From NKAA, Notable Kentucky African Americans Database (main entry)

Fayette County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870

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Fayette County is one the three original counties formed by Virginia in 1780. Today the county is located in the central Bluegrass Region surrounded by six counties, including its southern boundary of the Kentucky River that is shared with Madison County. Fayette County was named for Marquis de Lafayette, a French aristocrat who was a military officer in the American Revolutionary War and during the French Revolution. There are many locations in the United States named for General Lafayette. The county seat of Fayette County in Kentucky is Lexington, created by Virginia in 1782, and named after Lexington, MA. Fayette County encompasses the second largest population in Kentucky. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 14,626 whites, 3,752 slaves, and 32 free persons. In 1800, the population was 14,028, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 9,715 whites, 4,225 slaves, and 88 free coloreds. In 1830, there were 13 African American slave owners in Fayette County, and 15 in Lexington. By 1860, the county population had increased to 12,585 [excluding the slaves], and ten years later, after slavery had ended in Kentucky, the Fayette County population was 26,736, according to the U.S. Federal Census. There was a significant slave population in Fayette County, below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 1,553 slave owners
  • 9,946 Black slaves
  • 858 Mulatto slaves
  • 518 free Blacks
  • 153 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 1,720 slave owners
  • 8,537 Black slaves
  • 1,611 Mulatto slaves
  • 453 free Blacks
  • 232 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 10,795 Blacks
  • 1,590 Mulattoes
  • About 406 U.S. Colored Troops listed Fayette County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Fayette County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Lexington, Kentucky by G. W. Ranck; History of Fayette County, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin; Black Marriage Bonds of Fayette County, Kentucky, 1866-1876 by G. Garrison; and African American Presence by Historic South Hill Neighborhood Association.

References

Cited in this Entry

NKAA Entry: African American Slave Owners in Kentucky
NKAA Source: "First census" of Kentucky, 1790 : (reconstructed from tax lists)
NKAA Source: "Second census" of Kentucky, 1800; a privately compiled and published enumeration of tax payers appearing in the 79 manuscript volumes extant of tax lists of the 42 counties of Kentucky in existence in 1800
NKAA Source: The Kentucky encyclopedia
NKAA Source: History of Lexington, Kentucky: its early annals and recent progress, including biographical sketches and personal reminiscences of the pioneer settlers, notices of prominent citizens, etc., etc.
NKAA Source: History of Fayette County, Kentucky
NKAA Source: Black marriage bonds of Fayette County, Kentucky, 1866-1876
NKAA Source: African American presence : a tour of houses built and owned by free Blacks before the Civil War in the historic South Hill neighborhood, 1800-1850

Related Entries Citing this Entry

NKAA Entry:  African American Slave Owners in Kentucky

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Cite This NKAA Entry:

“Fayette County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870,” Notable Kentucky African Americans Database, accessed September 21, 2017, http://nkaa.uky.edu/nkaa/items/show/2333.

Last modified: 2017-07-19 13:51:47