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Arnold, Adam S., Jr.
Birth Year : 1922
Arnold is a Lexington, KY, native who became the first African American faculty member at the University of Notre Dame. In 1957, Arnold was hired as a professor of finance, receiving tenure in 1961. He remained at the school for 30 years. In 2002 he received the William P. Sexton Award for outstanding service to the University of Notre Dame. Dr. Arnold received his Ph.D. in finance in 1951 and his MBA in 1948, both from the University of Wisconsin. He is a U.S. Army veteran, having served during WII. For more see "Arnold honored with Sexton Award," Notre Dame Business Magazine Online, Issue 11, 2004.

Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Migration North, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Notre Dame, Indiana

Bell, Charles W.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1910
Charles W. Bell, who may have been a slave, was born in Kentucky on August 12, 1848 [source: Ohio Death Certificate, File #44018]. Bell was an educator, a newspaper man, and a pen artist in Cincinnati, OH. He was the husband of Ophelia Hall Nesbit Bell (b.1847 in Jackson, MS), who was a school teacher in Cincinnati. The couple lived at 1112 Sherman Avenue after they were married. By 1870, the family of four lived in the northern section of the 7th Ward in Cincinnati, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Charles Bell was a graduate of the Cincinnati School of Design. He was employed by the Cincinnati School System from 1868-1889; he was the superintendent of writing in the Colored public schools beginning in 1874 with an annual salary of $1,000, and was later also the special teacher of writing for some of the schools attended by white children. Bell also served as president of the Garnet Loan and Building Association. He was one of the editors of the Colored Citizen newspaper in Cincinnati, and he published a newspaper titled Declaration in the 1870s when it was the only African American newspaper in Cincinnati. He was also a columnist for the Commercial Gazette, the column was an early version of the Colored Notes. Charles Bell was also a politician, and had put forth the name of George W. Williams for the Ohio Legislature, but was one of many African Americans who turned against Williams when he pushed through the bill to close the Colored American Cemetery in Avondale, OH. In 1892, while Charles W. Bell was serving as treasurer of the Colored Orphan Asylum, it came to light that more than $4,000 were missing. Charles and Ophelia Bell mortgaged their home at 76 Pleasant Street for $3,000, and Charles Bell was to make restitution for the remaining $1,623.87. Also in 1892, Charles Bell established a newspaper publication called Ohio Republican. According to the Census, by 1910, the Bells were living on Park Avenue in Cincinnati, Ohio with their daughters Alma and Maggie. Charles Bell was employed as a clerk in an office. Ten years later, Ophelia was a widow living with Alma and her husband James Bryant, along with Maggie and two of James Bryant's nieces. Charles W. Bell died August 22, 1910 in Cincinnati, OH, and is buried in the Union Baptist Cemetery [source: Ohio Death Certificate, File #44018]. For more see Ophelia Hall Nesbit in The Geneva Book by W. M. Glasgow [available online at Google Book Search]; see Charles W. Bell in George Washington Williams: a biography by J. H. Franklin; Charles W. Bell in Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900 by M. S. Haverstock et. al.; see "At a meeting of the Columbus, O., Board of Education...," Cleveland Gazette, 08/10/1889, p.2; "Disbanded," Freeman, 06/20/1891, p.4; "Burned $1,623.87," Cleveland Gazette, 03/19/1892, p.1; "The Ohio Republican...," Plaindealer [Michigan], 09/23/1892, p.3; and G. B. Agee, "A Cry for Justice" [dissertation] [available online at ETDS].
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Blanton, John Oliver, Jr.
Birth Year : 1885
Death Year : 1962
J. O. Blanton, Jr. was born in Versailles, KY, on Christmas Day in 1885, according to his WWI Draft Registration Card. He was the son of John, Sr. and Eliza Blanton [source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census]. He was president of the American Mutual Savings Bank in Louisville, KY. The building was built by Samuel Plato in 1922, the same year that William H. Wright launched the business. Blanton was also director of the Mammoth Building and Loan Association and a professor of mathematics at Central High School in Louisville for 12 years. Blanton was also involved with the Louisville Urban League, which was founded in 1959. His wife was Carolyn Steward Blanton; they were the parents of John W. Blanton. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Fathers, Urban Leagues
Geographic Region: Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Bourbon Colored Mutual Savings and Loan Association, Paris, KY
Start Year : 1887
End Year : 1895
The first Negro bank, excluding the Freedmen's Bank, is thought to be the Bourbon Colored Mutual Savings and Loan Association established in Paris, KY, on March 12, 1887, with John Spears as president and Green Jackson as secretary [source: Kentuckian Citizen, 04/27/1887; and Ninth Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1893, p.106]. The savings and loan association in Paris predates, by 34 years, what was thought to be the first African American bank, the First Standard Bank in Louisville. There was also the Bourbon Colored Mutual Building and Loan Association [source: Journal of the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1894, p.368]. The Bourbon Colored Mutual Savings and Loan Association was in operation at least until 1895 when it was listed in the Journal of the House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1895, p.102.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Clark, Charles H.
Birth Year : 1855
Rev. Charles H. Clark was born in 1855 in Christian County, KY, to unmarried slave parents. His father escaped from slavery, leaving Charles and his mother behind. His mother later married a man named Clark, and Charles took his stepfather's last name. Charles Clark taught school at the Mount Zion Baptist Church near Hopkinsville, KY. He was pastor of the Ebenezer Baptist Church in Chicago, IL. He served as director of both the Binga State Bank in Chicago and the Citizens Bank and Trust Co. in Nashville. The Binga Bank was the first African American bank in Chicago. Clark also organized and chaired the Board of Directors of the National Baptist Publishing Board in Nashville. He was president of the Tennessee Baptist Convention and the National Baptist Sunday School Congress, and was appointed by the Tennessee governor to the Educational Convention of Negro Leaders. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1941-44; "Charles Henry Clark" in vol. 2 of the African American National Biography, edited by H. L. Gates, Jr. and E. B. Higginbotham; and "Charles Henry Clark, LL.D" in Who's Who Among the Colored Baptists of the United States, by S. W. Bacote.

See photo image and additional information about Rev. Charles Henry Clark in Simms' Blue Book and National Negro Business and Professional Directory by J. N. Simms, at the New York Public Library Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Religion & Church Work, Migration South, Sunday School
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Nashville, Tennessee

Crittenden, Breckenridge
Birth Year : 1883
Born in Midway, KY, Breckenridge Crittenden attended Cincinnati Embalming College in 1914 before becoming a funeral director in Lexington for nine years, then moved on to become a funeral director in Cincinnati. Crittenden was also general manager of the Imperial Finance Co. He was the son of Laura and Harry Crittenden, and the husband of Ella Banks Crittenden. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1930-32.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Migration North, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Edelen, John P.
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1960
Edelen was born in Springfield, KY, the son of William and Barbara A. Edelen. He managed the Chicago Mortgage and Credit Company from 1926 to 1935 and was partner in Edelen, Bland and Company from 1935 to 1939, becoming the company's president in 1939. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses
Geographic Region: Springfield, Washington County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Ferguson, Thelma B.
Birth Year : 1959
Ferguson, born in Memphis, TN, was the first African American woman to be named President of Chase Bank Kentucky. The appointment was made in 2005, and in 2008 Ferguson was promoted to the new position of Market Manager for the Metro New York area with JP Morgan Chase & Co. It is believed that Ferguson was also the first African American woman to head a major bank in Kentucky. For more see "Chase's promotion of Ferguson is well received," Business First, 07/29/2005 [available online]; and Thelma Ferguson in Who's Who in Black Louisville, Inaugural Edition, pp.64-65.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Migration North
Geographic Region: Memphis, Tennessee / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

First Standard Bank (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1921
End Year : 1931
First Standard Bank in Louisville, KY, was one of the first African American banks in Kentucky. Wilson Lovett was president; W. W. Spradling was vice president and chairman of the board; and Dr. L. R. Johnson and Bishop B. C. Clement were vice presidents. Richard L. Jones, from Alabama, was a member of the group that helped organize the bank and he served as the cashier. Jones left the bank in 1922 for a position with the Chicago Defender newspaper, and in 1954, he was named director of the U.S. Foreign Operations Mission to Liberia. J. R. Ray became the second cashier at the bank. Wilson Lovett resigned as president in 1929 for a position with Supreme Life Insurance Company, and J. R. Ray was named president of First Standard Bank. The bank was first located on 7th Street, and would later be located at the corner of 6th and Walnut Streets. The First Standard and American Mutual merged in January of 1931 to become Mutual Standard Bank, but tough economic times, the Depression, forced the back to close in May of 1931. The next African American bank in Kentucky would be the Continental National Bank that opened in Louisville, KY, in 1974. For more see "Brigadier General to Liberia," The Topeka Plaindealer, 09/03/1954, pp.1 & 2; and J. Blain Hudson, "First Standard Bank" in The Encyclopedia of Louisville edited by J. E. Kleber.

See photo image of First Standard Bank in the University of Louisville Libraries Digital Collections.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Francis, Lelia Iles
Birth Year : 1903
Death Year : 1999
Lelia I. Francis was born in Salt Lick, KY. She and her husband, Charles Francis, moved to Dayton, Ohio, in 1943. In 1947, Lelia I. Francis became the first African American realtor in Ohio and the second in the United States; she was a real estate broker for more than 50 years. She also helped establish the Unity Bank and an African American mortgage company. Francis was also an activist: she was one of the marchers arrested in 1967 for a protest that attempted to get more African Americans hired in downtown stores. Lelia I. Francis was a graduate of Kentucky State University and taught in rural schools in Kentucky before moving to Ohio. For more see J. H. Smith, "Lelia Iles Francis Dies, she was the first black realtor in Ohio and fought for job opportunities and better schools," Dayton Daily News, 07/26/1999, METRO section, p. 3B.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Education and Educators, Migration North, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments
Geographic Region: Salt Lick, Bath County, Kentucky / Dayton, Ohio

Garrison-Corbin, Patricia
Birth Year : 1947
Death Year : 2009
Born in Louisville, KY, Patricia Garrison-Corbin was the first African American female Sloan Fellow at MIT. She was the founder, chair and chief executive officer of P. G. Corbin & Company, the first African American female-owned Wall Street financial services corporation. In 1982 she became the first African American female officer in public finance at Drexel Burnham Lambert. Patricia Garrison-Corbin died of breast cancer in October 2009, she had lived in Center City Philadelphia, PA. She was the daughter of William and Ruby Garrison, and the wife of James D. Corbin. For more see "Corbin's Key to Success," The Bond Buyer, 10/31/02; Who's Who Among African Americans, 1985-2006; and J. F. Morrison, "Patricia G. Corbin, financial whiz, dies at 62," Philadelphia Daily News, 10/21/2009, Local section, p.26.

See photo image of Patricia Garrison-Corbin and additional information at WKU website.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Migration North
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gomez, Wanti W. [Louis Jones]
Wanti (or Wante) W. Gomez is said to have appeared in Durham, NC, from 'out of nowhere' in 1920. He was first an independent agent with the Mutual Building and Loan Association, and with that major success, he was named director of the company's education department. Gomez left the position and founded the Bankers Fire Insurance Company, which was also a success. Gomez chose a low profile as secretary of the company. Bankers Fire was listed in Best Insurance Reports, vol. 22, 33rd ed., 1922-23, p. 54, wherein Gomez was credited as having several years of insurance business [online at Google Book Search]. In 1924, he pushed for the establishment of the National Negro Finance Corporation within the National Negro Business League. The Finance Corporation was a complete failure in the late 1920s. Gomez was long gone by that time, having disappeared from Durham in 1926 and taking with him assets from his business, Durham Commercial Security Company. He was never heard from again. It was soon learned that Gomez's real name was Louis Jones and he was a fugitive from Kentucky who was wanted for arson. He had left the Bankers Fire Insurance Company in good standing, and Wanti Gomez is still considered one of the major contributors toward the making of Black Wall Street in Durham. For more see Black Business in the New South, by W. B. Weare; Durham County, by J. B. Anderson and Historic Preservation Society of Durham; "Bankers Fire Insurance Company, Durham, N. C., condition December 31, 1921, as shown by statement filed," The Landmark, 04/27/1922, p. 3.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Migration East, Negro Business League
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Durham, North Carolina

Higgins, Katheryn D.
Birth Year : 1958
Katheryn D. Higgins was the first African American and female engineer at the Louisville (KY) Water Company in 1983. The company was chartered by the Kentucky Legislature in 1854, and provides safe drinking water to Louisville Metro and parts of four surrounding counties. Higgins was born in Jefferson County, KY, and is the daughter of Elnora Tolliver Higgins and Frederick Higgins. She is a 1975 graduate of Sacred Heart Academy in Louisville, KY, and later served on the steering committee of the King Scholars Program that was established by Nick King and Carol Zurkuhlen King in 1999. The program provides financial aid to young women so that they may attend Sacred Heart. Higgins is a 1981 chemical engineer graduate of the University of Louisville (U of L), and later completed her finance degree at U of L. When she retired from the Louisville Water Company, she started her second career as a financial advisor with Morgan Stanley. For more see Katheryn D. Higgins in "Alumnae Profile" on page 6 of the HeartBeat: a publication for alumnae, parents and friends of Sacred Heart Academy, Spring 2004. This entry was submitted by Librarian Laura Hall, graduate of Sacred Heart and staff member of the UK Libraries.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Engineers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hope, Dennis D.
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1929
Dennis D. Hope was a journalist and political activist in Topeka, Kansas; he served as the editor and publisher of the Sunday Sun. The newspaper was published on an irregular schedule. Dennis D. Hope also severd on the county central committee in Topeka. Before coming to Kansas, Hope had been a slave, he was born in Boyle County, KY, on November 22, 1849 [source: "Dennis D. Hope (cut)," Plaindealer (Topeka), 12/19/1902, p.5]. Gaining his freedom at the close of the Civil War, Hope attended a colored school in Boyle County for three years, attending three months of each year. He probably attended one of the four schools established by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, between 1866 and 1870. In 1870, Dennis and 14 year old Sarah Hope lived at the home of Willis and Matilda Rogers in Boyle County, KY [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census].  Dennis D. Hope later lived for a brief period in Indianapolis, IN, then returned to Kentucky, before moving on to Topeka, Kansas in 1878, where he worked as a laborer for the Santa Fe R. R. Co. He left the railroad company after five years and went to work as a janitor at the First National Bank. In 1902, he had been at the bank for 18 years. In 1894, Dennis D. Hope was selected as a delegate for the Republican State Convention, he represented the 35th district of Shawnee County [source: "Republican Convention," The Globe-Republican, 06/01/1894, p.7, column 3]. Hope was a prominent member of the African American community of Topeka and was a member of several social organizations, including Shawnee Lodge #1923, the Knights of Tabor, and he was treasurer of the District Grand Lodge Kansas #17. He was a member of the 5th Ward Roosevelt Republican Club. In 1894, Dennis D. Hope was appointed chairman of the county central committee, the appointment was made by Aaron P. Jetmore, candidate for county attorney, and the appointment was said to be one of honor for Hope who was a respected citizen and a representative of the Negro race; A. B. Jetmore, father of Aaron P. Jetmore, had been president of the Freedmen's Relief Association in Topeka, KS, and many of the newly arriving Negroes in 1882 had not forgotten his generosity [source: "Let reason govern," The Kansas Blackman, 06/15/1894, p.1]. Dennis Hope is listed as a laborer on p.104 of Sam Radges' Sixth Biennial Directory of the City of Topeka for 1882; he lived at 24 Quincy Street. By 1902, he owned his own home. Dennis D. Hope was the husband of Millie Hope (b.1855 in KY), the couple lived at 1314 Washington Avenue [source: Polk's Topeka (Kansas) City Directory, 1929-30, p.237]. Dennis D. Hope died in1929 and is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Topeka, KS.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky / Topeka, Kansas

Hubbard, Philip A.
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1902
Rev. Phillip A. Hubbard was a slave born in Kentucky, the son of Philip and Rosanna Hubbard. He was chairman of the first Republican convention held in Boone County, MO. Hubbard had served with the Union Army during the Civil War. He was licensed to preach in 1872 and was admitted to the AME Church Missouri Conference in 1873. He had several nicknames, such as "Silver Dollar Hubbard" and "The Dollar Money King," due to his success in collecting the per capital tax of the church while serving as the presiding elder of the Colorado Springs District of the A. M. E. Church. His remarkable ability with finances led to his being named the financial secretary of the AME Church. He also served as pastor at several churches and in 1901 was a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference in Europe. Rev. Hubbard set sail for England in August of 1901 and his wife joined him in September. While they were in England, Rev. Hubbard became ill and the couple returned to the U.S. Rev. Hubbard died in Washington, D.C. in January of 1902. His body was taken by train to Macon, MO where he was buried. For more see Rev. Philip H. Hubbard on p.583 in The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright; "May be Bishop Hubbard in 1900," Colored American, 11/12/1898, p.8; "Rev. Hubbard a delegate. He goes to England to represent the great A. M. E. Church," Colored American, 04/07/1900, p.14; and "The Late Dr. Philip Hubbard," Freeman, 02/01/1902, p.4.

See photo image of Rev. Phillip A. Hubbard on p.119 in Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church by R. R. Wright.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Migration West, Religion & Church Work

Hueston, William C., Sr.
Birth Year : 1880
Death Year : 1961
Hueston was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Bettie H. Treacy; his family later moved to Kansas City, Kansas. He was a graduate of the University of Kansas and an active community leader in Kansas City. He also lived part-time in Gary, Indiana. He served as president of the National Negro Baseball League, beginning in 1927, after Rube Foster was committed to the Kankakee Asylum in Illinois. In Gary, Indiana, Hueston served as magistrate judge and helped establish the African American-owned Central State Bank. He was appointed by President Hoover to the National Memorial Commission for the building of the National Museum of African American History and Culture that was to have been built in 1929. He left Indiana in 1930 for Washington, D.C. to become Assistant Solicitor with the U.S. Post Office. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; The Josh Gibson Foundation website; Take up the Black Man's Burden: Kansas City's African American Communities, 1865-1939, by C. E. Coulter; M. Strimbu, "Library exhibit depicts Gary's rich, varied history," Post-Tribune, 07/24/1997, Gary Neighbors section, p. NB4; and "William C. Hueston, 81, Government Attorney," Washington Post, 11/27/1961, City Life section.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Baseball, Civic Leaders, Lawyers, Migration North, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Postal Service, Judges, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Kansas City, Kansas / Gary, Indiana / Kankakee, Illinois / Washington, D.C.

Lovett, Wilson Stephen
Birth Year : 1885
Wilson S. Lovett was president of the First Standard Bank in Louisville, KY, which was established in 1921 with $50,000. It was the first African American bank in Kentucky. In 1928 the bank had assets of over $600,000. Lovett was also a civil rights activist who was a member of the NAACP and a member of the committee that led to the African American voters' repeal of the first bond effort to expand the University of Louisville. Wilson Lovett was born in New York, the son of Wilson and Annie E. Stevens Lovett, and he grew up in Pennsylvania [sources: 1900 U.S. Federal Census and Ohio Marriages Index]. He was married to Dorothy Payne Lovett (1896-1927), who was born in Kingston, Jamaica; the couple was married in 1924 in Franklin, OH. Wilson Lovett had worked as a stenographer in Alabama, he was employed in the Savings Department of Tuskegee Institute (now Tuskegee University) [sources: 1910 U.S. Federal Census and Negro Star, 01/27/1933]. Lovett founded the men's basketball team at Tuskegee Institute and was the first head coach from 1908-1909. The team was undefeated, winning all three of their games [see Golden Tigers website]. Wilson Lovett came to Kentucky from Memphis, TN [sources: Indianapolis Recorder, 04/02/1927]. In 1915, he was director of Standard Life Insurance Company in Louisville [source: Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville for 1915, p.900], which was prior to the establishment of the First Standard Bank. When he left the bank in 1929, Wilson Lovett became treasurer of the Supreme Liberty Life Insurance Company. During that same year, he served as secretary of the National Negro Bankers Association. In 1930, Wilson Lovett was president of the Standard Reality Corporation in Louisville [source: Caron's Louisville City Directory for 1930, p.1256], and president of the Credential Bond and Mortgage Company in Cleveland, OH [source: Cleveland (Ohio) City Directory, 1930, p.1056], all while living in Chicago, IL. According to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, Wilson Lovett shared his home in Chicago with Henry McGasock, from Kentucky; they lived at 608 E. Fifty-first Street in Chicago. In the census, Lovett is listed as the treasurer of a life insurance company. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927; Who's Who in Colored America, 1928-29; "Two dead, another injured," Indianapolis Recorder, 04/02/1927, p.1; "Business," Negro Star, 08/02/1929, p.1; "Program of National Negro Bankers Association," Plaindealer, 08/02/1929, p.4; and "Boom Wilson Lovett for Register of the Treasury," Negro Star, 01/27/1933, p.1.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Basketball, Accountants, Bookkeepers, Certified Public Accountants, Stenographers, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Migration North, Migration South, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments
Geographic Region: New York / Pennsylvania / Tuskegee, Alabama / Memphis, Tennessee / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Cleveland, Ohio

Magowan, James E.
Birth Year : 1870
Death Year : 1933
The following information comes from the James E. Magowan archival file at the Montgomery County Historical Society and Museum in Mt. Sterling, KY. James E. Magowan was a successful businessman and a community leader. He was born in Montgomery County, the son of Amanda and John Wesley Magowan, and a brother of John, Noah, Susan, and Emily Magowan. The family lived in Smithville, KY. James Magowan, his brothers, and sister, Susan, all attended the Academy at Berea. As an adult, James Magowan was a real estate agent, loans and collecting agent, notary public, carpenter, contractor, and owner of the Magowan Theater and the colored skating rink in Mt. Sterling. James Magowan developed the Lincoln View Cemetery next to Olive Hill Cemetery in Smithville. The Lincoln View Cemetery opened on April 1, 1929, with James Magowan as president, his son, Jesse E., 1st vice president, and his wife, Lizzie, his daughter, Sarah, and his son-in-law and daughter, Watson D. Banks and Estella Magowan Banks, board members. James Magowan established a subdivision for African Americans next to the cemetery, and he owned and managed the waterline to the homes, charging a monthly fee for the service. He established the Mt. Sterling Colored Fair Association in 1909. He was owner of the James E. Magowan Grocery Store, which was located within the J. E. Magowan Hall (built in 1914) at the corner of East Locust and Fox Streets. James Magowan leased-out the grocery store and other space within the building. Additional information about James E. Magowan comes from "Achievements of the late James E. Magowan" on pp. 23-24 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. James E. Magowan was a school teacher for six years. He led the effort to extend the gas line into Smithville, and in 1915 he was president of the organization that had a sidewalk completed from the city limits of Mt. Sterling to the entrance of Olive Hill Cemetery. James Avenue in Mt. Sterling was named in his honor. James E. Magowan is buried in the Lincoln View Cemetery in Mt. Sterling, KY.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Civic Leaders, Communities, Construction, Contractors, Builders, Education and Educators, Colored Fairs, Black Expos, and Chautauquas, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Carpenters, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments, Notary Public, Skating Rinks, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling and Smithville, Montgomery County, Kentucky

Morris, Horace
Birth Year : 1835
Born a freeman in Louisville, KY, Morris assisted slaves in the underground railroad. He was the only African American cashier in the Freeman's Savings and Trust Bank of Louisville. Morris was the first African American steward at Louisville's Marine Hospital and an early newspaper publisher. He was editor of the Kentuckian; was one of the editors of the Colored Citizen (Louisville, KY) newspaper beginning in 1866; and was editor of the Bulletin newspaper that was established by J. Q. Adams in 1879. Morris was a daguerreotype artist in Cincinnati, OH, during the 1850s when he was employed at the gallery of James P. and Thomas C. Ball. He also lived in Xenia, OH, before returning to Kentucky. In 1890, he was co-editor of The Champion newspaper with G. W. Hatton [source: "We have noticed...," The Progress, 03/22/1890, p.2, top of 2nd column]. Horace Morris was the son of Shelton Morris. In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, his birth date is given as about 1832, and his race is given as white. His exact death date is not known, but occurred between 1880, when he was last listed in the U.S. Census, and 1900, when his wife Wilhelmina was listed as a widow. For more see Life Behind a Veil, by G. C. Wright; see the Horace Morris entry in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and Horace Morris in Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900 by M. S. Haverstock et. al.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Civic Leaders, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Medical Field, Health Care, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Cincinnati and Xenia, Ohio

Owens, Edward, III
Birth Year : 1957
In 1984, Owens was the first African American to be appointed Assistant Commonwealth Attorney in Fayette County, KY. Owens was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Ollie Bell and Ed Owens, Jr. He is a 1984 graduate of the University of Kentucky Law School and also earned his undergraduate business degree at the school. Owens had worked with the law firm of Shirley Cunningham and John Merchant, located on Georgetown Street, prior to his appointment to the Commonwealth Attorney's Office. Owens had also been in private practice. In 1987, Owens left the Commonwealth Attorney's Office. He was suspended from practicing law in 1988 due to the mishandling of a real estate deal when he was in private practice. Owens would leave Kentucky and become senior vice-president of affordable housing with American Residential Mortgage. He was a commissioned examiner with the Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland. In 2003, he became the director of community affairs with Fifth Third Bank in Cincinnati, OH, and in 2005 was named Senior Vice President of Fifth Third Bancorp. For more see M. Davis, "Prosecutor takes nothing for granted," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/26/1984, City/State section, p. B1; T. Toliver, "Ex-Fayette Prosecutor suspended from practicing law," Lexington Herald-Leader, 01/28/1988, City/State section, p. B5; "Owens heads Fifth Third Department," The Cincinnati Post, 03/01/2003, Business section, p. B8; and "Fifth Third promotes Ed Owens III," The Cincinnati Post, 11/05/2005, Business section, p. B8.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Lawyers, Migration North, Court Cases, Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Paul Laurence Dunbar High School (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1923
End Year : 1967
The following information comes from Julian Jackson, Jr., Historian of the (old) Dunbar Alumni Association. The original school was a wooden structure named Russell High School. In 1921, William H. Fouse was instrumental in convincing the city of Lexington and the Education Board to build a new school for Negro children. Two years later the school was completed at 545 North Upper Street, with W. H. Fouse as the principal. The school was named after poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, whose mother Matilda and father Joshua were from Kentucky. The funding for the school was unusual because it came from taxes on both African Americans and whites. (In 1921, Lexington tax dollars for education were still somewhat segregated.) The school was the first African-American high school accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools, one of eight such schools in the South. Fouse also helped create the first school bank and the first insurance program within Dunbar. He also helped develop regional literacy and art competitions, and the school had a championship debate team, sponsored by alumnus Cecil Posey. Dunbar students also participated in two interracial debate competitions: The Thrift Competition, supported by the Thrift Service Company of New York, which offered $75 in prize money; and the Bible Study Contest, sponsored by the YMCA and the YWCA. The Dunbar boys' team won $61 in prize money and took first place in the statewide interracial debate competition in which the girls' team placed second. Dunbar served the African American community for 44 years with three different principals: W. M. Fouse, 1923-1938; P. L. Guthrie, 1938-1966; and Clara Wendell Stitt, 1966-1967. Students who attended Dunbar received a well-rounded, quality education, the majority graduated on time, and many went on to college. Former students with additional information may contact Julian Jackson, Jr. at (859) 255-6328 or See also R. Bailey, "Lexington's Black community found magic at Dunbar," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/16/1986, p.B1. See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Lexington and Fayette County, KY. See also, the three files labeled "Fouse Papers (W. H. Fouse)" in the Fayette County section of Box 7 of the Kentucky Education Collection, Series I.
See the photographs taken at Paul Laurence Dunbar High School, 540 North Upper Street, Lexington, KY, images in Explore UK.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association), YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Porter, Jacob M.
Birth Year : 1848
Jacob M. Porter was one of the first African Americans to run for political office in Paris, KY [see NKAA entry Early African American Political Candidates, Bourbon County, KY]. With permission, the following entry comes from the unpublished letter written by Mrs. Rogers Bardé, titled "Porter Children." Mrs. Rogers Bardé is a researcher in Bourbon County, KY. 


"Jacob M. Porter was born in August 1848 (Census 1900). He married Josie M. Palmer in Bourbon County, Ky on 23 Mar 1871 (Colored Marriage Book, 1, page 56). In 1870 in Bourbon County, Ky he lived with his father and was listed as a grocer, along with his father and brother, Beverly. In the 1900 census he was listed as a bank clerk, and lived in Indianapolis, on California Street. He and his wife Josie had two children; William, born Nov 1873 and Edward, born Apr 1883. In 1900 he owned his own home, without a mortgage. He lived in the same house in 1910 and 1920 (listed in the moving business in both censuses); by 1930 Josie was a widow in the same house, living with their son, who by now was listed as Edgar, instead of Edward; Edgar was listed as single. In the 1930 census Josie was head of the house and a widow, and Carrie V. White was listed as her daughter and a widow. I found Carrie, born Dec 1871, married to Maurice White in the 1900 census in Indianapolis on Market Street, in Center Township. They had no children." 


Jacob M. Porter was the son of Jefferson Porter [see NKAA entries 1, 2, and 3 for more on Jefferson Porter].
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Rounds, Ned and Ellen [Honey Island, Mississippi]
Ned (1825 - ?) and Ellen (1835 - died between 1880 and 1900) were slaves born in Kentucky and were either sold or taken down South. They were owned by Peter James, Sr. and lived on the Stonewall Plantation in the Mississippi Delta. After he was freed, Ned Rounds became one of the largest landowners in the community he helped found, Honey Island, MS. Ned could not read or write, but he could count: he served as a banker for residents of Honey Island. He was a wealthy man who had been a slave and was the son of slaves who were also born in Kentucky. By 1910, the succeeding generation of the Rounds family had heavily mortgaged the land. The family wealth was lost and family members began leaving Honey Island, moving to northern locations. For more on the history of the Rounds family see Honey Island, by J. Hunter.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Communities, Freedom, Migration South
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Honey Island, Mississippi

Shipman, V. Joseph [Continental National Bank]
Birth Year : 1937
V. Joseph Shipman, born in Georgia, was the president, chief executive officer, and director of the Continental National Bank of Kentucky beginning in 1974 and continuing through the 1980s. The bank, located at 500 S. 6th Street in Louisville, KY, was the only Black bank in Kentucky and one of 30 in the U.S. For more see Profiles of Contemporary Black Achievers of Kentucky, by J. B. Horton; and "Louisville bank raises funds to open doors," Baltimore Afro-American, 01/10/1976, p. 7.

  See photo image of V. Joseph Shipman on p. 115 of Black Enterprise, June 1977, via Google Books.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors
Geographic Region: Georgia / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Sudduth, Horace
Birth Year : 1888
Death Year : 1957
Horace Sudduth was born in Covington, KY, the son of Charles and Mattie Sudduth. He was president of the Walnut Hills Enterprise Company, president of the Industrial Loan and Savings Company, president and organizer of the Creative Realty Company, and owner of the Sudduth Real Estate Agency. The Horace Sudduth Award, for outstanding achievements in land and real estate, is named in his honor. For more see Who's Who in Colored American, 1933-37; Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines, vol. 1: Jan 1946-July 1949; and S. Middleton, "We must not fail!: Horace Sudduth, Queen City entrepreneur," Queen City Heritage, vol. 49, issue 2 (1991), pp. 3-20.

See photo image of Horace Sudduth on p.23 in Jet, 11/19/1953.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Migration North, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Taylor, Preston
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1931
Preston Taylor was born in Louisiana; his parents, Zed and Betty Taylor, were slaves who moved (or were brought) to Kentucky a year after he was born. In 1864 Preston Taylor enlisted in the army. After his service years, he went to Louisville, KY, where he was employed in the marble yards. He later became a pastor at the Christian Church in Mt. Sterling, KY. He was chosen as the General Evangelist of the United States by his denomination. Though African Americans had been excluded from Reconstruction efforts, Taylor was able to secure a contract to build sections of the Big Sandy Railway from Mt. Sterling to Richmond, Virginia. He also purchased property in New Castle, KY, where he established the Christian Bible College. Around 1884 Taylor moved to Nashville, TN, where he was one of the wealthiest and most influential men in the city. For more see Preston Taylor (1849-1931), by the Tennessee State Library; "Elder Preston Taylor, co-founder. First Treasurer, One Cent Savings Bank and Trust Company," The Tennessee Tribune, 04/22-28/2004, p. 2D; and "The Athens of the South: pen picture of the life of Rev. Preston Taylor," Freeman, 07/04/1896, p.1.

  See photo image of Preston Taylor at "Anniversary Edition: House Divided," a Dickinson College website.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Louisiana / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky / New Castle, Henry County, Kentucky / Nashville, Tennessee

Terry, Woodford H.
Birth Year : 1871
Death Year : 1960
Woodford H. Terry was a plumber and carpenter who was a furniture maker in Bowling Green, KY for a few years. In Clarksville, TN, he was the chief builder at The American Tobacco Company plant. In 1909, Terry moved to Los Angeles, CA and did general contracting work. There was a new builders law enacted in California in 1912, and that year Terry passed the General Builders License exam. He constructed a number of buildings in California, including the Vernon Avenue A. M. E. Church in Pasadena, CA, and the Trinity Baptist Church in Southern California. Woodford H. Terry was the son of Henry and Rachael Eggner Terry. He was born in Birmingham, KY, a town that was intentionally removed by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) during the development of Kentucky Lake in the 1940s. Long before the town disappeared, Woodford H. Terry's family moved to Clarksville, TN, where Woodford attended the city schools. He earned his master's certificate in plumbing in 1894 via a correspondence course at Smith Trade School located in Nashville, TN. He was also an apprentice carpenter with American Tobacco Company in Clarksville, TN. In 1908, Terry vacationed in California and liked the area so much that he moved there the following year. In 1910, he married Jessie Sayers and the couple had three children. [Jessie Sayers Terry was the first African American member of the City Housing Commission in Los Angeles, CA.] In addition to his work as a plumber and carpenter in California, Woodford H. Terry was also the director and treasurer of the Unity Finance Corporation. He died in Los Angeles on December 27, 1960 [source: California Death Index]. For more see Woodford H. Terry on p.13 in Negro Who's Who in California, 1948 edition; and Two Case Studies of African American Architect's Careers in Los Angeles, 1890-1945: Paul R. Williams, FAIA and James H. Garrott, AIA by W. H. Henderson.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Migration West, Migration South, Carpenters, Plumbers
Geographic Region: Birmingham, Marshall County, Kentucky (no longer exists) / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Clarksville, TN / Los Angeles California

True Reformers
Start Year : 1872
End Year : 1930
The True Reformers began in 1872 as an affiliated organization for African Americans who were not allowed to become members of the Independent Order of Good Templars in Kentucky. The initiative is said to have come from Colonel John J. Hickman (who was white), from Lexington, KY. Hickman is remembered for his temperance advocacy and leadership in the United States, and the Good Templar lodges he organized in England, Scotland, Ireland, Wales, and the Isle of Man. Hickman did not oversee the True Reformers in Kentucky and other southern states, these were independent lodges managed by African Americans, and the lodges limped along during the first decade, several folded. In 1881, William Washington Browne, a former slave born in Virginia, was elected head of the Grand Fountain of the True Reformers in Virginia, and he is credited for the revival of the True Reformers. He developed the Virginia organization into a successful fraternal insurance society that owned businesses, including a bank and the newspaper The Reformer. The structure of the Virginia organization was applied to True Reformers in northern cities and in cities located in upper southern states. The True Reformers continued to exist until the early 1930s, around the beginning of the Great Depression. William Browne's success with the True Reformers was due to his ability to redirect the True Reformers away from temperance and prohibition, to more practical issues that African Americans faced. The organization was a trend setter for the operation of other African American fraternal organizations and it impacted the insurance business by redefining premium terms and benefits, and how they were handled by a national organization. True Reformers promoted self-help and introduced African Americans in 20 states to business, management, and entrepreneur practices. The True Reformers Hall in Louisville, KY, was located at 822 W. Walnut Street, according to the 1909 city directory. For more see D. T. Beito, "To advance the "Practice of Thrift and Economy": fraternal societies and social capital, 1890-1920," Journal of Interdisciplinary History, Spring 1999, vol.29, issue 4, pp.585-612; see the entry "Grand United Order of the True Reformers" in Organizing Black America by N. Mjagkij; The Black Lodge in White America by D. M. Fahey; and Twenty-Five Years History of the Grand Fountain of the United Order of True Reformers, 1881-1905 by W. P. Burrell and D. E. Johnson. For more on Colonel John J. Hickman, see his entry in History of Boone County, Missouri by the St. Louis Western Historical Company, 1882, pp.881-883 [available at Google Book Search]
Subjects: Alcohol, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Virginia / United States

Wright, W. H.
Wright was president of the American Mutual Savings Bank in Louisville, KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Young, A. Howard
Raised in Louisville, KY, Young is the first African American to be named President of the Mortgage Bankers Association of Louisville. A graduate of Morehead State University, he is employed as a loan officer of GMAC Mortgage, a certificate-holder in the General Motors Family First Program. For more see HR141.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky


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