See photo image of Rev. Frederick Braxton in the right hand column on p.191 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, at NYPL Digital Gallery.

 
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington and Bracktown, Fayette County, Kentucky

Brock, James "Jim"
James Brock was the second head basketball coach at William Grant High School (WGHS) in Covington, KY, coaching there from 1955 to 1965. Like other African American school teams in Kentucky, WGHS was a member of the Kentucky High School Athletic League (KHSAL). The counter league, Kentucky High School Athletic Association (KHSAA), was for whites only until school integration began in the mid-1950s. The 1956-1957 WGHS team was the first African American basketball team to win a district tournament in the KHSAA tournament. As more African American students were allowed to attend the formerly all white schools, there was an impact on the pool of high school athletes that had been restricted to the all black schools. In 1965, the year that William Grant High School closed, the basketball team won only five games. The season was a far cry from the winning seasons that had garnered the school a win-loss record of 185-69 during Brock's years as head coach. With the closing of William Grant, Brock moved on to Cincinnati, where he continued to successfully coach high school sports. James Brock was inducted into the Northern Kentucky Black Hall of Fame and the KHSAA Hall of Fame in 2000. For more see Shadows of the past, by L. Stout; J. Reis, "Many tried, few defeated William Grant in '50s, '60s," The Cincinnati Post, 02/23/1998, Editorial section, p. 4K; and Dawahares/KHSAA Hall of Fame class of 2000 inductees announced, 06/21/1999, at the KHSAA website.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Basketball, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Brooks, Garland H.
Birth Year : 1912
Death Year : 1984
Garland H. Brooks was born in Hopkinsville, KY, the son of Carrie and Henry Brooks. He became a pharmacist after attending Attucks High School in Hopkinsville and receiving his Ph.D. from Howard University School of Pharmacy in 1934. He returned to Hopkinsville, where he became proprietor of Brooks Pharmacy. He was a brother of Phillip C. Brooks. For more see Profiles of Contemporary Black Achievers of Kentucky, by J. B. Horton.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Pharmacists, Pharmacies
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Brooks, Robert A. "Bob"
Birth Year : 1938
Robert A. Brooks was born in Winchester, KY. A six foot tall football player, he attended Oliver High and Clark County High School in Winchester. Louis Stout referred to Brooks as a "pure athlete" who displayed speed, quickness, agility and toughness. Brooks was a running back at Ohio State University, where he was designated an Ohio All American in 1960. He was selected in the 21st round of the 1961 draft by the New York Titans (later the New York Jets), an American Football League team. Brooks played one season, participating in 14 games and averaging 3.7 yards a carry. For more see Shadows of the past, by L. Stout; and Bob Brooks at the databaseFootball.com website.
Subjects: Football, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky

Browne, Birdius W.
Birth Year : 1906
Death Year : 1986
Birdius Browne was born in Warsaw, KY. He taught in the Mt. Olivet School and was principal of the Melbourne High and Vocational School in Florida. Brown won a government medal in Decatur, Illinois, for his athletic ability. He died in Paducah, KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Warsaw, Gallatin County, Kentucky / Mt. Olivet, Robertson County, Kentucky / Florida / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Burnside, Carl Meredith
Birth Year : 1898
Death Year : 1967
Professor C. M. Burnside, born in Bryantville, KY, was an educator and active member of the AME Church. He attended Wayman Institute, Lincoln Institute, and graduated from Kentucky State University in 1933. He was a high school teacher and principal in Lancaster and Monticello, KY, and established a standard four-year high school and led in the construction of a new school building. Burnside served on various committees within the KNEA, and is listed as a member of the organization in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1936-1939 [Lancaster], 1940 [Monticello]. He was also president for 15 years of the United Brothers and Sisters of Benevolence, was senior warden within the Masons, and was a member of the United Brothers of Friendship. He was a delegate to the AME General Conference 1940 and 1944. He was the son of Mahalia and Lee Burnside. For more see Prof. C. M. Burnside in in The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Benevolent Societies
Geographic Region: Bryantville, Garrard County, Kentucky / Lancaster, Garrard County, Kentucky / Monticello, Wayne County, Kentucky

Carpenter, Rose L.
Birth Year : 1893
Death Year : 1980
Rose Lillian Carpenter was born in Bowling Green, KY. She earned an A.B. degree from State University [Simmons University in Louisville], and Bachelor's and Master's of Music Education degrees from Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois. She also took music courses from six other universities. Carpenter taught for 15 years as an instructor of music education and served as Director of Choir for ten years at Louisville Municipal College for Negroes. In 1927 she replaced Professor Jay Fay as a teacher of music in the Louisville Negro schools. In 1937 she became the assistant supervisor of vocal music for the Louisville Public School System, holding the post for 36 years. She was the first African American to have an office in the Louisville Board of Education administration building. For more see C. H. Mitchell's Historical Research on Rosa Lillian Carpenter: a study of her life and influence on Music Education in Kentucky.


See photo image of Rose L. Carpenter on p. 11 of the KNEA Journal, vol. 22, no. 3 (April 1951).
Subjects: Education and Educators, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Carter, Maria F. [Trimble County Common Colored Schools]
Start Year : 1874
Maria F. Carter was a school teacher in Trimble County, KY. The school term for Colored children in the county was three months, April 1-June 30th. In 1874, Carter had taught the entire term, but was not paid. The matter was taken up by the Kentucky Legislature. It was determined that a correct census had been taken of the Colored children in Trimble County, but was not reported to the Superintendent of Public Instruction, as was required by law, which resulted in no appropriations being designated for Trimble County from the Colored School Fund. Maria Carter had been legally employed by the school system. The General Assembly enacted that Carter be paid the $51.50 owed her, and that the Superintendent of Public Instruction withhold the sum from the appropriations for the Trimble County school funds. For more see chapter 338 of Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed (1875), v.1 [available full view at Google Book Search]. See also the NKAA entries for African American Schools in Trimble County, KY, and  African American Schools.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky

Cedar Creek and Mill Creek, KY
The Cedar Creek Black Cemetery is located in Hardin County, KY. Buried there are the descendants of the former slaves who lived in the area. After gaining their freedom, an African American community was established around the cemetery, along with the African Methodist Episcopal Church and a school. There was a second African American community near Wright Cemetery. According to author Gary Kempf, there are two cemeteries behind the Wright Cemetery where African Americans were buried. The land that held the communities and the cemeteries was taken over for the expansion of Fort Knox Military Reservation. For more see The Land Before Fort Knox by G. Kenpf.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Cedar Creek, MIll Creek, Fort Knox, Hardin County, Kentucky

Clark Stonewall's Children [Monticello, KY]
Start Year : 1955
In July of 1955, the children of Clark Stonewall are thought to be the first African Americans to attend a previously all white school in Kentucky. The children, ages 6-15, attended Griffin School in Monticello, KY, with 35 white children, grades 1-8. The school term ran from July to February, Griffin starting a few months before many other Kentucky schools. The Stonewall children had been home-schooled prior to their enrollment; Clark Stonewall and his wife refused to bus their children to Travis Elementary for Colored children. [Travis School was named for Oneth M. Travis, Sr.] The Stonewall family were the only African Americans in the southeast section of Wayne County. Griffin School was a one-room facility with no electricity; it was heated with a coal stove. Marie Blevins was the teacher; the previous teacher had requested a reassignment rather than teach at an integrated school. News about the school and the integration of the students was reported throughout the United States. The school was in poor condition, and the reports generated letters and donations, the latter of which were used to replace the front door of the school, add new desks, and purchase other needed items for the school. During the summer of 1955, the school board discussed the desegregation of Monticello High School and Wayne County High School. For more see "1st 6 Negroes enter state public school," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 7/19/1955; "Integration in Kentucky," Jet, 8/11/1955, p. 25; "6 Negro children go to desegregated school in Kentucky," St. Joseph News-Press, 7/19/1955, p. 2; "Kentucky integrates first public school," The Afro-American, 7/30/1955, p. 2; S. Caudill and P. Burba, "Black History Month | July 19, 1955: Griffin School," Courier-Journal.com (Louisville), 2/2/2010; and "Wayne County to start desegregation in fall," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 6/16/1955. See also the NKAA entry for African American Schools in Wayne County, KY and the entries for African American Schools.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Monticello, Wayne County, Kentucky

Clarke, Anna Mac
Birth Year : 1919
Death Year : 1944
Anna M. Clarke, born in Lawrenceburg, KY, was a graduate of the Lawrenceburg Colored School and a 1941 graduate of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. She was one of the first African American woman from Kentucky to enlist during World War II, the first to become an officer, and the first African American WAC over an all-white regiment. Clarke led the protest that desegregated the Douglas Army Airfield theater. A Kentucky Historical Marker [#1970] has been placed on the Lawrenceburg courthouse lawn in her memory. Anna Mac Clarke is buried in Stringtown, KY. For more see Women in Kentucky-Military; LWF Communications website, Anna Mac Clark answering the call to arms; WWII and the WAC by J. M. Trowbridge; and J. M. Trowbridge, "Anna Mac Clark: a pioneer in military leadership," Cochise Quarterly, vol. 26 (Winter 1996).

  See photo image and additional information about Anna M. Clarke at "Lest We Forget," a Hampton University website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Military & Veterans, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Women's Army Corps (WACs)
Geographic Region: Lawrenceburg, Anderson County, Kentucky / Douglas Army Airfield, Arizona / Stringtown, Anderson County, Kentucky

Claybrook v Owensboro
In the late 1800s, Edward Claybrook (1821-1896) and others sued the City of Owensboro, KY, and others to prevent a segregated method of using taxes to pay for public education. Only taxes collected from African Americans were to be used for educating African American children in the city. For white children, the sum of $9,400 was available for two well-built schools, 18 teachers, and the 9-10 month school session. For African American children, $700 provided the one inferior school, three teachers, and a school session of about three months. In 1883, U. S. Circuit Judge John Barr ruled that the method of distributing school funds was unfair. "If I am correct in my conclusion, all that colored children in Owensboro are entitled to is the equal protection of the laws, in that a fair share of this fund be applied toward the maintenance of the common schools especially provided for colored children. In this view the only remedy is in equity.... United States courts have heretofore enjoined state officers from obeying state laws which were declared to be unconstitutional." For more see Claybrook and others v. City of Owensboro and others, District Court, D. Kentucky, 16 F.297 U.S. Dist. 1883; and Claybrook v. Owensboro by L. A. Coghill (thesis).
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Claysville and Other Neighborhoods (Paris, KY)
Claysville was established by African Americans at the end of the Civil War on what was then the outskirts of Paris, KY. The community was located on land that was purchased from Samuel H. Clay, whose farm bordered the area on one side. Claysville was more of a separate community than other African American neighborhoods within Paris: it included churches, stores, and businesses. The main entrance was off Main Street, under a one lane railroad viaduct hemmed on one side by a two story building, on the other side by a stream. The entrance is still in use. The back entrance was off Winchester Street. The Branch School for African American children, where inventor Garrett A. Morgan, Sr. was educated, was located in Claysville. The community has been renamed Garrett Morgan's Place, and a Kentucky Historical Marker [number 1493] was rededicated in 2000, but most still refer to the area as Claysville. The community name was spelled Clayville on the Sanborn Maps of Paris, Bourbon County [available at Kentucky Digital Library]. A Colored school house can be found on sheet two of the Oct 1901 map. The school was located on Trilby Street, Lot H. Beginning in the 1970s, Urban Renewal razed the old structures in Claysville, new homes and housing projects were constructed, and a park was added down by the stream. Many of the present residents are descendants of Claysville's earliest home owners. Other African American areas used to exist in Paris: Cottontown, off Main Street just past the railroad overpass heading toward Millersburg, down by the creek; Newtown and Judy's Alley, off High Street heading toward Lexington (homes in both areas were replaced by housing projects); and Singles Alley, off Eighth Street heading toward Georgetown, all of its older homes torn down. Ruckersville or Ruckerville, bound by Lilleston Ave., Second Street, and a creek, had a large number of African Americans. The land is thought to have been part of the Grimes' farm at one time. The old homes were razed by Urban Renewal in the 1970s and 1980s and new homes and apartments were constructed and a park was added down by the creek. Little or nothing has been published about these areas, but a visit with the various community members will garner much more information. For more on Claysville see Famous Inventor, 1877-1963, in the Kentucky Historical Marker Database; and search using the term "Claysville" in the newspaper, Bourbon News, available online at Kentucky Digital Library - Newspapers and at Chronicling America.
Subjects: Communities, Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Copeland, Mayme L.
Birth Year : 1893
Death Year : 1970
Mrs. Mayme L. Copeland was the rural supervisor in the State Department of Education; her office was located in Frankfort, KY. She was one of two African American education administrators in the South whose salaries were partially paid by the Southern Education Foundation. During her career, Copeland was supervisor of Christian and Todd County Schools and head of the Rural Department of the American Teachers Association. She was recognized in Mabel Carney's article on rural education for her outstanding work in teacher training for one-teacher schools. She was the wife of Dr. Thomas H. Copeland, and was a member of Iota Phi Lambda. Dr. Thomas Copeland was presiding elder of the Hopkinsville District. Mayme Copeland was a 1933 graduate of Kentucky State College, and in 1937 earned her Master's degree in rural education from Columbia University. She was secretary of the Woman's Connectional Council of the Colored Methodist Church (CME). She retired from the Kentucky State Department of Education in 1947 after 44 years of service, and having been the longest serving African American employee. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; M. Carney, "Rural education in American Universities, 1944-45," The Journal of Negro Education, vol. 15, issue 1 (Winter 1946), p. 98; W. G. Daniel, "Current trends and events of national importance in Negro education - Section A: General Activities," The Journal of Negro Education, vol. 7, issue 2 (April 1938), p. 221; "Kentuckian gets high post," Capital Plaindealer, 09/11/1937, p.3; "Prominent Kentucky school teacher will retire July 1," Plaindealer, 06/20/1947, p. 3; and "Mrs. M. L. Copeland plans retirement," KNEA Journal, March-April 1947, vol. 18, no. 2, p. 7 [available online].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Cotter, Joseph S., Sr.
Birth Year : 1861
Death Year : 1949
Joseph Seaman Cotter, Sr. was born in Bardstown, KY, the son of Michael Cotter (Scottish Irishman) and Martha Vaughn Cotter. He founded the Paul Laurence Dunbar School in Louisville, KY, and was principal at several Louisville schools. Cotter published five volumes of poetry and a collection of plays, composed music, and was known for his storytelling. He was the father of poet Joseph S. Cotter, Jr. (1895-1919). The Joseph S. Cotter, Sr. Papers are located at Kentucky State University. For more see Southern Black Creative Writers, 1829-1953, by M. B. Foster; Dictionary of American Negro Biography, ed. by R. W. Logan and M. R. Winston; and Early Black American Poets, by W. H. Robinson, Jr.

See photo image and additional information about Joseph S. Cotter, Sr. at the Louisville Free Public Library website.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Fathers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Poets, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Covington, Virgil
In 1999, Virgil Covington received a Milken Family Foundation National Educator Award. He was principal of the Winburn Middle School in Lexington, KY, the first school in its district to be wired for the Internet. Covington also initiated the Winburn Community Academy, a safe after-school program for children. In 2002, Covington was suspended by Superintendent Robin Fankhauser, who claimed the suspension was not disciplinary. Covington announced his retirement in May 2002; he had been employed in education for 27 years. For more see Virgil Covington at the Milken Family Foundation website and "Winburn Principal to Retire," Lexington Herald-Leader, 05/22/2002.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Craig, Susan Mary
Birth Year : 1827
Susan Mary Craig was one of the first African American teachers in Mercer County, KY, according to information William McKinley Wesley obtained from Ellen T. Craig Harris (b. 1855 in KY) in preparation for his 1929 thesis, The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky. (Susan Mary Craig's name is sometimes written as Mary Susan Craig in Wesley's thesis.) Susan Mary Craig was a teacher before the Civil War. Her father was white, and Craig received her education at a white school in Harrodsburg, KY. She opened a school after the war, and her students were her children, including Ellen T. Craig Harris along with another daughter and son; and James Harris, the husband of Ellen T. Harris [p. 186]. The school was located on Fort Street. Sallie Ann Taylor is recognized as the first African American teacher in Mercer County, and according to Wesley's thesis [p. 187], Taylor started teaching school after Susan Mary Craig died. This could mean that Taylor continued teaching at the school that Craig had established. There was also a teacher named Landonia Simms from Ohio. Simms had been hired by Susan Craig to teach the classes that were beyond Craig's level of education. It was during this time that Craig's school was moved to Greenville Street. Susan Mary Craig was the wife of Ransom Craig, a barber and Baptist minister in Harrodsburg and owner of $800 worth of real estate. The family members are all listed as mulattoes and free persons in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census. In the 1860 census, Ellen T. Craig Harris is listed as the youngest child of the Craig family. In the 1870 census, the household does not include Susan Mary Craig, and by 1880, Ransom Craig had remarried and his wife was Celia Craig (b.1832 in KY). His daughter, Ellen T. Craig Harris would become a school teacher and opened a school in her home. According to the information Ellen Harris provided to William Wesley, there were 40-50 students who paid $1 per month to attend the school. If there were two children in the same family, the cost was $1.50 per month [p. 187]. Ellen T. Craig Harris was the wife of James T. Harris. The couple had several children and Ellen's niece, Mattie Elliott, also lived with the family; they are all listed in one household in the 1910 U.S. Federal Census. In 1920, Mattie M. Elliott became principal of the Harrodsburg Colored School. Elliott was the granddaughter of Susan Mary Craig. (Mattie Elliott's name is given as Maynette Elliott in Wesley's thesis and in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.) Mattie M. Elliott was born in November of 1890 in Mercer County, KY, and she and other members of the Harris family are listed as white in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Mercer County, KY and the entries for African American Schools in Kentucky.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky

Crenshaw, Walter Clarence, Jr.
Birth Year : 1935
Death Year : 1969
Born in Millersburg, KY, Walter C. Crenshaw, Jr. was a graduate of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] and taught in the Canton (Ohio) City School System. He was later appointed Executive Director of the Canton Area Housing Authority. Crenshaw Middle School and a park in Canton are named in his honor. Walter C. Crenshaw, Jr. was the son of Anna Frances Williams Crenshaw and Walter C. Crenshaw, Sr. For more see the Crenshaw Middle School website; and C. M. Jenkins, "Canton educator tills, waters young minds...," Akron Beacon Journal, 09/26/1993, Metro section, p. B1.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Housing Authority, The Projects, Migration North, Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Millersburg, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Canton, Ohio

Cross, Dorothy
Birth Year : 1943
The education associations in Kentucky were segregated until May 1956 when the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA) was subsumed by the Kentucky Education Association (KEA) -- the organization was subsumed, not the officers or the members. The first African American hired by KEA was Dorothy Cross, who, at the time (1965), was a 22 year old senior at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] majoring in education; she was to serve as editorial assistant and associate editor of the KEA Journal. Cross, from Hopkinsville, KY, was a graduate of Attucks High School. She was to start her new job the day after she graduated from Kentucky State College. In 1974, Dorothy Cross was still editor of the Kentucky School Journal (formerly the KEA Journal) [source: Gebbie House Magazine Directory, 1974]. For more see "Kentucky Education Assn. hires first Negro," Jet, vol. 28, issue 6 (05/20/1965), p. 14; and "Kentucky group hires 1st Negro," Washington Post Times Herald, 05/06/1965, p. A2.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Davis, Edward Benjamin and Bettie Webb
Both Edward B. Davis (1875-1934) and Bettie W. Davis (1878-1974) were born in Scott County, Kentucky. Ed was the son of Katie Davis, and he and Betty lived at 133 Bourbon Street, according to Ed's death certificate. Betty and Ed Davis were teachers at the Georgetown Colored School, Ed was also the school principal, they are listed in the 1910 and the 1920 U. S. Federal Census. In 1923, Betty established the first African American library in Georgetown; it was within the school. The library was later named the Charles Steele Library, serving as the Colored branch of the Georgetown Public Library. In 1934 Davis replaced her deceased husband as principal of the school, serving in that capacity until 1940; the school name had been changed from the Chambers Avenue School to the Ed Davis School in 1934, it was named after her husband [source: "K.N.E.A. Kullings," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.4, no.2, p.25]. She also established the Betty Webb Davis Scholarship Loan Fund within the Ed Davis Alumni Association. Bettie Webb Davis was the daughter of Robert and Mary Webb [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1941-44, and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones. See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Scott County, KY.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky

Dishman, Oscar, Jr.
Birth Year : 1923
Death Year : 2000
Born in Scott County, KY, Oscar Dishmanm, Jr. began working with horses when he was a teenager, training thoroughbred horses for more than 40 years, including Silver Series and Golden Don. Dishman had been employed at Latonia and River Downs. He also filed suit against the Scott County Board of Education in 1956, leading to the desegregation of the public schools in Georgetown, KY. He was the son of Oscar, Sr. and Anna L. Henderson Dishman. The family lived in New Zion according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. For more see "Oscar Dishman Jr., thoroughbred horse trainer for more than 40 years, dies at 77," Lexington Herald-Leader, Obituaries, p. B2, 10/02/2000. For more about the school board lawsuit, contact Marilyn Dishman (his daughter).

 

Access InterviewRead about the Oscar Dishman, Jr. oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Board of Education, Court Cases
Geographic Region: New Zion, Scott County and Fayette County, Kentucky / Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky

Division of Negro Education (Kentucky)
Start Year : 1924
In 1924, the Division of Negro Education was formed within the Kentucky Department of Education, and Professor L. N. Taylor was hired as supervisor of Negro rural education. On April 25, 1924 he addressed the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA) and also made a $10 donation to the organization. The Division of Negro Education brought the issue of secondary education for Negroes closer to the State Department of Education, according to Claude E. Nichols in his master's thesis, Reorganization of Negro High Schools in the State of Kentucky. From 1924-1943, Taylor addressed the KNEA membership at the annual conference, collected concerns and kept members up to date on education matters, and continued to make a financial donation to the organization each year. Taylor retired from the Department of Education in 1943; KNEA presented him with a 17-jewel watch. He was presented the Lincoln [Institute] Key in 1944, the same year that Sam B. Taylor was named Supervisor of Negro Education. From 1945-1947, Whitney M. Young, Sr. served as the Assistant Supervisor and Coordinator of Negro Education, the first African American to be hired in the Division of Negro Education. For more see the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 23-26, 1924 through November-December 1948 [both titles available online in the Kentucky Digital Library]; and Negro Education in Kentucky [thesis], by J. A. Bond. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Dixville and Other Communities in North Middletown, KY
One of the earliest mentions of the African American community of Dixville is a 1901 newspaper article in The Bourbon News. The community is also mentioned in Jacqueline Sue's book, Black Seeds in the Blue Grass. Dixville is located in North Middletown, KY, on the main road that heads toward Mt. Sterling. Albert B. Wess, Sr. was reared in Dixville: he was born on Deweese Street in Lexington and the family moved to Dixville when he was a small child. His father was a prominent member of the Dixville community, owning several homes and the Tom Wess Grocery Store. The store was in operation long before Albert Wess and his twin sister, Alberta, were born in 1923, and the store closed a year before Tom Wess died in 1936. The 2nd Christian Church was across the street from the store and nearby was a UBF&SMT [United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten] Lodge Hall. Tom Wess belonged to the lodge. The present day church in Dixville is Wiley Methodist Church. In 2007, the first Annual Dixville Picnic was held. Three other African American communities were located in North Middletown. One was Kerrville (1), on Highway 460 about one mile outside North Middletown. The Francis M. Wood High School, grades 1-8, was located in Kerrville (1), and Florence H. Wess (d.1932), mother to Albert Wess, was one of the schoolteachers and the music teacher; she also played piano at the church. Kerrville (2) was next to the other Kerrville; and Smoketown was one mile on the other side of North Middletown, heading toward Little Rock. A few of the families that lived in these communities had the last names of Carter, Cason, Mack, Kenney, Green, McClure, Butler, Fields, Dorsey, and Gibbs. This information comes from Albert B. Wess, Sr. See the article in The Bourbon News, 11/19/1901, p. 5. If you have more information about Dixville or the other communities, please contact Michell Butler.
Subjects: Businesses, Communities, Kentucky African American Churches, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work, Fraternal Organizations, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Dixville, Kerrville, Smoketown, North Middletown, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Dotson, William S.
Birth Year : 1911
Death Year : 1995
William S. Dotson, born in Cave City, KY, later became a civil rights leader in Lexington, KY. Dotson first left Cave City when he was a teen; there was not a high school for African Americans, so he went to Frankfort to attend the high school at what is today Kentucky State University. He also earned a BA at the school in 1936. He was president of the National Alumni Association (1966-1968). Dotson and his wife moved to Lexington in 1938, where he later served as president of the Lexington Chapter of the NAACP, 1946-1951; Dotson wanted to bring leadership to African Americans in the city. He also served as treasurer of the state NAACP for 27 years. He was the first 40 Year Man member of Omega Psi Phi, for which he received an award in 1974. For more see M. Davis, "Martin Luther King: dream lives on struggle for rights continues," Lexington Herald-Leader, 01/15/1986, Lifestyle section, p. D1; Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-1999; and William S. Dotson in the Obituaries of the Lexington Herald-Leader, 11/28/1995, p. B2.

Access Interview Read about the William S. Dotson oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, items in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Cave City, Barren County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Dowery, Robert L., Sr.
Birth Year : 1893
Death Year : 1952
Dowery was born in Shelbyville, KY. He served as a teacher and principal at Negro schools in Shelbyville, Franklin, Taylor County, Campbellsville, and Elizabethtown. Dowery was president and organizer of the 4th District Teachers Association. He enlisted in the Army during World War I and conducted night school at Camp Zachary in Taylor, KY. He was the son Mary Dowery. Robert L. Dowery is buried at Zachary Taylor National Cemetery. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky

DuBois School (Mt. Sterling, KY)
Start Year : 1939
End Year : 1964
In August of 1964, as African American parents were preparing to boycott the city schools to protest a change in the school integration plans, the DuBois School was burned down. The fire was the result of arson, as was the fire that destroyed the African American Masonic Hall. The DuBois school, probably built in 1939, was an African American school with grades 1-12. The Mt. Sterling police department was put on alert against any attempt to also burn the three schools for whites. The FBI and the Kentucky State Department of Public Safety investigated the fire; the DuBois School fire had been set while the Mt. Sterling Fire Department was answering a call at one of the white schools on the opposite end of town. The Masonic Hall was owned by W. D. Banks, an undertaker who was also a leader and active member of the Mt. Sterling NAACP Branch. Banks had been meeting with the School Board to discuss the change in plans to integrate two grades rather than the original plan to integrate the entire school system. The change had come about after it was learned that more African American students than were expected had registered to attend the school for whites. With the burning of DuBois School, an emergency School Board meeting was held behind closed doors, and the Mt. Sterling schools' classes were suspended until September 8, 1964. Louisville lawyer James A. Crumlin, Sr. was hired by African American parents in preparation for a lawsuit to force the schools to integrate. The Mt. Sterling school system was one of the last to integrate in Kentucky. For more see "All-Negro school in Mt. Sterling, KY, destroyed by fire," North Adams Transcript, 08/31/1964, p. 1; and "School Desegregation" records at the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Mt. Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

DuValle, Lucie N.
Birth Year : 1868
Death Year : 1928
Lucie [sometimes spelled Lucy] DuValle was the first female principal in Louisville public schools, the highest paid African American in the city. She also held the first parents meeting (later known as PTA). The Lucie N. DuValle Junior High School was named in her honor; the school opened in 1952 in the old Central High School building at 9th and Chestnut Streets. Four years later, the school moved to 3500 Bohne Avenue, and shared a building with the Joseph S. Cotter Elementary School. Thirty years later, the building was home to the Carter DuValle Education Center. The Park DuValle neighborhood is located on the west end of Louisville. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, p.260, ed. by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Early School in Louisville, KY
Start Year : 1838
End Year : 1838
Jerry Wade, described as a mulatto, was a barber at the Galt House in Louisville, KY. He had purchased his freedom and that of his family. Wade was fairly well off and rented one of his homes to his son and his family. The front of the house was rented to Jane Grey Cannon Swisshelm and her husband, both of whom were white. Jane Swisshelm, from Pennsylvania, was an abolitionist and advocate for women's rights. Around 1838 she opened a school for African Americans in the Wade home. Both she and the students were harassed by whites, and Wade was notified that his house would be burned down if the school continued. All of the students withdrew from the school. For more see Half a Century, by Jane Grey Cannon Swisshelm, 1815-1880; and Jane Cannon Swisshelm was active against slavery!, an African American Registry website. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Barbers, Education and Educators, Freedom, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Pennsylvania

Early Schools for Negro Deaf and Blind Children
Start Year : 1884
In 1884, the Kentucky School for Negro Deaf was established in Danville, KY, as a division of the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb. The Colored Department was managed by Morris T. Long, William J. Blount, Frances Barker, and Mabel Maris. The first African American student, admitted in 1885, was 25 year old Owen Alexander from Owenton, KY; he remained at the school for one year. He had become deaf at the age of 3 after having scarlet fever. The Kentucky Institute for the Education of the Negro Blind was located in Louisville, KY, in 1886. Both schools are listed in Adjustment of School Organization to Various Population Groups, by R. A. F. McDonald [full view available via Google Book Search]. For more about the early years of the Danville school, see volume 1 of Histories of American Schools for the Deaf, 1817-1893, edited by E. A. Fay. See also G. Kocher, "Diplomas bring tears of joy - blacks who attended from 1930 to 1955 get overdue awards," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/04/2011, p.A1. See photo image of the Kentucky School for the Blind Colored Department Building at the American Printing House for the Blind website. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Deaf and Hearing Impaired, Blind, Visually Impaired
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Owenton, Owen County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Farris, Elaine
Birth Year : 1955
On June 22, 2004, Elaine Farris became the first African American school superintendent in Kentucky, at age 49. She received her bachelor's and master's degrees from Eastern Kentucky University and is pursuing her doctorate at the University of Kentucky. She has taught in Winchester, where she was also an assistant principal and principal. Elaine Farris was the school superintendent of Shelby County in 2004. She left that post in 2007 when she was named Deputy Commissioner with the Kentucky Department of Education. In 2009, Farris was named Superintendent of Clark County Schools. For more see G. Kocher, "A Kentucky first, a racial barrier broken, Shelby County breaks ground by hiring black schools chief," Lexington Herald-Leader, 06/23/04; R. H. Ismail, "4 Kentucky educators named to key state-level positions," Lexington Herald-Leader, 06/30/2007, p. B2; and KET's "Connections with Renee Shaw" - #310: Elaine Farris.

See photo image of Elaine Farris at the Kentucky Council on Post-secondary Education website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky / Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky

Fields, Sharon B.
Birth Year : 1951
Sharon B. Fields was born in Paris, KY, she is an educator, politician, and a minister. She was also the first African American woman to become a city commissioner in Paris, KY. William B. Reed, the first African American commissioner in the city, was one of the candidates during Fields' first run for a seat on the commission in 1989. Fields was a new contender and had her supporters, but for some, her candidacy represented a split in the African American vote and it was feared that she would greatly decrease the chances of having at least one African American city commissioner. Others felt that one African American male candidate was most appropriate. Fields lost her first election by 3 votes. But, she was appointed to the commission when one of the commissioners stepped down. In 1990, she was a teacher at Paris High School and a city commissioner. She was a commissioner, off and on, for 10 years. Today, Rev. Fields is a member of the Paris Independent School Board of Education. She has also served as pastor of the Eminence Christian Church in Eminence, KY. Reverend Fields earned her undergraduate degree in education at Eastern Kentucky University, a masters in education at Georgetown College (KY), a masters in public affairs at Kentucky State University, and a divinity masters at Lexington Theological Seminary. She was the first African American woman vice moderator and moderator for the Christian Church, Disciples of Christ. Reverend Fields is also an author, she has written numerous articles for religious magazines such as Just Women; articles for the Bourbon Times and The Bourbon Citizen; and an article for Essence Magazine on social security benefits for out-of-wedlock children. She is the co-author of In Other Words--; stories of African American involvement in the early years of the Stone-Campbell movement in Kentucky. This entry was submitted by Kellie Scott of the Paris Bourbon County Public Library. For more information on Sharon B. Fields as a city commissioner, see the commission records at the Bourbon County Clerk's Office; also contact Sharon B. Fields.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Filipino Students Denied Admittance to School [Louisville, KY]
Start Year : 1904
In 1904, four engineering students from the Philippines were denied admittance to DuPont Manual Training High School in Louisville, KY. The Kentucky Board of Education ruled that the students' color debarred them from the privilege of public schools. The question the board pondered was whether Filipinos were Negroes. It was decided that the term "Colored" applied to Negroes, Indians, and all other brown races. The law required the separation of races in Kentucky schools. The four students were located elsewhere; they were members of the Filipino Student Movement, an American government plan for the Americanization of selected Filipino students. The first group of students was comprised of 75 males between the ages of 16 and 21 who ranked highest on the program examination and met other criteria. Four students were recommended for Kentucky University [University of Kentucky] and four for the DuPont Manual Training High School. None of the students came to Kentucky: the engineering students were redirected elsewhere and the Kentucky University students decided to attend the University of Michigan. When a student completed his studies in the United States, he was to return to the Philippines to become an employee of the civil service for the equal number of years spent in the United States. Control of the Philippines had been passed from Spain to the United States with the signing of the 1898 Treaty of Paris that ended the Spanish-American War; the United States paid 20 million dollars to Spain for the Philippines. For more see "Their color debars them," Spokane Daily Chronicle, 07/07/1904, p. 3; "Filipino students," Evening Bulletin, 07/07/1904, p. 4; "The Filipino students," Evening Bulletin, 09/07/1904, p. 1; and p. 929 of the "Report of the Superintendent of Filipino Students in the United States covering the Filipino Student Movement, from its inception to June 30, 1904," in the Fifth Annual Report of the Philippine Commission 1904, Part 3, by the Bureau of Insular Affairs, War Department. For more about the U.S.-Philippines relationship, see Bound to Empire, by H. W. Brands and Crucible of Empire, by J. C. Bradford.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Race Categories
Geographic Region: Philippines / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Firmatown (Woodford County, KY)
Start Year : 1877
(Also known as Fermantown.) There are two accounts of how Firmatown came to be: The first states the land was given to freemen by their former master, the second that an African American man named Furman won 18 acres in a lottery with a ten cent ticket. In either case, in 1877 there was a landowner named Furman living in Firmatown, along with R. Peters, R. Brown, and H. Smith. By the turn of the century there were 150 people in the community. An 1892 picture of the Fermantown Colored School is included in the Hifner Photo Collection at the Kentucky Historical Society website. For more see Negro Hamlets and Gentlemen Farms: a dichotomous rural settlement pattern in Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, by P. C. Smith.
Subjects: Communities, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Firmatown (Fermantown), Woodford County, Kentucky

Fitzpatrick, Jack "Jackie"
The 6'4" center was a member of the 1953 Kentucky High School Athletic League (KHSAL) championship basketball team from Dunbar High School in Somerset, KY. The team was unbeaten for the season and runners-up in the 1954 National High School Tournament, held at Tennessee State University in March of that year. The tournament matched the best African American high school teams from as many as 17 states. Fitzpatrick played college ball at Knoxville College, a historically black college in Tennessee. He continued his career by playing guard for the Harlem Globetrotters and Saperstein's Chicago Majors, an American Basketball League team, from 1961 to 1963. Jack Fitzpatrick was inducted into the Dawahares-Kentucky High School Athletic Association Hall of Fame in 2005. For more see Shadows of the past, by L. Stout; P. Kuharsky, "Black teams lived out hoop dreams," The Tennessean (newspaper), 02/24/2005, p. 1C; and the KHSAA 2005 Inductees (pdf).
Subjects: Basketball, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Somerset, Pulaski County, Kentucky

Forest Hill School (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1907
End Year : 1910
On Tuesday, September 3, 1907, the Lexington City School No.4, known as Forest Hill School, was opened on College Street, located between Georgetown Street and Newtown Street. The school was held in the five rooms of a rented cottage. The building was to be a temporary accommodation until the school board built a new school building. Forest Hill School was open to Colored children who lived in the communities of Smithtown, Yellmantown, Newtown, Peach Orchard, and Forest Hill, and those who lived on the following streets: Jefferson, West Short, Main, Second, Third, Fourth, Ballard, Todd, Georgetown, Maryland, Payne, and Henry. The school principal was D. I. Reid, assistant principal was Julia A. Watkins, and the teachers were Mary E. Buckner and Florence E. Hardin. The school was open only three years, it was abolished in 1910, and the students were to attend Russell School. In spite of the school being closed, the plans for the construction of the Forest Hill School remained in place. In 1907, Forest Hill School was one of the many schools that were opened for Colored children in Lexington during the first decade of the 1900s. The need for more schools and better education was a cause that touched the lives of African Americans throughout Lexington. In 1911, community members approached the Lexington School Board and asked that the Forest Hill School be reopened. The request was denied, but there was still the promise of a new school building. By 1915, the new school still had not been completed, and a group of prominent Colored people in Lexington wrote the Lexington School Board, and pushed for improved schools and education for Colored children, and they wanted the Forest Hill School to be completed as was planned. The school board responded by accepting bids for the construction of the school. James F. Fitzgerald was the successful bidder for the plumbing and the cost was estimated at $1,054, it was the lowest of four bids. The estimated cost of the school was $20,000. In spite of the bids, however, the Forest Hill School building was never constructed. For more see "Forest Hill School," Leader, 04/10/1910, p.24; "New school," Lexington Leader, 09/01/1907, p.18; "Supt. M. A. Cassidy," Lexington Leader, 06/20/1910, p.5; "What about Forest Hill Negro School?," Lexington Leader, 06/11/1911, p.5; and p.119 in A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas and G. C. Wright; and "Kentucky: Louisville and vicinity," Domestic Engineering and the Journal of Mechanical Contracting, July 3, 1915, v.72, issue 1, p.32 [available online at Google Books]. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Fouse, William Henry
Birth Year : 1868
Death Year : 1944
William H. Fouse was the first African American graduate of Otterbein College in Ohio. He served as principal of William Grant High School in Covington, Russell School in Lexington, and was the first principal of old Dunbar High School as well as supervisor of African American schools in Lexington, KY. He developed the Bluegrass Oratorical Association and the Bluegrass Athletic Association. He was married to Elizabeth R. Fouse. For more see Fouse Family Papers in the Kentucky Digital Library, and Who's Who of the Colored Race. A general biographical dictionary of men and women of African descent, vol. 1, edited by F. L. Mather. See also, the three files labeled "Fouse Papers (W. H. Fouse)" in the Fayette County section of Box 7 of the Kentucky Education Collection, Series I.


See photo image of William Henry Fouse and others in the Collection Inventory [bottom of page] in Explore UK.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Gaines, Clarence E., Sr. "BigHouse"
Birth Year : 1923
Death Year : 2005
Born in Paducah, KY, Clarence E. Gaines was the salutatorian of his graduating class at Lincoln High School; he went on to graduate from Morgan State University with a chemistry degree. He had been on the basketball, football, and track teams. In 1946 Gaines began coaching football and later coached basketball. In 1967 his Winston-Salem State College [now Winston-Salem State University] team won the NCAA Division II basketball championship, led by Earl "The Pearl" Monroe. It was the first time that a historically Black college had won a national championship. The Clarence Edward "Big House" Gaines, Sr. Collection is housed in the Winston-Salem State University Archives and Manuscripts. He was the son of Lester and Olivia Bolen Gaines. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1992-2006; African-American sports greats: a biographical dictionary, ed. by D. L. Porter; V. Berstein, "Big House Gaines, 81, basketball coach, dies," The New York Times, Sports Desk section, p. 19; and The Legacy of Clarence Edward "Big House" Gaines, Sr., a Digital Forsyth website.

See photo images at the Digital Forsyth website.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Basketball, Football, Track & Field, Migration East, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Gaylord, Ruth A. Burton
Birth Year : 1938
Born in Richmond, KY, Ruth Gaylord graduated from Richmond High School in 1956, Berea College in 1962, and the University of Kentucky (UK) College of Library and Information Science in 1984. She was first a library assistant for the Lexington (KY) Public Library's "InMobile," a bookmobile that provided library services to children in the Lexington inner-city areas. The service was headquartered at Black and Williams Cultural Center on Georgetown Street. While working full-time, Gaylord was also raising four children and caring for her critically ill husband, who was frequently in the hospital; Mr. Harry Gaylord passed away in 1981. Ruth completed her M.S. in Library Science in 1984, becoming the eight African American to graduate from the UK Library Science program (at the time the College of Library and Information Science) and the first to be employed at the Lexington Public Library. Gaylord said that being the first and only African American librarian at the Lexington Public Library was more of a challenge earlier in her career, but she was determined to succeed. Ruth is not bitter about the past because it was a wise decision for her to attend library school, and she loved being a librarian. She was the Assistant Manager at the Eagle Creek Branch in 2006 when she was nominated by the Lexington Public Library for the Lyman T. Johnson Award. Gaylord was selected by the University of Kentucky Libraries and the School of Library and Information Science as one of two recipients to receive the Lyman T. Johnson Award for her many years of service as a librarian and for her perseverance, dedication, and contributions to the profession. Ruth Burton Gaylord retired from the Lexington Public Library, May 2008. She is the mother of librarian Harry A. Gaylord. For more information see "Profile on Ruth Gaylord," News from Lexington Public Library, Sept./Oct., 1984, p. 3; and "Frye, Gaylord receive Torch Award," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/06/2006, Communities section, p.D2.

See photo image of Ruth B. Gaylord receiving the Lyman T. Johnson Award in 2006 (with Emmett "Buzz" Burnam and Frank X Walker), a flickr site by nonesuchkid.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Glass, Ora H. Kennedy
Birth Year : 1893
Death Year : 1971
Born in Henderson, KY, Ora H. K. Glass was president of the Henderson P.T.A. for ten years, leading the drive for funds for a high school building. She was founder and president of the Kentucky State P.T.A., vice president of the National Congress of Colored P.T.A.s, and president of the Blue Grass Auxiliary. She was the wife of Dr. James Glass of Hopkinsville, KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.

See photo image of Ora Kennedy Glass and additional information on p.17 of The Crisis, January 1943.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky

Glover, James M. "Juicy"
Birth Year : 1931
Born in Sawmill Hollow near Cumberland, KY, Glover played high school football at Benham Colored High in Benham, KY. He attended Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] where he was an All-American linebacker, graduating in 1956. He was drafted into the NFL and became its first African American center. Glover returned to Kentucky and became the assistant football coach at Kentucky State University. He was inducted into the school's Athletics Hall of Fame in 1975. For more see Shadows of the Past, by L. Stout; and C. Carlton, "Coal Country Common Bond," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/31/1997.
Subjects: Football, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Sawmill Hollow, Cumberland County, Kentucky

Goodlowtown, Goodloetown, or Goodloe (Lexington, KY)
Goodlowtown was a community in itself, established around 1871; by 1887 it had grown to include Gunntown and Bradley Street Bottoms. It was the largest Negro residential area in Lexington. The community was located on bottomland that had been used during the Civil War for mule stalls. The Colored Normal School was located in Goodloetown, with J. G. Hamilson as principal and Miss Mary E. White was a teacher, according to the Lexington City Directory, 1873 and 1874. Today Goodloe is a predominately low-income African American neighborhood partially shielded from view by Thoroughbred Park in downtown Lexington. The area includes portions of DeWeese, Race, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Streets. For more see J. Kellogg, "The Formation of Black Residential Areas in Lexington, Kentucky, 1865-1887," The Journal of Southern History, vol. 48, issue 1 (Feb. 1982), pp. 21-52; and P. Hobgood, "Constructing Community: an Exhibition of the Voices of Goodloetown," Kaleidoscope: University of Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship, vol. 4 (2006), pp. 39-44.
Subjects: Communities, Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Gordon, James and Teresa (siblings)
Start Year : 1956
End Year : 1957
September 7, 1956, Mrs. Louise Gordon attempted to register her children for classes at Clay Consolidated School in Webster County, KY, and was turned away by a crowd of 100 or more people. September 10, 1956, Mrs. Gordon again attempted to register her children for school and her car was surrounded and rocked by the crowd that included Mayor Herman Z. Clark. On September 12, 1956, James and Louise Gordon's children, James and Teresa, began attending the previously all white elementary school in Clay, KY. The children were escorted to school by the national guard, and there were hundreds of guardsmen patrolling the school grounds during the day. On the second day of classes, the Gordon children and one white child were the only students in the school, the others had walked out in protest. More than half the teachers did not report to work, and Minvil L. Clark resigned. Clark was a school teacher and he was pastor of the General Baptist Church. In response to the attempt at integrating the school, it was ruled by the Kentucky Attorney General, Jo M. Ferguson, that the Gordon children should be denied admittance to the school because the Webster County Board of Education did not have an integration plan. Ferguson ruled the same applied to Sturgis, Union County, where Negro students attempted to enter the previously all white high school on the first day of classes and were turned away by a mob. To help keep the peace, Governor Happy Chandler had activated the Kentucky National Guard and the State Police. In Clay, KY, the Adjutant General of the National Guard, Major General J. J. B. Williams, was ignoring the news of the Attorney General's decision; until he heard from the governor of Kentucky, he planned to continue to take Mrs. Gordon and her children to and from school. On September 18, 1956, based on the Kentucky Attorney General's ruling, the Union and Webster County school systems voted to officially bar Negro students from their schools. Governor Happy Chandler withdrew the National Guard troops. Louisville NAACP Lawyer, James A. Crumlin, Sr. filed suit against the Sturgis and Clay school systems in the Federal District Court: Gordon, et. al. v. Collins, et. al. and Garnette, et. al. v. Oakley, et. al. The cases were represented by Crumlin and J. Earl Dearing. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court had ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation was unconstitutional. In December of 1956, the Sturgis and Clay school systems were directed by U.S. District Judge Henry L. Brooks to submit their desegregation plans by February 4, 1957. Both school systems complied and in September of 1957, Negro students were admitted to the schools. For more see "Kentucky bars two Negroes at Clay School," St. Petersburg Times, 09/14/1956, p.1; "Some teachers join in boycott at Clay School," Louisville Courier-Journal, 09/14/1956, p. 1; Wolfford, D. L., "Resistance on the border: school desegregation in western Kentucky, 1954-1964," Ohio Valley History, vol. 4, issue 2, Summer 2004, pp. 41-62; and J. M. Trowbridge and J. Lemay, Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky Education.

See photo images of the Clay and Sturgis school inegration attempts in Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky Education by J. M. Trowbridge and J. Lemay [.pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Clay, Webster County, Kentucky / Sturgis, Union County, Kentucky

Gray, James F.
Birth Year : 1860
Death Year : 1926
Born in Versailles, KY, Gray taught school in Russellville, KY. In 1889 he was appointed Gauger by President Harrison; Gray was the first African American appointed to the position in the Collection District. In 1894 he was elected principal at Mayfield, KY, and in 1896 returned to Russellville, where he ran unsuccessfully for postmaster in 1897, and was still a school teacher in Russellville in 1900. The 1910 U.S. Federal Census shows James F. Gray as an employee with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and he was living in Louisville with his wife Sarah, their son Frank, and stepmother Hannah Gray. In 1920, James Gray operated a grocery store in Louisville, and he and his family lived on 16th Street. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Businesses, Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky / Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky / Mayfield, Graves County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Guthrie, Robert V.
Birth Year : 1930
Death Year : 2005
A few weeks after Robert V. Guthrie and his twin brother were born, the family moved to Richmond, KY, then to Lexington, KY. His father, P. L. Guthrie, was a former principal of old Dunbar High School. Robert V. Guthrie was a veteran of the Korean War. He earned his undergraduate degree at Florida A&M and then enrolled at the University of Kentucky in 1955, where he received his master's degree in psychology. He earned his doctorate at International University in 1970. He would go on to become one of the most influential African American scholars. Guthrie was the first African American psychologist to place his papers in the National Archives of American Psychology. He is author of numerous books, including Even the Rat Was White; a Historical View of Psychology. Guthrie was the first African American faculty member at San Diego Mesa College. Decades later, he returned to live in San Diego, where he is buried. For more see An 'American psychologist'; and J. Williams, "Robert V. Guthrie, 75; noted psychology educator," San Diego Union-Tribune, 11/12/2005, Obituaries column, p. B6.

See the photo image of Dr. Robert Val Guthrie at the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minorities website.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration West, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / San Diego, California

Harden, Katie V.
Born in Lexington, KY, Harden taught school in Kirksville, KY, and later in Lexington. She was an unmarried woman who had her own horse and vehicle. She purchased land on which she later built her house. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Kirksville, Madison County, Kentucky

Hathaway, James S.
Birth Year : 1862
Death Year : 1930
James S. Hathaway was born in Mt. Sterling, KY, the son of Lewis and Ann Hathaway. He was the husband of Celia Hathaway. James Hathaway was a teacher in Kentucky schools. He organized and established The Standard Printing and Publishing Company in Lexington. He taught at Berea College for ten years, then later became the 3rd president of Kentucky State Institute for Negroes [now Kentucky State University] in 1902. Hathaway had also been president of the State Association of Colored Teachers [renamed Kentucky Negro Educational Association], 1889-1890. He was the principal of Richmond High School in Richmond, KY, when he died in 1930. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson; and Office of the President Records (Kentucky State University) in the the Kentucky Digital Library.


See photo image of James S. Hathaway at the New York Public Library Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Mt. Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Berea and Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Hayes, Edythe J.
Birth Year : 1933
Death Year : 1999
Edythe J. Hayes, born in Selma, AL, began teaching in the Lexington, KY, Carver Elementary School in 1953; she later became a principal and earned promotions to the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Fayette County Schools, the first African American at that post. She was also the first African American woman on the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees. Hayes retired in 1996. The Edith J. Hayes Middle School was completed in 2004. For more see the Lexington Herald-Leader articles, J. Hewlett, "Edythe Jones Hayes 1933-1999." 02/24/99, City&Region, p. B1, and L. Deffendall, "Fayette County breaks ground on Edythe J. Hayes Middle School," 03/25/03, City&Region section, p. B3.

 Access InterviewRead about the Edythe J. Hayes oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database. 
 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Selma, Alabama / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Helm, Marlene
Birth Year : 1950
Marlene Helm was the first African American school superintendent in Kentucky, presiding over the Shelby County schools. (The exception is Jefferson County, where two African American superintendents each served three months.) Helm was acting superintendent in Fayette County, KY, in 2004. She had been the Secretary of the Education, Arts and Humanities Council under Governor Patton. For more see "Interim leader for schools is selected, Black woman is first ever to hold post in Kentucky," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/18/04, p. A1; and "Governor appoints two Cabinet Secretaries," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/11/99 p. B1.

See photo image and additional information about Marlene Helm at the UK Alumni Association website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Shelby County, Kentucky

Henderson Colored Branch Library (Henderson County, KY)
Start Year : 1904
End Year : 1954
In 1904, Henderson Carnegie Public Library built the first library structure for African Americans in the United States. The library, a room built onto the back of the Eighth Street Colored School, held 100 books on the seven shelves constructed by J. B. Williams and H. J. Renn. The library was built without the permission of the Carnegie Corporation, resulting in the Henderson Public Library being put on the Carnegie default list. The branch was merged into the main library in 1954. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Colored Public Libraries in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky

Holland, Mary Ford
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1999
Born in Trigg County, KY, Holland was the first African American student at Murray State University. She received her first teaching certificate from West Kentucky Industrial School [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College], where she graduated in 1935. She taught at the segregated, one room school in Lyon County, KY. Holland also attended Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] part-time, working toward a bachelor's degree; in 1955, at the age of 48, she transferred to Murray State University, where she was escorted by the police and the university president to her classes. She graduated in 1961. It would be a few years before she would teach at an integrated school. For more see the Kentucky Historical Marker Database: Desegregation of Murray State College (Marker Number 2191).
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentucky / Lyon County, Kentucky / Murray, Calloway County, Kentucky

Hopkinsville Male and Female College
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1915
P. T. Frazer was the principal of the school until it closed some time around 1915 due to a lawsuit between Frazer and the school trustees. The school, owned by Baptist associations, had six teachers. Located on five acres of land, it was an elementary and high school that could house up to 50 boarders. When the school closed, there was an 11th grade high school available to Colored students in Hopkinsville, KY, that was supported by the city. For more see p.277 of Negro Education, by T. J. Jones [available online at Google Book Search]; and Annual catalogue of the Hopkinsville M. & F. College, Hopkinsville, Kentucky. For the school's continuation see the entry Hopkinsville College of the Bible. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Howard, James
Birth Year : 1942
James Howard was born in Sturgis, KY. When he was 13 years old, he and other students attempted to integrate the all-white Sturgis High School, which was only blocks from his home. African American students were being bussed 11 miles away to Dunbar, an African American school in Morganfield, KY. The student's campaign was picked up by the international media when protesters blocked the streets, burned a cross, and harassed Blacks in the community. The following year a judicial order forced the school to integrate. For more view the James Howard interview in the Kentucky Historical Society, Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky, Oral History Project; and number 109 James Howard biography and video at KET Living the Story.


Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Sturgis and Morganfield, Union County, Kentucky

Howard School / Normal Institute / Chandler Normal School / Webster Hall (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1923
At the end of the Civil War, the first schools for Negro children in Lexington, KY, were located in the churches: First Baptist Church, Pleasant Green Baptist Church, Main Street Baptist Church, Asbury CME Church, and Christian Church. Howard School opened in 1866 with an enrollment of 500 students and three Negro teachers. The school classes were held in the building called Ladies Hall, located on Church Street in Lexington, KY. It was a free school for the children who could not afford the tuition of a private school. The facility had been purchased from the money that was accumulated after a year of fund raising by Negro women in Lexington, KY. Howard School was named after Freedmen's Bureau director O. O. Howard. The school was supported by the Freedmen's Bureau, the American Missionary Association (AMA), and the Lexington Negro Public School Fund. AMA took over the school in 1866 and added six white teachers from the North. Two years later, the enrollment had increased to 900 students, and $540 was received from the public school fund to pay the teachers' wages. In 1870, the Freedmen's Bureau assisted in the funding for a new building located on Corral Street. Several other Negro schools were consolidated into Howard School, and it became the largest school in the region for Negro students. By 1874, the name of the school had changed to Normal Institute, and again public funding was used for a portion of the teachers' wages. A year later, AMA ceased supporting the school and the city of Lexington operated the facility as a public school. At some point prior to 1888, the school was closed. AMA had the building repaired and reopened the school, and added industrial classes. Soon the enrollment exceeded the capacity of the building. Mrs. Phebe Chandler, a philanthropist from the North, donated funding for the purchase of land away from the city, and for the construction of a new school building. The new school was named Chandler Normal School, it opened in 1890 on four acres of land on Georgetown Road. Webster Hall, a home for teachers and the principal was built around 1914, it was designed by African American architect Vertner W. Tandy Sr. The Chandler Normal School closed in 1923, but the building remained and an auditorium was added in 1960. Webster Hall was used as a parsonage for the National Temple of the House of God, at 548 Georgetown Street. In 1980, both the Chandler Normal School and Webster Hall were placed on the National Register of Historic Places [#80001509]. The property around Chandler Normal School and Webster Hall was used for the building of Lincoln Terrace Housing Projects. For more see "Normal Institute, Lexington, Kentucky" on pages 43-44 in History of the American Missionary Association by the American Missionary Association [available at Google Books]; A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas; and "Lexington: Chandler Normal School Building - Webster Hall" in Black Heritage Sites, by N. C. Curtis. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. See Miss Apple: letters of a Maine Teacher in Kentucky, by E. W. Cunningham, for information about the white teachers from Maine who taught at the Chandler Normal School.

See photo image of Webster Hall c.1920 at the kentuckyexplorer.com website.



See photo image of Chandler Normal School c.1900, Lexington, KY, at the Amistad Research Center American Missionary Association website at the Louisiana Digital Library.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentuckky

Hunter, Charles "Charlie"
Birth Year : 1946
Born in Glasgow, KY, Hunter played basketball at Ralph Bunche High School in Glasgow, where he was the all-time leading scorer. Hunter was the first African American basketball player recruited by the University of Louisville, but he opted to play at Oklahoma City University. During his college career, Hunter scored 1,319 points and pulled down 584 rebounds; the team went to the NCAA Tournament four consecutive years. Hunter and his high school teammate Jerry Lee Wells were the first two African American basketball players at Oklahoma City University. Hunter was inducted into the school's Hall of Fame in 1997. In 1966, Hunter was chosen by the Boston Celtics in the sixth round of the NBA draft, but his career was cut short due to an ankle injury. He returned to Kentucky and is presently the academic advisor of the Western Kentucky University branch in Glasgow, KY. For more see Shadows of the Past, by L. Stout; M. Evans "OCU Women State's Surprise Team 7-0, Broncos Off to Best Start Since 1982-83 Season," Daily Oklahoman, 12/01/1997; and N. Haney "Spirit of '66 alive and well; Glory Road' brings back memories for local duo," Daily News (Bowling Green, KY), 01/16/2006.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky

Integration at Gainesville Elementary (Hopkinsville, KY)
Start Year : 1965
When 27 year old Ronald I. Johnson became principal of the African American Gainesville Elementary School in 1965, it was thought to be the first integration of school administrative personnel in Hopkinsville, KY. Johnson had been a basketball coach for five years prior to becoming principal. For more see "White basketball coach heads Ky. Negro school," Jet, vol. 28, issue 15 (07/22/1965), p. 55. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Iroquois Park (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1924
In 1924 two African American teachers, Margaret Taylor and Naomi Anthony, took their students to Iroquois Park for an outing. As they were leaving, the security guards and a group of whites informed the teachers that the park was for whites only. The teachers said that they were not aware of the restriction and would look into the matter. A scuffle of sorts occurred; after the teachers and students were roughly handled, it was termed a near riot, and the teachers were arrested. After several hours the women were taken to the downtown police station where a large crowd of African Americans had gathered. African American leaders and white city leaders debated the issues. The outcome -- the teachers were reprimanded by the school board, the courts fined Naomi Anthony $10 for attacking a park guard, and the Board of Park Commissioners adopted a resolution of segregation in the Louisville public parks. For more see Life Behind a Veil, by G. Wright.
Subjects: Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Jackson, Brenda
From Shelbyville, KY, Brenda Jackson is the first African American woman to lead the Kentucky School Board Association (KSBA), named to the post at the 2005 Annual KSBA Conference; her term ran through February 2007. Her predecessor, John Smith, was the first African American to be president of KSBA. Brenda Jackson, a graduate of Kentucky State University, is a retired employee from state government; for 28 of the 30 years, she was a judicial auditor for the Administrative Office of the Courts. She is a member of the Shelby County Public School Board. For more see T. Miller, "Jackson first African American woman to lead state board group," The Sentinel-News, 06/21/05.

See photo image of Brenda Jackson (about midway down the page) at Shelby County Public Schools website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky

Jackson, Dennis M.
Birth Year : 1942
Dennis M. Jackson is from Murray, KY. In 1960 he was the first African American varsity athlete at Murray State University, where he played halfback for the football team and also ran track. His picture was included in the 1963 Ohio Valley Conference (OVC) Track Champions photograph. He was a member of the 440 relay team, which tied an OVC record. Jackson graduated from Murray with his B.A. in physical education in 1965 and later earned his M.A. in secondary education administration. Jackson was not only an outstanding athlete in college; he had also been outstanding at Douglass High School and was inducted into the Kentucky High School Athletic Hall of Fame in 1999. In 2007, he was inducted into the Murray State Athletics Hall of Fame. Jackson was a part-time personnel director of the Paducah public schools; he retired from the school system in 2005. Dennis M. Jackson serves as a member of the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education, his term will end in 2015. For more see L. L. Wright, "Jackson only wanted to play," Kentucky Post, 01/27/2007, Sports section, p. B7. Additional information provided by Murray State University Library.

See photo image and additional information on Dennis M. Jackson at the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education website.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Education and Educators, Football, Track & Field, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Murray, Calloway County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Jackson, James W. (police)
Birth Year : 1913
Death Year : 2006
Jackson was born in Arkansas and grew up in Paducah, KY. After graduating from Lincoln High School in 1933, he attended West Kentucky Industrial College [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College]. During World War II, he was a member of the 9th Cavalry and a mounted soldier in the 2nd Cavalry, deployed in Italy. In 1960, Jackson joined the Kansas City Police Department, the third African American reserve officer on the force; he retired in 1974. He also worked at the post office and retired from there in 1992 after 50 years of employment. For more see "James Warren Jackson," Kansas City Star, 02/10/2006, Obituary section, p. B4.
Subjects: Migration West, Military & Veterans, Corrections and Police, Postal Service, Migration East, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Arkansas / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Kansas City, Missouri

Jones, Charles Edward
Birth Year : 1879
Death Year : 1947
Charles E. Jones was the owner of Jones Funeral Home in Covington, KY, where he was born. He was the son of E. I. and Amanda Jones. He assisted in the push to get Lincoln-Grant High School built; the school auditorium was named in his honor. Jones was also an active church member, a former president of the Covington NAACP Branch. He was a graduate of the Cincinnati College of Embalming. Jones was a 32nd Degree Mason, and served as Deputy Grand Commander of the State of Kentucky Masons, and was the Past Royal Grand Patron of Eastern Star of Kentucky. He was an Oddfellow, belonged to the Knights of Pythias, the Elks, Mosaics and True Reformer, and the United Brothers of Friendship. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; Many tried, few defeated William Grant in '50s, '60s, The Cincinnati Post, 02/23/1998; J. Reis, "Jones led church, social causes," The Kentucky Post, 02/02/2004; and Cincinnati's Colored Citizens by W. P. Dabney.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Businesses, Civic Leaders, Religion & Church Work, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky

Jones, Della M. Lewis
Birth Year : 1903
Death Year : 2009
Della M. Lewis Jones was the oldest African American librarian in Kentucky, she was also the oldest alumna of Kentucky State University and the oldest resident in Grant Count, KY. Jones was a 1957 graduate of Kentucky State University and she received a doctor of humane honorary letters degree from the school in May of 2009. She had earlier attended Lincoln Institute and her first teaching position was in Wayne County, KY. The following year she took a teaching job in Boone County. Jones later taught at a segregated school in New Liberty and other schools in Kentucky. After the schools of Kentucky were integrated, Jones became librarian of the Owen County High School. In recognition of her longevity and educational contributions, May 14 was proclaimed Della Jones Day in Williamstown, KY. She was the last surviving member of the Ogg's Chapel C. M. E. Church in Williamstown, KY. Della Jones was the daughter of Richard and Sarah E. Jackson Lewis. She was the wife of the late Bradley Jones (1902-1969) who was a barber in the 1930s when the couple lived on the Northside of Cynthiana Street in Williamstown, according to the U.S. Federal Census. They had lived in the home since 1921. Della Jones was the great aunt of Kentucky House Member Reginald Meeks. For more see J. Baker-Nantz, "Call her Dr. Jones," Grant County News, 05/21/09, p.21; Della Jones obituary at stanleyfuneralhome.com; and S. Hopkins, "Kentucky State's oldest grad dies at 106," Lexington Herald Leader, 07/17/2009, p.B5.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Williamstown, Grant County, Kentucky

Keene Industrial Institute (Keene, KY) / Beattyville Industrial Institute (Beattyville, KY) / W. H. Parker
Start Year : 1900
The Keene Industrial Institute was located in Keene, Jessamine County, Kentucky. The school was established by W. H. Parker, November 12, 1900, and the first session was held from January-May, 1901. Parker, from Alabama, was a graduate of State University in Louisville [later Simmons University]. He came to Keene in 1899 to build a school on the order of Tuskegee Institute. Keene Industrial Institute was established with donations; W. H. Parker traveled throughout Kentucky and to northern states attempting to raise additional funds. In November, 1901, the school was visited by Virginia Dox from Boston. It was an impromptu visit that was encouraged by Dr. W. G. Frost, President of Berea College. Virginia Dox had raised money for schools in the West and in Mexico. She encouraged W. H. Parker to continue his efforts and they would pay off in the long run. W. H. Parker received small donations from the community and larger donations from persons in nearby counties. The girls dormitory was donated by A. J. Alexander of Woodburn, Spring Station, KY. Money for a new building had been donated by Senator J. M. Thomas of Bourbon County. Students were charged $5 per month for board and tuition. The shoe-making department for boys was headed by W. H. Cornell from Alabama, and it was thought to be the first time in Kentucky that a Colored institution participated in the shoe sales market. The school also offered sewing and cooking for the girls. In 1902, some equipment had been gathered for a blacksmith department. The school was then referred to as a normal and industrial institute. The school staff members were W. H. Parker; W. R. Dudley; Mrs. Ellsa Jones, matron; Horace D. Slatter, English and normal; J. E. Bookware, shoe-making; Mrs. Eliza Gaines, sewing; Miss Hannah M. Webster, English and normal; Rev. J. H. Brooks, Chaplain, history, Bible and English. After struggling year after year to keep Keene Industrial Institute afloat, it was announced in March 1903 that the school would be moved to Beattyville, KY, during the summer. The new school was located on five acres of land donated by Judge G. W. Gourley of Lexington. An adjoining 45 acres was available for lease, and if the school proved to be successful for Lee County, then the 45 acres could be purchased by the school trustees. The leased land was used as a farm. Boys who could not pay their board and tuition could work off their fees at the farm. The instruction for boys included carpentry and blacksmithing, and they could make additional money cutting cord wood and getting cross ties for railroad contractors. Girls who could not pay their tuition and board outright could work off their fees in the laundry or by sewing and cooking at the school. Mrs. Lizzie Johnson, from Paducah, KY, was over the Laundry Department and the primary grades. Miss Mamie L. Brooks, from Paducah, was the music instructor. Mrs. W. H. Parker taught mathematics and grammar. The new school building opened in the fall of 1903. The motto was "Obedience is our watchword." Miss Alice Brownlow, a musician from Mobile, Alabama, and sister to Mrs. W. H. Parker, arrived in Beattyville in November, 1903 to take part in the school's Industrial Congress celebration. There were 30 students at the school, all boys and men from Kentucky and several other states, aged 11 to 28. In September, 1904, W. H. Parker represented the school during the Mount Pleasant Association Messengers and Ministers Meeting held in Lexington, KY. W. H. Parker was also a politician, serving as an alternate-at-large for Beattyville for the Kentucky Delegation to the 1904 Republican National Convention in Chicago, where Theodore Roosevelt was nominated as Presidential candidate and Charles W. Fairbanks the Vice-Presidential candidate. For more see "Industrial Institute," Lexington Leader, 04/07/1901, p. 2; "The First Year," Lexington Leader, 05/17/1901, p. 4; "Keene Industrial Institute Notes," 08/14/1901, p. 7; "Keene Institute," Lexington Leader, 08/22/1901, p. 4; "Keene," Lexington Leader, 10/12/1902, p. 2; "Keene Institute," 11/14/1901, p. 2; "Parker's Plan," 12/26/1901, p. 2; "Splendid work," Lexington Leader, 03/23/1902, p. 4; "Keene School," Lexington Leader, 04/19/1903, p. 1; "K. N and I. I. Notes," The American Baptist, 11/13/1903, p. 3; "Mount Pleasant Association," The American Baptist, 09/23/1904, p. 3; and "Lee County. Beattyville." Citizen, 11/05/1903, p. 8. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Blacksmiths, Carpenters, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Keene, Jessamine County, Kentucky / Beattyville, Lee County, Kentucky / Alabama

Kendall, Joseph N.
Birth Year : 1909
Death Year : 1965
Kendall was born in Owensboro, KY. In July 2007, he became the first Kentucky State University inductee into the College Football Hall of Fame, located in South Bend, IN. Kendall was considered one of the greatest passers in college football and a good all around player. He not only played quarterback, but was a running back, punted with both feet, and played on defense. In 1934, he led Kentucky State University to a national black college football championship and an undefeated season. In 1935, he led the team to an Orange Blossom Classic victory. The Pittsburgh Courier named Kendall a First Team All-America three times between 1934-36. He was inducted into the Kentucky State Athletics Hall of Fame in 1975. During Kendall's college football career, Kentucky State had a 29-7-3 record. He was selected for the African American All-Star team that played against the Chicago Bears in 1935; it was the first time that an African American team played against an NFL team. Kendall was also a good baseball and basketball player. He served in the Army for two years, then graduated from Kentucky State in 1938. His original higher education plan had been to attend Paducah to study culinary arts, but once he was seen playing football, he was encouraged to enroll and play for Kentucky State. After college, he was hired to teach and coach at the African American Rosenwald High School in Harlan, KY, and in 1946 became principal of the school. In 1948, he returned to Owensboro to become the football coach at the school he had graduated from, Western High School. The Kendall-Perkins Park in Owensboro is named in honor of Joseph N. Kendall and Joseph Perkins. For more see L. Vance, "College football hall of fame welcomes 3 African-American QBs," at blackathlete.net; S. Hagerman, "One of the finest: Late Western High standout to be inducted into College Football Hall of Fame," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 07/16/2007, section C, p.1; and contact CESKAA.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Football, Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Harlan, Harlan County, Kentucky

Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal
Start Year : 1916
End Year : 1952
The publication is also known as KNEA Journal and informally known as the Negro or Black Education Journal. The journal covers African American education in Kentucky prior to integration. Full-text access is available to the public - from the 1916 Proceedings through vol. 23 (1952) - via the Kentucky Digital Library - Journals. Paper copies of the journal issues are also available at CESKAA, Kentucky State Univesity. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA)
Start Year : 1877
End Year : 1956
The organization was formed when State Superintendent of Public Instruction H. A. Henderson gathered 45 Negro educators and trustees to form the State Association of Colored Teachers. In 1913 it was renamed the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA). This representative body of Kentucky's Negro educators was an influential lobbying group for education issues. Annual conferences were held in Louisville, KY. In response to desegregation, the organization was renamed the Kentucky Teachers Association, though it was still referred to in general conversation as KNEA. In 1956, KNEA was subsumed into the formerly all white Kentucky Education Association. KNEA was the predecessor to present day organizations such as the Kentucky Association of Blacks in Higher Education. For more see The Kentucky Negro Education Association, 1877-1946 by H. C. Russell, Sr.; and the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal [available full-text via the Kentucky Digital Library and in paper at Kentucky State University Library]. For information on the prior education organization see Kentucky State Colored Educational Convention. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kentucky State Colored Educational Convention
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1877
African Americans from Kentucky and neighboring states would come together at a number of meetings to plan for the educational future of the race. A convention had been held in 1868 in Owensboro, KY, where Marshall W. Taylor was named president. The 1869 convention was held in Louisville, KY, at Benson's Theater. Seven hundred delegates were in attendance with Reverend H. J. Young of Louisville serving as convention president. A convention was held in Fayette County in 1875, led by African American ministers and Reverend E. H. Fairchild, President of Berea College. The purpose of these meetings was not only to address educational needs but also to coordinate the issues and present them to the Kentucky Legislature to encourage better funding for Negro schools and teachers. The result was the development of the state-recognized Colored Teachers' State Association and the State Colored Educational Conventions, the first of which was held in Frankfort, KY, in 1877. The organization name would later become the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, and from 1916 -1929, the conventions would be recorded in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. For more see Kentucky State Colored Educational Convention, held at Benson's Theater, Louisville, Ky., July 14, 1869; A History of Blacks in Kentucky: from slavery to segregation, 1760-1891, by M. B. Lucas; Proceedings of the State Colored Educational Convention held at Frankfort, Kentucky, August 22, 1877; and Proceedings of the State Colored Educational Convention (1800s). See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Knight, Mattye Breckinridge Guy
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 1986
Knight, a teacher, civic and community leader, and musician, is remembered for leading the drive to get new homes to replace those lost in the mudslide at Sanctified Hill in Cumberland, KY. Knight had also lost her home in the slide. She received a number of awards for her leadership, including a HUD award in 1979. Knight taught for more than 30 years in Franklin County, Lebanon, and Harlan County. She taught English, history and music in the public schools and was the minister of music, director of education, and a Sunday school teacher at her church. Knight also founded the Greater Harlan County Community Center. She was a graduate of Mayo-Underwood High School and Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], both in Frankfort, and Hampton Institute [now Hampton University] in Virginia. For more see J. Hewlett, "Mattye Knight Dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/28/1986, Obituaries, p. B15. Also see the entry Sanctified Hill, Cumberland, KY.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Communities, Education and Educators, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Sunday School, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Cumberland, Harlan County, Kentucky

Lexington's Colored Orphan Industrial Home
Start Year : 1892
End Year : 1988
The Colored Orphan Home was incorporated with E. Belle Mitchell Jackson as president; Emma O.Warfield, vice president; Ida W. Bate [wife of John W. Bate] secretary, Priscilla Lacey, treasurer, and 11 other women members of the Ladies Orphans Home Society. Captain Robert H. Fitzhugh, who was white, was a professional philanthropist for the home. Support came from bequests, fund raising, and donations. The home was located on Georgetown Pike [Georgetown Street] in Lexington, KY. The board members served as matrons of the home and donated food and supplies. The home took in orphaned and abandoned children, a few elderly women, and half orphans (children with one parent). The parent of a half orphan was charged for the child's board at the home. Board members determined when a child would be returned to its parents, and there were a few adoptions and foster care placements, but the goal was to educate the children and teach them an industrial trade in preparation for adulthood. In addition to classwork, house chores, and gardening, the children were taught kitchen duties, cooking, carpentry, chair-caning, laundry, sewing - the children made all of the clothes and linen at the home, and did shoe-making and repairs - shoes were made for the children and also sold to the community. The home continued in operation until 1988 when it became the Robert H. Williams Cultural Center. For more see Lexington's Colored Orphan Industrial Home: building for the future, by L. F. Byars. See also Colored Orphan Industrial Home Records, 1892-1979 at the University of Kentucky Libraries.

    See the photo images of the Colored Orphan's & Industrial Home at the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Orphans and Orphanages in Kentucky, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Lincoln Institute (Lincoln Ridge, KY)
Start Year : 1912
End Year : 1966
The Lincoln Institute was formed in response to the 1904 Day Law, which was upheld by the 1908 Supreme Court decision forbidding the education of whites and blacks in the same Kentucky school. The law was aimed at Berea College, which had been integrated since 1863. The Lincoln Foundation was founded in 1910; Lincoln Institute opened in 1912 in Shelby County, KY. It offered vocational instruction, unlike the classical education that had been offered at Berea. The first African American president was Dr. Whitney M. Young, Sr.; he led Lincoln Institute for over 40 years as it became a prominent boarding school for African American children. The campus is presently leased by the federal government for the Whitney M. Young, Jr. Job Corps Center. For more see the Lincoln Foundation history page; G. C. Wright, "The founding of Lincoln Institute," Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 49, issue 1 (1975), pp. 57-70; and "The Faith Plan: a black institution grows during the Depression," Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 51, issue 4 (1977), pp. 336-349. Primary sources are available at Kentucky State University Library. See Lincoln Institute oral history collection 2003-2008, video interviews of 86 individuals conducted by Dr. Andrew Baskin, Associate Professor of General and Black Studies at Berea College. The subjects are former Lincoln Institute students and some of the employees and their children. The recordings are available at Berea College Special Collections and Archives, where you will also find additional information on the history of Berea College.  See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.

See 1918 photo image of Lincoln Institute students and faculty at University of Kentucky College of Education website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lincoln Ridge, Shelby County, Kentucky

Little, Charles F., Jr.
Birth Year : 1949
Charles F. Little, Jr. was born in Memphis, TN. He graduated from Kentucky State University with a B.S. in Music Education, then earned his M.S. in Secondary Education at the University of Kentucky. He was a band director in the Fayette County Public Schools for 30 years and taught music to more than 4,500 students from 1971 to 2001. He was the band director/keyboard instructor at the Academy of Lexington, teaching 120 students classroom piano from 2001 to 2005. The Lexington Traditional Magnet School Band Room was named in his honor in 2001. To date, he has also provided private piano lessons to 175 students and organ lessons to five students of all ages in Fayette County and eight surrounding counties. He has been the musical director, pianist, and coordinator, of hundreds of programs, productions, and performances dating back to the 1960s. Most recently Charles Little was the musical director of the off-Broadway production of Crowns, Actors Guild of Lexington, Kentucky, 2005-2006. He has performed on programs with Rev. Jeremiah Wright, Rev. James Cleveland, Larnelle Harris, the Rev. Billy Graham (Subsidiary) Crusade, Dr. Bobby Jones and New Life, and Miss Albertina Walker. Charles Little has also received a number of awards, including the Teachers Who Made a Difference Award from the College of Education at the University of Kentucky in 2003. He is the author of Praise Him with the Gospel: Black gospel piano music arrangements, book 1 & 2, with accompanying sound cassettes. He was the developer and editor of Orchestrating the Perfect Meal, a cookbook published in 2000. Charles Little has recorded with the United Voices of Lexington on "Genesis" and the Wesley United Voices on "We've Come to Praise Him"; provided piano accompaniment on the Lexington musical "Madame Belle Brezing"; and performed on many other recordings. For more information see M. Davis, "Teacher's not changing his tune," Lexington Herald Leader, 03/23/03, City/Region section, B, p. 1; S. Dobbins, "Charles F. Little, Jr.: music master of all," Tri-State Defender, 03/10/1999, p.2B; and the Resume of Charles F. Little, Jr.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Memphis, Tennessee / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Little Georgetown (Fayette County, KY)
Located on Parkers Mill Road in Fayette County, one version of the community's beginning states that a George Waltz gave land to ex-slaves following the Civil War. It has been debated as to whether the community was named after George Waltz or after a freeman named George Washington who owned a portion of the land and divided it into lots in 1877. At that time, the community had three other African American land owners: F. Smith, J. Edmunds, and M. Overstreet. The word "Little" was added to the name of the community to differentiate it from the city of Georgetown, KY. Over the years, Little Georgetown grew to include 90 residents on 34 acres. The expansion of the Lexington Bluegrass Airport nearly wiped out the community. A picture of the Little Georgetown Colored School, dated 1929, is available in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images. For more see Negro Hamlets and Gentlemen Farms: a dichotomous rural settlement pattern in Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, by P. C. Smith; Historical Communities Near Lexington, a BCTC website; and J. Duke, "Rural Fayette communities cling to life of yesterday," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/11/1985, Main News section, p. A1.


Subjects: Communities, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Little Georgetown, Fayette County, Kentucky

Livingston, Valinda E. Lewis
Birth Year : 1937
Born in Lexington, KY, Valinda E. Lewis Livingston was an educator in the Lexington schools for 37 years. She is a graduate of old Dunbar High School and one of the top academic achievers in the school's history. She graduated from Kentucky State University (KSU) with a bachelor's degree in elementary education, then earned a master's degree in elementary education from the University of Kentucky and principalship and supervision certificates from Eastern Kentucky University. Her teaching career began at Booker T. Washington Elementary School prior to the full integration of the Lexington city school system. She taught at two other elementary schools before being named head principal of Russell Elementary. Prior to her retirement, Livingston was a district administrator for six years, overseeing the students' at-risk programs. Her post-retirement career includes serving as a member of the Board of Examiners of Kentucky's Education Professional Standards Board, chair of the Board of Regents at Kentucky State University, President of the Baptist Women State Education Convention, vice-president of the Lexington Chapter of the KSU National Alumni Association, and Sunday School Superintendent and Music Committee Chair at Shiloh Baptist Church in Lexington, KY. Livingston is also a professional singer, a soprano with the Lexington Singers. She is also a key resource for historical researchers looking to make a connection to past events in the Lexington African American community with present day people. The Valinda E. Livingston Endowed Student Scholarship for Teacher Education Majors has been established at Kentucky State University. For more see "Retired educator leaves legacy for future educators," Onward and Upward, Fall - Summer 2005 - 2006, p. 3.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Historians, Kentucky African American Churches, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Sunday School
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Louisville Central High School/Central High School Magnet Career Academy
Previously known as Louisville Colored High School, the school opened in 1882 after leaders of the Louisville, KY, African American community appealed to the Louisville Board of Education for a high school for African Americans. The school was initially located at the corner of Sixth and Kentucky Streets, with J. M. Maxwell serving as the principal and C. W. Houser the only teacher. Funding initially came from African American taxes only. In 1952 the school was moved to the new Central High School building on Twelfth and Chestnut Streets. Career courses were part of the educational offerings. Central was the largest and most progressive high school in the state for African Americans; there were 1,400 students and 57 faculty members. Today, Central High School Magnet Career Academy, a four-year accredited comprehensive high school that offers a pre-college curriculum, is located at 1130 W. Chestnut Street in Louisville. For more see Central High School Magnet Career Academy website; This is Central High School (1953), by Central High School; and A history of Louisville Central High School, 1882-1982, by T. C. Tilford-Weathers. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Louisville Free Kindergarten Association, Colored Normal Department
Start Year : 1889
End Year : 1904
One of the first kindergartens for colored children in Kentucky was established in Louisville in 1889, along with a training class for Negro kindergarten teachers. During the 1896-97 school term, one of the colored kindergartens was located within the Industrial School of Know Mission for Colored Children, located at 1122 Madison Street [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1896-1897, p.765]. Another was on the corner of Hancock and Laurel Streets in 1901 [source: "A colored kindergarten will open...," Courier-Journal, 12/16/1901, p.6], and the Eastern Colored Kindergarten was located in the Eastern School [source: "School board badly mixed," Courier-Journal, 04/06/1909, p.3]. There were as many as 10 colored kindergartens in the city, and there was an announcement of the graduates from the Colored Normal Department of the Louisville Free Kindegarten Association. But by November of 1904, there were reports that the Colored Normal Department no longer existed; "Prof. Mark explained that the classes in the colored kindergartens are so large that the teachers can accomplish nothing, there being no longer a normal kindergarten teachers class to draw from." --[source: "Report defeated" in column "Last night: 01 present school board develops squabble," Courier-Journal, 11/08/1904 p.5]. Louisville, KY, was a leader in the Kindergarten Movement in the United States. The movement had begun in German communities and was meant to Americanize immigrant children. One of the first ten kindergartens established by William Hailman was at a German-English school in 1865 in Louisville, the school was located at the corner of Second and Gray Streets. The long term work on the training of kindergarten teachers began in 1887 at the Holcombe Mission on Jefferson Street, which was also the year the Louisville Free Kindergarten Association was incorporated. For more see Louisville Free Kindergarten, Reports, at the University of Louisville Libraries; see the article "Kindergarten Movement" by M. A. Fowlkes in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, pp.483-484; the flyer "Louisville Free Kindergarten Association Announces the Graduation in its Colored Normal Department...Miss Patty Smith Hill, Supt., Louisville Free Kindergarten Association, 1227 4th Avenue, Louisville, KY." The flyer is in the file "Kindergartens" within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 18, 0000UA129, at the University of Kentucky Special Collections. See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Louisville.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Lower Street (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1844
The area was platted in 1844, and the least expensive lots were sold to African Americans following the end of the Civil War. The neighborhood was located on the western side of Lexington, backed by railroad tracks [off present day Broadway near the railroad overpass]. The Lower Street School, one of the three main schools for African Americans, was in place by 1888. The street name was changed in 2004 from Lower Street to Patterson Street. Information for this entry comes from J. Kellogg, "The Formation of Black Residential Areas in Lexington, Kentucky, 1865-1887," The Journal of Southern History, vol. 48, issue 1 (Feb. 1982), pp. 21-52; "Ask us - answers to your burning questions," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/01/2004, Communities section, p. D1; and D. Wilkinson, "Achievement gap inseparable from the history of inequality from slavery on, African Americans have faced uphill struggle for education," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/26/2001, Opinions and Ideas section, p. J1.
Subjects: Communities, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Mack, Essie Dortch
Birth Year : 1883
Death Year : 1940
Essie D. Mack assisted with the organization of the first African American kindergarten at Phillis Wheatley Colored School in Louisville, KY. She was president of the Kentucky Colored Parent-Teacher Association for nine years and president of the National Congress of Colored Parent-Teachers Associations for two terms. Essie D. Mack was the wife of Oliver P. Mack (1881-1941). She was the daughter of John and Emma Talbert Mack [source: Kentucky Death Certificate file no.19240]. Her funeral was handled by A. D. Porter and Sons, and she was buried in the Louisville Cemetery. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and "KY. woman heads P.-T.A. Congress," Baltimore Afro-American, 08/07/1937, p.12. 
 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Maddoxtown (Fayette County, KY)
Start Year : 1871
The unofficial date for the community's beginning has been given as 1871, though the Maddoxtown Baptist Church was established in 1867, so the community may very well have been established prior to 1871. Maddoxtown is named for Samuel Maddox, a landowner who sold his subdivided land of 1 1/2 - 2 acre lots to African Americans. The community is located along Huffman Mill Pike in Fayette County. By 1877 seven African American families populated the community, and over time larger lots were sold and the community continued to grow. Mattie and George Clay were two of the first homeowners. Nearly 100 people lived in the area in the early 1900s, but many have left the rural community for the city. A picture of the new Maddoxtown Colored School, dated 1929, along with several other pictures of the school and students, are available in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images. For more see M. Davis, "Settlement tales part of Fayette heritage," Lexington Herald-Leader, 10/10/1999; Negro Hamlets and Gentlemen Farms: a dichotomous rural settlement pattern in Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, by P. C. Smith; and R. Rochelle, "Land of the free," Lexington Herald-Leader, 05/09/2000.


Subjects: Communities, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Maddoxtown, Fayette County, Kentucky

Marrs, Elijah P.
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1910
Elijah P. Marrs wrote an autobiography of his life as a slave in Shelby County - Life and History of the Rev. Elijah P. Marrs [available on the University of North Carolina University Library's Documenting the American South website]. He was the son of Andrew Marrs, who was free, and Frances Marrs, who was a slave, both from Virginia. Marrs, who learned to read and write, left the plantation to become a Union solider. After the war, he was founder of several churches and the first African American school teacher in Simpsonville. Marrs also taught at the school in Lagrange , New Castle, and the school held in a church in Braxton [Bracktown] in Lexington, KY. Elijah and his brother, J. C. Marrs, are credited as co-founders of Simmons University. After four years, Elijah Marrs sold his interest in the development of the school in 1874. While in Lagrange, KY, Elijah Marrs was the first African American to become president of the Republican Club of Oldham County, and he established the first colored agriculture and mechanical fair for the Simpson and Logan Counties  [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116 & p.134]. In New Castle, KY, he established the Loyal League for the Protection of Negroes.  For more see Notable Black American Men, by J. C. Smith; and Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1879-1930, by L. H. Williams.

See photo image of Elijah P. Marrs at Find a Grave.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Simpsonville, Shelby County, Kentucky / Virginia / Bracktown [Braxton], Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Martin, Marion A.
Birth Year : 1904
Death Year : 1990
Born in Illinois, Martin taught at Jackson Junior High School in Louisville, KY, from 1933-1962. He was the only African American teacher at Ahrens Night School and the first at Du Pont-Manual High School in 1962. Martin was named Teacher of the Year in 1963. He served for 25 years on the Louisville City Textbook Commission. Marion A. Martin was the son of Mary and Alexander Martin. For more see Profiles of Contemporary Black Achievers of Kentucky, by J. B. Horton.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration South, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Illinois / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Mason, Jesse Edward
Birth Year : 1919
Death Year : 2002
Born in Nicholasville, KY, Mason attended Kentucky State University and was a World War II veteran. He was the first African American licensed to sell used cars in Kentucky, operating his own business for 32 years. In 1965, Mason also organized the first American Little League Baseball Club, the Slugger Dodgers of Jessamine County. That same year, Mason was a leader in the integration of the Jessamine County public schools. In the 1990s, he led the movement to have the newly built middle school named Rosenwald-Dunbar, in honor of the African American high school that had closed following integration. For more see "February is Black History Month," The Jessamine Journal, 02/23/2006, pp. A1 & A8.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Automobile Dealerships and Factories, Baseball, Businesses, Civic Leaders, Military & Veterans, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Nicholasville, Jessamine County, Kentucky

Maupin, Milburn T.
Birth Year : 1926
Death Year : 1990
Maupin, born in Louisville, KY, was the son of Mary and Miller Maupin. He was the first African American administrator hired in the central office of the Louisville school system. Maupin was also the first to become president of the Louisville Education Association, 1968-1970. He was the deputy superintendent of Jefferson County Schools when he retired in 1978. He had started his career as a teacher in 1949 and was an assistant high school principal in 1958; a year later he was promoted to principal. In his political life, Maupin was elected First Ward alderman in 1977. The Parkland School was renamed the Milburn T. Maupin Elementary School in his honor in 1985. This entry was submitted by Fannie Cox. For additional information see Milburn Taylor Maupin in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, edited by J.E. Kleber.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

McFarland, Richard L., Sr. "R.L."
Birth Year : 1917
Death Year : 2002
Richard L. McFarland, Sr. was born in Owensboro, KY. He was valedictorian of his 1935 graduating class at Western High School in Owensboro. McFarland was the first African American to be elected to the Owensboro City Commission, in 1985, and he served six terms. He was pastor of the Mt. Calvary Baptist Church for 46 years, and he and his wife owned McFarland Funeral Home. In 1975, Rev. McFarland was among the group of ministers who traveled to Monrovia, Liberia, Africa where they baptized more than 800 persons [source: 2012 Kentucky Civil Rights Hall of Fame Induction Ceremony, p.15]. In 1992, the Owensboro Human Relations Commission created the Rev. R. L. McFarland Leadership Award in his honor. In 1998, a tree and a plaque were placed in the Owensboro English Park to honor Rev. McFarland. For more see R. L. McFarland within the article "Middlesboro city councilwoman top vote-getter," in 1988 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Seventh Report, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights, p. 28; J. Campbell, "Williams' bid opened door for black leaders, he earned a spot on fall ballot," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 10/28/05, p. 19; and K. Lawrence, "McFarland, former mayor pro tem dies at 85 minister opened door for Black politicians," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 09/14/2002, p. 1.

Access Interview Read about the Richard L. McFarland oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Businesses, Kentucky African American Churches, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

McKinney Polytechnic Institute (Lincoln County, KY)
Start Year : 1911
J. M. Bates was principal of the elementary school that operated six months out of each year. The one teacher, a woman, was paid $180 annually by the county. An estimated 60 students attended the school. The two story framed building was located on 100 acres of land. The U.S. Office of Education recommended that Lincoln County take over the operation and develop it into a county training school. For more see p. 279 for the 1915 report in Negro Education, by T. J. Jones [available online at Google Book Search]. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: McKinney, Lincoln County, Kentucky

McRidley, Wendell H. [Cadiz Normal and Theological College]
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1932
Rev. Wendell H. McRidley was editor and publisher of the Cadiz Informer, a Baptist weekly newspaper in Cadiz, KY. In 1887, he founded and was president of the Cadiz Normal and Theological College; the school had 269 students in 1895 and was still in operation as an elementary school in 1915 with at least 18 students. McRidley was also an alternate Kentucky Delegate to the Republication Convention in 1900 and 1916. He was treasurer of the Colored Masons' Mt. Olive Lodge #34 in Louisville, organized in 1880. McRidley was born in Tennessee, he was the husband of Anna M. Crump McRidley, born 1864 in KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927; McRidley, at The Political Graveyard website; Chapter 4 of The History of Prince Hall Grand Lodge in Ohio, by C. H. Wesley; and the Photo on p. 301 in Sermons, Addresses and Reminiscences and Important Correspondence..., by E. C. Morris [available on the UNC University Library's Documenting the American South website]. For more about the Cadiz Normal and Theological College, and the School, see p.117 of the Sixty-third Annual Report of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, May 30th and 31st, 1895; and p. 278 of Negro Education, by T. J. Jones [both available online at Google Book Search]. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Tennessee / Cadiz, Trigg County, Kentucky

Milldale Colored School (Covington, KY)
Very little is known about the Milldale Colored School. In 1883, there was a one sentence notice in the Daily Commonwealth newspaper seeking a teacher for the Colored school at Milldale [see article "The City, p.2, col.1]. This may or may not be the same school that is listed in the Williams Covington and Newport Directory for 1890 and 1892. The school was located on Williamson Street in Milldale, KY, and was one of the primary schools for African American children found throughout Kentucky. In 1890, Martha Butler was the teacher, and in 1892, Susie Taylor was the teacher. Milldale, previously known as South Covington District, was classified as a 5th class city, then unclassified in 1896. For more about the status of the community of Milldale see "Stephens, etc. v. Felton etc." on pp. 248-249 in Kentucky Law Reporter, vol. 18, July 1896 to June 1897 [available at Google Book Search]. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Milldale (Covington), Kenton County, Kentucky

Miller, Bennie S.
Start Year : 1917
End Year : 1994
Miller was the first African American elected to the Caldwell County Council, in 1977. A World War II veteran, he served as principal of Dotson High School. Miller was also a member of Braden Masonic Lodge #6. For more see "Mayor, 45 councilmen are black city officials," in 1978 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report , by the Commission on Human Rights, pp. 22-23; and "Bennie S. Miller," The Evansville Courier, Metro section, p. A10.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Princeton, Caldwell County, Kentucky

Monroe County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Monroe County is located in south-central Kentucky on the Tennessee state line and is bordered by four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1820 from portions of Barren and Cumberland Counties and is named for James Monroe, fifth president of the United States. Tompkinsville, which became the county seat in 1820, is named for Daniel Tompkins, who was Vice President during the Monroe administration. Tompkinsville was first known as Watson's Store, founded in 1809, receiving its present name in 1819. The land for the town was owned by Thomas B. Monroe, a cousin of President James Monroe. The 1820 county population was 723 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 7,629 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 190 slave owners
  • 697 Black slaves
  • 134 Mulatto slaves
  • 17 free Blacks [most with last names Fulkes and Howard]
  • 7 free Mulattoes [last names Speakman, Page, Kingrey, Fulkes, and Bedford]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 200 slave owners
  • 775 Black slaves
  • 150 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks [last names Howard, 1 Jackson, 1 Taylor]
  • 9 free Mulattoes [most with last name Speakman, 2 Howard, 1 Colter, 1 Chism]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 599 Blacks
  • 143 Mulattoes
  • About 15 U.S. Colored Troops listed Monroe County, KY as their birth location.

Freetown

  • Around 1845, Freetown (or Free-town) was established for the freed slaves of William Howard, a wealthy slave owner in Monroe County. Freetown was the first African American community in the county, established on the land that had been provided by William Howard. A roadside historical marker has been placed near the Mount Vernon Church, which also served as a school for the Freetown community. There is also a cemetery near the church.

 
For more see Monroe County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; South Central Kentucky Vital Statistics, by M. B. Gorin; The Saga of Coe Ridge, by W. L. Montell; Black Heritage Sites, by N. C. Curtis; and the Cora Mae Howard oral history interview by James Kelly Shirley (FA 474), at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Monroe County, Kentucky

Mullins, By, et al. v. Belcher
Start Year : 1910
End Year : 1911
During the 1910-11 school year, Pike County school trustee Edmond Belcher notified the guardian of Troy and Loucreta Mullins that the children could not attend the school for whites because the Mullins children were "Colored." The guardian sued Belcher. The trial judge of the Pike County Circuit Court found that the children had at least 1/16 Negro blood, therefore considered Colored, and would not be allowed to attend the school for white children. The children's guardian filed an appeal. The Court of Appeal of Kentucky concluded that Negro and white children were never meant to be educated in the same school, and moral and mental chaos were likely to occur if that were to change. And, any traceable amount of Negro blood in an individual required that the person be considered "Colored." The injunction was denied and the judgment of the Pike County Circuit Court was affirmed. The decision came more than 30 years prior to Asher v Huffman. For more see "Mullins, By, et al. v. Belcher," Reports of Civil and Criminal Cases Decided by the Court of Appeal of Kentucky, v.35 McBeath Reporter, v.142 Kentucky Reports, p.673 [online at Google Book Search]; and Legal History of the Color Line by F. W. Sweet. This entry was suggested by Kentucky author and researcher Ben Luntz.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Pike County, Kentucky

Negro Traveling Library (Fulton County, KY)
Start Year : 1910
The first state-supported Negro traveling library in Kentucky was established in 1910 at a Colored school in Fulton County. By 1926 the traveling library was one of two that served African Americans; the other was in Delaware. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Colored Public Libraries in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky / Delaware

Negro Village Site (Marshall County, KY)
Start Year : 1938
The Negro Village Site was part of the Tennessee Valley Authority's (TVA) Kentucky Dam Project. The following information comes from the Forrest C. Pogue Public History Institute (website removed), by Bill Mulligan at Murray State University (KY). Kentucky Dam Village is located in Gilbertsville, KY, and the Kentucky Dam Village District is part of the Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park. During the late 1930s, the workers' villages were constructed for the TVA's Kentucky Dam Project. The Negro Village was established in 1938 and removed after the dam was completed in 1945. The temporary homes had been built by Negro builders at Pickwick Landing Dam and barged downstream to the Kentucky Dam. The local people did not want the community to become a long term addition to the county. There were 19 homes, a recreation building, two dormitories and a school, which was a converted farm house. The dormitories were under-utilized, and there were not enough homes because the workers brought their families with them. Some of the families found housing in nearby towns. The village was placed away from the white village, which was in accordance with TVA policy to help keep peace between the races. Nonetheless, there were racial and social tensions between the Black and white workers, so much so that complaints were filed by the local Black Chapter of the Hod Carriers Union. Louisville had one of the largest chapters of the union, which was dominated by African Americans. The Black chapters of the Hod Carrier Unions supported the employment rights of the African American workers on TVA dam projects. In 1940 there were two fights that led to the Thanksgiving Strike that shut down the project for three days. Three workers were fired, but after reconciliations, the men were rehired. For more information, visit the Forrest C. Pogue Public History Institute site or contact the Murray State University Libraries or the Tennessee Valley Authority. See E. L. Rousey, "The Worker's life at Kentucky Dam, 1938-1945," Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 71, issue 3 (1997), pp. 347-366.
Subjects: Communities, Parks, Union Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies
Geographic Region: Gilbertsville and Kentucky Dam Village State Resort Park, Marshall County, Kentucky

New Homemakers of America, Kentucky
Start Year : 1945
End Year : 1965
The New Homemakers of America (NHA) was the African American organization that was to parallel the Future Homemakers of America (FHA). Both were established as segregated organizations for girls, beginning in 1945. The two organizations merged in 1965. Boys became members of the FHA starting in 1974-75. In 1999, FHA was renamed Family, Career and Community Leaders of America. The official magazine of the FHA was Teen Times, published four times per year. The official magazine for the NHA was Chatter Box, published two times per year. September 20, 1945, the Official Guide for the Organization and Development of the Program of the New Homemakers of America was published in Washington, D.C. During the initial years of the FHA,1944-45, Kentucky was the first state to qualify for a state charter. Among the 16 southern states, Kentucky was 8th to have NHA Chapters; there were 27 chapters with 777 members [source: The Growth and Development of New Homemakers of America by M. C. Moffitt, p.43]. The next year, there were 28 chapters with 792 members. The goal of both the NHA and the FHA was to bring together high school and junior high school home economic clubs, and NHA chapters were established in states that maintained segregated schools for African Americans. One of the NHA chapters was located at the Mayo-Underwood School in Frankfort, KY. In 1949, the state body of the Kentucky NHA was reorganized to strengthen the organization [source: "Kentucky," Chatter Box, v.5, no.1, Fall 1949, p.6]. During the year, there were four district meetings and the state convention was held in June of 1949. Two years later, the spring rally was held at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], and Mrs. Roxie B. Butler and her college homemaking students were hosts to the NHA delegates [source: "Kentucky in the spring," Chatter Box, v.6, no.2, Spring 1951, p.14]. The last year of the NHA, there were 2 chapters in Kentucky with 102 members; it was the lowest number of chapters and members per state [Mofitt, p.57]. For more see History of FHA-FCCLA, a Nicholas County, KY, school website; Chatter Box: for New Homemakers of America, 1945-1965 [bound issues of the Chatter Box publication]; and The Growth and Development of New Homemakers of America by M. C. Moffitt. There are photographs of members of the New Homemakers of America at Kentucky State University, within the Rufus Ballard Atwood Papers, ca. 1929-1965: New Homemakers of America - Photographs -, [n.d] [box: 27, folder: 10].

See photo image of NHA students at Mayo-Underwood School, at Kentucky Historical Society Digital Collections.

  • National Officers of the NHA from Kentucky -- Sources: The Growth and Development of New Homemakers of America by M. C. Moffitt, pp.101-106; and Chatter Box 
  1. Patricia Jane Small, Elkton, V. P. Sec. B, 1952 [previously served as Kentucky NHA reporter and historian]
  2. Barbara Lynem, Frankfort, V. P. Sec. B, 1953 (replaced P. Small)
  3. Emolyne Hines, Anchorage, Treasurer, 1954
  4. Lois Robertson, Louisville, Treasurer, 1955
  5. Mary Lois Williamson, State Adviser, 1954-55
  6. Lois Irene Robinson, Drakesboro, Secretary, 1955
  7. Emolyne Hines, Anchorage, Secretary, 1956
  8. Maxine Brown, V. P. Sec. B, 1956
  9. Sandra C. Wright, Lincoln Ridge, V.P. Sec. B, 1956-57 (replaced Maxine Brown)
  10. Naomi Thomas, Hopkinsville, Chatter Box Committee, 1958-59
  11. Emilie High, State Adviser, 1958-59
  12. Gladys Carroll, Lincoln Ridge, Secretary, 1961-62
  13. Talberta Owens, Lexington, Historian, 1963
  14. Barbara Ann Williams, Lincoln Ridge, Historian, 1963-64 (replaced T. Owens) [also served as member of the national executive council, Kentucky NHA secretary, and president of Kentucky NHA Association]
  • New Homemakers of America, Kentucky Chapters -- Source: Chatter Box
  1. Benham High School, Benham
  2. Bond-Washington High School, Elizabethtown
  3. Caverna Independent High School, Horse Cave
  4. Douglas High School, Lexington
  5. Drakesboro Community School, Drakesboro
  6. Dunbar High School, Somerset
  7. DuBois High School, Mt. Sterling
  8. Liberty High School, Hazard
  9. Lincoln Institute, Lincoln Ridge
  10. Mayo-Underwood High School, Frankfort
  11. Palmer-Dunbar High School, Wheelwright
  12. Riverview High School, Hickman
  13. Todd County High School, Todd County

Subjects: Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Nichols, Pleasant A.
Birth Year : 1863
Born near Leesburg, KY, Nichols was the son of William and Pliny Nichols. He taught for 14 years in Kentucky schools and was principal of Newport City Schools. In 1885 he became a preacher. Nichols contributed articles to many magazines and newspapers and owned and published The Negro Citizen, a weekly newspaper, in Paducah, KY. His editorials helped secure jobs for African Americans in the local hospital. He was married to Dovie Candaca Haddox, of Beattyville, KY, in 1887, and in 1916 became secretary at Wilberforce University. For more see Centennial Encyclopedia of the American Methodist Episcopal Church..., by Richard Allen and others (Philadelphia: 1816) [available online at the UNC Documenting the American South website].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Leesburg, Harrison County, Kentucky / Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Beattyville, Lee County, Kentucky

O'Neal, Arnetta Black
Birth Year : 1910
Death Year : 1984
O'Neal was the first African American administrator at the Fayette County Central Office of Education. She became the coordinator of elementary language arts in 1965 and retired in 1975. O'Neal began her teaching career in Richmond, KY, and later taught at the segregated Douglass Elementary School in Lexington in 1937. She would become one of the first African American teachers at a previously all white elementary school. In the community, she was a girl scout leader, and chaired the board of the Bob W. Brown Housing for the Handicapped. She was also chair of the Trinity Baptist Church Blind Buddies Program. O'Neal was born in Madison County, the daughter of John and Viola Black; the family of eight lived on East Main Street in Richmond, KY, in 1920, according to the U.S. Federal Census. O'Neal was the wife of Damon S. O'Neal. She was a graduate of West Virginia State College [now West Virginia State University] and the University of Kentucky. For more see J. Hewlett, "Educator, volunteer Arnetta O'Neal dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/10/1984, Obituaries section, p.D10.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Scouts (Boys and Girls), Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Blind, Visually Impaired
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1923
End Year : 1967
The following information comes from Julian Jackson, Jr., Historian of the (old) Dunbar Alumni Association. The original school was a wooden structure named Russell High School. In 1921, William H. Fouse was instrumental in convincing the city of Lexington and the Education Board to build a new school for Negro children. Two years later the school was completed at 545 North Upper Street, with W. H. Fouse as the principal. The school was named after poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, whose mother Matilda and father Joshua were from Kentucky. The funding for the school was unusual because it came from taxes on both African Americans and whites. (In 1921, Lexington tax dollars for education were still somewhat segregated.) The school was the first African-American high school accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, one of eight such schools in the South. Fouse also helped create the first school bank and the first insurance program within Dunbar. He also helped develop regional literacy and art competitions, and the school had a championship debate team, sponsored by alumnus Cecil Posey. Dunbar students also participated in two interracial debate competitions: The Thrift Competition, supported by the Thrift Service Company of New York, which offered $75 in prize money; and the Bible Study Contest, sponsored by the YMCA and the YWCA. The Dunbar boys' team won $61 in prize money and took first place in the statewide interracial debate competition in which the girls' team placed second. Dunbar served the African American community for 44 years with three different principals: W. M. Fouse, 1923-1938; P. L. Guthrie, 1938-1966; and Clara Wendell Stitt, 1966-1967. Students who attended Dunbar received a well-rounded, quality education, the majority graduated on time, and many went on to college. Former students with additional information may contact Julian Jackson, Jr. at (859) 255-6328 or jrattler49@aol.com. See also R. Bailey, "Lexington's Black community found magic at Dunbar," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/16/1986, p.B1. See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Lexington and Fayette County, KY.

See the 1931 photo image of the faculty at the Paul Laurence Dunbar High School at 540 North Upper Street, Lexington, KY, in Kentucky Digital Library.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association), YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

"Petition of Colored People of [Owensboro] Kentucky"
Start Year : 1867
In July 1867, Chief Agent A. W. Lawvill, of the Bureau Refugees, Freemen and Abandoned Lands, forwarded a petition to Congress from the Colored people of Owensboro, KY, concerning unjust taxation by state authorities. African Americans were being taxed $4, while Whites were taxed $2. The complaint also addressed the issue of the school trustees being given the power to decide if there would be a school for Colored children. The petition was signed by 52 African Americans from Owensboro, KY. For more see House of Representatives, Ex. Doc. No. 70, 40th Congress, 2nd Session: Freedman and Taxation: Communication from the Commissioner of Freemen's Affairs, Petition of colored people of Kentucky in relation to unjust taxation by State authority.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Pine Grove College (Jackson County, KY)
Start Year : 1882
Pine Grove College was a grade school founded by Berea College in Jackson County, KY, in 1882. The school was open to the white and the "slightly colored" children in the community who had been attending school together; their families had been attending the same church, Walnut Chapel, founded by Rev. John G. Fee. The school had been built in response to the Kentucky school law that mandated common schools be segregated. As a result, there were so few colored children that no school district was organized for them. Pine Grove College was an alternative to the state-run common school, and allowed for children of both races to attend school together. Reverend William Kendrick of Oberlin had purchased the land for the new school building, and there were a number of financial supporters. The school was managed by a board of trustees and run by Berea teachers, Maria Muzzy and Kate Gilbert. For more see E. H. Fairchild, "Pine Grove College, Kentucky," The American Missionary, 08/01/1882, vol. 36, issue 8, pp. 240-242 [available full-text online at Making of America by Cornell University Library]. See also entries for African American Schools in Jackson County, KY, and African American Schools, both in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Jackson County, Kentucky

Porterfield, Rosella F.
Birth Year : 1919
Death Year : 2004
Rosella F. Porterfield was born in Daviess County, KY. She was a teacher and the first African American librarian in the Elsmere-Erlanger School System in northern Kentucky. She retired from the Elsmere-Erlanger System. The Elsmere Park Board rededicated the Rosella French Porterfield Park in 2002. She is referred to as the Rosa Parks of Northern Kentucky. In 1955, while head teacher at the African American School, Wilkins Heights, Porterfield approached the Elsmere superintendent and said that it was time to integrate the schools. The request was taken to the school board and approved. Porterfield was a 1940 graduate of Kentucky Normal and Industrial School [now Kentucky State University]. In 2007, Rosella French Porterfield was inducted into the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights Hall of Fame. For more see "Civil-rights pioneer Porterfield honored," The Enquirer (Cincinnati.com), 07/25/02; and C. Meyhew, "Rosella Porterfield, 85, helped integrate schools," The Cincinnati Enquirer, 11/10/2004, Metro section, p. 4C.

See photo image and additional information about Rosella F. Porterfield within Northern Kentucky Views Presents (.pdf).
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Daviess County, Kentucky / Elsmere and Erlanger, Kenton County, Kentucky

Poston, Mollie Cox
Birth Year : 1873
Death Year : 1917
Poston was born in Oak Grove, KY, the daughter of Joseph and Hattie Peay Cox. She taught in the county and city schools in Kentucky and was one of the first appointed supervisors of the Negro industrial schools in the state (1913). Mollie Poston was a graduate of Roger Williams University in Nashville, TN, and M. & F. College and Hopkinsville Industrial School, both in Hopkinsville, KY. She was the mother of Robert, Ulysses and Ted Poston, and the wife of Ephraim Poston. For more see the Mollie Poston entry in Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915 [available full view at Google Book Search]; and Dark Side of Hopkinsville, by T. Poston.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Mothers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Oak Grove, Christian County, Kentucky / Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Price, Geneva Stark
Birth Year : 1958
In 2003 Dr. Geneva S. Price became the first African American and second woman to be elected president of the Kentucky Association of Secondary School Principals. Dr. Price was the Human Resource Specialist at Western High School in Louisville, KY. In 2010, Dr. Price was appointed president of the Greater Louisville Alliance of Black School Educators (GLABSE), formed in 1993, which is an affiliate of the National Alliance of Black School Educators (NABSE).

See photo image of Dr. Geneva Stark Price near the bottom of the page of v.5, issue 4, May 2011, online issue of the Jefferson County Public Schools, Global Connections.
 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Randolph, Loretta Corryne Bacon Lunderman Spencer
Birth Year : 1903
Death Year : 1975
Loretta Spencer (Randolph), an educator, was born in 1903 in Paducah, KY, the daughter of Rev. and Mrs. Benjamin Bacon. She graduated with the highest honors from Lincoln High School, earned her A.B. from Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], and did her graduate work at Fisk and Indiana University. Spencer taught in the Paducah schools, and was principal of Robersontown High and Ballard County High. Some time around 1932, shortly after she was hired as principal at Ballard Co., the school building burnt down. Spencer campaigned to have a new building erected, which was completed with contributions from the Slater Fund and the Parent-Teachers Association. She was also principal at Maddoxtown School in Lexington; she was the Dean of Girls at Lincoln Institute in Shelby County; and was an instructor at St. Paul School of Religion in Lexington, KY in 1947. She served as the district president of the AME Sunday School Convention, 1920-1933. She was a member of Anti-Basileus Beta Upsilon Omega Chapter of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority [photo at KHS]. Loretta Spencer was the wife of Charles J. Lunderman, Sr., and later married Benjamin F. Spencer. Her last husband was Dr. James E. Randolph, according to information received from Mrs. Juanita L. White, who also provided Spencer's correct birth and death dates. For more see L. C. Bacon Spencer in Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; and Mrs. Loretta Corryne (Bacon) Spencer in The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Reed, William B. "Chief"
Birth Year : 1912
Death Year : 1996
William B. Reed was born in Paris, KY. He was the last principal of the segregated Western School for Negroes. The Paris City Schools were fully integrated in 1966 and Reed would become the first African American Assistant Principal in the Paris City School system. He was also the first to become a city commissioner in Paris. He had been a star football and basketball player at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] and he coached the Western High basketball team to a national championship in 1953. Reed was also the school's football coach. He was the first African American elected to the Paris City Council in 1977. The William "Chief" Reed Park in Paris is named in his honor. For more see "William Reed, Retired Educator, Coach, Dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, Obituaries, 10/11/96; and "Mayor, 45 councilmen are black city officials," in 1978 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report, by the Commission on Human Rights, p. 22. 
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Basketball, Education and Educators, Football, Parks, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Report: Negro School Districts and Their Needs by L. N. Taylor
Start Year : 1938
In 1938, L. N. Taylor was supervisor of Negro Rural Education. The department was in the Division of Negro Education within the Kentucky Department of Education. Taylor prepared a report that ranked the Kentucky cities and counties with the largest Negro school census. Below is a table with the schools, and the ranks and needs of the schools, taken from pp.1-2 of the report. For more see the report titled "Negro school districts and their needs by L. N. Taylor," found in Box 27 of the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, file title: School for Deaf and Dumb, School for Feeble Minded Children, School for blind, Special Ed., School for Negroes, Catholics. See also NKAA entries for African American Schools.

Kentucky Negro School Districts - 1938
 RANK  CITY SCHOOL CENSUS H. S. RANK
1 Louisville 9350 A
2 Lexington 2711 A
3 Paducah 1368 A
4 Hopkinsville 1034 A
5 Madisonville 998 A
6 Henderson 768 A
7 Covington 687 A
8 Bowling Green 614 A
9 Lynch 610 A
10 Owensboro 592 A
11 Danville 467 A
12 Richmond 467 A
13 Jenkins 462 BE
14 Harlan 461 B
15 Russellville 455 BT
16 Paris 418 A
17 Earlington 381 B
18 Middlesboro 348 A
19 Frankfort 335 A
20 Maysville 335 A
21 Princeton 335 BE
22 Providence 302 B
       
 RANK  COUNTY SCHOOL CENSUS  H. S. NEEDS
1 Christian 1837 Transportation to Hopkinsville
2 Fayette 1106 Continue transportation
3 Harlan 948 Consolidation
4 Logan 886 Consolidation
5 Fulton 838 Transportation to Hickman
6 Jefferson 801 Continue transportation
7 Madison 744 Transportation to Richmond
8 Trigg 684 Building and transportation
9 Warren 684 Transportation to Bowling Green
10 Todd 678 Building and transportation
11 Henderson 633 Transportation to Henderson
12 Union 573 Building and transportation
13 Barren 524 Building and transportation
14 Bourbon 516 Transportation to Paris
15 Perry 406 Transportation to Hazard
16 Scott 402 Transportation to Georgetown
17 Green 366 Transportation to Accredited High School
18 Montgomery 382 Consolidation
19 Mason 381 Transportation to Maysville
20 Lincoln 342 Transportation to Accredited High School
21 Shelby 316 Transportation to Accredited High School




Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Richardson, Henry Reedie
Birth Year : 1922
Death Year : 2008
Henry R. Richardson was the first African American teacher at Campbellsville High School and Campbellsville University, both located in Campbellsville, KY, Richardson's home town. He was the son of Reedie R. and Fisher Richardson, and the husband of Beulah Rice Richardson. He was a science graduate of Kentucky State University and earned his Master of Science degree in animal husbandry from Michigan State University. He was a veteran of the U.S. Army, Richardson enlisted December 18, 1942 in Louisville, KY, according to his Army Enlistment Record. He was a staff sergeant and platoon leader with the 364 Quartermaster Truck Company. He was a biology teacher in the Campbellsville School System for 32 years, 11 years at a segregated school. Richardson was also a community leader, he was one of the first board members of the Taylor Regional Hospital and was also on the Campbellsville Housing Authority Board of Commissioners. In recognition of his community service, Richardson was awarded the Campbellsville Citizen of the Year Award, the Campbellsville-Taylor County Chamber of Commerce Award, and the Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Humanitarian Award. He was appointed to the Western Kentucky University Board of Regents by Governor John Y. Brown. For more see the Henry Reedie Richardson entry in the "Obituaries & Memorials," Lexington Herald-Leader, 04/27/2008, p.B4.

  See photo image of Henry R. Richardson on p.62 in the book Campbellsville by J. Y. DeSpain et. al.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Housing Authority, The Projects, Military & Veterans, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Campbellsville, Taylor County, Kentucky

Roach, Sanford Thomas
Birth Year : 1916
Death Year : 2010
Born in Frankfort, KY, Sanford T. Roach played basketball and football as a student and was also the 1933 high school class salutatorian when he graduated from Bate High School in Danville, KY. Roach was a 1937 graduate of Kentucky State University and taught for one year and served as a guard at Kentucky Village with the Kentucky Houses of Reform, schools for delinquent children. He started teaching general science at Bate High School in 1938 and was also the basketball coach; he achieved a record of 98-24 while coaching at Bate High School. In 1941, Roach became a teacher and basketball coach at Lexington Dunbar High School, he coached the Dunbar Bearcats to a 512-142 record over a 22 year period. He later became the first African American principal at an integrated elementary school in Lexington, KY, at Carver School in 1965, and was the first African American board member of the University of Kentucky Athletic Association. For more see Transition Game, by B. Reed; Sanford Roach Biography, a HistoryMaker website; and "Legacy knows no bounds," Lexington Herald-Leader, 09/01/2010, pp. 1, A2, and A8 [two articles - M. Fields, M. Davis].

Access Interview Read about the Sanford T. Roach oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records are in the SPOKE Database.

 

  Watch the Sanford T. Roach interview online on "Connections with Renee Shaw," program #219, at the KET (Kentucky Educational Television) website.

 

Access Interview Listen to the audio and read the transcript of the Sanford T. Roach interview in the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky, Oral History Project, at the Kentucky Historical Society.
Subjects: Baseball, Basketball, Education and Educators, Football, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky
Start Year : 1917
End Year : 1932
Between 1917 and 1932, more than 155 new Rosenwald facilities were constructed in over half the counties in Kentucky. Logan County had the most facilities: 8 Rosenwald schools and a library. Overall, Kentucky used very little of the Rosenwald Fund - Kentucky (3%), Maryland (3%), Florida (2%), and Missouri (0%) utilized the least amounts of the Rosenwald Funds of the 15 states building Rosenwald Schools. The effort behind the schools was the result of the collaboration between African American education leader Booker T. Washington and Julius Rosenwald, a German-Jewish immigrant who owned Sears, Roebuck and Co. Rosenwald schools were built throughout the South, and for African American children the schools greatly increased the opportunity for an education in a modern building. For more see Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, and Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, Exhibit Guide [includes map of school locations], both by A. Turley-Adams; Rosenwald Schools Initiative, a National Trust for Historic Preservation website; and J. S. McCormick, "The Julius Rosenwald Fund," Journal of Negro Education, vol. 3, issue 4 (Oct. 1934), pp. 605-626. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.

See photo images of children at Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky at the History Burgoo website by the Kentucky Historical Society.
 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Ross, William H.
Birth Year : 1869
Born in Madisonville, KY, William H. Ross taught school in Muhlenberg County, KY, before he quit teaching in 1887 to go into the grocery store business with his father in Madisonville. The business was known as John [R.] Ross & Son. Ross was also politically active: he stood at the voting polls to make sure every African American in Madisonville voted Republican, which resulted in his being physically attacked by Democrats. He was Assistant Elector of the Second Congressional District in the 1896 presidential campaign. William H. Ross was the husband of Cordie Ross who was a school teacher in Madisonville. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Businesses, Education and Educators, Voting Rights, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Madisonville, Hopkins County, Kentucky / Muhlenberg County, Kentucky

Russell, Willis
Birth Year : 1803
Death Year : 1852
According to William F. Russell's thesis, The History of Education of Boyle County, pp. 217-221, Willis Russell taught the first colored school in Danville, located in a frame house on Green Street. The following information provided by historian Carolyn Bost Crabtree supports this claim. Willis Russell, the slave of Revolutionary War veteran Robert Craddock, was educated at a school that was established on Craddock's land around 1800 by a friend, fellow veteran, who was a Frenchman named Peter Tardiveau. When Craddock died in 1837, his will ("recorded in Will Book D, pp.106-113, Bowling Green, KY, County Clerks Office") emancipated his slaves, one of whom was Willis Russell who received a house and a portion of Craddock's land in Danville, KY, and land along the Rolling Fork River. According to author C. Fackler in his book Early Days in Danville, p.232, Willis Russell came to Danville and started a school in his house for colored children. This would have been around 1837; Craddock's will stipulated that Willis Russell had only a year, from the time of Craddock's death, to claim his property. Willis Russell and one other adult (both free) are listed in the same household in the 1840 U.S. Federal Census of Danville in Mercer County, KY [Boyle County was not formed until 1842]. Willis Russell and his wife Pamelia are listed as mulattoes in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census; Willis is a school teacher and no occupation is listed for his wife Pamelia or their daughter Jane. There are also three boys living with the family and historian Carolyn B. Crabtree suggests that the boys are Willis Russell's students. Willis Russell died February 10, 1852 [source: Kentucky Death Records, Boyle County, 1852, pp.1-2]. The Willis Russell House is located at 204 East Walnut Street, and in February 2012, an open house event was held at the renovated home. On November 19, 2012, the Kentucky Historical Society (KHS) dedicated a historical marker for the Willis Russell House (more information at Kentucky.gov). For more information about Willis Russell, contact Carolyn B. Crabtree at the Boyle County Genealogical Association. See also the NKAA entry for African American Schools in Boyle County, KY.

Additional information: In 1850, Willis F. Russell lived among several families of free African Americans who owned their homes [source: 1850 U.S. Federal Census]. The head of the families were men who were brick masons, stonemasons, and wagoners.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

School Libraries in Christian County, KY
Start Year : 1892
Christian County had the first school libraries for Kentucky Negro children in 1892 and the first for Negro teachers in 1898. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

Schools for the Colored Race
Start Year : 1895
The following schools are listed in Progress of a Race, as reported by the Kentucky Commissioner of Education: Christian Bible School in Louisville, 26 students; St. Augustin Ladies' Academy in Lebanon, 76 students; Chandler Ladies' Normal School in Lexington, 245 students; State Normal School in Frankfort, 105 students; Central High School, Louisville, 806 students; and Paris Colored High School, 336 students. For more see Progress of a Race, by J. W. Gibson and W. H. Crogman [available full-text via Google Book Search]. See also the entries for African American Schools.
Subjects: Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky: Louisville, Jefferson County; Lebanon, Marion County; Lexington, Fayette County; Frankfort, Franklin County; Paris, Bourbon County

Shadows of the Past by Louis Stout
Start Year : 2006
This 2006 publication by Louis Stout is the first of its kind, an historical overview of the Kentucky High School Athletic League (KHSAL) that covers the administrators, schools, coaches, and athletes that participated in the development of the association. KHSAL was formed in 1932 as an interscholastic athletics organization for the Negro schools of Kentucky. There were 69 member schools, and KHSAL remained active until 1958 when Kentucky schools and athletic associations began to desegregate. Basketball and football were recognized by KHSAL, though many of the schools had other sporting events such as boxing and track and field. Fifty-two schools are highlighted in the book, with photographs and a brief history of the schools, teams, and coaches. A fair portion of the history and the photographs deal with the basketball teams.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Basketball, Boxers, Boxing, Football, Track & Field, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Shake Rag (Bowling Green, KY)
The Shake Rag District of Bowling Green, KY, was an African American community with families, schools, businesses, and churches. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. The community was settled by former slaves, families and soldiers who had fought for the Union Army during the Civil War. A large portion of Bowling Green's domestic employees lived in Shake Rag. The Southern Queen Hotel and Covington-Moses home, located in Shake Rag at 140 State Street, is still the only African-owned hotel in Bowling Green. It was built in 1906 by James Covington, and family members still live in the home. Prior to school integration, State Street High School was where African American students in Bowling Green attended school. In 2008, the 5th Annual Shake Rag Heritage Festival was held by the New Era Planning Association, an organization that is working to revitalize the Shake Rag District. For more see ShakeRag: a pictorial history from 1946 to 1967, by D. Thompson and K. R. Singleton; and the following articles from the Daily News (Bowling Green): J. Dooley, "Visitors' bureau highlights Shakerag area," 10/08/2002, News section; A. Carmichael, "Shake Rag looks toward resurgence," 08/17/2003, News section; A. Harvey, "Shake Rag's festival returns - fifth annual event pays tribute to BG's historic black area," 05/15/2008, Feature section; and B. Speakman, "Celebrating Shake Rag," 05/17/2008, (bgdailynews.com).
Subjects: Communities, Freedom, Bed & Breakfast, Hotels, Inns, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Shake Rag (Bowling Green), Warren County, Kentucky

Sisney, Ricardo
Birth Year : 1939
Born in Henderson, KY, Ricardo Sisney became the first African American assistant principal at the Senior High School in Bowling Green, KY, in 1971. He was co-founder of the Eta Rho Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity in 1972. Sisney is a graduate of Henderson Douglas High School and Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. For more see Who's Who Among Black Americans, 3rd-4th & 6th-8th ed.; and Ricardo Sisney in The Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society.

Access Interview Read the transcript and listen to the recording of Ricardo Sisney within the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Slave School in Greensburg, KY
Start Year : 1816
In 1816, a notice was served to a slave named Joe, the property of W. Barret's heirs, ordering him to close the school he had started for slaves. If he refused, upon conviction he was to receive 15 lashes, and so would any slave who assembled to be educated at Joe's school. Information taken from the first record book of the Trustees For The Town of Greensburg, p. 79. For more see "To Stop A School," Green County Review, vol. II, issue 4 (1979), p. 59. Published by the Green County Historical Society, Box 276, Greensburg, Kentucky 42743. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Greensburg, Green County, Kentucky

Smith, Kirke
Birth Year : 1865
Death Year : 1935
Smith, born in Virginia, graduated from Berea College (KY) in 1890. From 1895-1910, he was an activist and superintendent of the Colored Schools of Lebanon, KY. Between 1910 and 1912, he was also one of the main financial solicitors for Lincoln Institute, known as "New Berea." Smith was Dean of Men and the Dean of the Normal Department of Lincoln Institute from 1912-1933. Kirke Smith was a promoter of higher education for African Americans in Kentucky. He was the husband of Sallie J. Smith. Information for this entry was submitted by Eric Smith (CA) with reference to The Kirk Smith Papers at Berea College and the Lincoln Institute File at the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives.
See photo image and brief bio of Kirke Smith at BlackPast.org.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lebanon, Marion County, Kentucky / Berea, Madison County, Kentucky

Smith, Lucy H.
Birth Year : 1888
Death Year : 1955
Lucy H. Smith was born in Virginia, then came to Kentucky in 1910 as an assistant school principal. She pushed for the study of Black history in schools. She was the second woman president of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and served as principal of the Booker T. Washington School in Lexington, KY. [Maude S. Brown was the first woman president of KNEA.] Smith compiled the Pictorial Directory of the Kentucky Association of Colored Women [full-text available at the Kentucky Digital Library]. She earned her master's degree in education at the University of Cincinnati. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones; Notable Black American Women, Book II; and "Mrs. Lucy Smith pioneered in Ky. education," Baltimore Afro-American, 05/11/1946, p. 13.

 
See photo image of Lucy H. Smith on [p. 5] of Pictorial Directory of the Kentucky Association of Colored Women.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Migration West, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Association of Colored Women's Clubs
Geographic Region: Virginia / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Smith, Thomas J.
Birth Year : 1871
Smith was born in Ballard County, KY. He was principal at the Colored high school in Versailles, KY (1896-1917) while serving as a pastor in Dayton, OH. He was also pastor at Zion Baptist Church in Paris, KY (1912-1917). Smith served as historian for the Kentucky State Teachers Association (1900-1917). He wrote The Boy Problem in Church, School, and Home, published by State Normal Press in 1903. African American men within the Baptist denomination made it their mission to better guide African American boys and young men for the sake of the race as a whole. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1928-29; and A. M. Hornsby, "The Boy problem: North Carolina race men groom the next generation: 1900-1930," The Journal of Negro History, vol.86, issue 3 (Summer, 2001), pp.276-304.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky / Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky / Dayton, Ohio / Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Smythe, Carrie F.
Birth Year : 1909
Death Year : 1990
Smythe was born in Louisville, KY. She was a teacher at the Samuel Coleridge Taylor School in Louisville for 18 years and principal at William H. Perry, Sr. Elementary School for 25 years. Smythe received a number of awards, including the Certificate of Honor (Quiz Kids) as best teacher in the U.S. For more see Profiles of Contemporary Black Achievers of Kentucky, by J. B. Horton.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Southgate Street School
Start Year : 1886
Southgate Street School is the oldest standing African American building in Kentucky. Located in Newport, KY, the school is on the National Register of Historic Places. It was the first African American school in Kentucky funded by a city general fund. For more see Jim Reis, "Southgate Street School stood alone for decades," Kentucky Post, 02/17/03; and The Voice of the East Row Historic Foundation, vol. 2, issue 11 (Nov. 2001). See also African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky

Spradling, Mary E. Mace
Birth Year : 1911
Death Year : 2009
Spradling was born in Winchester, KY. She was the librarian at Lynch Colored School in the 1930s and teacher-librarian in Shelbyville in the 1940s. She chaired the Library Conference of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association in 1950, and was a librarian at the Louisville Free Public Library. Spradling left Kentucky in 1950 and would become the first African American professional librarian with the Kalamazoo Public Library. She also established the Alma Powell Branch Library in Kalamazoo. She retired in 1976, and in 1998 donated her personal library of 28,000 volumes to the Kalamazoo Valley Community College Library. Spradling was the author of "Black Librarians in Kentucky" [in The Black Librarian in the Southeast, ed. A. L. Phinazee], and of the reference volumes, In Black and White. Mary Spradling was the wife of Lewis Spradling (1905-1964). For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-2006; A Biographical Directory of Librarians in the United States and Canada, 5th ed.; and "Many lives enriched by Mary Spradling," Kalamazoo Gazette, 01/30/2009, Editorials section.
See photo, and article by Stephanie Esters, "Memorial service for Kalamazoo's first black librarian set for Saturday" in Kalamazoo Gazette, 04/22/2009, General News section.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration North, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky / Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky / Lynch, Harlan County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Kalamazoo, Michigan

St. Augustine Church (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1870
The first African American Catholics were slaves who arrived in Kentucky with the settlers from Maryland in 1785. In 1869, Father John L. Spalding was appointed to organize African American Catholics in Louisville, KY. Worship was held in the burial crypt in the basement of the Cathedral of the Assumption. By 1870, Father Spalding had raised enough money for the building of a new church, St. Augustine, on Broadway between Fourteenth and Fifteenth Streets. St. Augustine is the oldest African American Catholic church in Louisville; when it opened in 1870, it was one of six in the United States. St. Augustine School opened in 1921; the name later changed to Catholic Colored High School and then changed again to Catholic High in the 1940s. The present St. Augustine Church, dedicated in 1912, is located at 1310 W. Broadway. For more see Centennial 1870-1970: St. Augustine Church, 1310 Broadway, Louisville; B. Pike, "Long-closed school not forgotten," The Courier-Journal, 02/28/99; and S. Edelen, "Looking Back; 135-year-old St. Augustine plans museum,"The Courier-Journal, 01/26/05.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Maryland

Stewart, Loretta Reeves
Birth Year : 1941
Loretta Reeves Stewart is an exceptional student and educator. She attended the segregated schools in Paducah, beginning at Woodland, a one room school, then graduating at the age of 15 from Lincoln High School. In later years, Stewart was inducted into the Lincoln High School Hall of Fame [the school closed in the 1960s]. Her picture now hangs in the Paducah Tilghman High School. Stewart completed her bachelor's degree at Kentucky State University at the age of 19, and began teaching at Murray Douglass High School, in Murray, KY. She was teaching at Lincoln High School when she earned her master's degree from Murray State University in 1964. She earned her Rank I at the University of Louisville in 1975. Stewart taught school for 37 years before retiring in 1998. Her last post was that of assistant principal at Central High School in Louisville, KY. She had also been employed at the Black Affairs Program at the University of Louisville and taught part-time in the School of Business. In 1983, she was selected by the Zonta Club of Louisville to serve as a delegate to the International Convention held in Sydney, Australia. Zonta International is a global organization of executives and professionals who work together to advance the status of women worldwide. [The Zonta Club of Louisville was chartered in 1960.] Stewart became the owner of Madeline's Flowers and Things, and maintained the business from 1990-2005. During the same period, she was also senior program specialist with The Lincoln Foundation. She left that position in 2007 and became a specialist with the "School to Career" program at the Jefferson County Public Schools. Stewart was named one of the 100 Outstanding Alumni of Kentucky State University. She has also been named a Courier-Journal Forum Fellow. She has served on the board of the Louisville Ballet, Broadway Series, and the Heritage Weekends Committee. Loretta Reeves Stewart is the daughter of George and Birdie Reeves, the wife of retired teacher George Stewart, and sister to Bobbie Reeves Wiggins. This information was taken, with permission, from the Loretta Reeves Stewart resume and biography.
Subjects: Businesses, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Stoney Point (Warren County, KY)
Start Year : 1848
According to author J. W. Cooke, the African American community of Stoney Point actually began in 1848 when John White died; six of his slaves were freed, and they were allotted land, livestock and other necessities needed to establish their independent livelihoods. In 1866, some of previously freed families were still living in the area that had become known as Stoney Point, though the boundaries of the community had continuously changed as lots and adjoining lands were bought and sold. Other former slaves from the local area who were Civil War veterans were among the new landowners. The Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church was established in 1866 and also served as a school before the new schoolhouse was built in 1908. The schoolhouse was used for a couple of decades before it was closed and the children of Stoney Point began attending school in Smiths Grove. For more see J. W. Cooke, "Stoney Point, 1866-1969," The Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 50, issue 4 (1976), pp. 337-352.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Stoney Point and Smiths Grove, Warren County, Kentucky

Strauss, Mattye O.
Birth Year : 1886
Death Year : 1962
Strauss was born in Paducah, KY. She was a schoolteacher for 14 years before becoming assistant principal of Lincoln High School in Paducah, then served as principal of Garfield School beginning in 1928. While at Garfield she organized a number of clubs. She sought funding to provide needy children with free lunches; an additional two snacks per day were given to underweight children. Strauss was awarded the Kentucky State Life Certificate for her outstanding work. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1941-1944.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Student Library Assistants of Kentucky (SLAK)
Start Year : 1952
End Year : 1968
The Student Library Assistants of Kentucky (SLAK) group was organized in 1952 by Central High School librarian C. Elizabeth Johnson and Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] librarian James R. O'Rourke, Sr. The members were African American student library assistants from schools, colleges, and the public libraries in Kentucky. Annual conferences were often held in conjunction with the conference of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA). SLAK introduced students to library skills and librarianship as a profession; it was the only state-wide organization of its kind in the U.S. A booklet was written to help train other students, Student Library Assistants of Kentucky, it was distributed by request nationally and internationally. A copy of the booklet is available at CESKAA at Kentucky State University. SLAK had between 50-100 student members from throughout the state. The organization existed until the late 1960s. SLAK was a continuation of library education for African Americans that began in Kentucky in the early 1900s. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones, pp. 130-132.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Tandy, Vertner W., Sr.
Birth Year : 1885
Death Year : 1949
Born in Lexington, KY, Vertner W. Tandy was the first African American to be licensed as an architect in the state of New York. He was well-known throughout the U.S. One of his local works is Webster Hall on Georgetown St. in Lexington. In New York, he was a designer on the Abraham Lincoln Houses and the housing projects on Lexington Avenue and 135th Streets, and his works included the St. Philip's Protestant Episcopal Church on W. 133rd Street. Tandy was also the first African American to be commissioned as an officer in New York during World War I. He was a 1904 graduate of Tuskegee Institute [now Tuskegee University], and a 1908 graduate of Cornell University School of Architecture. He helped found the Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity at Cornell. He was the son of Henry A. Tandy and Emma E. Brice Tandy, both Kentucky natives, and the husband of Sadie Tandy, born 1890 in Alabama. In 2009, a Kentucky historical marker was placed in the location where the Tandy home had been located in Lexington, KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; Biographical Dictionary of American Architects, Deceased, by H. F. and E. R. Withey; "Vertner W. Tandy," The New York Times, 11/08/1949, p.31; and M. Davis, "Fraternity puts its founder on map," Lexington Herald Leader, 09/15/2009, City/Region section, p.1.

See photo image of Vertner W. Tandy at BlackPast.org.

See photo image of Kentucky Historical Marker at wjohnston flickr site.
Subjects: Architects, Housing Authority, The Projects, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / New York

Taylor, Bartlett
Birth Year : 1815
Taylor, a slave born in Henderson County, KY, was the son of a slave woman and her owner, Jonathan Taylor. Both of Bartlett Taylor's parents had come to Kentucky from Virginia. When he was a small child, the sheriff withdrew a portion of the slaves as payment toward Jonathan Taylor's financial debts. Included in the roundup were Bartlett Taylor's mother, her baby, and her four oldest sons. Jonathan Taylor left Henderson County and settled in LaGrange, KY. He had brought with him his remaining slaves, which included Bartlett and his sisters, all of whom were eventually sold as payment for more of Jonathan Taylor's debts. Bartlett hired himself out in Louisville, KY, with the intention of purchasing his freedom. He was sold, but he managed to get his emancipation papers with the promise of payment; Bartlett finalized the payment in 1840. He learned to read and write and also became a butcher. Bartlett owned a retail and wholesale business that packaged and shipped meat and traded and shipped livestock. He became a fairly wealthy man who owned several homes and lots on East Market Street in Louisville. He was also an African Methodist Episcopal [AME] Church minister who contributed financially toward the founding and building of churches. Bartlett Taylor was considered the church builder of the Kentucky AME Conference. In 1872, he built the largest AME Church in the state in Bowling Green, KY. In 1881, while a pastor in Shelbyville, KY, he negotiated with the city for a permit, then paid for a school building for African American children and the employment of teachers. Bartlett Taylor also served as treasurer of Wilberforce University beginning in 1864 and was a trustee for sixteen years. Bartlett Taylor and his wife, Marian [Mary] Taylor (b. 1826 in Indiana) are listed as living in Louisville in the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. For more see the Bartlett Taylor entry in the following sources: Afro-American Encyclopedia; History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, by W. H. Gibson; and Men of Mark, by W. J. Simmons.
Subjects: Businesses, Education and Educators, Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky

Taylor, James T. "Big Jim" [Harrods Creek, Kentucky]
Birth Year : 1885
Death Year : 1965
Taylor developed the Harrods Creek community in Jefferson County, KY. He purchased the land in 1919 and sold lots to African Americans. The Jacob School was built in 1916, named for Jefferson Jacob, a former slave. Students came from Harrods Creek and nearby African American communities such as The Neck and Happy Hollow, both of which no longer exist. The school and the community are recognized with a Kentucky Historical Marker [#2038]. James Taylor, raised by his grandmother, grew up to become a farmer, a school bus driver, a road and bridge builder, and president of the James T. Taylor Real Estate Co. Wilson Lovett was vice president of the company, Joseph Ray, Sr. secretary, and Abram L. Simpson manager. For more see B. Pike, “Looking back: subdivision may be named after early developer,” Courier-Journal, 08/28/2002, Neighborhoods section, p. 1N; and D. R. Smith, “Cover Story: 40059,” The Lane Report, September 2006.
Subjects: Businesses, Communities, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Harrods Creek, Jefferson County, Kentucky / The Neck and Happy Hollow, Jefferson County, Kentucky [no longer exist]

Taylor, Sallie Ann
Birth Year : 1822
Death Year : 1909
Sallie Ann Taylor has been considered the first African American teacher in Harrodsburg, KY. She was the slave of Major James Taylor. The following information comes from an email received from the Harrodsburg Historical Society (Marilyn B. Allen) dated August 3, 2012: "We know that [James] Taylor owned Sallie Ann prior to Emancipation and that she was the personal maid to his two older daughters. Sarah Taylor, the oldest daughter, was born in 1830 and our records state that Sallie Ann was older than her; however, we do not have her exact birth date." An approximate birth date of 1822 is given in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census for Sallie Ann Taylor. "We also know that Sallie Ann was educated along with the daughters and by them when they went outside of the home to school." Sallie Ann Taylor would become a teacher and taught other slaves prior to their freedom. "She started a school for free blacks in the cottage that James Taylor provided for her and her mother to live in on the Taylor property." Her mother's name was Lettitia Easton [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census], and according to the information received from the Harrodsburg Historical Society, Lettitia Easton was born March 25, 1800, and died April 13, 1884. "James [Taylor] later built and furnished her [Sally Ann Taylor] a school on said property." The schoolhouse was near Pioneer Memorial State Park. Sallie Ann Taylor is listed in the 1880 and the 1900 U.S. Federal Census as a school teacher in Mercer County. "Sallie Ann remained with the Taylor Family after Emancipation and assisted Sarah [Taylor] in rearing 7 children in this home [Old Fort Harrod State Park's Mansion Museum]. She [Sallie Ann Taylor] died in 1909." Another source, also recommended by the Harrodsburg Historical Society, is the title The History of Harrodsburg and "the Great Settlement Area" of KY, 1774-1900 by G. M. Chinn, which gives the following additional information on p.142: "Later, when a negro school district was organized in Harrodsburg, two small cottages were rented from Sally Taylor for school buildings." Another early African American teacher in Harrodsburg was Susan Mary Craig. For more see "The First Negro School Teacher" within the article "Mercer County slaves who have contributed to community life," Olde Towne Ledger, no. 73 (August 2001); and visit the Old Fort Harrod State Park and the Harrodsburg Historical Society. See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Mercer County, KY.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky

Thomas, Newton Stone
Birth Year : 1912
Death Year : 2004
Newton S. Thomas was born in Georgetown, KY. In 1920, his parents were divorced and Fanny Thomas was head of the household of six, according to the U.S. Federal Census. They lived on East Washington St. Newton Thomas graduated from Kentucky Normal and Industrial [now Kentucky State University]. A teacher at the Horse Cave (KY) Colored School (which had four rooms and more than 100 students), he became principal of the school in 1936. Thomas also coached the basketball team of nine players. They had no gym but won 65 games per season in 1944 and 1945, claiming the Negro League State Championship both years. In 1957, Newton Thomas was the first African American to teach at an integrated school in Kentucky, Caverna Independent High School in Horse Cave. For more see J. Mcalister, "Newton Thomas, coach of 2 basketball champions, dies at 92," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/03/04, City&Region section, p.B4; and Shadows of the Past: a history of the Kentucky High School Athletic League, by L. Stout.

Access Interview Read the transcript and listen to the audio of the Newton S. Thomas interview in the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society.

Access Interview Read about the Newton S. Thomas oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Horse Cave, Hart County, Kentucky

Timberlake, Clarence L.
Birth Year : 1886
Death Year : 1979
Timberlake was born in Elizaville, KY. Known as the "Father of Vocational Education," he was the author of Household Ethics and Industrial Training in Colored Schools, and the pamphlet, Politics and the Schools. Timberlake was the owner of the weekly newspaper Frankfort Clarion. He established the first trade school in Kentucky and developed a school in Pembroke (Christian County) into the first Teacher Training School for Negroes in Kentucky. He taught and was principal at other Kentucky schools, and from 1948 until his retirement in1957, was president of West Kentucky Vocational School [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College] in Paducah. Timberlake was a 1904 graduate of Kentucky Normal Industrial Institute for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University]. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Kentucky's Black Heritage, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; J. A. Hardin, "Green Pickney Russell of Kentucky Normal and Industrial Institute for Colored Persons," Journal of Black Studies, vol. 25, issue 5 (May 1995), p. 614; and The Timberlake Story, by O. A. Dawson. The Clarence L. Timberlake Papers and the Clarence L. Timberlake Oral History are located at Murray State University Library.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Elizaville, Fleming County, Kentucky / Pembroke, Christian County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Travis, Oneth M., Sr.
Birth Year : 1895
Death Year : 1991
Travis was born in Albany, KY, the son of Jacob and Nanny Overstreet Travis. He graduated from Lincoln Institute. He owned a family dry goods store and was also an educator and community leader in Monticello, KY. Travis purchased a bus from Wayne Taxi Company to establish the first school transportation system in Wayne County, KY. Travis also purchased land and established the Travis Elementary and High Schools in Monticello. In 1955, Travis and Ira Bell helped facilitate the integration of the Monticello and Wayne County Schools. In 1965, Travis was appointed to the Kentucky Board of Education by Governor Simeon S. Willis, and was the first African American to be named to the post. Later, Bell was inducted into the Kentucky Civil Rights Hall of Fame. Travis also developed a recreation center in Wayne County. He was a World War I veteran and a Kentucky delegate to Republican national conventions. He was a member of the Knights of Pythias and a Mason. Travis moved to Pittsburgh in 1986, where he passed away in 1991; he is buried in the Monticello Cemetery. He was the uncle of Thomas J. Craft, Sr. and the father of Oneth M. Travis, Jr. For more see "Oneth M. Travis," Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 08/20/1991, OBIT section, p. B4. See also African American Schools in Wayne County, KY; and Mr. Oneth Morview Travis in The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. See photo image of Negro school and gymnasium in Monticello, KY, Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Board of Education, Bus Transportation: Employees, Owners, Segregation, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Albany, Clinton County, Kentucky / Lincoln Ridge, Shelby County, Kentucky / Monticello, Wayne County, Kentucky / Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Twyman, Luska J.
Birth Year : 1913
Death Year : 1988
Luska J. Twyman was born in Hiseville, KY, the son of Eliza Twyman. In 1968 he became the first African American mayor of Glasgow and, for 17 years, the only African American mayor in Kentucky. He was also the first African American to serve on the U.S. Commission of Human Rights. Twyman was a 1939 graduate of Kentucky State University and a World War II veteran. He was a former principal of the Ralph Bunch School for African Americans in Glasgow. The Luska J. Twyman Memorial Park in Glasgow is named in his honor. There is also a Kentucky Historical Marker [#2019] honoring Twyman in the Glasgow Public Square. For more see "Kentucky City Council Names Black Mayor," Jet, vol. 35, issue 1 (Oct. 10, 1968), p. 4; Luska Twyman in the Kentucky Files - Biography at the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives; and S. Brown, "Luska Twyman, Kentucky's first Black mayor, dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, 01/29/1988, City/State section, p. C1.

See photo image of Luska J. Twyman at the Glasgow Daily Times Archive website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Parks, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Mayors, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hiseville and Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky

Wade, Helen Cary Caise
Birth Year : 1939
In the summer of 1955, it was big news in Lexington, KY when 16 year old Helen Caise registered for summer classes at Lafayette High School. The Lexington and Fayette County school systems were segregated in 1955, and Caise, who was a sophomore at Douglass High School, became the first African American student to attend a white high school. Lafayette High had the only summer program in the county school system. Students attended classes for three hours per day for seven weeks. After completing the program, Caise returned to Douglass High as a junior. It had been a tough summer. The decision to integrate the summer program was made by county superintendent, Dr. N. C. Turpen, and backed by the Board of Education. Helen, the daughter of John J. and Edna Morton Caise, had been encouraged to attend the summer program by Douglass principal Mrs. Theda Van Lowe and homeroom teacher Mrs. Mary Roach. Caise was the only African American student enrolled in the summer program; only one of her fellow students befriended her, a girl named Barbara Levy. Because Helen had broken the color line by attending a white high school, her family received threats at their home, 545 Lindberg Drive. The address had been included in the Herald newspaper article that was published on the first day of summer classes, announcing that Helen Caise would be the first Negro to attend a white high school in Fayette County. Nine male family members made sure that Helen arrived at school and returned home safely, but her family was ruined financially due to the retaliation. Helen Caise graduated from high school and college and is now a retired teacher living in Ohio. For more see "Douglass student to study at Lafayette," Lexington Herald, 06/07/1955, p. 1; Kentucky under heading "Shows schools obeying courts" on page 23 of Jet, 06/23/1955 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; M. Davis, "Girl's act of friendship not forgotten by recipient," Lexington Herald Leader, 03/15/1992, Lifestyle section, p. J1; and H. C. Wade, "Students shouldn't have to fight for respect, rights," Lexington Herald Leader, 05/22/2006, Feedback section, p. A10.

See photo image of Helen Cary Caise Wade and additional information at Fayette County Public Schools website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Way, James Sherman
Birth Year : 1923
Death Year : 2005
Way was born in Cynthiana, KY, the son of James and Elizabeth Lydick Way. In 1967, James Sherman Way became the first African American faculty member at Eastern Kentucky University (EKU); he was a professor of industrial technology. His children, James, Jannette, William, and Melissa, were the first African American children enrolled in the EKU Model School. Way was a graduate of Central State University and Eastern Kentucky University. He was also an athlete: he played baseball for the Lexington Hustlers and was named to the Harrison County Football Hall of Fame. For more see "James Sherman Way 1923-2005 became first black member of EKU faculty, Cynthiana native was professor of industrial technology," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/15/2005, City&Region section, p. C3; and the James Way and Mrs. Anna Williams Way interviews in the Eastern Kentucky University Library.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Baseball, Education and Educators, Football, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky / Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky

Wayman Institute
Start Year : 1890
End Year : 1919
Founded in Harrodsburg, KY, by the Kentucky Conference of the A. M. E. Church, Wayman Institute was named after Bishop A. W. Wayman. It was an elementary school with three buildings located on 20 acres of land (some sources say that there were 4 buildings on 18 1/2 acres of land). The principals were Rev. I. H. Welch, August Reid, W. H. Lacey, George W. Saffell, W. E. Newsome, C. H. Brown, and in 1915, C. H. Boone. The school had 3 teachers and 53 students during the 1915-16 school term. Twenty-nine students had graduated by 1916, and the school closed in 1919. The property was sold and the Kentucky interest of $2,000 was merged into Tuner College in Tennessee. For more see Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, p. 370 [full-text at the UNC Documenting the American South website]; "Wayman Institute," pp. 278-279 in vol. 2 of Negro Education: a study of the private and higher schools for Colored people in the United States, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1916, No. 39 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; Wayman Institute on p. 525 of The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright; and a detailed history of Wayman Institute on pp.196-201 in The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky by W. M. Wesley. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.

 

Access Interview Listen to the oral history recordings of Margaret Harris for more information about Wayman Institute at "Pass the Word" a Kentucky Historical Society website. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky

Wendell, Thomas T.
Birth Year : 1877
Death Year : 1953
Dr. Thomas T. Wendell was born in Nashville, TN, the son of Alfred and Clare Wendell. He was a physician in Lexington, KY, for half a century, and was a full time doctor for Negro patients at Eastern State Hospital until his retirement in the spring of 1952. When Eastern State completed the new hospital building for Negro patients in 1953, it was named the Wendell Building in honor of Dr. Thomas Wendell. The facility was to be a fully functioning hospital with the capacity to house 350 patients and housing for 30 live-in employees. In addition to being a doctor, Wendell was also a pharmacist, he had received both degrees from Meharry Medical College. He also led the effort to build the old Paul Lawrence Dunbar High School in 1922. For more see Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000; "Negro building at Eastern to be named for Dr. Wendell," Lexington Leader, 03/05/1953, p.24; and the Thomas T. Wendell Collection at the Kentucky Historical Society Library.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Pharmacists, Pharmacies
Geographic Region: Nashville, Tennessee / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Wheelwright, KY - Colored Section
Start Year : 1918
The Wheelwright Company Housing Project included housing for African Americans, known as the Colored Section. African Americans had first come to the town to work on the railroad at the close of World War I. The railroad was being constructed by the B&O (Baltimore and Ohio Railroad), one of the oldest railroads in the United States, and was later purchased by the C&O (Chesapeake and Ohio Railway). When the railroad was completed, the African American men were kept on to work in the mines. Some of the men lived at the boarding house owned by Hilton Garrett (1895-1991), an African American from Birmingham, AL. Garrett had come to Kentucky on his own, and after saving enough money, he was able to bring his wife, brother, and another man to Wheelwright. The town of Wheelwright had been established in 1916 by the Elkhorn Coal Company, and was named after the president of Consolidated Coal Company, Jere H. Wheelwright. The miners were of all races and nationalities, and African Americans were recruited from the North and the South. In the mines, the men were integrated, but they were segregated outside the mines. A black deputy was hired for the Colored section of town known as Hall Hollow. Wheelwright was not listed as a separate town in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census. In the 1930 census, of the 226 African Americans listed as living in Wheelwright, more than 100 were men from Alabama. Wives and children were also listed in the census. Segregation was the norm between African Americans and Whites. Among the African Americans who lived in the Colored section, there was distinction and confrontations between those from the North and those form the South. There was not a school building for African American children, so grade school was held in the Colored church. A high school, Dunbar High, was built in 1936. Mrs. Mannie N. Wilson was a high school teacher before the building was completed, and in 1935, she was listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal. When Inland Steel owned the city of Wheelwright, the homes were upgraded, the streets were paved, and recreation facilities were built. All was segregated. Library services were provided to African Americans around 1943 via the library for whites. Photographs, such as a 1946 photo, show the street in the Colored section of the housing project. There is also a photo of the shift change at a mine. These and other photo images are available in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images. For more see the Wheelwright Collection and other collections at the University of Kentucky Libraries Special Collections; Black Coal Miners in America, by R. L. Lewis; the Kentucky Coal Education website Wheelwright Kentucky, Floyd County; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones. Also contact the Floyd County Public Library.

 
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration North, Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills, Migration South, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Railroad, Railway, Trains, Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies
Geographic Region: Birmingham, Alabama / Wheelwright, Floyd County, Kentucky

Williams, Burnett, Jr.
Birth Year : 1932
Death Year : 1997
Williams was born in Cynthiana, KY. He was a 6'4" center-forward on the Banneker High School basketball team in Cynthiana. The team finished third in the 1951 Bluegrass Tournament. He continued his basketball career and education at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], graduating in 1955. Williams was also a graduate of the FBI National Academy and was employed by the Cincinnati Police Department in Ohio; in 1988, he became one of the first few African Americans to earn the rank of Captain with the department; his promotion came one year after A. W. Harmon, Sr. was named the second African American captain. Burnett Williams was a 35-year veteran of the Cincinnati Police Department, retiring in 1993. For more see Shadows of the past, by L. Stout; and "Burnett Williams, police captain," The Cincinnati Post, 11/21/1997, News section, p.17A.
Subjects: Basketball, Corrections and Police, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Williams, Kermit
Birth Year : 1930
Death Year : 2006
Kermit Williams attended Mayo-Underwood, an all African American school in Frankfort, Kentucky. School integration in 1956 allowed Williams and a few other African American students to transfer to Frankfort High School. In Williams' sophomore year he became the first African American to play football at the school, playing halfback as well as defensive back. In 2006, Williams was inducted into the school's Football Hall of Fame. One of the obstacles Williams faced as a football player was a stipulation in the will of John R. Sower, who had donated the land where the football field was located: Sower's will stipulated that the athletic field was to be used by whites only, but the coach allowed Williams to play anyway. Before one game, crosses were burned near the football field, yet Williams went onto the field and scored two touchdowns, giving Frankfort High the win. The night was covered by Life magazine. Williams continued to play football throughout his high school years and was also outstanding in basketball and track. For more see "The Enlightened One," The State Journal, 08/23/2006; and J. Sergent, "Coming of Age: how a product of the segregated South became an advocate for change," Vanderbilt Magazine, Fall 2002, pp. 68-69 & 86.
Subjects: Football, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Williams, Margaret Yeager
The first African American in the Louisville Parent Teacher Association, Williams was also the first African-American president of United Methodist Women - R. E. Jones Temple and the first African American Dean of the School of Missions. For more see C. Ritchie, "Six 'Women of Distinction' are honored," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 03/24/03, Features section, p. O13.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Williamsburg (KY) Colored Academy
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1955
In 1883, the American Missionary Association (AMA) opened a church and a school in Williamsburg, KY, that was attended by both Negroes and whites. The effort was to be a copy of what had taken place at Berea. When some of the white children left the school in protest of the mixed attendance, AMA refused to change the policy, and the white children returned. The school would eventually be for whites only. The Williamsburg Colored Academy was opened for Negro children at some point in the 1880s. It began as a one room cabin for grades 1-8. Though it was claimed that there were few Negro children in the area, the school continued to grow, and by 1889 it was written that there were 307 students, Report of the Commissioner of Education [available at Google Book Search]. Rev. Henry Bond was the sole teacher of the school during the early 1900s. He is listed as a member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association in the association's 1923 journal. Other teachers included Jane Arthur (mother of Henry Bond), Miss Mae Jones, Miss Ruth Bond (daughter of Henry Bond), Miss Mamie Smith, Viola Shields, Thelma Smoot Lewis, Benjamin O. Burrus Sr., and Professor Holliday S. Skillman. The Williamsburg Colored School was closed some time after 1958. According to historian, Karen McDaniel, the high schools integrated in 1955, but the African American students continued in grades 1-8 at the Williamsburg Colored School until some time after 1958. Also, thanks to McDaniel for the following information: a c.1938 photo taken in front of the schoolhouse, with teacher Thelma Smoot and the school children, is in the title Whitley County, Kentucky, History and Families, 1818-1993. The colored school building has since been converted into a residence, it is located on Hickory Street [renamed Roy Chappell Street]. This entry was suggested by Carrie Stewart, a 1942 graduate of the Williamsburg Colored School. For more see the Annual Report of the American Missionary Association, 1883, pp.23,51-52; American Missionary, vol. 37, issue 12 (Dec. 1883), pp. 376-382; and The Bonds, by R. M. Williams. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Williamsburg, Whitley County, Kentucky

Wilson, Clarence "Cave", Sr.
Birth Year : 1926
Death Year : 1996
Wilson led the Horse Cave, KY, Colored School to 65 consecutive basketball victories in the 1940s. He was named to the Tennessee State University Hall of Fame. He was a forward and a point guard for the Harlem Globetrotters (1949-1964), known for his two-handed set shot from mid-court. After his basketball career Wilson was a juvenile caseworker and probation officer in Louisville, KY. He and his teammates were in the movie Harlem Globetrotters, starring Dorothy Dandridge and Thomas Gomez. For more see "Former Harlem Globetrotter Clarence 'Cave' Wilson Dies," Lexington Herald Leader, 09/20/96.
Subjects: Basketball, Corrections and Police, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Horse Cave, Hart County, Kentucky / Nashville, Tennessee / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Wood, Francis M.
Birth Year : 1878
Death Year : 1943
Francis Wood was born in Barren County, KY, the son of Fannie Myers Wood and William H. Wood, and a brother to Rev. J. Edmund Wood. He taught in various African American schools in Kentucky and served as principal of Western High School in Paris, KY for 12 years [he lived at 401 Lillleston Avenue in Paris]. He was also president of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA) for 10 years and of the Kentucky Negro Industrial Institute (now Kentucky State University) from May 1923 to June 1924. In 1925 he became supervisor and later director of the Baltimore Colored Schools. In 1934 he was elected president of the National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools and established a permanent office in Washington, D.C. Francis M. Wood Alternative High School (Baltimore) is named in his honor. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; "Office of the President Records" in the Kentucky Digital Library; and "Dr. Francis M. Wood, educator, 65, dead," The New York Times, 05/09/1943, p. 40.


See photo image and additional information in "Francis Wood left legacy in education," article by G. Kinslow in Glasgow Daily Times, 02/21/2010 [available online].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky / Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Baltimore, Maryland

Young, Whitney M., Sr.
Birth Year : 1897
Death Year : 1975
Young was born in Paynes Depot, KY, the son of Anne and Taylor Young. He became the first African American director of Lincoln Institute and kept the school from being closed with his Faith Plan. Young had attended grade school in Zion Hill and was a graduate of Lincoln Institute, Louisville Municipal College, and Fisk University. He was also two time President of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and received committee appointments from U.S. presidents. Whitney Young, Sr., was the husband of Laura R. Young and the father of Eleanor Young, Arnita Young Boswell, and Whitney Young, Jr. Whitney Young, Sr.'s papers are at Kentucky State University. For more see the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan; and "Whitney M. Young Sr.dies in Louisville at 77," Jet, 09/04/1975, p.46 [article and photo available full view at Google Book Search].

Subjects: Education and Educators, Fathers, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paynes Depot, Scott County, Kentucky / Lincoln Ridge, Shelby County, Kentucky

Yowell, Samuel [Petersburg Colored School]
Birth Year : 1791
Death Year : 1872
Samuel Yowell [also spelled Youell] was a property owner in Petersburg, KY. He was born in Virginia and is listed in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census as a freeman who was a weaver. Included in his household was Jane Yowell, born in 1810 in Virginia. In the 1870 Census, Samuel Yowell's occupation is listed as a fisherman, and there are two children living with him and Jane: 12 year old Mat Yowell and 5 year old Amanda Yowell, both born in Kentucky. Samuel Yowell died in Petersburg in 1872 without any heirs, so his property, lots 172 and 173, became the property of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature passed "An Act for the benefit of the colored schools in Petersburg, Kentucky," granting that lots 172 and 173 be used for the schools. Petersburg was established in 1800 and is an unincorporated community in Boone County, KY. In 1880, the population was 1,377 with 98 African Americans. For more see "Laws of Kentucky," Acts Passed at the...Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Chapter 1019, pp. 464-465 [available full-text at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Migration West, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Virginia / Petersburg, Boone County, Kentucky

Zion Hill (Scott County, KY)
Also referred to as a village, Zion Hill is located in the southern part of Scott County off of Paynes Depot Road, near the Woodford/Fayette County line. The community was developed prior to the end of slavery, according to Ponice Raglin Cruse, a former resident and collector of the community's history. Lenerson was the original name of the community. The land had been deeded to the African American residents by a farm and slave owner named Harris, who was from Virginia. Lenerson grew to include over 200 acres with approximately 45 homes and two stores, one of which housed the post office that existed from 1900-1903. With a population of 250 or more persons, it remained a fairly well-off African American community until the late 1990s. Whitney Young, Sr. attended the colored grade school in Lenerson; later the community had a one-room schoolhouse, Rosenwald School. It is thought that the community name was changed to Zion Hill while the post office was still in operation, perhaps around the time that the original Zion Hill Baptist Church was constructed. In 1945, the Zion Hill Rosenwald School was closed and the children were bused to the White Sulfur Elementary School and the Ed Davis High School, both in Scott County (see Betty W. Davis). Today, Zion Hill receives phone service from Fayette County; mail from Woodford County; and water, police, and fire department services from Scott County. Information submitted by Ponice Raglin Cruse and her father Reverend Floyd B. Raglin. Contact Ms. Cruse about pictures, deeds, and other historical information pertaining to Zion Hill.
Subjects: Communities, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Zion Hill (Lenerson), Scott County, Kentucky

 

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