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Academic Library Classes, Kentucky, African Americans
Start Year : 1932
End Year : 1940
The first academic library classes for African Americans in Kentucky, were taught in 1932 within the unaccredited library department developed by Eliza Atkins at the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes in Louisville, KY [source: Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones]. The department was established in conjunction with the Louisville Western Colored Branch Library and existed off and on from 1932 to about 1940, and in 1951 the Municipal College was merged into the University of Louisville. The Western Colored Branch Library had been the home to the first library training program specifically for Negroes, 1912-1931. The training program was attended by public library employees in the South. The new program in 1932 was a more scholarly effort in the training of Negro librarians within a college framework. In 1933, when Virginia Lacy arrived at the Municipal College, she assisted Eliza Atkins in teaching the library classes. The program had barely gotten off the ground when Eliza Atkins left the Municipal College in 1936 and in 1940 became the first African American to earn a PhD in library science and the first African American dean of a library school. Virginia Lacy left the Municipal College in 1938; she became the second African American to earn a PhD in library science and the second African American dean of a library school. In 1938, Virginia Lacy left Kentucky at the exact time when Negro candidates for teaching certificates, could also qualify for teacher-librarian certification [source: p.92 in Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones]. The Louisville Municipal College was approved by the Division of Teacher Training and Certification to be a training center for Negro school teachers and teacher-librarians. The classes were also to suffice for Negro public library employees who were seeking the qualifications the new law mandated for public librarians. Classes were held at the Louisville Municipal College, Western Colored Branch Library, and Eastern Colored Branch Library. From 1938-1940, classes were also offered at Kentucky State College (now Kentucky State University). "During the summer session of 1938 there was introduced a technical course in Library Science for the training of special and teacher librarians in the Negro high schools of the state."- - [source: Ten Year Report of Kentucky State College - 1929-1939, pp.48-49]. The State Department of Education required 18 credit hours for certification. Too few students enrolled in the library classes at Kentucky State College; therefore, the school began referring applicants to Fisk University in Tennessee for a four year undergraduate major in library science. 
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

African American Schools and Teachers in Kentucky, 1929
Start Year : 1929
In 1929, Harvey C. Russell, Sr. found that the higher education institutions in Kentucky were at a low state of teacher preparation for the state's colored high schools. The findings are included in Russell's thesis The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools of Kentucky, for a Master of Arts in Education at the University of Cincinnati. In his thesis, Russell focused on public high schools, but noted that there were 61 colored high schools of all types in Kentucky: 36 city controlled, 23 county controlled, and 2 state controlled. There were 204 teachers. The number of colored high schools had more than doubled over a 10 year period and student enrollment had increased by 170 percent. There were 31 four year approved high schools within 28 counties and all but three had less than 100 students. The Rosenwald Fund had provided for 10 libraries. Among the public high schools, 56% of the teachers were college graduates and "the state has drawn heavily upon educational institutions in other states." [quote from Chapter VI, p.68, item 7.] Below are the names of the higher education institutions with graduates who were teachers at the colored high schools in Kentucky during the 1928-29 school term, as listed in Table XI, pp.46-46a, in The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools in Kentucky by Harvey C. Russell, Sr.

Training institutions in Kentucky attended by colored teachers (26%):

Training institutions in other states attended by colored teachers (74%):

Tennessee
  • Fisk University
  • Lane College
  • Knoxville College
  • Tennessee State College
Ohio
  • Wilberforce University
  • Ohio State University
  • Ohio University
  • Miami University
Washington, D.C.
  • Howard University
Indiana
  • Indiana University
  • Terre Haute Teacher College
Illinois
  • University of Chicago
  • Northwestern University
  • Illinois State Normal
  • University of Illinois
  • Chicago Business College
Georgia
  • Atlanta University
  • Clark University
  • Morris Brown University
Pennsylvania
  • Lincoln University
  • Cheney Normal
Virginia
  • Hampton Institute
Alabama
  • Tuskegee Institute
Oklahoma
  • Langston University
Michigan
  • Ypsilanti Normal
New York
  • Columbia University
  • Pratt Institute
Florida
  • Florida State College
Massachusetts
  • Smith College
Nebraska
  • University of Nebraska
North Carolina
  • John C. Smith University

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, Freedmen Schools - Kentucky, 1866-1870
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1870
The establishment (and support) of schools by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands from 1866-1870 was the first major, statewide effort to provide education for African Americans in Kentucky. There were more than 200 freedmen schools in Kentucky, including American Missionary Association Schools that were supported by the Bureau. The support was extended to schools that held classes in churches and rented buildings. In areas where the schools were not welcomed, the buildings were destroyed and/or the teachers were run out of town. In most of the cities where the schools were established, they were the first schools for African Americans. There were day schools, night schools, and Sabbath schools for both children and adults. Prior to the arrival of the Bureau, there were about 35 colored schools with 58 colored teachers in Kentucky. The students paid a subscription fee. For those schools supported by the Bureau, the majority of the school teachers were white women, some from northern states and associated with the American Missionary Association. The history of the overall effort, successes and failures, and the names of cities where schools were located, are all included in the Semi-annual Report on Schools for Freedmen: numbers 1-10, January 1866-July 1870, by J. W. Alvord. The title is available full-text online at Google Books. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. See also The Race to Educate: African American resistance to educational segregation in Kentucky, 1865-1910 (dissertation) by T. L. Bradley.
 
Freedmen Schools in Kentucky

  • Bourbon County - Millersburg - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Paris - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School built by Mr. Clay.
  • Boyd County - Ashland - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Boyle County - Danville - Freedmen School; American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Parksville - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Shelby City - Freedmen School
  • Bracken County - Augusta - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Bullitt County - Shepherdsville - Freedmen School. Teacher threatened; Noble School burnt down; schools held in two churches, churches were burnt down.
  • Breckinridge County - Cloverport - Freedmen School; - Hardinsburg - Freedmen School
  • Caldwell County - Princeton - Freedmen School
  • Christian County - Hopkinsville - Freedmen School
  • Clark County - Winchester - Freedmen School
  • Cumberland County - Burkesville - Freedmen School built by white citizens.
  • Daviess County - Owensboro - Freedmen School (brick)
  • Fayette County - Lexington - Freedmen School; Sabbath School established by the Episcopal Church; High School; - Stickaway - Freedmen School
  • Franklin County - Frankfort - School built with $600 contribution from the Episcopal Church & school under supervision of the Bishop.
  • Fulton County - Hickman - Freedmen School
  • Gallatin County - Warsaw - Freedmen School
  • Garrard County - Lancaster - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Graves County - Mayfield - Freedmen School. Freedmen beaten and whipped, teacher run out of town.
  • Harrison County - Cynthiana - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School
  • Hart County - Munfordville - Freedmen School; - Woodsonville - Freedmen School
  • Henderson County - Henderson - Freedmen School, school teachers threatened and run out of town.
  • Hickman County - Columbus - Freedmen School held in rented school house.
  • Jefferson County - Louisville - Teacher training school, school teacher insulted by police officer; Ely Normal School; - Portland - Freedmen School
  • Jessamine County - Camp Nelson - Ariel Academy (purchased by the Bureau for $1,520); - Keene - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Kenton County - Covington - Freedmen School; there were also several schools held in churches; American Missionary Association Schools supported by the Bureau.
  • Lincoln County - Crab Orchard - Freedmen School. School teacher mobbed and run out of town.
  • Logan County - Auburn - School plans were scrapped due to mob.
  • McCracken County - Paducah - Runkle Institute [named for Benjamin P. Runkle, Superintendent of Education in Kentucky]
  • Madison County - Berea - Freedmen School; Berea College provided instruction to freemen; - Kingston - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Richmond - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School.
  • Mason County - Maysville - Freedmen School; American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Mayslick - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Washington - Freedmen School
  • Marion County - Lebanon - Freedmen School
  • Meade County - Bradenburg - Freedmen School, school was burnt down, another building rented and school continued; - Haysville - Freedmen School. School was burnt down.
  • Monroe County - Tompkinsville - Freedmen School. School was burnt down.
  • Montgomery County - Mt. Sterling - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School.
  • Nelson County - Bardstown - Freedmen School; - Bloomfield - Freedmen School; - Springfield - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Nicholas County - Carlisle - Freedmen School
  • Oldham County - LaGrange - Freedmen School; - Peewee Valley - Freedman School
  • Pendleton County - Falmouth - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Pulaski County - Somerset - Freedmen School. School teacher run out of town.
  • Shelby County - Shelbyville - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School. Teacher assaulted by the county judge and run out of town.
  • Scott County - Georgetown - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Simpson County - Franklin - Freedmen School. Teacher mobbed, had to be saved by U.S. Troops.
  • Todd County - Hadensville - Freedmen School; - Trenton - Freedmen School
  • Warren County - Bowling Green - Freedmen School. Teacher run out of town.
  • Woodford County - Versailles - Freedmen School; - Midway - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Chaplain - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Hopkins Farm - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Sills Farm - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Smith's Mill - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Turnerville - Freedmen School
  • Cairo, Illinois - Freedmen School. The school burnt down, it had been attend by studens who were members of the large number of former slaves from Kentucky who had escaped to Cairo.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, High Schools - Eastern Kentucky, 1948
Start Year : 1948
In 1948, William T. Gilbert completed his thesis, The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky, for a Master of Arts degree at Indiana University. A Kentucky school law mandated that all school districts provide 12 grades of segregated school for both races. For many of the eastern counties with few colored students (who lived in scattered locations throughout the county), the law presented a challenge. There were 16 approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky from 1918-1940, and two of the schools had been dropped: enrollment was too small at Manchester, and the Vicco school was consolidated with the Hazard school system. The high school classes ranged in size from six students in Pineville to 288 students in Lynch. There were 46 high school teachers, all college graduates. Below is a list of the high school names from p. 25 of Gilbert's thesis, and below that, from p. 90, a list of the institutions from which the high school teachers graduated.

Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools:

  • Lincoln [not Liberty]
Middlesboro
  • Roland-Hayes
Pineville
  • B. T. Washington
Ashland
  • Palmer-Dunbar
Wheelwright
  • Benham
Benham
  • Rosenwald
Harlan
  • Lynch
Lynch
  • Rosenwald
Barbourville
  • London
London
  • Dunham
Jenkins
  • Fee
Maysville
  • Liberty
Hazard
  • Perry Cline
Pikeville
  • Somerset
Somerset



Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools: Institutions from which the High School Teachers Graduated:

  • Kentucky State

25
  • Tennessee State

4
  • Knoxville College

3
  • Wilberforce University

3
  • Clark University

2
  • Tuskegee Institute

2
  • Fisk University

1
  • Hampton Institute

1
  • West Virginia State

1
  • Ohio State

1
  • Atlanta University

1
  • University of Cincinnati

1
  • Louisville Municipal

1

Subjects: Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Eastern Kentucky

African American Schools in Bullitt County, KY
Start Year : 1827
End Year : 1956
According to author Daniel Buxton*, in his article, "African American Education in Bullitt County," schools for African Americans were attempted as early as 1827. Other early schools in Bullitt County were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, from 1866-1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools - Kentucky]. The schools were not welcomed; the teacher at the Shepherdsville Freedmen School was threatened, the Noble School was burnt down in 1867, and the schools held in churches resulted in the churches being burnt down. In spite of the resistance that was encountered, there were still colored schools in Bullitt County, with eight schools in 1880 [source: Ockerman, p. 127], and the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction noted seven colored districts in the county. In 1890, the industrial school, Eckstein Norton University, opened in Cane Springs. The school was founded by William J. Simmons and Charles H. Parrish, Sr. both of whom would become president of the school. Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N Railroad) gave $3,000 toward the development of the school, and in return the school was named for Eckstein Norton, a banker and president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad [source: The History of Education in Bullitt County, by H. N. Ockerman, pp. 76-96]. The school was situated along the Bardstown Branch of the L&N Railroad on 75 acres of land that had been purchased from Austin Speed. L&N Railroad built a station [Lotus, KY] just for the students and school personnel. There were seven buildings on the campus: the main building, a brick structure, and six frame buildings that were used as dormitories, a printing office, a laundry, and a blacksmith shop. There was a primary department, grades 1-5; a training department, grades 6-8; a normal and preparatory department, grades 9-12; and the college department, which offered a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Bachelor of Sciences degree. In 1911, Eckstein Norton University merged with Lincoln Institute, and the Eckstein Norton campus was closed in 1912. The school had awarded 189 bachelor's degrees. During the 12 years that Eckstein Norton existed, there were still seven colored public schools in Bullitt County, including the Copera Hollow School mentioned in the article by Daniel Buxton. After the closing of Eckstein Norton, the Bullitt County Board of Education established a contract with Lincoln Institute for the education of high school students. According to Buxton, the number of county public colored schools was six by 1905, reduced to four schools by 1910. According to Ockerman [p. 127], three colored school districts were eliminated in 1913. Another school opened around 1922: Central Christian Institute, owned by the Christian Woman's Board of Missions of the Disciples of Christ United Missionary Society; that school closed in 1927. It had been one of the five schools in Bullitt County for African Americans, along with Shepherdsville Colored School, Lebanon Junction Colored School, Mt. Washington Colored School, and Bowman Valley Colored School, which opened around 1916. All of the public colored schools were taught by African American women teachers; in 1908 their average monthly salary was $26.14 [source: Ockerman, p. 115]. Many of the county public schools were consolidated beginning in 1922, and in 1932 Bowman Valley Colored School became the only school for African American children. The school building was located between Shepherdsville and Bardstown Junction. In 1940, Henry Owens was listed as the Negro school teacher in Bullitt County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1947, the teachers were Miss Maggie Owens and Miss Mattie Owens [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, (March-April, 1947), p. 27]. The schools of Bullitt County began to integrate in 1956 with Lebanon Junction, Mount Washington, St. Aloysius, and St. Benedict [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.422.

  • Shepherdsville Freedmen School [teacher threatened]
  • Noble School supported by the Bureau [burnt down in 1867]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [church was burnt down]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [2nd church burnt down]
  • Colored School Districts (8)
  • Eckstein Norton University (1890-1912)
  • Copera Hollow School
  • Shepherdsville School
  • Lebanon Junction School
  • Mt. Washington School
  • Bowman Valley School
  • Central Christian Institute (c.1922-1927)

   See the photo images of schools and students at the Bullitt County History website.

*Note: The article "African American Education in Bullitt County" by Daniel Buxton is a well researched article that includes the names of teachers at the various schools, photo images, and a list of references, all available online at the Bullitt County History website.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bullitt County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Madison County, KY
Start Year : 1825
End Year : 1956
In his master's thesis, History of Education in Madison County, Robert E. Little wrote that in the first quarter of the 1800s, slave owner Green Clay taught his Negro overseers to read and write [p.42]. Also according to Little, it was around 1850 that slave owner Cabell Chenault built a school on his property for his slaves [p.42]. Chenault and his daughter taught at the school. It was in 1866 that the first public colored school was held in Madison County with as many as 34 students [sources: History of Education in Madison County, p.43; the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Education in Kentucky; and the NKAA entry African American Schools - Kentucky, 1866]. According to author Richard D. Sears, John H. Jackson taught a school class in Madison County in 1868, and Cornelius C. Vaughn taught at a freedmen's school in Richmond in 1870 [source: A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91]. There were several colored schools in Madison County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, the teachers in Madison County were William Crawford, Elizabeth Crawford, Mary E. Crawford, and Milley Crawford, all in Glade, KY; Belle Bleston in Richmond; and  John Harper in Kirksville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1880 to 1881, there were 14 colored schools and 14 teachers [Little, p.44], the schools were taught in churches and rented buildings, and there were only two or three colored school buildings [Little, p.45]. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature approved the Act that would allow Samuel Watts, Sydney Campbell, and Madison Tevis to build a school house for colored children in District 12, on land given to them by W. C. Peyton, which was less than a mile from the white school Silver Creek Academy also known as the Blythe School [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Regular Session - November 1881, v.II, Chapter 1327, p.878]. According to Little, in 1886, there were 27 colored schools [Little, p.172]. In 1888, there were still 27 colored school districts in Madison County, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887]. There were as many as 34 colored schools in 1893 and in 1897 [Little, p.172], and the highest attendance was during the 1893-94 school term with 975 students [Little, p.174]. In 1903, there was a colored school in Berea [source: "Berea and vicinity," The Citizen, 11/26/1903, p.6; and the Joshua Crenshaw Report on the Berea Colored School 1905-06]. Within the Black American Series title, Berea and Madison County by J. G. Burnside, there are pictures of former students, teachers, and principals at Madison County colored schools. The pictures were taken prior to school desegregation in Bobtown, Farristown, Middletown, Peytontown, and Richmond. Also included are students and faculty at Berea College prior to segregation in 1904. Other Colored schools in Madison County in 1912 were Concord School, Richmond City School, Valley View School, and Calloway Creek School [source: "Graduation Diplomas," Richmond Climax, 02/07/1912, p.4]. During the school year 1932-33, there were 14 colored schools in Madison County [Little, p.172-173]. The Madison County Board of Education paid $4 per month, per county high school student who attended Richmond Colored High School; there was not a colored high school in the county. In 1940, the teachers in Madison County were Elizabeth Baten, Robert Blythe, Lena Blythe, Willie Campbell, Warfield B. Campbell, Bessie Cavington, Millie Embry, Mcgustar Estell, Margaret Fletcher, Jarman Haynes, Bessie Irvine, Charles M. Irvine, R. H. Jackson, R. L. Johnson, Roanna Maupin, Cabal Merritt, Andrew Miller, Jarnie Moran, George W. Parks, Rev. F. H. Shipes, Katherine Taylor, Anna Turner, Georgie Walker, Julien A. Walker, Alitha White, Dorothy White, Hazel White, Maggie B. Wilson, and Estilla Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.440, were Central High School, and Foundation School (Private), and Madison-Model High School was listed as white & integrated. The Madison County schools were fully integrated in 1963.

  • Green Clay Slave School
  • Chenault Slave School
  • Colored Schools (34)
  • Berea School [also referred to as Pasco School, records at Berea College Archives]
  • Berea Freedmen School
  • Bobtown School
  • Brassfield School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Calloway Creek School
  • Concord School
  • Farristown School
  • Glade School
  • Grapevine School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Kingston American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Kirksville School
  • Middletown School
  • Peytontown School
  • Richmond American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Richmond Freedmen School
  • Richmond High School
  • Valley View School 

Subjects: Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky

American Baptist Home Missionary Society Schools in Kentucky
Start Year : 1895
In 1895, the American Baptist Home Missionary Society had 619 African American students in its Kentucky schools: State University [Simmons University], Louisville; Cadiz Normal and Theological College [headed by Rev. W. H. McRidley], Cadiz; Simmons Memorial College [headed by Robert Mitchell], Bowling Green; Henderson Normal School, Henderson; Glasgow Normal School, Glasgow; and Baptist Church School, Danville. For more see the Sixty-third Annual Report, of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, May 30th and 31st, 1895, pp.115-117 [full view available via Google Book Search]. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Cadiz, Trigg County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Anderson, Dennis H.
Birth Year : 1869
Death Year : 1952
Dennis Henry Anderson was originally from Tennessee. A graduate of Lane College in Tennessee, he became a Methodist minister. His wife was Artelia Harris Anderson. Dennis Anderson came to Kentucky and opened schools in Graves and Fulton counties. He raised funds for the building of the first high school in Fulton County in 1905. Anderson also initiated the building of West Kentucky Industrial College [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College], starting the building with his bare hands in 1909. The school, located in Paducah, KY, became a state institution in 1918. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones; Fifty Years of Segregation: Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1904-1954, by J. A. Hardin; My West Kentucky, by J. M. Blythe; and Dennis Henry Anderson, Founder of West Kentucky Technical College, a Jackson Purchase Historical Society website.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky / Graves County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Tennessee

Brown, Viola Davis
Birth Year : 1936
Viola D. Brown was born in Lexington, KY. In 1955, she was the first African American admitted to a nursing school in Lexington. Brown attended the Nazareth School of Nursing, which was affiliated with St. Joseph Hospital, where Brown would be promoted to hospital supervisor in 1960. Her promotion was another first for African Americans in Lexington. In 1972, Brown and Lizzie Conner were the first two African American RNs to receive advanced practice as Nurse Practitioners in Lexington. In 1980, Gov. John Y. Brown, Jr. appointed Viola Brown to the position of Executive Director of the State Office of Public Health Nursing; she held the post for 19 years. Viola Brown was inducted into the University of Kentucky College of Public Health Hall of Fame in 2004. For more see L. Blackford, "Her essay won a prize, but she couldn't go to ceremony," Lexington Herald Leader, 09/09/04, Main News section, p. A1; and V. D. Brown and J. Marfall, "Swinging bridges of opportunity and challenges: memoirs of an African American nurse practitioner pioneer on providing primary care for the underserved," Journal of Cultural Diversity, vol. 12, issue 3 (Fall 2005), pp. 107-15.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Nurses, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Burleigh, Angus A.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1939
Angus A. Burleigh was the first adult African American to attend and graduate from Berea College in Berea, KY. Burleigh had been born free, the son of an English sea captain and an African American woman, but after his father's death the family was sold into slavery, first in Virginia, then in Kentucky. Burleigh ran away and joined the Union Army when he was 16 years old. In 1866, he had finished his stint with the Army and enrolled at Berea with the encouragement and support of John G. Fee. After his graduation in 1875, Burleigh immediately left Kentucky and headed north, where he would spend the rest of his life preaching and teaching. For more see "Hasan Davis and the story of A.A. Burleigh," Kentucky Life, Program 807. Hasan Davis gives a phenomenal live performance of A. A. Burleigh's life in The Long Climb to Freedom. You have got to see it! Program 807 is available at the UK Young Library Audio Visual Services.

See photo image of Angus Burleigh at the Long Climb to Freedom website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Virginia / Berea, Madison County, Kentucky

Central Law School (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1890
End Year : 1941
Professor John H. Lawson is credited with organizing Central Law School, part of State University [later Simmons University], in 1890. When the school was established, it absorbed Harper Law School. At the time, there were three African Americans practicing law in the city of Louisville, KY. Over the 50 year period that the school existed, Central had 100 graduates. Initially Central was one of only four law schools in the United States that would admit African Americans; the others were located at Howard University, Walden University, and Shaw University. The first commencement for Central graduates was held in 1892 at the Masonic Temple Theatre. For more see the Central Law School, 1890-1941, a University of Louisville website; and A Century of Negro Education in Louisville, by G. D. Wilson, [full-text available in the Kentucky Digital Library E-texts].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Lawyers, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Christian, Chauncey Lewis
Birth Year : 1896
Death Year : 1991
Chauncey Christian was a bookkeeper and stenographer in Louisville, KY. Most of his work was for Samuel Plato's construction firm. It was Plato who encouraged Christian to study for the CPA exam through a correspondence course. Christian became the third African American to become a Certified Public Accountant in the United States when he passed the Kentucky CPA exam in 1926, though African Americans were not allowed to take the CPA exam. Christian was fair-skinned, and those giving the exam thought that he was white. Of the 50 men taking the exam, Christian was one of seven who passed. Kentucky would not have another African American CPA for another 34 years [Gary B. Lewis, Jr.]. In the 1940s Christian moved his family from Kentucky to New York, where he became an accountant in the show business industry. Christian was born in New York, the son of Clara Cross Christian. For more see "Deferred Assets," Boston College Magazine, Spring 2003; and A White-collar Profession: African American Certified Public Accountants Since 1921, by T. A. Hammond.
Subjects: Accountants, Bookkeepers, Certified Public Accountants, Stenographers, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: New York / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Citizen's Auxiliary Hospital (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1911
The Citizen's Auxiliary Hospital was built by the faculty of the Louisville National Medical College. The two story, brick, building cost $50,000, and was built on Green Street a few blocks from the college. The hospital was built to enhance the clinical training of those enrolled in the college, and was viewed as a benefit to the poor in need of medical attention and medication. All services were free and the hospital could treat up to 40 patients at one time. Mr. McCurdy was the hospital steward and Dr. Sarah H. Fitzbutler was the matron. The college closed in 1912 and the hospital closed in 1911, the hospital facility was used for the Simmons College Nursing Department. For more see the "Auxiliary Hospital" entry in Weeden's History of the Colored People of Louisville by H. C. Weeden; History of Higher Education in Kentucky by A. F. Lewis [available full view at Google Book Search]; and T. L. Savitt, "Four African-American proprietary medical colleges: 1888-1923," Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, vol.55, July 2000, pp.203-255.
Subjects: Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Conference of the Presidents of Negro Land Grant Colleges
Start Year : 1923
End Year : 1955
Conference of the Presidents of the Negro Land Grant Colleges was established January 15-16, 1923 and ended December 31, 1955 [source: Organizing Black America by N. Mjagkij, pp.164-165]. The conference was formed during the Southern Conference on Education in Negro Land Grant Colleges, held at Tuskegee Institute in Alabama. The group was formed to help the members address challenges unique to Negro land grant institutions, and they sometimes joined forces with the conference for white land grant colleges to take issues, such as funding and hiring, to the U.S. government. Kentucky State College (now Kentucky State University) was a member school. A program from the 25th annual session is in the Kentucky State University Library, Special Collections. The program is dated October 21-23, 1947. The names of the member schools and their presidents, as listed in the program, are given below. For more information about the organization see Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Presidents of Negro Land-Grant Colleges; see chapter 14 - Against the Grain in W. E. B. Du Bois, 1919-1963 by D. L. Lewis; see The Conference of Negro Land-Grant College Presidents in The Atlanta University Publications, new series, No.22, 1943; and the program, Conference of the Presidents of Negro Land Grant Colleges, 25th Annual Session, October 21, 22, and 23, 1947. Theme: Extending the Services of the Negro Land Grant Colleges. 

 

1947 Colleges and Presidents of the Conference

  • Alabama (Normal) A. & M. Institute, President J. F. Drake
  • Arkansas (Pine Bluff) State College, President L. A. Davis
  • Delaware (Dover) State College, President H. D. Gregg
  • Florida (Tallahassee) A. and M. College, President W. H. Gray, Jr.
  • Georgia (Fort Valley) Fort Valley State College, President C. V. Troup
  • Kentucky (Frankfort) State College, President R. B. Atwood
  • Louisiana (Scotlandville) Southern University, President F. G. Clark
  • Maryland (Princess Anne) Princess Anne College, President J. T. Williams
  • Mississippi (Alcorn) A. & M. College, President W. H. Pipes
  • Missouri (Jefferson City) Lincoln University, President S. D. Scruggs
  • North Carolina (Greensboro) A. & T. State College, President F. D. Bluford
  • Oklahoma (Langston) Langston University, President G. L. Harrison
  • South Carolina (Orangeburg) State College, President M. F. Whittaker
  • Tennessee (Nashville) A. & I. State College, President W. S. Davis
  • Texas (Prairie View) State University, President E. B. Evans
  • Virginia (Petersburg) State College, President L. H. Foster
  • West Virginia (Institute) State College, President J. W. Davis

1947 Associate Members

  • Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA, President R. E. Clement
  • Bordentown Manual Training School, Bordentown, NJ, President W. R. Valentine
  • Hampton Institute, Hampton, VA, President R. P. Bridgman
  • Howard University, Washington, D.C., President M. W. Johnson
  • Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, AL, President F. D. Patterson
  • Wilberforce University, College of Education and Industrial Arts, Wilberforce, OH, President C. H. Wesley

1947 Life Member

  • W. R. Banks, Prairie View University, Texas

1947 Officers of the Conference

  • Luther H. Foster, Virginia State College, President
  • Lawrence A. Davis, Arkansas State College, Vice-President
  • Rufus B. Atwood, Kentucky State College, Secretary
  • Felton G. Clark, Southern University, Treasurer

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Washington, D.C / Kentucky

Division of Negro Education (Kentucky)
Start Year : 1924
In 1924, the Division of Negro Education was formed within the Kentucky Department of Education, and Professor L. N. Taylor was hired as supervisor of Negro rural education. On April 25, 1924 he addressed the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA) and also made a $10 donation to the organization. The Division of Negro Education brought the issue of secondary education for Negroes closer to the State Department of Education, according to Claude E. Nichols in his master's thesis, Reorganization of Negro High Schools in the State of Kentucky. From 1924-1943, Taylor addressed the KNEA membership at the annual conference, collected concerns and kept members up to date on education matters, and continued to make a financial donation to the organization each year. Taylor retired from the Department of Education in 1943; KNEA presented him with a 17-jewel watch. He was presented the Lincoln [Institute] Key in 1944, the same year that Sam B. Taylor was named Supervisor of Negro Education. From 1945-1947, Whitney M. Young, Sr. served as the Assistant Supervisor and Coordinator of Negro Education, the first African American to be hired in the Division of Negro Education. For more see the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 23-26, 1924 through November-December 1948 [both titles available online in the Kentucky Digital Library]; and Negro Education in Kentucky [thesis], by J. A. Bond. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Eckstein-Norton Institute Musical Company
The company was comprised of the school's director of the conservatory, Hattie Gibbs, and Lulu Childers, A. L. Smith, and W. B. Hayson. The group gave concerts to secure funds for the replacement of the main building, which had burned in 1892. The school also had the Eckstein-Norton University Singers, a student singing company that performed for public relations and student recruitment events. Eckstein-Norton Institute was located in Cane Springs, KY. The school opened in 1890 and was merged with Lincoln Institute in 1912. For more about the musical company see Out of Sight: the Rise of African American Popular Music, 1889-1895, by L. Abbott and D. Seroff. For more about Eckstein-Norton see the school's Letter Copy Books,1891-1911 by C. H. Parrish.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Cane Springs, Bullitt County, Kentucky

Ellis, Betty Marie
Birth Year : 1925
In June of 1948, the student admission application for Betty Marie Ellis, who was white, was rejected by Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] because the Day Law forbid black and white students from attending the same school in Kentucky. Ellis was furious about the law. "Had I the financial and legal backing, I would like very much to contest the law as it stands." Betty Marie Ellis was a civil rights activist who was not working with any particular organization. She was the first white student to apply for admission to Kentucky State College. Ellis was a 25 year old college graduate from Peru, IN, and was studying for a master's degree in religious education at the College of the Bible [now Lexington Theological Seminary] in Lexington, KY. She was also the director of religious education at the First Christian Church in Shelbyville, KY. She had attended school with Negro children in Peru, IN, where the schools were integrated and so was Manchester College in North Manchester, IN, where Ellis earned her bachelor's degree. In response to being denied admission to Kentucky State College, Ellis wrote letters of protest to Dr. Atwood, President of Kentucky State College; Kentucky Governor Earl Clements; and Boswell B. Hodgkin, Superintendent of Public Instruction in Kentucky. Betty Marie Ellis was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. A. F. Ellis. For more see the document "Kentucky State College rejects white girl; she blasts governor, Jim Crow laws," Monday, June 14, 1948, p.44 [second page missing] within the file Kentucky State College (Frankfort), Louisville Municipal College, & West KY Vocational Training School (Paducah), part of The Claude A. Burnett Papers: The Associated Negro Press, 1918-1967, Part 3: Subject Files on Black Americans, 1918-1967, Series A, Agriculture, 1923-1966 -- Proquest History Vault; and see Betty Marie Ellis on p.65 in Tracks: Chesapeake & Ohio, Nickel Plate, Pere Marquette, vol. 29, issue 7. See also the NKAA entry for Mrs. Geraldine Cox Ogden, the first white student admitted to Kentucky State College. See also Barry Coleman Moore, the first white football player at Kentucky State College.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Migration South, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Peru, Indiana / Manchester, Indiana / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky

Eubanks, Charles Lamont [Eubanks v University of Kentucky]
Birth Year : 1924
In the fall of 1941, Eubanks, a 17-year old from Louisville, KY, was the plaintiff in the first Kentucky case the NAACP brought against a university. Eubanks had volunteered to be the subject in an attempt to integrate the University of Kentucky (UK); Eubanks was an honor student who had graduated from Central High School and applied for admission to the UK College of Engineering. His application was denied because Eubanks was an African American and the Kentucky Day Law did not permit African Americans and whites to attend the same schools. While the Eubanks' case was pending, the Kentucky Board of Education voted to establish a two year engineering course at the HCBU Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] for African American students seeking an engineering degree. Eubanks' counsel, Charles H. Houston and Thurgood Marshall, objected to the two-year makeshift engineering program and an amended complaint was filed with the Federal District Court in Lexington, with a request for $5,000 in damages. As the case dragged on, Eubanks suffered with depression, he was criticized for creating tension between Kentucky African Americans and whites, he was rejected from joining the Army, and his wife divorced him. Eubanks signed an affidavit asking that the case not be continued and the case was dismissed in 1945. Thurgood Marshall was disappointed at the outcome of the case. Charles W. Anderson blamed Kentucky State College President Atwood for weakening the case when he allowed the two-year engineering course to be created at the school. But in spite of all that happened, the Charles Eubanks v University of Kentucky case is still considered a landmark in the struggle for equal rights in higher education. For more see Making Civil Rights Law by M. V. Tushnet; Fifty Years of Segregation by J. Hardin; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas and G. C. Wright. See also Lyman T. Johnson, the case that desegregated the University of Kentucky.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hopkinsville College of the Bible (Hopkinsville, KY)
Start Year : 1883
The school was founded in 1883 during a meeting of the First District Baptist Association at the Green Valley Baptist Church in response to the need for a training center in the area for more African American teachers and preachers. The school was initially called Male and Female College, then reopened as Southwestern Kentucky Institute before becoming Hopkinsville College of the Bible. The school remains open today. For more information see the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000 and contact the Hopkinsville College of the Bible.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Hunter, Leo Simon
Birth Year : 1911
Death Year : 1997
Leo S. Hunter, born in Louisville, KY, was a graduate of the University of Louisville. In 1999, two years after his death, Hunter was inducted into the Barbering Hall of Fame located in Canal Winchester, Ohio; he was nominated by Kay Jetton, a barbering instructor at West Kentucky Community and Technical College. Hunter was the first inductee from Kentucky and the fourth African American. In 1941, Hunter had been asked by Moneta J. Sleet, Sr. to start a barbering program at West Kentucky State Vocational School [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College]; Sleet was the school's business manager. Hunter had started to learn barbering when he was 11 years old. He designed the program at West Kentucky State and trained his first class of students, but left the school to serve in the Army during WWII, and the barbering program was dropped. He returned in the 1950s and re-established the barbering program, and he owned a barber shop. For more see J. Blythe, "Kentucky barbering teacher named to hall of fame," The Paducah Sun,10/06/1999.
Subjects: Barbers, Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Johnson, Lyman T. [Johnson v. Board of Trustees]
Birth Year : 1906
Death Year : 1997
A teacher and assistant principal at Louisville schools, Lyman T. Johnson was a civil rights activist who fought for equal pay for African American teachers. He was head of the Louisville NAACP. His lawsuit desegregated the University of Kentucky (UK) in 1949. To commemorate the occasion, a historical marker was placed in front of Frazee Hall near the Student Center on the UK campus. Brother-in-law to Thomas F. Blue, Johnson was born in Columbia, TN, moving to Louisville in 1930 at the request of his sister, Cornelia Johnson Blue. He was a graduate of Knoxville Academy, Virginia Union College [now Virginia Union University], and the University of Michigan. The personal papers of Lyman T. Johnson are available at the University of Louisville Library. For more see The Rest of the Dream, by W. Hall; and S. Stevens, Historical Marker to be dedicated for African American Commemoration at the UK Public Relations' website.

See photo image of Lyman T. Johnson at KET Living the Story website.

Access Interview Read about the Lyman T. Johnson oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Migration North, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Columbia, Tennessee / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Kendall, Joseph N.
Birth Year : 1909
Death Year : 1965
Kendall was born in Owensboro, KY. In July 2007, he became the first Kentucky State University inductee into the College Football Hall of Fame, located in South Bend, IN. Kendall was considered one of the greatest passers in college football and a good all around player. He not only played quarterback, but was a running back, punted with both feet, and played on defense. In 1934, he led Kentucky State University to a national black college football championship and an undefeated season. In 1935, he led the team to an Orange Blossom Classic victory. The Pittsburgh Courier named Kendall a First Team All-America three times between 1934-36. He was inducted into the Kentucky State Athletics Hall of Fame in 1975. During Kendall's college football career, Kentucky State had a 29-7-3 record. He was selected for the African American All-Star team that played against the Chicago Bears in 1935; it was the first time that an African American team played against an NFL team. Kendall was also a good baseball and basketball player. He served in the Army for two years, then graduated from Kentucky State in 1938. His original higher education plan had been to attend Paducah to study culinary arts, but once he was seen playing football, he was encouraged to enroll and play for Kentucky State. After college, he was hired to teach and coach at the African American Rosenwald High School in Harlan, KY, and in 1946 became principal of the school. In 1948, he returned to Owensboro to become the football coach at the school he had graduated from, Western High School. The Kendall-Perkins Park in Owensboro is named in honor of Joseph N. Kendall and Joseph Perkins. For more see L. Vance, "College football hall of fame welcomes 3 African-American QBs," at blackathlete.net; S. Hagerman, "One of the finest: Late Western High standout to be inducted into College Football Hall of Fame," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 07/16/2007, section C, p.1; and contact CESKAA.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Football, Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Harlan, Harlan County, Kentucky

Kentucky Classical and Business College (North Middletown, KY)
Start Year : 1856
The student body at the Kentucky Classical and Business College, located in North Middletown, KY, was white. The preparatory and music school had a coed student body, and males were allowed to board at the school, which was also referred to as the North Middletown Classical and Business College. At some point prior to the 1940s, Emma Cason Green, an African American, was a student at the school. It is not know if she was the first or only African American student. A brief description of the school and a picture are on page 76 of Paris and Bourbon County, by B. Scott and J. Scott. According to the annual catalog found in the University of Kentucky Special Collections [call number 378.769 K41235-H], the school was established in 1856. The 1914 Patterson's American Educational Directory, p. 145, gives the beginning date as 1868 [full-text online at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: North Middletown, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Kentucky Harmony Singers, [Housewife Training School] (Fulton, KY)
Start Year : 1923
End Year : 1936
The Kentucky Harmony Singers, from Fulton, KY, a women's quintet led by Mrs. Louise Malone Braxton (an educator, lecturer, and female bass singer), sang in churches and traveled throughout the country for several weeks at a time, performing Negro spirituals, and southern plantation and jubilee songs. The group's travels took them to Illinois, Iowa, North Dakota, New Mexico, Nebraska, Missouri, Maryland, Ohio, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Michigan, Indiana, New York, Wisconsin, Canada, and Mexico. The performances were initially a fund-raising effort for the building of the Housewife [or wives] Training School for Colored girls and women, located in Fulton. The school taught the students how to be good wives, including the art of homemaking. Four of the singing group members were students; funds from their later performances were used to pay for a dormitory and industrial department. There was no admission charge for the performances, but a "free-will offering" was collected at the end of each program. The group became a favorite at African American churches, and they continued performing for several years at not only churches but also at social functions held by such groups as the Kiwanis, the YMCA, the Ladies Aid Society, and the Exchange Club. Articles about the group first appeared in Illinois newspapers in 1923, and for the next 13 years there were announcements and articles in an array of town newspapers. In the 1930s, they were singing as a quartet to audiences with close to 1,000 in attendance. Louise M. Braxton, who was credited with founding five schools, was a graduate of Tuskegee Institute [now Tuskegee University]. She was described as being of French, Indian, Scotch Irish, and Negro descent. For more see "Mrs. Louise Braxton and Company please," Waterloo Evening Courier, 12/01/1923, p. 6; "Harmony Singers in concert here," The News-Palladium, 07/26/1929, p. 6; "Concerts are featured in two churches," The News-Palladium, 09/22/1930, p. 4; photo and caption, "Kentucky Harmony Singers here Sunday," The Piqua Daily Call, 02/21/1931, p. 10; and "Harmony quartet render concert," The Richwood Gazette, 11/19/1931, p. 1. See also the NKAA entry for African American Schools and students in Fulton County, KY.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Fulton, Fulton County, Kentucky

Kentucky State Collegians
Start Year : 1938
End Year : 1976
The collegians were college dance bands, one of which was located at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. The Kentucky group, first called the Danny Williams Band of Chicago, had performed in 1938 for the Kentucky State Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, thanks to Mrs. Clarice J. Michaels, head of the school's music department. Michaels, a pianist and soprano, had been a member of the World Famous Williams Jubilee Singers, formed in 1904 by Charles P. Williams from Holly Springs, MS. C. P. Williams, who had migrated to Chicago, was the father of Danny Williams. Kentucky State Dean John T. Williams (no relation) persuaded President Rufus Atwood to enroll the Danny Williams Band members and allow them to become the school band for student and faculty dances. The contract stipulated performance payments for the band members from which school fees would be paid. Harvey C. Russell, Jr. president of the student council, became the group’s business manager. They performed on campus and throughout the state, including at white fraternity parties and dances at the University of Kentucky and at functions given by then Governor Happy Chandler. After a year, Kentucky State was no longer able to honor the contract because funding was tight, and Danny Williams and several band members left school. New student members were added to the group that then became known as the Kentucky State College Collegians. The band grew to include 16 members and continued performing until 1946, when John T. Williams was president of Maryland State College [now University of Maryland Eastern Shore] and the band members left to join him; they became the Maryland State Collegians. [Mrs. Clarice J. Michaels would also eventually move on to Maryland State.] One of the band members, Newman Terrell, returned to Kentucky to complete his studies, and he organized and led the new Kentucky State College Collegians. Both the group and the music department prospered; in 1962, the group was the third ranked jazz ensemble among small colleges, and President Carl M. Hill is credited with developing the school’s music department into an accredited program with 14 full-time music specialists. In 1976, several members of the Collegians left to form the group Midnight Star. For more see W. C. Swindell, "The Kentucky State Collegians," The Black Perspective in Music, vol. 15, issue 1 (Spring 1987), pp. 3-23; and Kentucky State University Archives. See photo images of the Kentucky State Collegians members in the Kentucky State University Thorobred yearbooks (most are online).

 

  See photo image of the 1958 Kentucky State Collegians, on p.63 of the Kentucky State University Thoroghbred yearbook.

 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Fathers, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Chicago, Illinois / Holly Springs, Mississippi / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Princess Anne, Maryland

Kentucky State University (K-State)
Start Year : 1886
Originally named the State Normal School for Colored Persons, the school received funding from the Kentucky Legislature and opened in 1886. John H. Jackson, a Berea College graduate, was named president and charged with the mission of training Negro teachers for the state's Negro schools. For 20 years, Berea College, an integrated school, had been the main institution for the training of Negro teachers in Kentucky. At the new school, tuition was free to students who pledged to teach in Kentucky; four years later one quarter of the Negro teachers in the state were graduates of the State Normal School for Colored Persons. In 1890 the school became a land-grant college, and in 1902 the name was changed to Kentucky Normal and Industrial Institute for Colored Persons. After several additional name changes, references to race were removed in 1952 when the school became Kentucky State College. It was named Kentucky State University in 1973. In 1982 an additional mission was added with K-State aiming to become a major repository for the collection of artifacts, books, and records related to its history of educating black citizens; the Center of Excellence for the Study of Kentucky African Americans (CESKAA) houses that collection. Today, Kentucky State University is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges, and the school awards bachelor and associate degrees and the Master's of Public Administration degree. Kentucky State University is the state's Historically Black American College and University (HBCU). For more information about the history of the university see History of the Kentucky State Industrial College for Negroes [i.e. Kentucky Industrial College for Colored Persons] (thesis) by A. Edwards; Onward and upward: a centennial history of Kentucky State University, 1886-1986 by J. A. Hardin; Against the tide: a narrative of a century long struggle ...," by A. J. Heartwell-Hunter; and visit the Kentucky State University Library and Archives and CESKAA.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Kentucky State University, Presidents, 1886-present
Start Year : 1886
Below is a list of the permanent presidents of what is today known as Kentucky State University (K-State), located in Frankfort, KY.  The information comes from the unpublished document titled "Kentucky State University Presidents, 1886-Present," created by the Center of Excellence for the Study of Kentucky African Americans (CESKAA), no date; copy of the document received from the Kentucky State University Library, Special Collections. For a list of the interim presidents, contact the Kentucky State University Library, Special Collections.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Louisville Municipal College for Negroes
Start Year : 1931
End Year : 1951
After 20 years of political work, the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes finally opened February 9, 1931, as a branch of the University of Louisville (U of L). Rufus E. Clement was named Dean of the school. Prior to the school opening, in 1920, U of L had presented a bond issue requiring a two-thirds affirmative vote. African American tax dollars would be used in the bond, but the plan was not to allow African Americans to attend U of L. There also were no plans for a college for African Americans; therefore, African American voter opposition prevented the passing of the bond. Compromises were made with the promise of sharing the bond proceeds for the building of an African American college, so the bond passed in 1925. Two U of L presidents died before plans got under way in 1929. Louisville Municipal College closed in 1951. For more see J. B. Hudson, "The Establishment of Louisville Municipal College: a case study in racial conflict and compromise," The Journal of Negro Education, 1995, vol. 64, issue 2; and J. B. Hudson's The History of Louisville Municipal College: events leading to the desegregation of the University of Louisville, 1981 dissertation. The Louisville Municipal College Photographs and Records are available at the University of Louisville Special Collections and Archives.

See older photo image of Louisville Municipal College at the University of Louisville Libraries website.

See more recent photo images of the Louisville Municipal College by Mary Ann Sullivan at Bluffton.edu website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Louisville National Medical College
Start Year : 1888
End Year : 1912
Dr. Henry Fitzbutler, who came to Kentucky from Michigan, led the push for a medical college to train African American doctors. He was assisted in the endeavor by Rufus Conrad, W. A. Burney, of New Albany, Indiana, and W. O. Vance from Louisville, KY. The college was initially located in the United Brothers of Friendship Hall at Ninth and and Magazine Streets in Louisville and was later moved to Green Street. The first graduate was a woman. The training hospital was added in 1896. In total, 150 doctors graduated from the college before it was forced to close due to financial difficulties. The medical college had merged with Simmons University (Louisville) in 1907, and after it closed in 1912, the training hospital became the Simmons Nursing Department. For more see the "Louisville National Medical College" entry by J. Hardin in the Encyclopedia of Louisville; see the Louisville National Medical College records at the University of Louisville Libraries; and 1888 Sessions Law, Chapter 1234, Acts Passed at the...Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth [available full-text at Google Book Search]. For more on the training hospital, see the Citizen's Auxiliary Hospital entry in NKAA.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Parrish, Charles H., Sr.
Birth Year : 1859
Death Year : 1931
Charles H. Parrish, Sr. was born into slavery in Lexington, KY, to Hiram, a teamster, and Henrietta Parrish, a seamstress. Charles Parrish became pastor of Calvary Baptist Church in Louisville, KY; president of Eckstein Norton College; and later president of Simmons University (KY). He founded the Kentucky Home Society for Colored Children. In 1905, he attended the World Baptist Alliance in London, England, and in 1912 was named a fellow in the British Royal Historical Society as a result of his research in Palestine. For more see Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000 [electronic version available on the University of Kentucky campus and off-campus via the proxy server]; Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1879-1930, by L. H. Williams; and "Reverend Charles Henry Parrish" in Who's Who Among the Colored Baptists of the United States, by S. W. Bacote.

See photo image of Charles H. Parrish, Sr. and students in the 1920s, in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Schools for the Colored Race
Start Year : 1895
The following schools are listed in Progress of a Race, as reported by the Kentucky Commissioner of Education: Christian Bible School in Louisville, 26 students; St. Augustin Ladies' Academy in Lebanon, 76 students; Chandler Ladies' Normal School in Lexington, 245 students; State Normal School in Frankfort, 105 students; Central High School, Louisville, 806 students; and Paris Colored High School, 336 students. For more see Progress of a Race, by J. W. Gibson and W. H. Crogman [available full-text via Google Book Search]. See also the entries for African American Schools.
Subjects: Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky: Louisville, Jefferson County; Lebanon, Marion County; Lexington, Fayette County; Frankfort, Franklin County; Paris, Bourbon County

Simmons College (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1879
Simmons (at times referred to as Simmons University) is the oldest African American college in Kentucky. Shortly after the formation of the State Convention of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, Elisha W. Green suggested that the newly formed organization focus on establishing a college for African Americans in Kentucky. A school was opened briefly in 1874, headed by Elder A. Berry. On November 25, 1879, a permanent school was established in Louisville at Seventh and Kentucky Streets, headed by the Marrs brothers, Elijah P. and J. C. The school, State University, was much later renamed Simmons University. In 1931 part of the campus was sold for the establishment of the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes, and Simmons was reorganized into the Simmons Bible College. The Simmons Bible College Records and Simmons University Records, 1869-1971 are collected in an archive that includes school catalogs, yearbooks, promotional literature, scrapbooks, and photographs, together with minutes and other publications of the school's sponsoring agency, the General Association of Kentucky Baptists, formerly the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky. The archive is available in the University of Louisville Libraries' Special Collections. For more about the history of Simmons University, see Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1879-1930, by L. H. Williams.

See photo image of Simmons University faculty and students in the 1920s, within the Univeristy of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Stone-Campbell Movement in Kentucky
Start Year : 1800
Also referred to as the Restoration Movement, the Stone-Campbell Movement began in the early 1800s. The name refers to Barton W. Stone and Alexander Campbell, two leading figures of independent movements which were merged. As a result of the merger, a new way of preaching and teaching developed. The roots of the movement were planted at The Great Revival held at Cane Ridge (Bourbon County), KY, in 1801. African Americans, most of them slaves, were among the thousands who attend the revival. Samuel Buckner, a slave and a preacher, was a member of the Cane Ridge Church; he was ordained in 1855. The first African American congregation in the movement was the Colored Christian Church in Midway, KY (1834), followed by Hancock Hill Church in Louisville, KY (1850s), and Little Rock Christian Church in Bourbon County (1861). The College of Scriptures was established in Louisville in 1945, providing correspondence course work for African Americans not allowed to attend the school. The school was located in Louisville because "this location was considered not too far North and not too far from its primary constituents, would-be preachers for African American congregations." In 1971, Walter D. Bingham was elected moderator of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) by the General Assembly meeting in Louisville. Bingham was the first African American Disciple named to the post. For more see In Other Words... Stories of African-American Involvement in the Early Years of the Stone-Campbell Movement in Kentucky, by M. A. Fields and S. B. Fields; and The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement, edited by D. A. Foster, P. M. Blowers, A. L. Dunnavant, and D. N. Williams [quotation taken from p. 227].
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Cane Ridge and Little Rock, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Tolley, Florence B. W.
Birth Year : 1897
Death Year : 1969
Tolley was one of 18 children born to Fannie and Will Jackson of Avon, KY. She was married to Edd Brown and they lived in his home town of Clintonville, KY, prior to moving to Lexington, where Tolley later owned The Try Me Beauty Shop (opened in 1944) and the Williams Nursing Home (opened in 1950), both on Greenwood Avenue. Tolley was a graduate of the segregated Lexington Beauty College; she had been hired as a maid at the school and was allowed to study for her diploma in beauty culture, which she received in 1944. She was also instrumental in helping to bring gas to homes on the west side of Lexington by offering to sell the Central Kentucky Natural Gas Company a piece of her land for the regulation station; at that time, west side was outside the city limits. For a while, Tolley raised her family alone, having divorced her first husband, Edd Brown, and later married Rev. Jesse Williams, who passed away. She then married Rev. Robert Tolley. She continued her nursing home businesses and in 1965 built a new facility at 465 Greenwood Avenue. Williams Nursing Home was the first such facility for African Americans in Lexington. Tolley also helped raise funds for the Colored Orphan Home in Lexington. She wrote poetry, plays, and songs. Several of her songs were recorded: If I Had My Way and I am Packing Up to Move, sung by Ben Tate; Lord I Wonder, sung by LaVern Lattimore; and I Can Trust Him and My Savior, sung by Helen Williams. For more see Only Believe: biography of Florence Jackson Brown Williams Tolley, by E. B. S. Bosley.
Subjects: Businesses, Civic Leaders, Cosmetologists, Beauty Shops, Hairdressers, Beauty Supplies, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Avon, Fayette County, Kentucky / Clintonville, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

White, Albert S., Sr. and Sally J. Seals
Albert S. White, Sr. (1869-1911), was born in Kentucky, the son of Albert and Jane Buckner White. He was an attorney and dean of Louisville (KY) Central Law School, where he served from 1896-1911. He fought for African American voting rights; when White and others insisted on voting in the 1890s, they were beaten by Louisville police officers. White was a graduate of State University [Simmons, KY] and Howard University Law School. In 1902 he was appointed a U.S. Revenue Agent following the election of Kentucky's first Republican governor, William O. Bradley. White was unsuccessful in his quest to be named the Minister to Liberia. He was killed by Louis A. Evans in a dispute over the removal of personal belongings at the Lyric Theater, located at 13th and Walnut Streets in Louisville. His wife, Sally J. Seals White (b.1868 or 1871 in KY), was the first woman to graduate from Central Law School, where she was also an instructor. In 1904, she became the first African American woman to be admitted to the Kentucky Bar. White had a bachelor's degree from Fisk University. For more see Central Law School Alumni Information, a University of Louisville website; C. B. Lewis, "Louisville and its Afro-American citizens," Colored American Magazine, vol. 10 (no.3-4), pp. 259-265; Life Behind a Veil, by G.C. Wright; Emancipation: the making of the Black Lawyer, 1844-1944, by J. C. Smith; "Negro woman admitted to bar...," The Landmark, 09/23/1904, p. 3 (also in Marshall Expounder, 09/23/1904, p. 2); and "Albert S. White is shot to death," Lexington Leader, 07/22/1911, p.8. See also the entry for Central Law School.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Voting Rights, Lawyers, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Whiting, Pierre, Sr.
Birth Year : 1861
Death Year : 1949
Pierre Whiting, Sr. was a janitor at the University of Kentucky for 57 years. It is thought that he was the first African American employed at the university, and that he was employed longer than any other employee. Whiting's starting date was in 1888 and he retired in 1945. Pierre Whiting was born in Woodford County, KY, the son of Fletcher and Martha Whiting [source: Pierre's Kentucky Death Certificate Registrar's No. 344]. Prior to coming to work at UK, Pierre Whiting lived in Adamstown and he was a farmhand, according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. Piere's wife was Florida Young and their son was Hannibal. An uncle named Hannibal Breckinridge lived with the family. Pierre Whiting started working at the University of Kentucky in 1888. By 1900, he and Florida were no longer together, and Pierre Whiting was married to Nanine Scott. There were four children in the house: Hannibal, Pierre Jr., Charlie T., and a daughter named Mary [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The family lived on Winslow Street. Pierre's oldest son Hannibal Whiting died of consumption in 1907 and is buried in African Cemetery #2; he was 26 years old [source: Kentucky Certificate and Record of Death Registered No.543]. By 1918, Pierre's son Charlie T. Whiting was employed at Michler Brothers, a greenhouse located at 415 W. Maxwell Street in Lexington [source: Charlie Whiting's WWI Draft Registration Card]. When he returned from service, he was employed with Louis Michler as a chauffeur [source: p.765 in Lexington City Directory, 1923]. In 1920, Pierre and Nannie's son Robert W. was included in the census record for the family. In 1930, the family is listed as living on Euclid Street (Adamstown), according to the U.S. Federal Census. The address is given as 247 Euclid Avenue on p.615 in Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory, 1930. Beginning in the 1930s, there were a series of deaths in the Whiting family. Pierre and Nannie Whiting's son Pierre Jr. died in 1939 and is buried in African Cemetery #2 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 699]. Pierre Whiting was a widower when his son died [source: U.S. Federal Census]; his wife Nannie Scott Whiting had died in 1936 and she is buried in African Cemetery #2 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 1123]. Pierre's first wife Florida Young Saunders died in 1940, she was the widow of Edward Saunders. Florida is buried next to her son Hannibal Whiting in African Cemetery #2 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death, Registrar's No. 204]. In 1943, Piere's son Robert Willie Whiting died of lukemia and he is buried in African Cemetery #2 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death, Registrar's No.1060]. Also in 1943, Pierre Whitings house was one of the homes in Adamstown that the University of Kentucky purchased for the building of Memorial Coliseum. The land was referred to as the "Field House Property" in the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees' Minutes, January 12, 1943, p.63 [available online at Explore UK]. The Whiting home was purchased for $1800 [p.64]. Pierre Whiting and his daughter Mary moved to 181 Colfax Street [source: Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory, 1943, p.343]. Charles, who was a chauffeur for Thomas B. Cromwell, lived with his wife Millie at 561 S. Upper Street [p.343]. Pierre Whiting retired from the University of Kentucky in 1945, he died April 7, 1949 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death Registrar's No. 344]. He lived to see the integration of the University of Kentucky in March of 1949. Pierre Whiting, Sr. is buried in African Cemetery #2. His son Charlie T. Whiting died in 1958 and is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington, Charlie was a veteran of WWI [source: U.S. Headstone Applications for Military Veterans]. Prior to his death, Charlie T. Whiting was a clerk at O. S. Honaker, and he and his Millie lived at 741 Whitney Avenue [source: p.760 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, 1958]. Pierre's daughter Mary Whiting was a cook at Donovan Hall Cafeteria on the University of Kentucky campus in 1958, and she had moved from the home on Colfax Street to 512 Lawrence Street [source: p.760 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, 1958; and p.728 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, 1960]. Mary Whiting retired from the University of Kentucky on June 1, 1971; she had been a cook at Donavan Hall for 15 years [source: University of Kentucky Board of Trustees' Minutes, May 4, 1971, p.20 - available online at Kentucky Digital Library]. Mary Whiting died in 1973 [source: U.S. Social Security Death Index]. For more see "The Life story of Dean Whiting is the history of an institution," Kentucky Kernel, 04/22/1949, p.5; and "Dean Pierre dies; served UK 57 years," The Kentucky Alumnus, p.19; [both articles available online at Explore UK]. For the earlier employment and resignation of Mary Whiting at the University of Kentucky, see the Board of Trustees' Minutes, April 6, 1954, p.50; and Board of Trustees' Minutes, June 1, 1954, p.97 [both available online at Kentucky Digital Library].

 

  See photo image of Pierre Whiting Sr. in Explore UK, University of Kentucky
Subjects: Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Other

Woman's Industrial Club of Louisville (KY)
Start Year : 1900
The Woman's Industrial Club of Louisville was founded by Nannie Burroughs in 1900. It was described as a business, charitable, and industrial club housed in a building that the club rented in Louisville, KY. Attendance was initially free, then women who could afford it paid ten cents per week for the work and Burroughs took care of the rest. They made pies and cakes and sold them. In the afternoon and evenings, Burroughs instructed the women on professions such as millinery and she taught domestic science. During the day, the organization made and sold lunches to African Americans who worked in downtown Louisville. On the advice of a white woman who came to her aid financially, Burroughs increased the weekly tuition, and each student paid something, even if it was a penny. There were 40 clubs in Louisville, and the city was to host the next biennial meeting of the National Association of Colored Women. The Woman's Industrial Club of Louisville continued to grow, and Burroughs was forced to hire teachers and let other club members manage the school while she supervised. The club eventually purchased a twenty-room building for the classes, and it also provided rooms for women who were moving to Louisville for work. The Woman's Industrial Club of Louisville and the school existed at least during the nine year period that Burroughs was in Louisville. For more see Efforts for Social Betterment Among Negro Americans, A social study made by Atlanta University [available online at Google Book Search]; Fortress Introduction to Black Church History by A. H. Pinn and A. B. Pinn; and In the Vanguard of a Race by L. H. Hammond [available online at Google Book Search and Inernet Archive].
Subjects: Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, Association of Colored Women's Clubs
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Yancey, Sadie Mae
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1958
Sadie M. Yancey was the top honor student when she graduated from Kentucky State College in 1935 [now Kentucky State University]. She was the first graduate of the college department at Kentucky State College to earn a Ph.D. Yancey received her doctorate from Cornell University, September 1950; she had earned her master's degree in education from the University of Cincinnati in 1942. Yancey was an advocate for education: in 1940 she was a member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, serving on the Committee of Expenditures of Funds on Educational Inequalities [source: KNEA Journal vol. 10, no. 2, p. 8]. Yancey gave a presentation, "What Guidance Techniques I Am Using," at the Guidance Workers Conference during the 1942 KNEA Conference in Louisville, KY. In 1950, she was the dean of women and a psychology professor at Florida A&M and was later dean of women at Howard University in Washington, D.C. She was the first president and a founding member of the National Association of Personnel Workers (NAPW), founded in 1953. The association was a combined effort of the National Association of the Deans of Women and Advisers of Girls in Colored Schools and the National Association of the Deans of Men in Negro Educational Institutions. The NAPW was renamed the National Association of Student Affairs Professionals (NASAP), and the Sadie M. Yancey Professional Service Award was established as the second highest honor that a member of that organization can receive. Yancey was also vice president of the National Council of Negro Women. She was a member of Delta Sigma Theta, and chaired the Scholarship and Standards Committee. Sadie Yancey was born in Lexington, KY, the daughter of Minnie Jackson Yancey, a domestic, and Charles Yancey, a Lexington grocer who was from Canada [source: Sadie Yancey's Certificate of Birth]. The family lived at 120 South Upper Street in Lexington. Sadie Yancey was also the granddaughter of Belle Mitchell Jackson and Jordan C. Jackson, Jr. [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Two Kentucky state graduates...," The Crisis, vol. 57, no. 11 (Dec. 1950), p. 736; "Professional Associations" in Student Services: a handbook for the profession, by S. R. Komives and D. Woodard; Sadie Yancey in The Historical Cookbook of the American Negro, by S. B. Thurman, et al.; under the heading "Died" see "Sadie M. Yancey, 51,...," Jet, Oct 16, 1958, p.43; and H. A. Davis and P. Bell-Scott, "Association of Deans of Women and Advisers to Girls in Negro Schools" in Black Women in America, vol. 1 A-L, edited by D. C. Hine, pp. 49-51; and In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the challenge of the Black sorority movement, by P. Giddings. See also Yancey's Ph.D. dissertation, A Study of Racial and Sectional Differences in the Ranking of Occupations By High School Boys, and her master's thesis, A Follow-up Study of Five Graduating Classes of the Paul Laurence Dunbar High School.

See photo image of Sadie M. Yancey at the Yancy Family Genealogy website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Fraternal Organizations, Women's Groups and Organizations, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, National Council of Negro Women
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Florida / Washington, D. C.

 

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