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African American Schools in Allen County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1962
As early as 1874, there were five colored school districts in Allen County, KY, and two of them had schools that were in operation when the common school report was published in 1876 [source: Legislative Document No. 2: Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of the State of Kentucky for the fiscal years ending Oct. 10, 1874, and October 10, 1875, pp. 173-172]. Jesse M. Hudson was a school teacher in Scottsville, KY, (according to the list on p. 30 of the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916). There were at least five colored school teachers in Allen County, KY, in 1919, when the County Illiteracy Agent, Elizabeth Baker, secured their pledge for a Moonlight School [source: Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, Allen County, KY]. The colored Moonlight School was held at the Zion School in Scottsville. There was also a county colored school in Maynard, it was a Rosenwald School built next to the Caney Fork Baptist Church around 1922. The school was closed in 1933 when the Allen County colored schools were merged with the colored city school in Scottsville. A photo of the Maynard School and additional history is available at the Flickr site by Kenny Browning. The teachers mentioned at the Flickr site are Garnett Holder, Jessie Hudson, Clara Whitney, Sarah Hughes, and Nintha Shipley Ponds. Other Scottsville school teachers mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal are Miss Lottie M. Hughes, Miss Lucy V. Lee, and Mrs. Chlora B. Whitney (all in the April 18-21, 1923 issue). The Negro teachers in Allen County listed in the 1940 U.S. Federal Census were Nintha Ponds, principal of the Maynard School, and Geannie P. Smith at the Scottsville School. The Scottsville Independent schools were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Zion School
  • Maynard School
  • Moonlight School
  • Scottsville School 

See a photo of the Maynard Colored School, a Flickr site by Kenny Browning.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Anderson County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
There were colored schools in Anderson County, KY prior to the year 1900 and the exact date of the first colored school is not known. In 1880, 21 year old John Trunt(sp) was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as a school teacher who lived in the East District of Lawrenceburg, but there is no indication as to where the school was located. Trunt(sp) was a boarder with the John Penny family. {Trunt may not be the correct spelling of the last name, it is difficult to read the handwriting of the census taker}. There were still colored schools in Anderson County in 1895, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...for the two years beginning July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, there were five districts, each with one school that was taught five months per year. Three of the school buildings were frame structures, and the other two schools were taught in churches or other buildings. The colored schools were under the county system. There were six teachers and an average of 113 students attending school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were still five districts with five schools and six teachers [source: Biennial Report...beginning July 1, 1899 and ending June 30,1901]. One of the schools was taught more than five months. In 1901, there were four school buildings, one made of log and three frame structures, and the fifth school was taught in a church, or rented building, or in the teacher's home. The average attendance was 169 students for the school year 1899-1900, and the teachers earned an average of $46.61 per month. There was an average attendance of 135 students from 1900-1901, and the teachers earned an average of $41.55 per month. For both years, the Negro teachers earned more than the white teachers. There was one student from Anderson County who graduated from the State Normal School for Colored Persons for the scholastic year 1900 and 1901 [now Kentucky State University]. In 1916, there were two teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916: Mary W. Coleman [known as Mrs. Wally], p.26; and J. C. Diggs, p.27. By 1926, Raymond I. Pleasant had replaced J. C. Diggs and the Lawrenceburg Colored School was located in the Grove, it was Pleasant's first teaching job and he would become principal of the school. His wife, Catherine Utterback Pleasant taught at the Georgetown School in Anderson County, the school was in the African American community of Georgetown located off Lock Road in the area known today as the Georgetown School Road. Catherine and Raymond Pleasant are listed in the History and Families, Anderson County, Kentucky, by Turner Publishing, p.139. By 1935, William Coleman was a teacher and would become principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, v.6, no.1, p.52]. Prior to his arrival, Raymond I. Pleasant and Mary Coleman had added an unaccredited 2 year high school to the Lawrenceburg Colored School and there were 3 students [sources: Turner Pub., p.136; and KNEA Journal, Feb. 1931, v.1, no.3, p.11, and v.2, no.1, p.24]. William and Mary Coleman continued the unaccredited high school department, though in 1936, the school was still referred to as a city elementary school [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1936, p.40]. Mrs. Lorelia C. Spencer was a teacher at the school in 1938 and she was principal of the high school department [source: KNEA Journal, v.9, no.1-2, p.52, and v.9, no.3, p.14]. According to historian Gary Brown, it was also in 1938 when the Lawrenceburg Colored School in the Grove burnt down and the new school was built on Lincoln Street. W. M. Thomas was a teacher at the school, and he left in 1939 to become principal of the Knob City High School in Russellville, KY [source: KNEA Journal, Jan.-Feb 1940, v.10, no.2, p.34]. L. L. Owens was principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School in 1940 [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1940, v.11, no.1, p.32]. Mrs. C. B. Daily was principal in 1945 [source: KNEA Journal, April-May 1945, v.16, no.2-3, p.29]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Anderson County were William Coleman, Catherine Pleasant, and L. L. Owens [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, William M. Coleman was principal of the junior high grades of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, March 1949, p.19]. The Anderson County colored schools were consolidated around 1950 and students from the county were bused to the Lawrenceburg Colored School on Lincoln Street. William M. Coleman would again be named principal of the school. There was never an accredited high school for Negro children in Anderson County and the unaccredited high school department at the Lawrenceburg Colored School were dropped in 1945. According to Lawrenceburg resident Ethel Thurman and historian Gary Brown, Anderson County paid for Negro high school students in Lawrenceburg to be bused to Lincoln Institute in Shelby County and to Simmons High School in Versailles, and there were a few students bused to the old Dunbar High School in Lexington. The Anderson County Schools began to integrate in 1963 when Negro high school students were given the option of attending the white high school in Lawrenceburg, or Lincoln Institute, or the high school in Versailles. According to historian Gary Brown, the following year, all other grades were integrated, and Robert Bird was the Superintendent of Schools. For this entry, assistance with geographic locations and names, the names of teachers, and school integration information were also provided by Jane Jones and Cathy L. Green.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Georgetown School
  • Lawrenceburg School (burnt in 1938)
  • Lawrenceburg School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ballard County, KY
Start Year : 1888
End Year : 1962
In 1888, there were eight colored schools in Ballard County, KY, according to author William H. Baldree in his thesis, History of Education in Ballard County, p. 41. The schools were said to be in poor condition. In 1916, R. H. Johnson of Wickliffe was a school teacher in Ballard County [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1923, the teachers were Miss. Pauline Herron of La Center, Mrs. Iola Carruthers of Barlow, Miss Ophelia M. Durrell in La Center, and Miss Sault Reeves of Wickliffe [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.55, 57, 62, & 72]. Mrs. Early Lee Harris, Mrs. Callie Tounley, and Mr. Dave Williams were the school teachers at Kevil in 1927 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 20-23, 1927, pp.47, 61, & 63]. Author Baldree got a more favorable report about the colored schools in 1931 when he interviewed County Superintendent V. W. Wallis. There were six frame school buildings and seven teachers for the 137 children attending the schools [p. 60]. The schools were supported by the state and the Julius Rosenwald Fund. There were no colored high schools in Ballard County in 1931; 12 students were attending high school in another county. The following year, there was a high school, Ballard County High, and Loretta Spencer was hired as the principal. Shortly after Spencer arrived at the school, the building was burnt down. Spencer successfully campaigned for funding to build a new school, and she received assistance from the Slater Fund and from the Parent-Teachers Association. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ballard County were Modena Crice and Tallie Townley [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Ballard Memorial High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Wickliffe School
  • Barlow School
  • La Center School
  • Kevil School
  • Ballard County High
  • Central School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Bandana School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Bethel School
  • Lovelaceville School
  • Robinsontown School

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bath County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Bath County, KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census, Elijah Grigsby was the teacher in Owingsville and Walace Smith was the teacher in Sharpsburg. By 1886, there were eight colored schools in Bath County, KY [source: NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886], and in 1897, there were ten schools, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, pp.216-219. All were rural elementary schools under the county school system. The schools were in session for nine months, and there were nine frame school houses and one made of logs. There were 11 school teachers, two of whom were female, and the Owingsville school teacher was M. C. Lasswell. In 1897, the average monthly salary for the female teachers was $32.91, and the wages of the male teachers was an average of $31.84 per month. The average attendance was 152 students in 1897, and four students graduated (from 8th grade). The number of colored schools had declined by 1925, there were six schools with seven teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and the numbers had declined again by the 1936-37 school term when there were four teachers, and there were three teachers during the 1940-41 term. The names of teachers at the Owingsville School can be found in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal for the years 1925-1941. The Negro teachers in Bath County in 1940 were Carrie L. Clemons, Alice Dotson, Everrett Jones, and Anna M. Jones [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following information comes from the Bath County News-Outlook newspaper. The newspaper copies and the research were provided by the Bath County Memorial Library in Owingsville, KY. -- In 1953, there were 32 students enrolled in the Owingsville Colored School, and 75 students at the Bethel and Sharpsburg colored schools [article: "1500 are enrolled in county schools," 09/10/1953, p.1]. Mrs. Nannie M. Powell was the teacher at the Owingsville Colored School as early as 1953, and Mrs. Carie Lee Clemmons and Mrs. Mary F. Williams were the teachers at Sharpsburg Colored School [article: "Owingsville School," 09/03/1953]. Beginning in 1958, Mrs. Clemmons and Frank C. LaPrelle were the teachers at the Sharpsburg Colored School [articles: "Teachers placed," 04/30/1958; "Bath County schools to open Monday, August 29," 08/25/1960; and "County schools start Sept. 7, teacher list is announced," 07/26/1962]. In 1954, it was recommended that contractual arrangements be made for Negro high school students to attend the Negro high schools in adjacent counties or Lincoln Institute in Shelby County [article: "Negro schools," 02/18/1954]. The Owingsville Colored School on Harrisburg Street was the last one-room school house in Bath County, the school had students in grades 1-8 [article: photo caption "One big family," 01/12/1961], the school building was sold to George Harris for $1,555 in 1963 [article: photo caption "'Little Red Schoolhouse' auctioned to high bidder," 10/24/1963]. The Sharpsburg Colored School property was on the south side of Montgomery Street in Sharpsburg, and was to be sold at public auction after the Owingsville Colored School was sold [article: "5 Surplus schools go under auction hammer," 10/10/1963]. -- There was never a high school for Negro students in Bath County. The schools in Bath County were integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Owingsville School
  • Sharpsburg School
  • Bethel School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bath County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Butler County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1886, there were seven colored schools in Butler County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1896, Ulysses S. Porter was a school teacher in one of the schools [source: Fascinating story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan, p.441]. W. M. Johnson was the school teacher in Morgantown in 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1925, there were three colored schools in Butler County, each with one teacher, and there was a total of 94 students at the three schools. [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67-69]. All of the colored schools were elementary schools under the county school board, and in 1927, a fourth school was opened [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.63]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Butler County; tuition was paid for students to attended the colored high school of their choice, which included the High Street High School in Bowling Green, and at least one student, Theresa Crabtree Bell, attended St. Joseph High School (Catholic) in Bowling Green [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]. In 1929, Ada M. Porter was the teacher at the Morgantown Colored School, and in 1937, she was the principal of the school [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 17-20, 1929, p.52, and October-November 1937, p.55]. In 1940, Ada Porter was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as the only Negro teacher in Butler County, though there was also a teacher at the Sugar Grove School that was in operation in 1940. All of the Butler County schools are listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, pp.844-845.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Morgantown School (closed 1960)
  • Sugar Grove School (closed 1951)
  • Rochester School (school closed in 1939, building sold in 1940) [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]
  • Woodbury School (school closed prior to 1938) [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]
  • Boston School (may have never opened) [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]

 

  See photo image of students and school in Sugar Grove, KY at the Old Family Photo Album website by Wm. R. Jones.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Butler County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Caldwell County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1962
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a freedmen school in Princeton, KY [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen School]. There are several photo images of colored schools in Caldwell County, taken during the 1880s-1890s. The images are within the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives, and includes the schools in Chapel Hill, Freedonia, Princeton, and Walnut Grove. Ella O'Hara was the school teacher at the Princeton Colored School in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 13 colored schools in Caldwell County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.262-266]. There were 16 teachers and an average attendance of more than 650 students. The teachers' average monthly wages were $42.24 for 1895-96, and $34.72 for 1896-97. The colored school in Princeton was one of the few in Kentucky to have a Colored superintendent in 1925 [see NKAA entry Colored Superintendents]. During the school term, there were four colored schools in the county, with five teachers and 547 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67 & 69]. There were also four elementary schools in Princeton, and Princeton High School, all with a total of 264 students. The high school was later named Dotson High School. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Randall Acton, William Cridder, Henry Crow, Willie Crutchfield, Lula Mae Grinter, Lula Hampton, Annie Scott King, and Joanita McNary, all at Princeton; and Ollie Barber at Freedonia. The St. Paul School in Princeton is listed in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63 as the first school in Caldwell County to become integrated. The public high schools started to integrate in 1963 [source: Patricia George interview in the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society website].

  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Freedmen School supported by the Bureau
  • Princeton School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives] / later Dotson School
  • Chapel Hill School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School (1926-1948, image at westernkyhistory.org website]
  • Walnut Grove School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Dotson School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.845]

See photo image of Caldwell County colored school and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
See 2nd photo image of Chapel Hill School and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Caldwell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carlisle County, KY
Start Year : 1899
End Year : 1962
In 1899, there were three colored school districts in Carlisle County, KY, and one was located in Bardwell [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1, 1899-June 30, 1901]. The teachers earned an average of $33 per month in 1900, and there were 66 students attending the three schools in 1901. There were still three colored elementary schools in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. There continued to be three colored schools for several decades until the Negro population in Carlisle County began to decrease, and in 1955, there was one colored school with 15 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.206]. There was not a high school for Negro students in Carlisle County. In 1961, Mrs. Harriett W. Crawford was the teacher at the Negro school in Bardwell, the school had grades 1-8 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.846]. The following school year, the Bardwell schools and the Carlisle County High School were integrated [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.107]. See photo image of Bardwell Colored School on p.5 of The Carlisle Weekly, 09/02/2003.

  • Colored Schools (3)
  • Bardwell School 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carlisle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carroll County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
When R. W. Bevarly was completing his master's thesis in 1936, articles about the colored schools of Carroll County in 1879 were located in the Carrollton Democrat newspaper; the colored school at Liberty Station was attended by children in the day and by adults at night; in Carrollton, Maggie Woods was the teacher [source: History of Education in Carroll County by R. W. Bevarly, p.66]. There were three schools in 1880, the teachers were Ady Pack in Ghent, and Maggie Woods in Carrollton and Prestonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1881 there were 226 students in the four colored schools [source: Bevarly, p.50]. In 1882 there were 268 students in the schools located in Carrollton, Ghent, Above Ghent, and Liberty Station [source: Bevarly, p.51]. There were five colored school districts in 1885: No.1 Carrollton, No.2. Ghent, No.3 Lynan Craigs, No.4 Sanders, and No.5 Worthville [source: Bevarly, p.30]. All of the schools were under the county school board with the largest colored school in Carrollton and James K. Polk was the teacher. Polk was a graduate of Gaines High School in Cincinnati, OH [source: Bevarly, p.66]. He taught at the colored school for one year and was replaced by J. E. Jackson, and in 1889 Jackson was replaced by Fred W. Burch, also a graduate of Gaines High School. There continued to be five colored schools in Carroll County until 1900 when there was six, and by 1933, there were two [source: Bevarly, p.94]. Dunbar Colored School, in Carrollton, was a brick building and was under the city school board, Bessie Whitacker was the teacher and had a monthly salary of $69, while her husband Dudley Whitacker had a salary of $75 for teaching at the Ghent Colored School that was held in a rented building that was in poor condition [source: Bevarly, p.94]. After WWII, a new colored school building was constructed in Ghent and it served as the county school for all African American children. There was never a colored high school in Carroll County, and the city and the county provided transportation for high school students attending Lincoln Institute [source: A History of Carroll County, Kentucky: containing facts before and after 1754 by M. A. Gentry, p.53]. The school systems of Carroll County began to integrate in the 1960s, starting with the first grade students [source: "Schools due to integrate at Carrollton," Louisville Courier-Journal, 04/22/1961]. The schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, were the Carrollton Elementary and High School on p.846.

  • Carrollton School
  • Prestonville School
  • Dunbar School
  • Ghent School
  • Above Gent School
  • Lynan Craigs School
  • Sanders School
  • Worthville School
  • Liberty Station School

See photo image of Dunbar Colored School, Hawkins and Ninth Street, at the Carrollton Schools website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carroll County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clay County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
In 1886, there were four colored school districts in Clay County, KY [see African American Schools, 1886]. There were five colored schools in 1897; two of the school houses were made of log and three were frame buildings [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.308-311]. There was one teacher at each school, a little more than 200 total students were enrolled in the schools, and about half attended school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were six colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-June 1901, p.198]. In 1923, Mrs. Mattie A. Clarke was the school teacher at the Manchester Colored School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. By 1925, the number of colored schools had been reduced to three schools with five teachers and 129 students, and two years later, there was only the one colored school in Manchester with two teachers and 74 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67, and 1927-1928, p.63]. By 1932, there were three teachers. In 1940, one of the Negro teachers was Margaret Drake [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Unlike many counties, the number of Negro children enrolled in the colored school did not continue to decline in Clay County. During the 1955-56 school term, there were 123 students and four teachers. In 1961, the school had grades 1-8, still with four teachers, and the head teacher/principal was William Croley [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.849]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Clay County, KY. The Clay County High School was integrated during the 1962-63 school term, and the Manchester elementary schools started to integrate during the 1964-65 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, pp.109-108, and 1964-65, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (6)
  • Manchester School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clay County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Earlington, KY (Hopkins County)
Start Year : 1891
End Year : 1964
Earlington Colored School was open as early as 1891; it was mentioned in a special report, "Masons Made - Mass Meetings - Visitors." Freeman, 02/28/1891, p.6. The school reopened for the year in September of 1892 [source: "School opens," Bee, 09/08/1892, p.6]. In 1894, A. R. Bailey was principal and J. E. Todd was his assistant [source: Bee, 03/22/1894, p.3]. The Colored school was located in District 7, there were 158 students enrolled with an attendance of 126, and the school was in session for nine months. In 1895, C. W. Merriweather was the assistant principal of the school. J. W. Bell was the principal in 1911 [source: "Prof. J. W. Bell...," Bee, 07/18/1911, p.5]. He was still the principal in 1920 when there were 14 students in Earlington High School (grades 9 and 10), according to author H. Ardis Simons' thesis, The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky. From 1923 to 1941, the principals were Edward Dean, W. E. Strader, T. W. Austin, R. R. Buckner, Theodore Daly, W. B. Edwards, Austin Edwards, and S. S. Morris. The school still existed in the late 1940s and is mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.  As early as 1938, the school was named  J. W. Million [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-1938, p.46]; the elementary school had 5 teachers and the high school had 4 teachers. The J. W. Million School was listed as a Negro school in the Kentucky School Directory right up to the last issue of the publication that indicated race [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65, p.105.], and all other schools in Hopkins County, except the Earlington Elementary school for whites, are listed as integrated. See also NKAA Database entry African American Schools in Madisonville and Hopkins County, KY.

  • Earlington Colored School
  • J. W. Million School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Earlington, Hopkins County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Edmonson County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1963
As early as 1886, there were four colored schools in Edmonson County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1899-1901, there were five colored school districts in Edmonson County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899 - June 1901, and the Negro teachers earned an average monthly salary of $24.49 for the school year 1899-1900, and $21.69 for the school year 1900-1901. The average attendance at the colored schools during the 1906-1907 school term was 61 students [source: Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907]. There were still 4 colored elementary schools in Edmonson County in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. Mrs. Zemmie Bransford was the school teacher at the Mammoth Cave Colored School in 1924 and was joined by Mrs. Alice C. Garvin in 1925 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.70; and April 22-25, 1925, p.58 and p.84]. Mr. M. W. Bransford was a teacher at the school in 1927 [April 20-23, 1927, p.38]. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Edmonson County was William S. Coleman [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The last colored school in Edmonson County was Icy Sink in Smiths Grove, the teacher was Mrs. Mattie P. Starks, and there were 17 students [source: Kentucky School Directory,1962-63, p.112]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Edmonson County, the county board of education paid to have the students transported to High Street High School in Bowling Green, KY. The Edmonson County schools integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.105].

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Mammoth Cave School
  • Icy Sink School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Edmonson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Garrard County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
According to author Richard D. Sears, there was a freemen's school in Garrard County, KY in 1869, conducted by Berea student Angus Burleigh. This may be the same school that was established between 1866 and 1870; an American Missionary Association School in Lancaster [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, Joseph Chavis was a school teacher in Brandy Springs; and Samuel Logan was the teacher at Bryantsville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 14 colored schools in Garrard County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.376-379].  The average attendance was 431 and there were 15 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 426 students and 16 teachers during the 1896-97 school term. The teachers' average monthly wages were $45.28 for males and $46.00 for females, during 1895-96; and $37.40 for males and $30.50 for females during 1896-97. In 1898, L. A. Leavell was removed as head of the Lancaster Colored School, and replaced by R. W. Fletcher who was assisted by Miss Willie B. Lackey. In 1900, James A. White was principal of the Lancaster Colored School and the teachers were Miss Mary V. Richey and Miss Willie B. Lackey. The school year closing exercises were held at the courthouse and E. M. Embry gave the address for the graduation held for five students who completed the common school course. E. M. Embry was an African American lawyer in Richmond, KY, and editor of the Rambler newspaper. In 1906, H. E. Murrell was the teacher at the Lancaster Colored School. The school building had burned years ago and the school was held in a location that limited the number of students. The new school was located on Totten Avenue. In 1912, there were 152 students enrolled in the Lancaster Colored School. The principal was J. H. Burns and the teachers were Dora Beverly of Alabama and Isabel Overstreet of Lancaster. In 1923, the teacher at the Marcellus School was Mr. George Gaines [source: "K. N. E. A. Enrollment, 1923," Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.59]. Prior to 1924, students who wanted to go to high school had to pay the tuition to attend at Bate High School in Danville or some other city, so parents petitioned the school board for a colored high school [source: Tommie Merritt oral history interview, #810H72, History of Garrard County Schools, at Eastern Kentucky University Oral History Collection]. In 1925, there was a colored high school in Lancaster; J. P. Griffey was the principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. It was a Class 3 high school with one teacher and 9 girl students. Lancaster High School, later known as Mason High School (1950), opened in 1939 in Duncantown, and there were two teachers for the 56 students and the school was within the Lancaster Independent School System [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.501]; Mrs. Tommie F. Merritt was a teacher at the school and served as principal from 1944 until the Garrard County schools were integrated in 1964. The Negro teachers in Garrard County in 1940 were Henry Kincaid, Susie Letcher, Lilly B.Mason, Cabel Merritt, Charles Payne, Carl M. Peters, Virginia Peters, and William Smith [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Closing of Colored School," Central Record, 05/11/1906, p.1; "Colored School closes," Central Record, 04/26/1912, p.1; "The Colored School," Central Record, 03/01/1900, p.1; "Change in Colored School," Central Record, 01/07/1898, p.1; see p.65 in Garrard County by R. M. Fox; A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91;

  • Freemen School
  • Lancaster American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Boone's Creek School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Brandy Springs School
  • Bryantsville School
  • Davistown School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Flatwoods School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Lancaster School
  • Lowell School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Marcellus School
  • Mason School
  • Scott's Fork School in Buckeye [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • White Oak School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]


See the 1938 photo image of the Lancaster Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky: Lancaster

African American Schools in Harlan County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1890, there were two colored schools in Harlan County, KY, with 70 students, according to the thesis of Lottie McCoy, History of Education in Harlan County, Kentucky, p.118. In the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Harlan County is included in the list of counties that had a colored school [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1918-1919, there were only three Negro teachers in the county school system, and in Camp No.3, the coal mine superintendent had set aside an old building to be used as a school for the 12 Negro children [source: see the section "Negro Schools," pp.357-358 in the M. B. Ellis article, "Children of the Kentucky coal fields," The American Child, v.1, May 1919-February 1920]. In Lynch, there was a colored school held in temporary quarters and classes were conducted by two teachers. The colored school in Benham was held in an old church with an average attendance of 65 students, though there were 135 Negro children of school age. During the 1918-1919 school term, there were six children in the 8th grade at the Benham Colored School. Plans were discussed for a $6,000 brick school house to be built with a playground. In 1919, Rosenwald funds were available and a colored school was built in Harlan that had a class B high school, there were four teachers and 240 students [source: McCoy, p.118]. In 1923 a school was built by the U. S. Coal and Coke Company and leased to the Lynch Colored Common Graded School District [source: R. Creech, "Historical marker honors Lynch Colored School," Harlan Daily Enterprise, 2003]. The Lynch Colored School had 567 students, 13 teachers, and the school had a four year high school with a class B rating [source: McCoy, p.118]. The high school was attended by students from both Lynch and Benham. The school was considered the best colored school in southeastern Kentucky, and many of the teachers were graduates of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. The Lynch mines schools system was one of the few to have a colored school superintendent, B. B. Smith [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Other colored schools in Harlan County were located in Closplint, Verda, Shields, Louellen, Kildav, Coxton, Tway, Liggett, Benham, Yancey, Black Mountain [source: McCoy, p.118]. All of the colored schools were under Lela Virginia Becker, the first colored school supervisor in Harlan County. The Benham, Harlan, and Lynch high schools were among the approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky between 1918-1940, and Lynch Colored High School had the highest number of students [see NKAA entry African American High Schools, Eastern Kentucky, 1948]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Harlan County were Vivian Baker, William Boyant, Georgia Bradshaw, Vivian Breedlove, Edward E. Brewer, Julius Burrell, Helen Carroll, Ben Caise, John V. Coleman, Alma Dallas, Judith Davis, T. Leory Davis, Lydia Gray, S. Henry Hagnes, Mary P. Houston, Mary L. Jackson, Lillian King, Alberta Leavis, L. C. McCrery, Ruth Mathews, Lorene McClinnick, Lovey Mitchell, Franklin Moore, Hannah Moore, Alice Parsons, Joseph Perry, Ercell Powell, Addie G. Reed, Johnnie M. Riggins, Sanford Scott, Mary Sheabe, Edythe Spencer, Henrietta Sweat, Geneva Tapp, Virginia Tichenor, Johnnie B. Ware, Mary J. Williams, Clara Woolfork, Johnnie Wood, William M. Wood, Jessie Howard, and Jennie B. Hall [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Harlan County Area Vocational School was the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 859.

  • Harlan School
  • Lynch School
  • Closplint School
  • Verda School
  • Shields School
  • Louellen School
  • Kildav School
  • Coxton School
  • Tway School
  • Liggett School
  • Benham School
  • Yancey School
  • Black Mountain School
  • Evarts School  [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • West Main (Lynch) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.860]
  • Camp Number 1 School (Lynch) [source: Steve Andriga Oral History recording #1986OH275 at UK Libraries Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History]
  • Camp Number 3 School (Lynch)

 

  See photo image of Harlan (Colored) Negro School, in Explore UK.

   See 2nd photo of Harlan Negro School, in Explore UK.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky.

African American Schools in Hickman County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Between 1866 and 1870 there was a Freedmen School in Columbus, KY, [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. Six Hickman County colored schools are included in the title Hickman County, Kentucky, One Room Schools by LaDonna Latham. The schools are listed below. In 1880, Myra Ashley was a teacher at the Clinton School, and George E. Nall, from Alabama, was a teacher at the Columbus School [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 10 colored schools in Hickman County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.439-443. The average attendance was over 450 students taught by 13 teachers. Beginning in 1911, the Clinton colored school served as a traveling library station, and there was a second station for African Americans in Columbus, both in Hickman County [source: Kentucky Library Commission, Biennial Report, 1910-1929]. A new brick school house was completed in 1915 for the colored students in Clinton, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1915]. In 1928, there were seven teachers in the Hickman County colored schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 18-21, 1928, p. 25]. There were nine teachers during the 1933-34 school term, two of whom had two years of college and four had one year of college, and there were two new school buildings constructed in the county for the colored children [source: History of Education in Hickman County, Kentucky (thesis), by V. A. Jackson, pp. 121 & 127]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Hickman County were Emma Kane, Georgia Cromwell, Christine Dorrel, Lena Harper, Edgar Jones Jr., Laculia Jones, Vera Rash, and Harriett Webb [source: U.S. Federal Census].  In 1947, the Hickman County school teachers listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, p. 28, were Mrs. Christine Cole, Mrs. Vivian Jones, Grant Martin Jr., Mrs. Melvan Martin, and Mrs. Susie M. Powell. The first school to be listed as integrated was Hickman County High School on p.114 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Clinton School
  • Columbus Freedmen School held in rented school house
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Columbus School
  • Hailwell School
  • Hayes School
  • Moscow School
  • Oakton School
  • Springhill School
  • Wolf Island School
  • Kane School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Sunshine Hill School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hickman County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Jessamine County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1963
One of the earliest African American schools in Jessamine County, KY, was Arial Academy, founded in 1868 at what had been Camp Nelson then renamed Arial. The school was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools). Ariel Academy was open to both girls and boys, then became an all girls school. The school was renamed Camp Nelson Academy, and in 1871, it became Fee Memorial Institute, organized by Rev. John G. Fee about a mile from the national cemetery on Danville Pike, according to the thesis of James Edward Nankivell, The History of Education of Jessamine County, pp.111-121. The school had an independent board of trustees before it was turned over to the Presbyterian Church. There were 12 acres of land, a three story framed dormitory, and a school building. The school contained grades 1-8, and any continuing students went to Berea College for high school. The three teachers earned between $10-$12 per month, with free room and board. In 1904, Berea College was segregated. Fee Memorial Institute continued with grades 1-8, until 1916 when a normal school training program for teachers was added, and the graduate students would do their practice teaching at Fee Memorial Institute. In 1924, fifteen acres of land was purchased on the eastern border of Nicholasville and a new brick school house was constructed. The cost was $10 per month, per student, for room and board. In addition to Fee Memorial Institute, a second colored school in Jessamine County was established in 1873 in Sulphur Well [source: Nankivell, p.121]. By 1880, there were seven colored school districts in the county: three with frame school houses, districts 5-7; school was held in a tent in district 4; and there were no school houses in districts 1-3. The tuition was between 60 cents and $2.28 per three months of instruction [source: Nankivell, p.122]. The Nicholasville school had the lowest attendance with 11 students, and the Lee and Hervytown Schools had the highest attendance with 30 students. All of the teachers were males, and they earned between $12-$27.68 per month. In 1888, a Colored Teachers Institute was organized [source: Nankivell, p.123-127]. By 1890, there was a school house in all of the colored school districts [source: Nankivell, p.128]. In 1891, there were four more schools, and there would be as many as 12 colored school districts before the number was reduced to seven by 1927. All of the schools, except the one in Nicholasville, were under the county board of education and had grades 1-8 [source: Nankivell, pp.130-134]. The Nicholasville school was under the city board of education and had grades 1-8 and a two year high school program. A new school building was constructed in 1930. A private school, Keene Industrial Institute, was opened in 1900 by Prof. W. H. Parker [see NKAA entry for Keene Industrial Institute]. The school was moved to Beattyville in 1903. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Jessamine County were Mattie M. Byrd, John C. Caldwell, Mattie D. Crutcher, Bettie M. Frye, Emma J. Guyon [Emma Jean Guyn Miller], Roberta Miller, Albert Myers, Cecil Payne, L. Payne, Molly Payne, Elna Pitts, Weldon Smothers, and Sadie Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Jessamine County were integrated in 1963 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.121]. See also Effect of Desegregation on Academic Ahievement of Negro Students of Jessamine County, Kentucky (thesis) by Eugene Martin Rasmussen.

  • Arial Academy
  • Camp Nelson Academy
  • Fee Memorial Institute
  • Sulphur Well - District 6 (frame school house)
  • Nicholasville School - District 1 (no school house)
  • Hervytown School - District 2 (no school house)
  • Keene School - District 3 (no school house)
  • Lee School - District 4 (school held in a tent)
  • Camp Nelson School - District 5 (box structured school)
  • Marble Creek School - District 7 (frame school house)
  • Troutman School - District 8
  • Troy School - District 9
  • Hickman School - District 10
  • Clear Creek School - District 11
  • Wilmore School [source: R. G. Harden, "Rosenwald-Dunbar 50th Anniversary Reunion," July 18, 2013, p.4  - copy provided by Hallie Miller]
  • Vineyard School [source: Carrie Mae Burdette Oral History Interview at University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.] [source: Hallie B. Miller - "Weldon Smothers was a teacher at the Vineyard School."]
  • Keene Industrial Institute
  • Rosenwald-Dunbar School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jessamine County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lee County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1961
In 1880, Carter Lightfoot was a teacher at the colored school in Lee County, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Five years later, during the 1885-86 school term, there were two colored schools, one was held in a church and the other in a log building [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. There is a paragraph written about the schools on p. 72 of the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, school-year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, pp.499-502]. The average attendance at the colored schools was 45 students for 1885-86, and 37 for 1886-87. In 1903, the Beattyville Industrial Institute opened; the school had previously been located in Keene, KY, and was named Keene Industrial Institute. By 1915, there was one colored school in Lee County [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1913-1915, p.38]. Mr. G. A. Chandler was the school teacher in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. During the 1927-1928 school term, there was again 2 colored elementary schools in Lee County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.63]. The schools had one male teacher and one female teacher, and the teachers earned a total salary of $608, and the average attendance for both schools was 30 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory,1930-1931, p.74]. There would again be only one colored school in Lee County in 1939 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.508]. In 1940, Lena Lightfoot was the only Negro teacher in Lee County who was listed in the U.S. Federal Census. In 1948, the Green Hill School and the teacher, Mrs. L. E. Embry, held membership in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.17, no.2, pp.26 & 27]. The first school to be listed as integrated was Lee County High School on p.872 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lee County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Letcher County, KY
Start Year : 1911
End Year : 1963
In 1911, the Whitesburg Colored Graded School held its commencement March 23 and March 24 [source: "Whitesburg Colored School closes with entertainment," Mountain Advocate, 03/31/1911, p.1]. The school teachers were Miss S. P. Lewis of Fairfield, and Ellen B. Adams of Barbourville. The Whitesburg Colored School was one of the few in Kentucky to have a colored superintendent, J. Neil Burnside [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Fleming Colored School was located in Letcher County [source: Mountain Eagle, 02/04/1960 and 09/05/1963, school mentioned in articles titled "County School Financial Statement"]. Burdine Colored School was part of the Jenkins Independent School System of Negro Schools located in Jenkins, Burdine, and Dunham. According to the 1939 thesis by Frances Rolston, the colored schools in the Jenkins School System were developed due to the influx of Negro coal miners working for Consolidated Coal Company. The first Jenkins Colored School was established in 1916 with one teacher and 58 students. In 1928 there were 528 students in the colored schools in Letcher County. During the 1936-37 school year, there were 374 students in 3 schools. The end of school year report included Fleming one room school with one teacher and 36 students; Carbon Glow one room school with one teacher and 25 students; and Haymond two room school with two teachers and 70 students. For a number of years, Dunham Colored High School, under the Jenkins School System, was the only high school for African Americans in Letcher County. Tom Biggs Colored School was located in McRoberts, KY. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Letcher County were Camilla Elliott, Alfred Greenwood, Mattie Greenwood, M. L. Jackson, Blanche McSwain, Clemintine Masby, William Mudd, Marion Nelson, Marie Price, William Stovall, and Clara Whitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more information see the thesis History of Education in Letcher County, Kentucky by F. Rolston. The first school in Letcher County to be listed as integrated was St. George, a Jenkins Independent school on p.128 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

 

  • Burdine School
  • Carbon Glow School
  • Dunham School
  • Fleming Neon School
  • Haymond School
  • Jenkins School
  • Tom Briggs School in McRoberts
  • Whitesburg Graded School


See the 1921 photo image of the Burdine school children, Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Letcher County, Kentucky: Burdine, Carbon Glow, Dunham, Fleming, Haymond, Jenkins, McRoberts, Whitesburg

African American Schools in Lincoln County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Crab Orchard, KY [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. It was one of the early schools for African Americans in Lincoln County. There were two colored schools in 1875, according to the thesis of Morris B. Vaughn titled History of Education in Lincoln County, Kentucky, p.123. There were 12 schools In 1880; 13 schools in 1881; 16 schools in 1887 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky]; and in 1902 there were 17 colored schools in Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.123]. In 1880, the teachers at the colored schools were Emily Gogins in Hustonville; Belle Graham at Turnersville; and Ester Kincaid in Walnut [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1931, several of the schools had been consolidated and there were nine colored graded schools in the county. The consolidated schools were located in Stanford, Halls Gap, Hustonville, and McKinney. According to the title Lincoln County, Kentucky by Turner Publishing Company, p.121, the first colored school house in Crab Orchard, KY, was thought to have been built behind First Baptist Church on Cedar Street around 1890. The first school bus was thought to be the one used to transfer students from Cedar Ridge to the Crab Orchard Color School [see p.130]. The next school building was constructed in 1924 on Highway 150. The third building was constructed in 1937 by the Second Christian Church, located on Cedar Street, the school was off to the side and behind the church. Within the same title, on p.124, there is mention of a Colored School in District A in 1897, located in Stanford, KY. There had been a colored school in Stanford as early as 1879, it was established by the African American community that had also hired a teacher who graduated from Berea [source: "Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/06/1879, p.3]. The teachers hiring included a school examination, followed by a parade and a festival [source: "The Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/13/1879, p.2]. In 1925, Lincoln High School in Stanford was a Class 3 school with one teacher and 16 students, and W. D. Tardif was the school principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. Another school, McKinney Polytechnic Institute, opened in 1911 with three students from Iowa [source: "The McKinney Polytechnic Institute...," Stanford Interior Journal, 11/10/1911, p.1]. During the 1930s, the high school students in Stanford were bused to Bate High School in Danville; there had been a high school within Stanford School up to the 1930-31 school term, but it was deemed to be more cost efficient to bus the 22 students to Danville. The Lincoln County Board of Education paid Bate High School $5 per month for the instruction of the high school students from Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.124]. The Logantown School and Hubble School were merged with the Stanford School. According to the Handbook of Kentucky by the Kentucky Bureau of Agriculture for 1906-1907, p.515, there were 17 colored school districts in Lincoln County. In 1909, School No.16, located in Preachersville, was merged with the school in Walnut Flat [source: "Preachersville," Interior Journal, 06/25/1909, p.1]. The colored school in Hubble was located on Cherry Street, the building was sold in 1914 [source: "Hubble," Interior Journal, 03/13/1914, p.2]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Lincoln County were Katie Coulter, Joe A. Gaines, Mary T. Good, Houston Graves, Thelma Graves, Susie Harris, Estella Jarmon, Elizabeth Perkins, Florence Stepp, Cordelia Wood, and Maggie Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school in Lincoln County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62 was Crab Orchard High School on p.875.

  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Crab Orchard Freedmen School
  • Crab Orchard School
  • Halls Gap School
  • Hustonville School
  • Hubble School
  • Logantown School
  • Lincoln School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.874]
  • McKinney School
  • McKinney Polytechnic Institute
  • No. 16, Preachersville School
  • Stanford School [including a high school, name changed to Lincoln]
  • Tunersville School
  • Walnut Flat School

 See photo image of the Crab Orchard Colored School on Cedar Street, built in 1937, a Flikr website by Road Trip.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lincoln County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Livingston County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
There were colored schools in Livingston County as early as 1879 when the county clerk collected 95 cents and the sheriff's office collect $135.95, both for the Colored School Fund, and funds were withdrawn for the Negro teachers total pay of $108.96 [source: Auditor's Report, School Fund - Colored, p.135, p.138, and p.149 in the 1879/1881 Biennial Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of Kentucky - online at Google Books]. In 1895, there were 6 colored schools in Livingston County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.523-527]. The average attendance was 125 students 1895-96 and taught by 7 teachers, and 138 students 1896-97 taught by 6 teachers. Male teachers' average monthly pay was $42.00 during 1895-96, and $26.78 during 1896-97.  Female teachers' average monthly pay was $25.50 during 1895-96, and $20.34 during 1896-97.  By 1905, there were still six colored schools, one in each district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1905-1907, p.343]. In 1910, the trustees of the Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, took its case against school superintendent Charles Ferguson to the Kentucky Court of Appeals. The trustees, who won the appeal, were fighting to share in the 1909 school tax Livingston County received from the Illinois Central Railroad Company [source: "Commonwealth, for use of Trustees of Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, v. Ferguson et. al." in The Southwestern Reporter, v.128, June 8-July 6, 1910, pp.95-96 - online at Google Books]. At one point in time, there were as many as seven colored school districts according to the title Livingston County, Kentucky, p.114. The colored schools were listed as sub-district schools, A, B, C, D, E, F, and Beach Hill. In 1925, there were five colored schools in Livingston County with a total of 116 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and two years later, there were four colored schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.81]. The Negro teacher in Livingston County in 1940 was Clara N. Moore [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Livingston County schools started to integrate in 1961 with Livingston Center High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875].


See photo image of colored school in Smithland, KY, at Explore UK.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Livingston County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lyon County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Lyon County, KY. William M. Smith was the teacher in Eddyville, and William Silvie was the teacher in Parkersville, both according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1886, the county had 11 colored school districts, with most of the school sessions held in churches [see the NKAA entry African American Schools 1886]. In 1895 another colored school district was added, bringing the total to 12 colored schools with seven log buildings and three frame buildings; nothing was mentioned about the other two school buildings in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp. 532-535. There was one teacher at each school with the average attendance of more than 250 students for all 12 schools each school term. From 1899-1903, there was one student from Lyon County, KY, studying at the Normal School for Colored Persons in Frankfort, KY [source: Biennial Report, 1899-1901, p. 144, and 1901-1903, p. 81]. The average attendance at the Lyon County colored schools fluctuated from year to year; during the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance was 200 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 407]. The teachers' average monthly salary was $27.00 in 1906 [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 431], and in 1910, $45.55 for male teachers and $34.58 for female teachers [source: Biennial Report, 1909-1911, p. 151]. There was a school in the African American community of Kansas in Lyon County, and pictures of the school children and what is thought to be the remains of the school house can be viewed at a Flickr site by The Nite Tripper. In 1916, Lucy Bond and R. H. Bond were the school teachers at the Eddyville colored school [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 25]. In 1925, there were seven colored schools in Lyon County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. In 1940, there were at least three Negro teachers in Lyon County: William Henderson in Eddyville; Christine Holland in Eddyville; and James Mathew in Kuttawa [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1962-63 school term, the Lyon County Elementary School in Eddyville became the first integrated school in Lyon County [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p. 140].

  • Parkersville School
  • Eddyville School
  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Kuttawa School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Oakland School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Kansas School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lyon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Metcalfe County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, a colored school in Edmonton, KY, employed a 30 year old teacher named Ellen J. Butler, a widow who was a boarder with the John Jones family [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were seven colored school districts in Metcalfe County, KY [see the NKAA entry for African American Schools 1886]. Thomas J. Ray was a teacher in Edmonton as early as 1916 and at least as late as 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 34; and April 18-21, 1923, p. 72]. There were still seven colored schools in 1925, all elementary schools, with one teacher each [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. The following year, another colored school was opened, and there were nine teachers at the eight schools [source: Kenucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p. 82]. In 1931, there were 10 Negro teachers in the Metcalfe County schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1931, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 19]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Metcalfe County included Zenobia Brewes and Lola A. Mitchell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Another teacher was Robert Lee Smith, who retired in 1942 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, November-December, 1942, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 7]. During the 1942-43 school term, the number of colored schools had fallen to six [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1942-1943, p. 1116]. The Metcalfe County High School was listed as the first integrated school in Metcalfe County in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p. 134].

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Edmonton School
  • Blue Springs School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Cedar Top School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Summer Shade School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Metcalfe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Monroe County, KY
Start Year : 1846
End Year : 1963
In 1846, the Mt. Vernon Church was built in Gamaliel, KY, and the building also served as a school [source: Black Heritage Sites by N. C. Curtis, pp.99-100]. The church and school were established near Freetown, and the dual purpose log structure was built by George Pipkin, Albert Howard, and Peter West. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Tompkinsville, KY, supported by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; however, the school was burned down [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1886, there were five colored schools in Monroe County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 9 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.591-594]. Four of the 9 school houses were made of logs, and 5 were frame structures, and during the 1896-97 school term another colored district was added, but classes were not held because there was not a school house or a teacher. During the 1895 school year, there were 80 students attending school regularly, and the following year there was an average of 133 students each school day. Each of the 9 schools had one teacher. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School in Monroe County [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1926, the teachers at the Gamaliel Colored School were Mrs. Elma and Mr. Roscoe W. Pipkin [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.54], classes were still held in the Mt. Vernon Church [source: Curtis, p.100]. The African American children of Monroe County attended high school in Hickory Ridge [source: Curtis, p.100]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Monroe County were Kate Barkesdale, Vera Edwards, Roscoe W. Pipkin, Elma Pipkin, and Winfred Pipkin [source: U.S. Federal Census]. School integration started during the 1963-64 school term at the following schools: Fountain Run, Gamaliel Elementary and High School, and Tompkinsville High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.134].

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Tompkinsville Freedmen School
  • Gamaliel School
  • Fountain Run School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Moonlight School
  • Roy's Chapel School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22, File: Monroe County, Title: WPA 3, Monroe Co. - Education (Lenneth Jones-643-4), List of Schools, p.4, July 16, 1939]
  • Forkton School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Tooley's Ridge School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Bethlehem School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]

  See photo image of the Mt. Vernon Church and School at Gamaliel, at the flickr site by The Freedman.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Monroe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
Between 1866 and 1870, there were two schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The first school for Colored children in Montgomery County was thought to be established in 1881 with Mrs. Anna Thompson as the teacher, according to Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. The school was held in a one-room building located at the corner of Queen and Locust Streets in Smithville, the present location of Keas Tabernacle CME Church. There was actually other colored schools in Montgomery County; in 1880 the teachers were Anna Belle Botts and Victoria Clarke, both in Mt. Sterling; Alex Davis in Aarons Run; and Sarah Jackson in Smithville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first commencement of the Mt. Sterling Colored School was held in 1891, and Professor J. S. Estill had completed his first year as principal of the school. In 1892, J. Green Trimble offered a lot on his farm for a colored church, and he also offered for sale, at the lowest price, a lot for a colored high school [source: "Highland Park," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 07/05/1892, p. 4]. There were 12 colored schools in Montgomery County in 1895 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp. 595-598]. The average attendance was 696 students taught by 17 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 900 students taught by 19 teachers for 1896-97. The average wages for male teachers was $34.00 and the female teachers earned $33.00 per month, 1895-96, and the following year, male teachers earned $38.00 and female teachers earned $35.00. The majority of the teachers were fairly well educated and more than two-thirds of them held a first class teaching certificate. In 1899, Professor Estill presented diplomas to the graduates during the commencement exercises at the court house [source: "Colored School commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/09/1899, p. 3]. It was reported in the Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/04/1900, p. 7, that there were no colored county schools in Montgomery County, "as there are not exceeding ten colored children of school age in the county." This wasn't exactly true; according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, in Montgomery County, KY (including Mt. Sterling) there were at least 891 Blacks who were 10 to 20 years old. In 1914, the Colored Moonlight School held classes in the Mt. Sterling Colored School: there were 75 students, the most at any one Moonlight School in Montgomery County [source: "Moonlight schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1914, p. 1]. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Mt. Sterling Colored Moonlight School was one of the best for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. In 1918, the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal was Prof. George W. Adams, who had come to the school in 1914. At the end of the school year in 1915, the school had the first grammar school commencement [sources: Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/01/1918, "The School children of the city...," p. 1, and "A Nice compliment," p. 2; and "Commencement exercises of colored school," 06/02/1915, p. 1]. The previous principal, Professor Estill, had left in 1914 for a teaching position at the Colored Normal School [today Kentucky State University]; his replacement was Prof. George W. Adams, who came from the Glendale Reform School in Lexington [source: "Goes to Frankfort," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/14/1914, p. 5]. Professor Adams resigned in 1918 to take a position with the National Benefit Life Insurance Company in Washington, D.C. and was replaced by Mrs. Robert [Cathryn] Gatewood [source: "Colored principal resigns," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 01/29/1918, p. 4]. Prof. George W. Adams was back in 1919, serving as superintendent of the Mt. Sterling colored schools [source: "Colored commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/20/1919, p. 9]. Professor Adams' return coincided with the organizing of the colored county school system in Montgomery County, one of the schools was named Prewitt School, mentioned under the heading "Prewitt Descendants" on p. 25 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. In the fall of 1919, plans were made for the construction of the Colored Training School to serve Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County [source: "The Right spirit," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1919, p. 5]. J. W. Muir was the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal in 1922, and the new teachers were Miss Barnes, Miss Coons, and Miss Keller [source: "Teachers selected for city schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 06/08/1922, p. 1]. In 1930, there were two high schools: Montgomery County Colored School and Mt. Sterling Colored School [source: "Colored high schools--Kentucky, 1930-31," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 23-24]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Montgomery County were Anna J. Black, Dwena Carrington, Viola Chenault, Robin Hamilton Davis, Judia Davis, William Ethel, Katherine Gatewood, Amilda Gatewood, William Hawkins, Wayman Hockett, Margaret Hockett, Susie Jones, Cornie McClure, and Melinda Preevitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The two Negro high schools were consolidated in 1952, and in 1964 the schools in Montgomery County were fully integrated after DuBois High School was burned down. The St. Partrick School in Mt. Sterling was the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1015. For more on the history of the colored schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, see the "Schools - 1881-1964" on pp. 17-18 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Aarons Run School
  • Smithville School
  • DuBois School (built in 1939)
  • Montgomery County High School
  • Moonlight School
  • Mt. Sterling American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Mt. Sterling Freedmen School
  • Mt. Sterling School
  • Mt. Sterling High School
  • Prewitt School
  • Training School of Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County

  See photo image of the Montgomery County Training School on p. 32 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Muhlenberg County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
One of the teachers at a colored school in Muhlenberg County was William H. Ross, who left teaching in 1887 to open a grocery store.  Between 1891 and 1893, there were 14 African American teachers in Muhlenberg County colored schools, with an average monthly pay of $29.06 for male teachers and $28.10 for female teachers [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. Sallie L. Waddleton Campbell was a school teacher at the Central City Colored School in 1894; she was the wife of William J. Campbell. The school houses and grounds were valued at $1,258.00 and the furniture at $74.50. There was a new school built in 1893 that cost $25. In total, there were 13 school districts with 13 schools: 2 schools in session for 3 months; 2 in session for 4 months; and 9 in session for 5 months. Six of the schools were log buildings and three were frame, and there was no mention of where the remaining schools were held. None of the schools were in good condition (not including the new building) [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. There were 14 colored schools in Muhlenberg County again in 1895, according to Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.603-607. Six of the schools were held in log buildings and 4 were held in a frame structure, and there is no mention of where the remaining 2 schools were held. The average attendance was 309 students 1895-96, and 333 students 1896-97. In 1909, the colored schools at Bevier and Drakesboro needed furnishings and repairs, and the same was true for most of the colored schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "A Plea to the members of the fiscal court," The Record, 03/18/1909, p. 3]. Professor William Holloway was the principal of the Drakesboro Community School in 1937; the school was the result of the consolidation of rural schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "1937 K.N.E.A. Honor Roll" on p. 14, and "Education since the War of 1917" on p. 22, in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1937]. The Negro teachers in Muhlenberg County in 1940 were W. E. Bennett, Jennie V. Bord, Drusilla Dulin, Blanche Elliott, Willie Hightower, Amelin Jones, Louis Littlepage, Richard McReynolds, Robert Martin, Goward Mathis, Cathonia Morris, Eligh Render, Mabel W. Render, Sophronia Robinson, Corrie L. Smith, Leslie S. Smith, Naomi Smith, Lillian Tichenor, Iva Y. Traylor, Vernetta Walker, Eloise Walker, James Waterfield, and James Watson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, the colored school in Greenville had Mrs. Blonnie Shelton as the teacher, and C. L. Timberlake was principal of the County Teachers Training School [source: "The New president at the West Kentucky Vocational Training School, Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, March 1949, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 12 & 18]. The St. Joseph Elementary and High School were the first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.146.

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Bevier School
  • Central City School
  • Drakesboro School
  • Drakesboro Community School
  • Greenville School

Central City Negro School See photo image of the Central City Negro School, in the Kentucky Digital Library online.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bevier, Central City, Drakesboro, and Greenville, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ohio County, KY
Start Year : 1878
End Year : 1962
In 1878, there was a bill in the Kentucky Senate to authorize the building of a colored school in District 1 of Ohio County [source: Journal of the Regular Session of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1877, p.764]. The bill was said to have passed due to the Democrat vote, according to the article "Colored voters remember..." in the Hartford Herald, 08/01/1877, p.2. The school teacher at the Hartford Colored School in 1880 was Joe C. H. Taylor and the school year began in September [source: Hartford Herald, "The colored school...," 09/01/1880, p.3]. Prof. McDowell from Bowling Green, KY was the teacher at the Hayti Colored School [source: "Prof. McDowell...," Hartford Herald, 09/10/1884, p.3]. In 1886 there were 11 colored schools in Ohio County, according to the Kentucky Superintendent Report, and by 1899 there 8 school districts reported in the article "Statistics" in the Hartford Republican, 06/02/1899, p.3. In 1892, there was an investigation by the Hartford Herald on behalf of the colored schools and the colored teachers who had not received their pay. The newspaper reviewed the bookkeeping of the Ohio County school superintendent and determined the colored teachers were owed their pay [source: "In case a suit is brought..." and "Cowering beneath the Herald's revelations" both in the Hartford Herald, 10/26/1892, p.2] The debate about the disposition of the colored school fund became a political disagreement between the Democrats and Republicans as to which had done more for the Negro. Other schools in Ohio County included Rockport Colored School in District 9 with P. A. Gary as the teacher [source: "Report," Hartford Republican, 11/17/1893, p.4]. The Sulphur Springs Colored School teacher was Samantha Bracken during the 1893-94 school year [source: "Program," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.2]. There was a colored school in McHenry as early as 1894 when Miss Charlotte Eidson was the teacher [source: "McHenry Colored School," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.1]. L. W. Smith was the McHenry school teacher in 1904 [source: "The Guess candle," Hartford Herald, 01/20/1904, p.3]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ohio County were Delois Eidson, Kenneth Eidson, William C. Jackson, Mittie K. Render, and Ethel Tichenor [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated were  Beaver Dam Elementary and High School; Hartford Elementary and High School; and Wayland Alexander School, all on p.147 of the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63

  • Bruce School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.883]
  • Hayti School
  • Hartford School
  • McHenry School
  • Rockport School
  • Sulphur Springs School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ohio County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Paris and Bourbon County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Some of the early colored schools in Bourbon County were built and supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The Negro common schools began around 1874, according to James R. Welch in his thesis titled The History of Education of Bourbon County. In 1880, the school teachers were George Nelson in North Middletown; Eugene Jones, Reuben Butler, and Henry L. Gowen in Paris; Elisha Lewis in Millersburg; A. Wm. Knowx in Clintonville; and Annie Trotter in Hutchison [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following comes from Welch's thesis: In 1881, there were 1,765 colored school age children counted in the school census, and not many of them attended school. There were 16 colored school districts, with 15 schools. In 1885, there were 22 colored schools. In 1886, there were 24 colored schools, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.227-230. All of the schools were held in full session [5 months] up to the 1893-94 school year, which was about a decade prior to the beginning of a continuing decrease in the number of schools and students [source: The History of Education of Bourbon County]. The number of school districts held constant between 1890 and 1908, with 22 to 24 colored school districts and a daily attendance from a high of 1,063 students in 1893-94, to a low of 532 students in 1902-03. The attendance numbers picked up, but started to slip again in 1906. From 1908-1919, the number of colored schools decreased from 20 to 12. The following is a compilation of newspaper items on the history of Paris and Bourbon County colored Schools; the articles contained quite a bit more information than was printed in most other Kentucky newspapers for the same time period. Reverend Graves, who died in 1902, had come to Paris, KY in 1901 to become principal of the Paris Western Colored School. There were 248 students and seven teachers, and the numbers would remain consistent for the next several years. The prior year there was a high school graduating class of eight: Katie L. Long, Anna E. Parker, Fannie B. Buford, Dora B. Kimbrough, Jimmie R. Fields, James B. Woodward, and Keatha R. Williams. Graduation ceremonies were initially held at the Opera House in Paris, KY, with admission costs of 10 cents, 15 cents, and 25 cents. A smaller school system was the Millersburg Colored School, where in 1901 there were three graduates: Frank R. Lewis, Lucile Jefferson, and Hattie B. Mayburry. Manual training was introduced in the Paris school in 1907 with 26 men and boys enrolled in the newly established night school; the Colored teachers' wages for the year totaled $2,550. Mrs. Nettie H. Grant was the school principal at the Claysville Colored School in 1907, which was the year that the Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association held their meeting at the school [source: "Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association," Bourbon News, 11/12/1907, p.4, col.6]. In Paris, at the end of the school year in 1909, there were two graduations, one for 7th graders held at the local Colored Christian Church, June 11th at 8p.m., and one for high school graduates held in the new city school auditorium, June 1st at 8p.m. [source: "Calendar of Colored School," The Bourbon News, 06/04/1909, front page]. In 1909, new colored schools were scheduled to be built in Ruddles Mills and Jacksonville. The following year, several colored schools in the county were consolidated: Ruddles Mills School with Glentown School; Millersburg School with Shipptown School (the school location was undecided); and Houston School with Amentsville School. By 1910, a new school was being built in Centerville, and the Sidville School was to be repaired if church members would agree to help raise funds for the repairs. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Paris Colored Moonlight School was one of the best in the state for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools by Y. H. Baldwin]. See photocopy image of Cumensville School on p.12 at Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf]. The following is additional information from Welch's thesis. The total number of students had continued to decrease. During the 1908-09 school term the average elementary school attendance was 587 colored students, and by the end of the 1932-33 term, the average attendance was 296. An industrial training school opened in Little Rock in 1914, it was established with support from the Slater Fund. It was developed into the Bourbon County Training School for colored persons in 1918, and was also referred to as the Little Rock Training School. For more see The Bourbon News articles - "Colored School Commencement," 06/12/1900, p. 1.; "Millersburg," 02/15/1901, p. 2; "Commencement items of the Paris High Schools," 05/31/1901, p. 3; "New board elects teachers," 07/05/1901, p. 3; "A tribute," 05/02/1902, p. 5; "City Schools," 09/09/1902, p. 5; "Meeting of school board," 06/14/1907, p. 1; "Expenditures," 07/16/1907, p. 8; "800 pupils," 10/08/1907, p. 6; "Calendar of Colored School," 06/04/1909, p. 1; "School Improvement League in session," 08/24/1909, p. 3; "County School Board," 11/16/1909, p. 4; "County School Board meets," 05/10/1910, p. 1; and "Recent meeting of the County Board," 08/12/1910, p. 1.

 

In 1925, G. W. Adams was principal of Western School which had 9 elementary teachers and 5 teachers at the Class 1 Level B high school that had an enrollment of 112 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 69]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Bourbon County were Mattie F. Alexander, Howard Allen, Minerva Bedford, Charles R. Bland, Nora S. Bland, Sallie F. Brooke, Charles Buckner, Jessie Buford, Mary Butler, Nannie Butler, John Derrickson, Dewese Grant, Dorothy Hankins, Ola Delle Jacobs, Mary Elizabeth Kellis, Anna McBonner (sp), Carrie Murray, William Reed, Minnie Steele, Ennis Toles, Elizabeth Thomas, Archie Thomas, Mattie Whaley, Betty Williams, Lily Mae Williams, Clara Mae Woods, and Willa Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in Bourbon County were Bourbon County High School, North Middletown High School, and Paris Independent 7th Street Schools, all in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842.

 

  • Amentsville School
  • Baptist Church School (James. M. Thomas' School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Bourbon County Training School [Little Rock]
  • Brentsville School
  • Browntown School (submitted by Myke Carter; photo image by The Feedman)*
  • Caneridge School
  • Centerville School
  • Claysville School
  • Clintonville School
  • C. M. Clay's School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Cumensville School
  • Currentsville School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Glentown School
  • Houston School
  • Hutchison School
  • Jacksonville School
  • Jackstown School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Little Rock School
  • Methodist Church School (Reuben Butler's School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Monterey School
  • Millersburg School
  • Millersburg Freedmen School
  • Moonlight School
  • North Middletown School
  • Paris American Missionary Association School
  • Paris Freedmen School
  • Ruckerville School
  • Ruddles Mills School
  • Shipptown School
  • Sidville School
  • Western School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842]

 

 See photo image of Clintonville Colored School building at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
 
*Browntown was an African American Community on Townsend Valley Road in Bourbon County, KY, from the 1800s-sometime in the 1900s [source: The Feedman, Browntown Church Flickr site].
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Simpson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Elijah P. Marrs is credited with opening the first school for Negros in Simpson County in 1866; Marrs had returned home from service in the American Civil War [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.115-116]. The students paid $1 per month to attend the school, and Marrs was paid $25 per month salary. The school lasted for one year; Marrs left in 1867 to teach school in Lagrange, KY. Between 1866 and 1870, Simpson County, KY, had a Freedmen School that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. The school was located in Franklin. The school teacher was mobbed and had to be saved by U.S. Troops. In spite of the mobbing, there continued to be colored schools in Simpson County, and in 1880 three of the teachers were Henry Bogan, Joe Perdue, and Eoline Malory [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Between 1885-1887, there were 10 colored school districts in the county [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, School Years Ending June 30th 1886 and June 30th 1887, p.130]. A decade later, there were 12 colored schools with 15 teachers, and the schools were held in three log cabins and nine frame buildings with an average attendance of 363 students during the 1895-96 school term and 400 students during the 1896-97 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.681-684]. Between 1899 and 1901, there was one student from Simpson County at the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p. 144]. For the 1909-1910 term, the Negro teachers earned an average wage of $47 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1909-1911, p.50]. In 1919, there were 68 adult students in the Simpson County Colored Moonlight School that were taught by Gertrude Mahin, Iola Ryons, and Bessie Lawrence, all of whom were also teachers at the colored schools for children. Harlem Renaissance poet, Blanch Taylor Dickinson, born in Franklin, was a school teacher in 1916 up through 1923 when she taught in Franklin along with Miss Effa B. Dixon, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Mr. T. B. Williams, Mrs. W. L. Lawrence, Miss Lizzie Moore, and Mr. A. E. Robinson,  [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.37; and April 18-21, 1923, pp.51, 56, 66, 69, 72, & 80]. [Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County.] In 1925, the Franklin Colored Schools was one of ten systems in the state to have a colored superintendent, the Franklin superintendent was T. C. B. Williams [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Williams was over the 4 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher in Franklin, and the 8 elementary schools in rural Simpson County were under the county school system and there was one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, pp.68-69]. The school teachers included Mr. T. J. Dixon, Mrs. Effie Dixon, Prof. D. T. Wright, Miss Cora Mae Barlow, Mrs. Lula Bradley, Mrs. Mary Burrs, Mrs. G. G. Mahin, Mrs. L. B. Payne, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Prof. T. C. B. Williams [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, pp. 49, 50, 51, 53, 56, 68, 72, 82, & 83]. By 1940, the teachers at the colored schools were Josephine Berry; Lula Bradley; John Bradley; Mary E. Burrus; Virgie L. Burress; Cathrin Douthett; George Douthett; Hulean Gumm; Wilson Hale and Mary Hale; G. B. Housten; Cora M. Jackson; Hubert Neal; Margrette Neal; Tom Payne; Mary E. Stringer; Blanch Taylor (Dickinson); and Tucker Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Simpson County Schools are first listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.143.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Elijah P. Marrs School
  • Franklin School
  • Lincoln School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Todd County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
At least two colored schools were established in Todd County, KY, by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. One school was located in Hadensville, and another in Trenton. In 1880, there were several more schools and the teachers were Henry Beid at Kirkmansville; Filmore Gaugh, Euclide Loving, and Jarusha Russell at Elkton; and Ben Mansfield and Wilson Hunter at Trenton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1920, Nannie Samuel was the school teacher at the Fairview School [source: U.S. Federal Census].  Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County. There were 17 colored elementary schools in Todd County in 1925, each with one teacher, and there was one high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.83].  There were 21 teachers at the 17 elementary schools during the 1926-27 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.82]. The class 3 colored high school was located in Elkton and J. W. Waddle was the principal during the 1927-28 term, the high school had 2 teachers and 11 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.57]. The Elkton School held both the elementary and high school. J. W. Waddle had been with the Elkton School as early as 1916, along with J. S. Henderson, Robert M. Small, Emma Stoner, and Rhoda Hall; and T. Henderson and P. T. Frazer in Allensville [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.28, 29, 30, 35, 36, & 37]. In 1940, there were 15 Negro teachers in Todd County, KY according to the U.S. Federal Census: Bonnie H. Bell, Leon Bell, Ora Ferguson, James P. Griffin, Hattie L. Griffin, Rhoda Hall, Manice Gladdiak, Iola Marrow, Mazella Marshall, Bertha Mae Morehead, Inez Russell, Robert Small, Daveny F. Smith, Larizza Terry, and Massey Ward. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Todd County Central High School, on p.143 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Hadensville Freedmen School
  • Trenton Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Kirkmansville School
  • Elkton School 
  • Fairview School
  • Guthrie School
  • Allensville School
  • Todd County Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.229]
  • Trenton Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, p.891]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Todd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Trigg County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, D. M. Brown was a school teacher at the colored school in Cadiz (Trigg County), KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Brown was from Tennessee; he was married, and had three children. By 1886, there were 3 colored school districts in Trigg County [source: see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. In 1887, Rev. Wendell H. McRidley founded and was the first president of the Cadiz Normal and Theological College. The number of colored schools continued to grow, and in 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Trigg County, with two of the schools were in session for more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.698-702]. Nine of the schools were held in log buildings and 10 were held in frame structures. The average attendance was 1,218 students, who were taught by 21 teachers, 1895-96, and 1,054 students taught by 22 teachers, 1896-97. The teachers' average monthly wages were $67.18 for males and $43.00 for females, 1895-96; and $46.70 for males and $31.40 for females, 1896-97. In 1900, the teacher at the Montgomery colored school was George Danden from Tennessee [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The class 2 high school for Negro students was located in Cadiz, the principal was J. E. Bush in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 39]. The high school had 2 teachers and 23 students. There were 14 teachers at the 13 elementary schools [p.68]. Mrs. Thelma Brooks was the school teacher at the Cerulean Colored School in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, (1935), v.6, no.1, p.50]. Fourteen year old, Lillie H. Bingham was a student at the Cerulean School in 1935 when she won the 1st prize of $10.00 in the student spelling bee held during the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Conference in Louisville, KY [source: "Elementary School Department," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.6, no.1, p.21]. In 1940, there were seven Negro teachers in Trigg County, according to the U.S. Federal Census: Martha Caudle, Susa A. Cunningham, Susa Mae Cunningham, Lillie V. Curlin, Plumb Maston, Cora P. Reed, and Reuben Tinsley. The Trigg County High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentaucky

Atkins, Boyd
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1965
Boyd Atkins, born in Paducah, KY, was a saxophonist, violinist, and music composer; Louis Armstrong recorded his most famous song, "Heebie Jeebies." Atkins was reared in St. Louis and played with a number of bands and performers, including Dewey Jackson and Paducah, KY, native Fate Marable. He later moved to Chicago, where he led his own band. Boyd Atkins died March 1, 1965, according to the Cook County, Illinois Death Index. For more see "Boyd Atkins" in the Oxford Music Online Database.
Subjects: Migration West, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Saint Louis, Missouri / Chicago, Illinois

Beckwith, Anna M. Logan
Birth Year : 1884
Death Year : 1964
Mrs. Anna M. Logan Beckwith was a pharmacist in Cincinnati, OH. In 1928, she purchased the Peerless Pharmacy, located on Alms and Chapel Streets. Beckwith was considered a leading member of the Colored citizens in Cincinnati and is mentioned in Negro Employment in Retail Trade: a study of racial policies in the department store, drugstore, and supermarket industries, by Bloom, Fletcher, and Perry. Beckwith is also included in The Negro in the Drugstore Industry, by F. M. Fletcher. Anna Beckwith was born in Berea, KY, the daughter of Elijah and Amanda Logan. The family of six is listed in the 1900 U.S. Federal Census; Elijah Logan was a widower. Anna Logan moved to Cincinnati in 1903. She was the wife of Carl Beckwith, a mail carrier (1881-1971) from West Virginia. In 1910 the Beckwith family lived at 5304 Central Avenue in Madisonville, OH, [source: William's Hamilton County Directory for 1909-10]. The household included Anna, Carl, their daughter, and Anna's brother, Phocia [or Foshen] Logan (b. 1882 in KY), a barber who owned his own shop [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census]. By 1920, the Beckwiths had a second daughter and the family lived in Cincinnati, OH. Anna Beckwith was still managing her drugstore in 1930 [source: U.S. Federal Census], and the family had moved to Wyoming, OH. Anna and Carl Beckwith are listed in William's Hamilton County (Ohio) Directory for the years 1939-1944, but there is no mention of the pharmacy. Anna Beckwith was a graduate of Berea College. For more see Cincinnati's Colored Citizens, by W. P. Dabney.
Subjects: Barbers, Migration North, Postal Service, Pharmacists, Pharmacies
Geographic Region: Berea, Madison County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Bennett, Winston G., III
Birth Year : 1965
Winston Bennett, born in Louisville,KY, is a former NBA player and a college basketball coach. His played high school basketball at Male High School in Louisville. Bennett was a 6' 7" forward and was named Kentucky Mr. Basketball in 1983. He was also named All-American by Parade Magazine and McDonalds. He played college basketball at the University of Kentucky 1983-1988 [he was red shirted one year due to a knee injury]. During his first season, the team went to the final four and lost to the Georgetown Hoyas 53-40 in the championship game. In the following years, Bennett was named to the All-NCAA Regional Team and was twice named to the SEC All-Conference Team. In his senior year, the team had a record of 32-4, and Winston Bennett was team captain. He was selected by the Cleveland Cavaliers in the 3rd round of the 1988 NBA Draft. He played 3 seasons with the Cavaliers and one season with the Miami Heat. He has served as an assistant coach at the University of Kentucky, the head coach at Kentucky State University, and head coach at Mid-Continent University.

 

  See photo image and stats at the Winston Bennett page of the bigbluehistory.net site.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Bentley, Denise
Birth Year : 1964
Bentley is from Louisville, KY. In 2002, she was the first African American woman to be elected President of the Louisville Board of Aldermen. Bentley was a mortician in California for 10 years prior to returning to Louisville. She served as Alderman of the 9th Ward, West End, in Louisville for eight years, 1997-2005. Bentley resigned from the council to serve as the liaison between the Louisville Metro and Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government councils, a position within Governor Fletcher's administration. For more see J. Bruggers, "Bentley scores landslide over 2 Democratic foes," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 05/29/02, News section, p. 05A; SR50; and "Governor Ernie Fletcher Appoints Louisville Metro Council Woman," a Ky.gov Electronic Archives Press Release, 02/23/05.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Appointments by Kentucky Governors
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Black, Karla L.
Birth Year : 1961
Karla L. Black was born in Richmond, KY. She was the first African American elected to the Richmond Independent Board of Education in 1986. For more see Karla Black in "Cosby is Jefferson County board's first black chairman," in the 1988 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Seventh Report, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights, p. 37.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky

Blanton, John Oliver, Jr.
Birth Year : 1885
Death Year : 1962
J. O. Blanton, Jr. was born in Versailles, KY, on Christmas Day in 1885, according to his WWI Draft Registration Card. He was the son of John, Sr. and Eliza Blanton [source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census]. He was president of the American Mutual Savings Bank in Louisville, KY. The building was built by Samuel Plato in 1922, the same year that William H. Wright launched the business. Blanton was also director of the Mammoth Building and Loan Association and a professor of mathematics at Central High School in Louisville for 12 years. Blanton was also involved with the Louisville Urban League, which was founded in 1959. His wife was Carolyn Steward Blanton; they were the parents of John W. Blanton. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Fathers, Urban Leagues
Geographic Region: Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Britt, Hardin B.
Birth Year : 1871
Death Year : 1963
Born in Brownsville, KY, Hardin B. Britt was a trained gospel singer. He was the son of Thomas and Julia Britt. After attending the Negro common school in Edmonson County, Hardin Britt graduated valedictorian from State University [Simmons College, Louisville], and he also graduated from Eckstein Norton University. He was the leading soloist at the Baptist World's Congress held in London England; Hardin's performance was reviewed in the Christian Herald, July 1905, "A Sweet Colored Singer." By 1920, Britt had settled in Louisivlle, Kentucky, according to the U.S. Census, he lived on Finzer Street where he boarded with Lucy Burton, a cook, and her niece, Rosa Stone, a school teacher. Britt was earning a living as a gospel singer. In 1937, he was a music teacher living at 2424 W. Walnut Street, according to Caron's Louisville City Directory, 1937, p.263. Hardin B. Britt died in Louisville in 1963 [source: Kentucky Death Index]. For more see Who's Who Among the Colored Baptists of the United States by S. W. Bacote.

 

  See photo image of Hardin B. Britt, middle of left hand column, on p.100 in Golden jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Bownsville, Edmonson County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Burley, Daniel Gardner
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1962
Daniel G. Burley was born in Lexington, KY, lived for a few years in Texas, and in 1915 his family moved to Chicago, IL. He was the son of James M. Burley and Annie Seymour Burley Wilson. Dan Burley was a musician and journalist who is still remembered for his column "Everybody Goes When the Wagon Comes." Burley was editor of several newspapers, including the South Side Civic Telegram in 1932. For a while he was employed by the Johnson Publishing Company and in 1960 produced the magazine Salaam, which was similar to Jet. Burley was also a boogie woogie and jazz pianist. In 1946 he had a group called Dan Burley and the Skiffle Boys. He also played with other greats such as Brownie McGhee and Lionel Hampton. Burley can be heard playing piano on the album South Side Shake, 1945-1951. In addition to being a musician, Burley was also a disc jockey at stations WWRL and WLIB. He was also a composer and authored Dan Burley's Original Handbook of Harlem Jive (published in 1945). For more see Dictionary of Literary Biography, vol. 241: American Sportswriters and Writers on Sport, ed. by R. Orodenker; and Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines.


Access Interview  Listen to clips of Dan Burley's performances, MP3 Downloads for sale at Amazon.com.
Subjects: Authors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Radio
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Burroughs, Nannie H.
Birth Year : 1879
Death Year : 1961
Nannie Burroughs moved to Louisville, KY, in 1900 to become secretary and bookkeeper of the Foreign Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention. That same year she founded the National Baptist Women's Convention. Burroughs was an activist for African American women's rights. When the National Training School for Women opened in 1909 in Washington, D.C., she became director and held the post for the rest of her life. Burroughs brought the cause for improvements in industrial conditions for African American women to the forefront of the National Association of Colored Women. She helped found the National Association of Wage Earners. For more see Biographical Dictionary of Modern American Educators, by F. Ohles, et al.; and African American Women: a biographical dictionary, by D. S. Salem.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Accountants, Bookkeepers, Certified Public Accountants, Stenographers, Women's Groups and Organizations, Association of Colored Women's Clubs
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C.

Colored News (Bowling Green Newspaper)
Start Year : 1954
End Year : 1965
In 1954, the "Colored News" column in the Park City Daily News (Bowling Green, KY) was started about 40-50 years later than many of the colored news sections in Kentucky newspapers [source: A. Harvey, "Lifestyles have drasticaly changed over years," Park City Daily News, 10/26/2004, p.17, col.1, paragraph 8]. The column was located on an inner page of the newspaper and contained no more than a few brief paragraphs with announcements, death notices, meetings, and other events that were thought to be relavent to the Black community in Bowling Green. The colmn continued until at least 1965.  The "Colored News" column in issues of the Park City Daily News (1950s-60s) are available online within Google News Archive.
Subjects: Colored Notes in Kentucky Newspapers
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Compton, J. Glover
Birth Year : 1884
Death Year : 1964
J. Glover Compton, born in Harrodsburg, KY, was a noted ragtime jazz pianist and entertainer. He was the husband and, for a time, musical partner of vocalist Nettie Lewis. Beginning in 1902, Compton performed in the theater in Louisville, KY. He moved on to Chicago in 1910, where he later led the band known as J. Glover Compton and the Syncopaters. Compton had at one time worked with the Whitman Sisters before traveling abroad. In 1928, while in Paris, France, Compton took a bullet in the leg when a disagreement erupted between musicians Sidney Bechet and Mike McKendrick and the two exchanged gunfire. Two pedestrians were also shot, but no one was killed. Compton had been traveling in Europe for a couple of years with the Palm Beach Six when the group settled in Paris, and Compton later worked with Crickett Smith. On the day of the shooting, Compton, said to be the instigator, reported that Bechet had fired the first shot. Compton was McKendrick's friend. Both Bechet and McKendrick were arrested and sentenced to 15 months in jail. They later settled their differences, but Bechet, who lived the last decade of his life in Paris, never forgave Compton. In 1939, Compton returned to the U.S. and performed again in Chicago with Jimmie Noone. In the 1950s, he owned and operated a bar in Chicago. J. Glover Compton was the son of Laura L. Bowman Compton and John Glover Compton, Sr. [source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census and Illinois, Deaths and Stillbirths Index]. For more see "No one in any big time way" in Some Hustling This!, by M. Miller; and the J. Glover Compton Biography, by E. Chadbourne at Answer.com.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Paris, France, Europe

Cooper, Ron
Birth Year : 1962
Ron Cooper was the first African American head football coach at the University of Louisville (U of L). He came to U of L in 1993 from Eastern Michigan University, where he had been the head football coach with a two year record of 9-13. He had also been the defensive coordinator at Murray State University, 1987-88. Cooper was at U of L for three years before being fired in December 1997; the team's record was 7-4 the first year, 5-6 the second, 1-10 the third. When he came to U of L, Cooper was one of five African American head football coaches at Division I-A schools, and at the age of 31, he was also the youngest. After leaving U of L, Cooper was hired as the head football coach at Alabama A&M, where he coached 1998-2001. The A&M team played in the 2000 championship game of the Southwestern Athletic Conference, and that year they led the nation in rushing defense. In his coaching career, Cooper has led teams to six bowl games. Ron Cooper was born in Huntsville, AL, and is a 1983 graduate of Jacksonville State University, where he lettered all four years in football. He earned his master's degree in 1986 at Appalachian State University. For more see G. Frenette, "Untapped talent pool Blacks often passed over for top spots," The Florida Times-Union, 12/15/1997, Sports section, p. B-1; The University of Louisville, by D. D. Cox and W. J. Morison; and Ron Cooper at LSUsports.net. See also the NKAA Database entry for Charles R. Strong, the second African American head football coach at U of L.


Subjects: Football
Geographic Region: Huntsville, Alabama / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Cowan, Brenda D.
Birth Year : 1963
Death Year : 2004
Brenda D. Cowan was born in Sturgis, KY. In 1992, she became the first African American woman firefighter in Lexington, KY. Cowan was killed in the line of duty, February 13, 2004. She was the daughter of Ella and Rev. Tabb Cowen, Sr. She was a sister of Fred Cowan. See Lexington Herald-Leader, Feb. 14-20, 2004.

See photo images and additional information about Brenda D. Cowan at the LexingtonKY.gov website.
Subjects: Firefighters
Geographic Region: Sturgis, Union County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Dawson, Dermontti
Birth Year : 1965
Dermontti Dawson, born in Lexington, KY, is considered one of the greatest centers in the history of professional football. He was an all-state lineman at Bryan Station High School in Lexington and a four-year letterman (1984-1987) at the University of Kentucky, where he played guard. He was a second round draft pick of the Pittsburgh Steelers, spending his entire professional career with the team, 1988-2000. Dawson was inducted into the University of Kentucky Athletic Hall of Fame in 2003. In 2005, he was named to the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees. In 2012, Dermontti Dawson was selected for the Pro Football Hall of Fame. He had been a finalist each of the previous three years, and three years prior to that he had been a nominee. He is the second player from Kentucky to be selected for the Pro Football Hall of Fame and joins George Blanda. He is the third player selected from Kentucky. For more see "UK to Retire Dermontti Dawson's Jersey, no. 57," Sports Report, 08/24/2001 at scout.com; "Ex-Cat Dawson voted into Pro Football Hall of Fame - Only second UK player to gain entry," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/05/2012, p.A1.

See photo images of Dermontti Dawson at the Pro Football Hall of Fame Photo Gallery.

Access Interview Read about the Dermontti Dawson oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Football
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

Dawson, Howard Preston, Jr.
Birth Year : 1916
Death Year : 1961
H. Preston Dawson, a horse trainer, was born July 20, 1916 in Kentucky, the son of Howard Preston Dawson, Sr. and Nettie B. Baker Dawson [source: West Virginia Deaths Index]. Preston Dawson died in Wheeling, WV, and is buried in Springfield, KY.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, Betting, & The Derby, Migration East
Geographic Region: Wheeling, West Virginia / Springfield, Washington County, Kentucky

Dawson, Osceola A.
Birth Year : 1906
Death Year : 1963
Osceola Aleese Dawson was a woman of many talents. She was born in Roaring Springs, KY, and after her father died, she and her mother moved in with her grandfather, Peter Dawson, who lived in Christian County, KY. Osceola Dawson started school in the third grade at Little Lafayette in Christian County; she graduated valedictorian of her grade school. After passing the county examination that allowed her to enter high school in Pembroke, KY, Dawson graduated valedictorian of her high school at the age of 16 and became a teacher at the age of 17. In 1929, she was a student and an employee at West Kentucky Vocational School [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College] in Paducah. After graduating from college, Dawson remained employed at the school for more than 20 years. She had also completed work at the School of Brief English in New York and studied music to become a noted lyric soprano. Dawson was also the author of Of Human Miseries, a collection of short stories published in 1941, and a number of other works, including the 1959 documentary about Clarence Timberlake, The Timberlake Story. Dawson was also a long-standing, active member of the NAACP, serving as the secretary of both the Kentucky NAACP Conference and the Paducah NAACP Branch. Dawson was recognized for her outstanding service, including her speaking tours in northern states. She was a sister of former Illinois Assistant Attorney General James Cotter. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Papers of the NAACP, Part 21, roll 20, frame 234; and Bill Powell's Notebook, "Osceola Dawson's title has not changed but her role has," Paducah Sun-Democrat, 02/08/1958, p. 6.

Access InterviewListen online to the tribute feature, Osceola Dawson, Renaissance Woman by Jacque E. Day at WKMS-FM, Murray State University.

Access InterviewListen online to the Osceola Dawson interview by Edward R. Murrow on the program This I believe, at thisibelieve.org.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Education and Educators, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Geographic Region: Roaring Springs, Trigg County, Kentucky / Hopkinsville and Pembroke, Christian County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Doneghy, Dudley
Birth Year : 1894
Death Year : 1962
The following information was submitted by Marjorie Duncan Doneghy Willis:

In 1998, Dudley Doneghy was inducted into the Centre College Athletic Hall of Fame. He served as the school's athletic trainer and equipment manager for more than 40 years, beginning in the 1920s.

Additional information:
Dudley Doneghy was born in Parksville, KY, the son of Mollie and Edward Doneghy [source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census and Dudley Doneghy's World War I Draft Registration Card]. Edward was a carpenter. His son Dudley was a World War I veteran, and prior to enlisting in the Army, he was a porter at Curry's Drug Store in Danville, KY. During his tenure at Centre College, Dudley Doneghy was listed in the Blue Book of College Athletics as a colored trainer [1958, p. 95]. He was the husband of Mattie E. Doneghy [source: Polk's Danville (Boyle County, Kentucky) City Directory, 1945, p. 43].
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Parksville and Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

DuBois School (Mt. Sterling, KY)
Start Year : 1939
End Year : 1964
In August of 1964, as African American parents were preparing to boycott the city schools to protest a change in the school integration plans, the DuBois School was burned down. The fire was the result of arson, as was the fire that destroyed the African American Masonic Hall. The DuBois school, probably built in 1939, was an African American school with grades 1-12. The Mt. Sterling police department was put on alert against any attempt to also burn the three schools for whites. The FBI and the Kentucky State Department of Public Safety investigated the fire; the DuBois School fire had been set while the Mt. Sterling Fire Department was answering a call at one of the white schools on the opposite end of town. The Masonic Hall was owned by W. D. Banks, an undertaker who was also a leader and active member of the Mt. Sterling NAACP Branch. Banks had been meeting with the School Board to discuss the change in plans to integrate two grades rather than the original plan to integrate the entire school system. The change had come about after it was learned that more African American students than were expected had registered to attend the school for whites. With the burning of DuBois School, an emergency School Board meeting was held behind closed doors, and the Mt. Sterling schools' classes were suspended until September 8, 1964. Louisville lawyer James A. Crumlin, Sr. was hired by African American parents in preparation for a lawsuit to force the schools to integrate. The Mt. Sterling school system was one of the last to integrate in Kentucky. For more see "All-Negro school in Mt. Sterling, KY, destroyed by fire," North Adams Transcript, 08/31/1964, p. 1; and "School Desegregation" records at the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
Geographic Region: Mt. Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

East 6th Street / Scott's Rollarena / Foster's Roller Skating (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1961
In 1958, Scott's Rollarena for "Whites Only," became Foster's Roller Skating for "Colored Patrons Only." The roller rink was located at 427 E. 6th Street in Lexington, KY, between Shropshire Avenue and Ohio Street. [Today, it is the location of Griffith's Market.] Foster's Roller Skating was a short-lived venture owned by Rowland S. Foster, who was born in 1899 and died in 1975. The previous business, Scott's Rollarena, owned by Gilbert W. Scott, had not always been located on 6th Street. The business opened just prior to 1940 and was located on National Avenue during the early years, then moved to 422 West Main Street and in 1952 moved to the 6th Street location. Negroes who lived in the area were against the rink moving to 6th Street, and a group went before the Board of City Commissioners to denounce the move of a "whites only" skating rink to what was fast becoming a predominately Negro neighborhood. The commissioners offered their sympathy to the Negroes and said they could do nothing about the "whites only" policy. Looking back to the 1860s, East 6th Street had been considered the suburbs of Lexington [source: Prather's Lexington City Directory], and by the late 1890s, there were a few Colored families living on 6th Street [source: Emerson and Dark's Lexington Directory]. By 1939, there was a Colored neighborhood on E. 6th Street between Elm Tree Lane and Ohio Street, and Thomas Milton was the only Colored person living in the 400 block [source: Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, Ky.) City Directory]. The new neighborhood continued to exist in spite of the racial tension; the determined home owners would not succumb to threats and violence. In October 1930, the Colored families living on E. 6th Street between Elm Tree Lane and Ohio Street received threatening letters following the bombing of two homes. The letters warned the families to get out of the neighborhood. The homes of the Charles Jones family on Curry Avenue and of the Rhada Crowe family at 209 East 6th Street had both been blasted with dynamite. The Crowe family had been in their home just a week, and after the bombing they moved. The letters received by their neighbors were turned over to the chief of police, Ernest Thompson, and the families were assured the Lexington Police Department would protect them. The Colored families stayed, and the area continued to change. By 1948 Negro home owners and business owners were buying property in the 400 block of E. 6th Street. [source: Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, Ky.) City Directory]. The businesses were Luella Oldham Beauty Shop-410 (Colored); Irene Keller Beauty Shop-412 (Colored); Sweeney's Confectionery-430; City Radio Service-439; and Blue Grass Market-441. The street address, 427 E. 6th Street, did not exist prior to 1950, but by 1952 there was a building at the address when Scott's Rollarena moved to its new location. The protest against the "whites only" policy at the roller rink was one of the early and lesser known acts of the ongoing Civil Rights Movement in Lexington. In spite of the protests, Scott's Rollarena was at the 6th Street location for six years before the business closed in 1958. In May of that same year, Foster's Roller Skating opened in the same location for "Colored Patrons Only." The building at 427 E. 6th Street was listed as vacant in the 1961 Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, Ky) City Directory. In 1977, there was a grocery store in the building when it was destroyed by fire; arson was suspected. For more see "City fathers give sympathy which fears rink will raise problem," Lexington Leader, 01/10/1952, p. 12; the ad for Foster's Roller Skating in the Lexington Leader, 05/08/1958; "Judge requests jury to probe house bombing," Lexington Leader, 10/06/1930, p. 1; "Family to move following blast," Lexington Leader, 10/03/1930, p. 1; "Police promise protection for Negro families," Lexington Leader, 10/14/1930, p. 1; and "Store gutted; arson suspected," Lexington Leader, 06/17/1977, p. A-1.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Businesses, Rioting, Insurrections, Panics, Protests in Kentucky, Skating Rinks, Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Eilers v Eilers [Anna F. Anderson]
Start Year : 1964
In September 1964, eight months after Anna F. Eilers married Marshall C. Anderson, the courts took her five children away. Anna, who was white, was from New Haven, KY. She had divorced her previous husband and father of the children, George Eilers, in 1963. Jefferson County Circuit Court Judge Lyndon R. Schmid awarded custody of the children to Anna. In January 1964, Anna and Marshall C. Anderson, an African American musician and restaurant employee, were married in Chicago, IL. [Marriage between the races was still illegal in Kentucky and 17 other states.] When they returned to Louisville, KY, the couple lost their jobs in retaliation for their marriage. George Eilers sued to have the children taken away from Anna, and Judge Schmid had the children placed in a children's institutional home. Anna and Marshall moved to Indianapolis, IN, in 1964, by which time the two oldest children had been placed in foster homes. Prior to their move, the Andersons had retained Attorney James Crumlin of the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund, Inc. to help regain custody of the children. The custody case took place during the same time period that the Virginia Supreme Court had upheld the state's anti-miscegenation law in the Richard and Mildred Loving case [NY Times article]. The Andersons' custody case went to the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1966, where the Appellate Court upheld the ruling of the Jefferson County Circuit Court. The case was next taken to the federal court where it became national news; it was the first appeal to the federal courts on constitutional grounds for child custody. The Andersons' case was temporarily linked to the Lovings' case, which was pending in the federal courts, and the results were expected to be landmark decisions. The link was broken when District Judge Henry L. Brooks declined to take jurisdiction over the Andersons' case because it was determined that the mother had not exhausted her appeals in the Kentucky courts, and the indirectness of the attack on the Kentucky miscegenation laws was a weakness of the case; therefore, there was no federal question. For a third time, the Anderson case was brought before the Kentucky Court of Appeals. The court reversed the judgment for proceedings consistent with the opinion. "No reason appears which would warrant interference with the custody order from which this appeal was taken. That order shall remain in effect until further order of the trial court or any court of competent jurisdiction." For more see F. Ward, "Mixed couple suffers ordeal," Jet, 04/07/1966, pp. 46-49, and "Mixed couple losses custody bid," Jet, 10/27/1966, p. 15 [both articles available full-text at Google Book Search]; B. A. Franklin's articles in the New York Times: "Kentucky facing race custody suit," 03/25/1966, p. 29, and "Judge bars case of miscegenation," 06/26/1966, p. 30; "N.A.A.C.P. to fight ruling on custody," New York Times, 07/08/1966, p. 12; and Anna Frances Eilers (now Anna Anderson), Appellant, v. George F. Eilers, Appellee, Court of Appeals of Kentucky, 412 S.W.2d 871: 1967 Ky, March 17, 1967.
Subjects: Mothers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Court Cases, Interracial Marriage and State Laws
Geographic Region: New Haven, Nelson County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Faulkner, Broadus [Bonus Army Riot]
Start Year : 1899
End Year : 1961
Broadus Faulkner was a member of the Bonus Army which was made up of more than 43,000 protesters, mostly WWI veterans and family members. The protesters, both Blacks and whites, were seeking cash payments for veterans' Service Certificates. The U.S. Government had issued more than three million certificates that were to mature in 1945; they were 20 year certificates that represented the pay promised to veterans plus compounded interest. With the Great Depression, unemployed veterans marched on Washington during the spring and summer of 1932, led by former Army Sargent Walter W. Waters, the veterans had gathered at the Capital to convince Congress to make immediate payments. The protesters camped-out near the White House and the encampment was named Hooverville. The campers lived in tents and makeshift huts. June 1932, the House passed a bill for payment, but the bill was blocked in the Senate. July 1932, the Attorney General ordered the police to evacuate the Bonus Army. A riot broke out. President Hoover called out troops to force the protesters out of Washington. Several veterans and their family members were injured and two were killed. Hooverville was burned to the ground. August 1932, the Washington D.C. grand jury indicted three men for their role in the riot. Broadus Faulkner, a 32 year old African American from Kentucky, was charged with felonious assault and assault to kill Patrolman John E. Winters. Faulkner and Bernard McCoy, a Chicago bricklayer who was also indicted, had thrown bricks at the police. John O. Olson, the third man to be indited, was a carpenter whose last address was in Nebraska. Olson had used a table leg as a weapon against the police. For more see "Three Indicted in bonus army fight," Kingsport Times, 08/16/1932, p.1 & 6; and The Bonus Army by P. Dickson and T. B. Allen.

Broadus Faulkner, born in Paint Lick, KY, November 28, 1899, was the son of Isiah and Jane Smith Faulkner. In 1910, the family of seven lived in Buckeye, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census - last name spelled "Faulconer"]. In 1920, Faulkner lived in Cincinnati, OH, where he worked as a laborer; he was a private in the  U.S. Army during WWI; and in 1926 he was sentenced to prison in Chelsea, MI for breaking and entering [sources: 1920 and 1930 U.S. Federal Census; "2 would-be robbers of fur store caught," The Owosso Argus-Press, 03/01/1926, p.6; and "Three Bonus men indicted," The Milwaukee Journal, 08/16/1932, p.12]. Faulkner also served 90 days in Philadelphia, PA for stealing. Following the Bonus Army riot in 1932, Faulkner, Bernard McCoy, and John O. Olson were jailed. They were represented by lawyers Dan McCullough and Frank S. Easby-Smith, and after their trial, all three of the jailed men were freed with a suspended sentence [source: "Men jailed in Bonus Eviction Riot Freed," The Toledo News-Bee, 11/25/1932, p.1].  By 1940, Broadus Faulkner had moved to Los Angeles, CA [source: U.S. Federal Census], where he died May 3, 1961 [source: California Death Index]. 

See photo image of Broadus Faulkner, John O. Olson, and Bernard McCoy under the caption "Accused in Captol Bonus Riot" on p.4 of the Florence Times, 08/20/1932.
 
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Riots and Protests Outside Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paint Lick and Buckeye, Garrard County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C. / Los Angeles California

Frankfort Colored Library (Franklin County, KY)
Start Year : 1938
End Year : 1962
In the late 1930s, the WPA established a colored branch library in Frankfort, KY, according to the June 1944 Bulletin of the Kentucky Library Association, v.9, p.29. The library came about with the assistance of Mrs. Robert M. Fort, a member of the Frankfort Library Board. The library was closed by 1943 when the WPA financial support ended, and Mrs. Fort asked that the colored library be reopened. A building at 306 Mero Street, a three room house, was purchased and leased to the Frankfort Public Library by Mr. J. M. Perkins. There was an agreement between Perkins and the library: as long as the building was used as a library, there would be no charge for the lease. The library was managed by trained African American librarians, two of whom were Alice Simpson and Anna M. Wolfe, the mother of George C. Wolfe. The Frankfort Colored Branch Library closed in 1962. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones; and "With librarians and libraries in Kentucky," Bulletin of the Kentucky Library Association, II, p.13.

See photo image of a colored library [unknown location] created by the WPA, the image is part of the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Colored Public Libraries in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Gaines, Harris B., Sr.
Birth Year : 1888
Death Year : 1964
Born in Henderson, KY, Gaines was Assistant State's Attorney in Cook County, Illinois (1925-1928) and a member of the Illinois State Legislature (1928-1935). Gaines represented the 1st District of Chicago. He was the husband of Irene Mcoy Gaines (1892-1964), and the father of Illinois State Representative Charles E. Gaines (1924-2000). The Harris B. Gaines and Irene M. Gaines Papers are held at the University of Illinois Archives. [The Social Security Death Index gives his birth date as April 6, 1888.] For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37.
Subjects: Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Cook County, Illinois

Gibson, Clifford
Birth Year : 1901
Death Year : 1963
Gibson was probably born in Louisville or Henderson, KY; however, his birthplace is also given as Alabama or Mississippi. A blues guitarist, most of his first 20 recordings were made in 1929; overall, he made about 40 recordings. He recorded under the name "Grandpappy Gibson." He spent a good deal of his career in St. Louis. For more see All Music Guide to the Blues. The experts' guide to the best blues recordings, 2nd ed., edited by M. Erlewine, et al; and The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 3rd ed., edited by C. Larkin.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County or Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / St. Louis, Missouri / Alabama / Mississippi

Glass, James G.
Birth Year : 1884
Death Year : 1962
Dr. Glass was one of the longest practicing physicians in Henderson, KY, where he practiced for 50 years. Glass was a physician and surgeon. He was born in Hopkinsville, KY, the son of Edward W. and Sallie E. McReynolds Glass. He graduated from Clark Embalming School, Walden University, and received his M.D. from Meharry Medical College in 1906. Prior to opening his practice, Glass was in the undertaking business with his father, Edward Glass. He practiced medicine for a year in Hopkinsville, 1908-1909, then moved his business to Henderson, KY. He was the husband of Ora H. Kennedy Glass, a community leader in Henderson, KY. For more see the James Garfield Glass entry in Who's Who of the Colored Race by F. L. Mather [available full view at Google Book Search]; and Dr. James G. Glass on p.84 of Journal of the National Medical Association, vol.55, issue 1, January 1963 [available online].
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Hall, Al
Birth Year : 1894
Death Year : 1964
Hall, born in Jellico, KY, lived in Seattle, WA, beginning in 1899. He was a graduate of Broadway High School and was the first African American to play on the school's football team. Hall appeared to be less than 5 feet tall. He was a WWI veteran, stationed at Fort Hancock, Georgia in 1918. After the war, he was employed by the Buffalo Hosiery Company in Seattle, and was later a clerk in the King County Assessor's Office. [Jellico, Kentucky, was adjoined across the state line with Jellico, Tennessee. Joint jurisdiction over the town was held by Kentucky and Tennessee, but today is considered a Tennessee town.] This information about Al Hall comes from the University of Washington Libraries, Digital Collections.

See one of seveal photo images of Al Hall in the Washington Libraries, Digital Collections.
Subjects: Football, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Jellico, Whitley County, Kentucky / Jellico, Tennessee / Seattle, King County, Washington

Hampton, Kym
Birth Year : 1962
Born in Louisville, KY, Kym Hampton graduated from Iroquois High School in 1980, where she was a basketball and track star. She played college ball at Arizona State University, scoring over 2,000 points and setting eight career records, graduating in 1984 with a degree in theatre. She was inducted into the Arizona State Hall of Fame in 1989. She is also ninth on the NCAA's all-time career rebounds list. Hampton played professional basketball outside the U.S. for 13 years, and during her final year with the Italian League in 1996, was the leading rebounder. The WNBA team, New York Liberty, signed Hampton during the Elite Draft in 1997; she was the first African American player from Kentucky in the WNBA. The New York Liberty team was runner-up in the finals against the Houston Comets in the 1997 and 1999 WNBA Championship games. Hampton retired from the league in 1999 after a knee injury, taking her career in other directions with modeling, acting, the music business, basketball camps, and public speaking. In 2005 she was inducted into the Dawahares'/Kentucky High School Athletic Association Hall of Fame. For more see J. Demling, "Hall of Famer Hampton finds there's a spotlight after basketball," Courier Journal, 03/16/2005.

See photo image of Kym Hampton at the Diamond and Company website.
Subjects: Basketball, Migration North, Migration West, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Arizona / Italy, Europe / New York

Henderson, Angelo B.
Birth Year : 1962
Death Year : 2014
Angelo B. Henderson was born in Louisville, KY.  He is a 1985 graduate of the University of Kentucky School of Journalism. He received the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for distinguished feature writing for "Crime Story," which featured the lives of those affected by an attempted robbery and the death of the robber; Henderson was the deputy Detroit bureau chief at the Wall Street Journal. He has received a number of other awards, including the National Association of Black Journalists Award for outstanding coverage of the African American condition. He was inducted into the University of Kentucky Hall of Distinguished Alumni in 2005. The previous year, Henderson became the associate pastor at Hope United Methodist Church in Southfield, Michigan. He also became associate editor of Real Times LLC, the nation's largest African-American newspaper chain. Angelo B. Henderson died February of 2014. For more see Angelo Ink, Henderson's media consulting firm; Angelo Henderson in the History Makers website; and Who's Who Among African Americans, vols. 8-18.

See the video "Detroit 2020 Person of the week Angelo Henderson" on YouTube.

 
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Ministers, Pastors, Preachers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Detroit and Southfield, Michigan

House, Tracy
Birth Year : 1965
House was born in Mayfield, KY. In May of 2003, he became the first African American police chief in the city of Clinton, KY, coming to the job with 11 years experience, having been a member of the Mayfield Police Department since 1992. His background includes detective training and service as a police officer; he's also certified in handwriting analysis. He is a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police and a member of the Kentucky Chiefs of Police Association. House is executive secretary for the Purchase Area Sexual Assault Center Board of Directors. He is also a Kentucky Colonel and a member of the Prince Hall Mason Wilson Son Lodge #167 in Clinton. For more see The Hickman County Gazette, front page articles: "New Clinton city police chief and patrolman hired," 05/29/2003, and "New police chief talks about plans for Clinton Police Department," 06/03/2003; and Kentucky Law Enforcement News, vol. 2, issue 3 (Sept. 2003), p. 49 [available online as issue #7 August 2003].
Subjects: Corrections and Police, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Mayfield, Graves County, Kentucky / Clinton, Hickman County, Kentucky

Hudson, James E.
Birth Year : 1887
Death Year : 1964
James E. Hudson was an elevator operator at the Kentucky Capitol. In 1922, he was thought to be the first African American to address the Kentucky General Assembly. An evolution bill was being debated, and Hudson's Bible had been borrowed to argue a point. The Bible was worn, and Representative George C. Waggoner from Scott County led the collection effort to buy Hudson a new Bible and a Bible dictionary. His remarks to the Kentucky General Assembly were in response to receiving his new Bible and dictionary. Hudson also owned a restaurant that he managed during the week. In 1930, Hudson, his wife Callie and her son Joseph, lived on East Third Street in Frankfort, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Most of this information comes from "Bible Presentation," a website by the Legislative Research Commission; and United We Stand: Encouraging Diversity in Kentucky's Leaders (.pdf), by Kentucky.gov. See also "Volunteer Chaplain," The Bismarck Tribune, 02/02/1928, front page.

See photo image from the Kentucky Historical Society of James E. Hudson at the Bible Presentation website by the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission.
Subjects: Businesses, Ministers, Pastors, Preachers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Hueston, William C., Sr.
Birth Year : 1880
Death Year : 1961
Hueston was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Bettie H. Treacy; his family later moved to Kansas City, Kansas. He was a graduate of the University of Kansas and an active community leader in Kansas City. He also lived part-time in Gary, Indiana. He served as president of the National Negro Baseball League, beginning in 1927, after Rube Foster was committed to the Kankakee Asylum in Illinois. In Gary, Indiana, Hueston served as magistrate judge and helped establish the African American-owned Central State Bank. He was appointed by President Hoover to the National Memorial Commission for the building of the National Museum of African American History and Culture that was to have been built in 1929. He left Indiana in 1930 for Washington, D.C. to become Assistant Solicitor with the U.S. Post Office. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; The Josh Gibson Foundation website; Take up the Black Man's Burden: Kansas City's African American Communities, 1865-1939, by C. E. Coulter; M. Strimbu, "Library exhibit depicts Gary's rich, varied history," Post-Tribune, 07/24/1997, Gary Neighbors section, p. NB4; and "William C. Hueston, 81, Government Attorney," Washington Post, 11/27/1961, City Life section.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Baseball, Civic Leaders, Lawyers, Migration North, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Postal Service, Judges, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Kansas City, Kansas / Gary, Indiana / Kankakee, Illinois / Washington, D.C.

Integration at Gainesville Elementary (Hopkinsville, KY)
Start Year : 1965
When 27 year old Ronald I. Johnson became principal of the African American Gainesville Elementary School in 1965, it was thought to be the first integration of school administrative personnel in Hopkinsville, KY. Johnson had been a basketball coach for five years prior to becoming principal. For more see "White basketball coach heads Ky. Negro school," Jet, vol. 28, issue 15 (07/22/1965), p. 55. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Jackson, Keith L.
Birth Year : 1965
In June 2012, Keith Jackson became the first African American to be named Chief of the Lexington Division of Fire and Emergency Services. The appointment was made by Mayor Jim Gray. Jackson is a 21 year veteran and served for more than a year as the interim chief. He is a graduate of the University of Kentucky and author of the unpublished manuscript History of Black Firefighters. For more see "City names new fire chief, " at WKYT 27 Newsfirst, 06/28/2012 [online]; "Lexington's first Black fire chief named," ;The Key Newsjournal, 06/28/2012 [online].

See photo image and article about Keith Jackson - - B. Fortune, "Mayor Gray appoints Keith Jackson as Lexington Fire Chief," Lexington Herald-Leader, 06/28/2012 [online].

Subjects: Firefighters
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Jackson-Sears, Pandora
Birth Year : 1963
Born in Madisonville, KY, Jackson-Sears is the daughter of Larry and Vivian Lewis. She is president and owner of Jackson-Sears and Associates and has over 17 years of minority and women's business development and diversity experience. In 2003, Gov. Paul Patton appointed her to the Kentucky Commission on the Small Business Advocacy Board. She is also an elementary school teacher in Louisville. She is the author of dipped in milk: conversations between an African-American son and his mother, which examines African American males raised in the suburbs and their struggle to fit in with their inner-city peers. For more see S. Bartholomy, "Parents face split decision," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 05/05/2004, B section, p. 1.
Subjects: Authors, Businesses, Education and Educators, Appointments by Kentucky Governors
Geographic Region: Madisonville, Hopkins County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Jacobson, Harriet P.
Birth Year : 1879
Death Year : 1961
Harriet Price Jacobson was born in Lexington, KY, the daughter of Nannie Price and Robert Johnson. A teacher and poet, she taught in Oklahoma rural schools from 1893 to 1896 and in Kansas and Oklahoma city schools from 1897 to 1935. She was an advisory teacher from 1935 to 1947. Jacobson organized the East Side Culture Club in Oklahoma City in 1907 and assisted in the organization of the State Training School for Negro Boys in Boley and the Training School for Girls in Taft. She was the founder and first president of the Oklahoma Federation of Negro Women's Clubs, 1910-1915. She received an award for her 42 years of teaching. Jacobson was author of a number of published poems in publications such as Anthology of Poetry by Oklahoma Writers (1938) and The Poetry Digest Annual (1939), and in 1947 her book of poems was published, Songs in the Night. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; and Black American Writers Past and Present. A biographical and bibliographical dictionary, by T. G. Rush, et al. See also Harriet Price Jacobson at the Uncrowned Community Builders website, and Harriet Price Jacobson at the Find A Grave website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Migration West, Poets, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Oklahoma City, Oklahoma / Kansas

Jones, Alberta O.
Birth Year : 1930
Death Year : 1965
Alberta Odell Jones was born in Louisville, KY, the third child of Sarah (Sadie) Frances Crawford Jones and Odell Jones. She was also a first cousin of Raymond Ponder. During her brief life, Alberta Jones was at the forefront of change in Kentucky and Louisville. She was one of the first African American women to pass the Kentucky Bar (1959) and the first woman prosecutor in Kentucky (1964). [Sally J. Seals White was the first African American woman admitted to the Kentucky Bar.] Jones was prosecutor in the Louisville Domestic Relations Court; her law office was located at 2018 W. Broadway. [James A. Crumlin, Sr. was the assistant prosecutor.] Jones was Cassius Clay's [Muhammad Ali's] first attorney, taking him to California to be trained under Archie Moore. Jones was also a civil rights activist: in addition to participating in the March on Washington and the marches in Louisville, she rented voting machines and held classes to teach African Americans how to vote for the candidate of their choice. She established the Independent Voters Association and was an active member of the Louisville Urban League and the NAACP. Jones also established the James "Bulky" Welch Fund and held a fund-raiser, raffling off a car to pay Welch's medical bills and purchase the prosthetic arms to replace the ones young Welch had lost trying to retrieve his dog from under a train. Alberta Jones was a graduate of Louisville Central High School and attended the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes. When the college was merged with the University of Louisville (U of L) during desegregation, Jones continued her education at U of L and graduated third in her class. She was accepted into the University of Louisville Law School but transferred after the first year to Howard University School of Law, where she graduated fourth in her class. A picture of Alberta O. Jones hangs in the U of L Law School. She was a member of the American Bar Association, the Fall City Bar Association, and the Louisville Bar Association, serving as secretary of the latter. She was also a member of the Eta Zeta Chapter of Zeta Phi Beta and the Sigma Chapter of Iota Phi Lambda. Alberta O. Jones was murdered in August 1965 -- the case has not been solved. This information was submitted by Alberta Jones's niece, Ms. Nicole M. Martin, and Jones's sister, Ms. Flora Lutisha Shanklin. For more see "Alberta Jones' funeral rites held; unsolved murders alarm West Enders," The Louisville Defender, 08/12/1965, front page and p. 6; and Legacy of Leadership: African American Pioneers in Kentucky Law (video-recording), by the University of Louisville School of Law.

 


   See photo image of Alberta O. Jones and Cassius Clay [Muhammad Ali] in Jet, 08/26/1965, p.5.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Civic Leaders, Voting Rights, Lawyers, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Women's Groups and Organizations, Urban Leagues
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Jones, Frederick M.
Birth Year : 1892
Death Year : 1961
Frederick M. Jones was born in Cincinnati and was later moved to Covington, KY. Some sources state that he was actually born in Covington, KY, in 1893. He was the son of John Jones, who was white, and an African American mother. Frederick Jones was raised by his father until age seven, when he was placed with the local Catholic Church; his mother had left the family when Jones was a baby. At the age of 11, Jones ran away from his caretakers at the Catholic church and found a job in a garage in Cincinnati, OH. He became a full time employee at age 14. Jones was attracted to mechanics and is credited with building the first practical truck refrigeration system in 1949. He also built cars from spare parts and raced them. He was a soldier in World War I; while in the service he studied electricity. In 1939 he patented a ticket dispensing machine for movie houses, his first patent (#2,163,754). Frederick M. Jones was posthumously awarded the National Medal of Technology in 1991 by President George H. W. Bush; Jones was the 1st African Ameican to receive the award. For more see Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century by J. H. Kessler; and "Frederick McKinley Jones" in Encyclopedia of World Biography, vol. 20, 2nd. ed., 2004.

See photo image and additional information about Frederick M. Jones at The Faces of Science website.
Subjects: Inventors, Military & Veterans, Automobile Races, Race-car Drivers, Migration South
Geographic Region: Cincinnati, Ohio / Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky

Jonesville (Bowling Green, KY)
End Year : 1964
The following information comes from K. S. Parsley, "Jonesville: Reclaiming a History," a former Western Kentucky University website. Jonesville was an African American community that adjoined the former Western Kentucky State College campus. It was then a middle class neighborhood that stretched from Dogwood Drive to the railroad tracks; today's Big Red Way was the southern boundary. The community was well-established with grocery stores, beauty shops, and other service businesses. Approximately 70 families were in the community in 1950. The community was also home to many of the first African American students attending Western Kentucky University; African American students were not allowed to live on campus. As the university grew, Jonesville stood in the way of the need to expand the campus. In 1964 the Urban Renewal Commission condemned the Jonesville properties, then took over the properties and sold the land to Western Kentucky University at a cheaper price than would have been paid to the property owners. Most of the former Jonesville residents remained in Bowling Green, and the story of Jonesville continues to be told. A Kentucky Historical Marker # 2052 was paid for by Western Kentucky University and placed at the corner of Big Red Way and University Boulevard to commemorate the history and mark the former location of Jonesville. For more information listen to the oral history interview about Jonesville by Nancy Richey and Sue Lynn McDaniel with Angela Townsend, available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives; and watch the documentary film about Jonesville, produced by Aimee Briley, at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.  

See the 2008 video titled "Jonesville: An Neighborhood in Bowling Green, Kentucky" directed by Aimee Briley, featuring Lavinia Gatewood, Maxine Ray, and Sandy Staebell, video posted to Vimeo by Gordon Van Ness.
Subjects: Communities
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Kendall, Joseph N.
Birth Year : 1909
Death Year : 1965
Kendall was born in Owensboro, KY. In July 2007, he became the first Kentucky State University inductee into the College Football Hall of Fame, located in South Bend, IN. Kendall was considered one of the greatest passers in college football and a good all around player. He not only played quarterback, but was a running back, punted with both feet, and played on defense. In 1934, he led Kentucky State University to a national black college football championship and an undefeated season. In 1935, he led the team to an Orange Blossom Classic victory. The Pittsburgh Courier named Kendall a First Team All-America three times between 1934-36. He was inducted into the Kentucky State Athletics Hall of Fame in 1975. During Kendall's college football career, Kentucky State had a 29-7-3 record. He was selected for the African American All-Star team that played against the Chicago Bears in 1935; it was the first time that an African American team played against an NFL team. Kendall was also a good baseball and basketball player. He served in the Army for two years, then graduated from Kentucky State in 1938. His original higher education plan had been to attend Paducah to study culinary arts, but once he was seen playing football, he was encouraged to enroll and play for Kentucky State. After college, he was hired to teach and coach at the African American Rosenwald High School in Harlan, KY, and in 1946 became principal of the school. In 1948, he returned to Owensboro to become the football coach at the school he had graduated from, Western High School. The Kendall-Perkins Park in Owensboro is named in honor of Joseph N. Kendall and Joseph Perkins. For more see L. Vance, "College football hall of fame welcomes 3 African-American QBs," at blackathlete.net; S. Hagerman, "One of the finest: Late Western High standout to be inducted into College Football Hall of Fame," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 07/16/2007, section C, p.1; and contact CESKAA.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Football, Parks & Resorts, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Harlan, Harlan County, Kentucky

Kentucky Press Association (Integration)
Start Year : 1946
End Year : 1964
The integration of the Kentucky Press Association (KPA) took 18 years, beginning April 1946, when the Louisville Defender newspaper applied for membership to KPA. The application was denied, and in June of that year the request was put before the full membership, and was again denied with only one dissenting vote. H. A. Browning, President of KPA, explained that the denial of membership was to keep all from being embarrassed during social events, since KPA was a social meeting organization. The KPA was integrated in 1964 after some of the larger newspapers threatened to terminate their memberships. For more see "Negro press barred," The New York Times, 06/30/1946, p.23; and "Kentucky Press Association" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Lattimore, Kirk
Birth Year : 1964
As principal of Crosby Middle School in Louisville, KY, Kirk Lattimore received a Milken Family Foundation National Educator Award in 2001. Lattimore has instituted a number of programs, including the Men of Quality Mentoring Program, which partners African-American male students with role models from the Omega Psi Phi Fraternity to promote achievement and civic engagement. Lattimore was born in Plainfield, NJ. He is a graduate of Hampton University and the University of Louisville. In 2010, Kirk Lattimore was the MetLife/NASSP National Middle Level Principal of the Year. For more see Kirk Lattimore at the Milken Family Foundation website; D. Carter, "Crosby Middle principal wins national award," Louisville Courier-Journal, 10/18/2001, News section, p.01B; and Kirk Lattimore in Who's Who in Black Louisville, 2nd ed.

See Kirk Lattimore as he shares how his school tries to catch students before they fall behind, MetLife/NASSP National Middle Level Principal of the Year, on YouTube video.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration South, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Plainfield, New Jersey / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Lewis, Meade Lux
Birth Year : 1905
Death Year : 1964
Lewis was a pianist and composer. He was born in Louisville, KY, and raised in Chicago. Meade was the son of Hattie and George Lewis. George was employed as a postal clerk and was also a Pullman Porter. Hattie and George were Kentucky natives, and according to the U.S. Federal Census, in 1920 the family was living in apartment 29, a rear unit on LaSalle Street in Chicago. Meade Lewis's first instrument was the violin, which he learned to play when he was 16 years old. He taught himself to play the piano and developed a boogie-woogie style. His best known work is Honky Tonk Train Blues, recorded in 1927. Boogie-woogie was still a new sound. To supplement his income, Lewis worked washing cars and driving a taxi. He played the piano at house parties, clubs, and after-hours joints. His fame is said to have begun in 1938 when Lewis performed in John Hammond's concert at Carnegie Hall. He is regarded as one of the three noted musicians of boogie-woogie. For more see the Meade Lux Lewis entry in the Afro-American Encyclopedia; and "Meade Lux Lewis pianist, is killed," New York Times, 06/08/1964, p. 18. A picture of Lewis and additional information are available in Men of Popular Music, by D. Ewen. View film with Meade Lux Lewis playing boogie woogie on YouTube.


Subjects: Fathers, Migration North, Mothers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Postal Service, Pullman Porters, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Lexington Conference (Methodist Episcopal Church)
Birth Year : 1869
Death Year : 1964
The Lexington Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church was established in Harrodsburg, KY, in 1869. It was the third missionary conference for African Americans [the first was the Delaware Conference and the second was the Washington Conference, both established in 1864]. African Americans had been members of the Kentucky District of the Methodist Episcopal Church as early as 1787 when there were 64 Colored members, according to author F. Ockerman, Jr. When the Lexington Conference was established, it was originally a part of the Kentucky Annual Conference; beginning in the spring of 1866, a few Negro preachers were admitted into the traveling connection as a trial. New members were added as the preachers met as a group over the next three years. At the annual session in Newport, KY, in 1868, the preachers forwarded a resolution asking for their own conference, named the Lexington Conference; the resolution was approved. The conference founders were Henry Hopkins Lytle (1802-1890), from Maryland; Israel Simms (1819-1912), from New Castle, KY; Zail or Zale Ross (1824-1892), from Georgetown, KY; William Lawrence (d. 1900 in Anchorage, KY); Marcus McCoomer (1834-1899); Peter Booth (d. 1873), from Kentucky; Hanson Talbott (d. 1870), from Harrodsburg, KY; Nelson Saunders (d. 1879 in Louisville, KY); Paris Fisher; Andrew Bryant (d. 1870 in Paris, KY); Adam Nunn (b.1820), from Oberlin, OH; George Downing (1807-1880), from Virginia; Willis L. Muir (d. 1911 in Louisville, KY); and Elisha C. Moore (d. 1871), from Alabama. The first Lexington Conference was held in the Jackson Street Church in Louisville in 1870, with the membership initially including churches in Kentucky, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The women's divisions of the conference were formed after the turn of the century: Women's Home Missionary Society (1900), Ladies Aid Society (1914), Minister's Wives (1919), and Women's Society of Christian Service. The Lexington Conference was held most often in a Kentucky location, and as the membership increased, it also shifted northward with the Great Migration, after which the conference was held more in Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana. In 1946 the membership was over 17,000, with close to half from the Chicago area. The Lexington Conference was held each year until June 1964 when the conference was merged into the Cleveland district of the North East Ohio Conference. For more see Forty Years in the Lap of Methodism: history of Lexington Conference, by W. H. Riley; History of Lexington Conference, by Dr. D. E. Skelton; Black People in the Methodist Church: Whither Thou Goest?, by W. B. McClain; The Tapestry of Faith: the history of Methodism in the Cleveland District of the East Ohio Conference, by G. S. Moore and J. C. Trimble; and First United Methodist Church, Lexington, Kentucky: bicentennial history by F. Ockerman, Jr.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Migration North, Ministers, Pastors, Preachers, Religion & Church Work, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Indiana / Illinois / Ohio

Lizzie's Story (Lizzie Cannon)
Birth Year : 1870
Death Year : 1965
Lizzie Cannon was the descendent of slaves who were sold in 1850 to Lloyd and Sarah Sheff in Leesburg, KY (located in Harrison County and originally called Boswell's Crossroads; the name was changed to Leesburg in 1817). The Sheff's new slave family remained on the Leesburg plantation until the they were sold around 1865, all except the youngest daughter, Delcy. At the age of fifteen, Delcy gave birth to Lizzie on Christmas Day, 1870; she was the daughter of Lloyd Sheff. Her birth was recorded in the family Bible: Lizzie Brent Sheff. Lizzie and her family eventually settled in Nicholasville, KY. The story of the many generations of Lizzie's family is told in the fictional biography, Lizzie's Story, by family member Dr. Clarice Boswell.
Subjects: Freedom, Genealogy, History, Mothers
Geographic Region: Leesburg, Harrison County, Kentucky / Nicholasville, Jessamine County, Kentucky

Martin, Clarence B.
Birth Year : 1963
Death Year : 2005
Clarence B. Martin, a native of Alabama, played high school basketball at Benjamin Russell High School in Alexander City, AL. In college, he played center for the Western Kentucky University (WKU) Hilltoppers basketball team from 1982 to 1987; he was redshirted for the 1983-1984 season because of an injury. Martin scored 888 points and had 684 rebounds while setting a school record for season and career blocked shots. He was the third round pick of the Utah Jazz in the 1987 NBA draft, but due to knee injuries, Martin opted to play professional ball in Japan. After eight years, Martin returned to work in Danville, KY, and at WKU, where he was a board member of the Athletic Hall of Fame. Martin and his family later moved to Atlanta, where he passed away in 2005. Clarence Martin is buried in Bowling Green, Kentucky. The Clarence Martin Memorial Scholarship Fund has been established at WKU. For more see Clarence Martin at the Hilltopper Haven website; and A. Harvey, "Tribute album for WKU basketball great on sale," Daily News (Bowling Green, KY), 11/17/2005.

See photo image and additional information about Clarence B. Martin at the WKU Hilltopper Haven website.
Subjects: Basketball, Migration North, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Alexander City, Alabama / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Japan, Asia

McClain, Richard Pollard
Birth Year : 1890
Death Year : 1965
Born in Nicholasville, KY, to Meredith and Ellen McClain, Richard P. McClain attended school in Cincinnati and received his medical degree from Howard University in 1913. In 1934 he was elected to the Ohio House of Representatives and served 1935-1937, and was later elected to the Cincinnati City Council, serving from 1937 to 1939. McClain was director and secretary of the Model Drug Corp., manager of Mercy Hospital, and president of the Buckeye Medical Association chapter in Cincinnati. He was a member of the Knights of Pythias, the Elks, and Alpha Phi Alpha. Richard P. McClain was the husband of Alice Martin. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1928-29; and The Negro in Ohio, 1914-1939, by W. W. Griffin (Thesis 1968).
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Legislators (Outside Kentucky), Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Nicholasville, Jessamine County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

McLeod, John C.
Birth Year : 1877
Death Year : 1962
Dr. John C. McLeod is said to have been the first Colored veterinarian in Cincinnati, OH, and he was one of the early colored inspectors in the U.S. Stock Bureau. McLeod was a graduate of Hughes High School in Cincinnati. He earned his veterinary surgery degree at Cincinnati Veterinary College. He was a U.S. Veterinary Inspector in the Bureau of Animal Industry and an inspector in Cincinnati and later at the Chicago stock yards. John C. McLeod was the husband of Elvira Cox McLeod, and his immediate and extended family members lived on Chapel Street in Cincinnati [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census]. By 1930, the family was living in Malden, MA [source: U.S. Federal Census], then moved again to New Rochelle, NY. John C. McLeod was born in Covington, KY, the son of John S. and Anna McLeod. He was a 32nd Degree Mason, a Shriner, and a Past Master of St. John's Lodge. For more see John C. McLeod in Cincinnati's Colored Citizens, by W. P. Dabney; and p. 606 in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, by P. A. Tenkotte and J. C. Claypool.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio / Chicago, Illinois / Malden, Massachuesetts / New Rochelle, New York

McPheeters, Alphonso A.
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1963
Born in Lexington, KY, Alphonso A. McPheeters was the son of Joseph and Katie Bell McPheeters. He was a graduate of Wilberforce University and returned to Lexington where he was a school teacher for several years. He had been enrolled in Hampton Institute [now Hampton University] when he completed his WWI Draft Registration card, and McPheeters listed the family home address as 222 Cedar Street in Lexington, KY. Alphonso A. McPheeters went on to earn his doctorate degree from the University of Cincinnati in 1944. During this period, McPheeters lived in Atlanta where he was an instructor at Clark College [now Clark Atlanta University] for eleven years, beginning in 1930, and in 1941 he was elected dean of Clark College, a post he held for 21 years. In 1971, the instructional laboratory building, McPheeters-Dennis, was named in honor of Dr. Alphonso A. McPheeters and Dr. Joseph J. Dennis. Also during his tenure at Clark College, in 1955, McPheeters served as the U.S. Information Officer in Accra, Gold Coast [now named Ghana], West Africa. On November 2,1960, McPheeters, and Rufus E. Clement were two of the seven administrators from Clark College to meet with Dr. Martin L. King, Jr. to discuss student and adult leadership in the local sit-in movement [source: The Martin Luther King, Jr. papers Project - .pdf online]. Among his many accomplishments, Alphonso A. McPheeters was a founder and charter member of the Lexington Alpha Beta Lambda Chapter of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity; the chapter was founded June 9, 1928 [source: Louisville Sphinx: Alpha Lambda, Summer 2009 edition, p.4]. Alphonso A. McPheeters was the husband of Annie L. Watters McPheeters (1908-1994), she was a graduate of Clark College. The couple married in 1940. Annie McPheeters was the director of the West Hunt Branch of the Atlanta Public Library; she was one of the first African American librarians employed in the public libraries in Atlanta. Named partially in her honor is the Washington Park/Annie L. McPheeters Branch Library. Also named partially in her honor is the Cary-McPheeters Gallery of the Auburn Avenue Research Library on African American Culture and History. For more information see the Annie L. McPheeters Papers at the Atlanta-Fulton Public Library, which has Alphonso A. McPheeters biographical items and reports in Series I: Personal materials, 1942-1993, folders 5-7; see "Prof. A. A. McPheeters,..." on p. 212 in The Crisis, July 1941 [online at Google Books]; "The American Negro in college, 1943-44" on p.253 in The Crisis, August 1944 [online at Google Books]; The Clark College Panther, 1963 Yearbook, pp.2-3; The Clark College Legacy by J. Brawley, pp.124-125 & 275-276; Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory, 1931-32, p.374; see the Alpha Beta Lambda Chapter website; and see Annie L. McPheeters in The New Georgia Encyclopedia [online].


*This entry was submitted by Juanita Landers White, who also provided copies of the references.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration South, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Atlanta, Georgia / Accra, Gold Coast [now Ghana], West Africa

Meeks, Kenneth
Birth Year : 1963
Born in Louisville, KY, Kenneth Meeks is a brother to Renelda (Meeks) Higgins Walker, Michael Meeks, and Reginald Meeks. He is the author of Driving While Black, and contributing author to Brotherman. Meeks is managing editor of Black Enterprise magazine. Prior to that, he had been assistant managing editor of the New York Amsterdam News and managing editor of Black Elegance: BE. He is the son of Eloise Kline Meeks and Florian Meeks, Jr. For more see Contemporary Authors, vol. 195; and Who's Who in America, vols. 51-53.
Subjects: Authors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Meyzeek, Albert E.
Birth Year : 1872
Death Year : 1963
Albert E. Meyzeek was principal and teacher at several Louisville schools. He was also a civil rights activist. He came to Kentucky from Terre Haute, IN. Meyzeek fought for libraries for African Americans in Louisville and for the development of Louisville Municipal College for Negroes. Meyzeek Middle School was named in his honor. Meyzeek was also a former president of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and was hired to become president of State Industrial College [now Kentucky State University], but served one month, then resigned before the beginning of the fall term. Albert Meyzeek was born in Toledo, OH, the son of John E. and Mary Lott Meyzeek. He was a graduate of Indiana State Normal School, Indiana University (B.A.) and Wilberforce University (M.A.). For more see Old War Horse of Kentucky, by J. B. Horton; "Life Achievements of Albert Ernest Meyzeek," Kentucky Negro Journal, vol. 1; and Albert E. Meyzeek, at the Louisville Free Public Library website.


 
  See photo of Albert E. Meyzeek and additional information at the Louisville Free Public Library Western Branch webpage.

 

 
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration South
Geographic Region: Toledo, Ohio / Terre Haute, Indiana / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Moore, David Schultz, "Davey"
Birth Year : 1933
Death Year : 1963
David S. Moore was a featherweight boxer born in 1933 in Lexington, KY. [Not to be confused with the later Davey Moore, a champion middleweight boxer from New York, 1959-1988.]  Davey S. Moore, from Lexington, KY, was also a champion boxer whose professional career started in the early 1950s and ended with his death in 1963 as a result of injuries received during the championship bout with 21 year old Ultiminio "Sugar" Ramos, who was the 1960 Cuban Featherweight Champion. Ramos had left Cuba and was living in Mexico City, Mexico. The Moore v. Ramos fight was held March 21, 1963, in Dodger Stadium in Los Angeles, CA. In the 10th round Moore went down. He got back up and finished the round, after which, the referee stopped the fight and declared Ramos the champion. Moore gave an interview, went to his dressing room, and complained of a headache. He was rushed to the hospital, and March 25, 1963, Moore died from brain stem injury [source: California Death Index]. His body was returned to Springfield, OH; his services were held at Mt Zion Baptist Church; and Davey Moore was laid to rest at Ferncliff Cemetery. His last fight was among the group of first nationally televised boxing matches. After Davey Moore's death, there was a call from California governor, Edmund G. Brown, to ban boxing in California. The cry to ban boxing also came from sportswriters, from Pope John XIII, and singer songwriter Bob Dylan wrote and sang the protest song "Who killed Davey Moore?" Ring Magazine had started to list the deaths of boxers in 1945; Davey Moore's death was number 216, and it was the second boxing death for the year 1963. Twenty-nine year old Davey Moore had been boxing professionally for little more than a decade. He was a member of the 1952 U.S. Olympic Team. In 1959, he won the featherweight title by defeating Hogan "Kid" Bassey [BoxRec], Nigeria, Africa's first world boxing champion, and Moore defended the title until losing it to Ramos in 1963. Davey Moore's record as a professional featherweight boxer was 59 wins, 7 losses, and 1 draw, according to the BoxRec webpage. He was also the bantamweight champion in the 1951 Intercity Golden Gloves Tournament and champion of the National AAU Tournament (118 pounds) in 1952. In 2013, the city of Springfield, OH, recognized Davey Moore's life with an 8 foot bronze statue. Ultiminio Ramos flew from Mexico City to attend the unveiling of the statue in Springfield, OH. Davey Moore Park is also named in his honor. Davey Moore was the son of Jessie Ball Moore (1893-1990), from Ohio, and Rev. Howard T. Moore (1896-1970), from Kentucky. Rev. Howard T. Moore was from Berry in Harrison County, KY, he was the son of James and Cordelia Moore [source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census]. Rev. Howard T. Moore was pastor of Christ Temple Church at 253 E. Second Street in Lexington, KY in 1931 [source: pp.369 & 687 in Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory, 1931-32]. Jessie and Howard Moore are listed in the Lexington city directory until 1935 when they moved back to Springfield, OH; the couple had lived in Springfield as early as 1918 when Howard was a butler and the couple lived at 1107 Innisfallen Ave [source: p.604 in Williams' Springfield City Directory for 1918]. In 1940, the family of nine lived on Chestnut Street and David, the youngest child, was the only one listed in the census as born in Kentucky, the other children were born in Ohio [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census]. Davey Moore was the husband of Geraldine Moore, and the couple had five children. For more see T. Safford, "Remembering Davey Moore's life, fights," Springfield News-Sun, 03/10/2013 [online]; "Davey Moore stands tall once again," Dayton Daily News, 09/15/2013, p.C1; "Final bell sounds for boxer Davey Moore," Evening Independent, 03/25/1963, p.13A; and "Last respects paid to Davey Moore," St. Petersburg Times, 03/31/1963, Sports section, p.2-C.

 

  See photo image and additional information at BoxRec webpage, Davey Moore (Featherweight).

 

  Watch the Moore v. Ramos fight while listening to Bob Dylan sing the song "Who Killed Davey Moore?" on YouTube.
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing, Migration North, Olympics: Athletes, Games, Events
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Springfield, Ohio / Los Angeles, California / Berry, Harrison County, Kentucky / Cuba / Mexico City, Mexico / Nigeria, Africa

Morgan, Garrett A., Sr.
Birth Year : 1877
Death Year : 1963
Garrett A. Morgan, who was born in Paris, KY, patented the breathing device - a gas mask - and the traffic signal. He owned sewing equipment and repair shop, and a personal care products company. Morgan invented zig-zag stitching for manual sewing machines. Garrett Augustus Morgan, Sr. was the son of Sydney and Elizabeth Reed Morgan; he was the seventh of their eleven children. The children attended Branch School, located in the African American community of Claysville, later renamed Garrett Morgan's Place. Morgan quit school when he was in the fifth grade, and when he was a teen took a job in Cincinnati, OH. He would later move on to Cleveland, where he founded the Cleveland Association of Colored Men, which was later merged into the Cleveland Branch of the NAACP. Morgan also founded the Cleveland Call newspaper. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Created Equal, by J. M. Brodie; and Garrett A. Morgan in the Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Biography (2000).

See photo image and additional information on Garrett A. Morgan in Public Roads, Jan/Feb 1998, vol.62, no.4, a Federal Highway Administration website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Businesses, Inventors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Cincinnati and Cleveland, Ohio

Negro Motorist Green Book (serial) and Kentucky
Start Year : 1936
End Year : 1964
The Negro Motorist Green Book provided African American travelers with the names and locations of businesses that welcomed their patronage. The book was published by Victor H. Green, a postal worker in New York. The first edition, in 1936, covered metropolitan New York only. In 1937 the book was developed into a national publication that covered the United States, and soon included Canada, Mexico, Bermuda, and Alaska [not yet a state]. In the 1949 issue, the following Kentucky cities were listed: Bowling Green, Elizabethtown, Hazard, Hopkinsville, Lancaster, Lexington, Lincoln Ridge, Louisville, Paducah, and Paris. During the 1950s the publication title changed to The Negro Travelers' Green Book, and the title changed again to Travelers' Green Book before the publication ceased in 1964. For more information see the Negro Motorist Green Book, 1949 issue online [.pdf] at the University of Michigan; and C. Mcgee, "The Open road wasn't quite open to all," New York Times, 08/22/2010, p. C1 [online].

Access Interview The Negro Motorist Green Book, 1949 edition [.pdf], University of Michigan.

  Search the Negro Travelers' Green Book, 1956 at the University Libraries, University of South Carolina website.
Subjects: Directories
Geographic Region: United States / Kentucky

Negro Woman's Christian Temperance Union in Kentucky [Sojourner Truth WCTU]
Start Year : 1905
End Year : 1963
The earliest Negro branches of the Kentucky Woman's Christian Temperance Union (KWCTU) were organized around 1906 in Pineville, KY, with 15 members, and in Hopkins County, KY, with 30 members (three men were honorary members). Each branch was a sub-unit of the white branch of the KWCTU in the area. The development of Negro branches was a big step for Kentucky; it came about much later than Negro branches in some other states but had finally happened. The national Woman's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) was founded in Cleveland, OH, in 1874, for white women. Their goal was to promote abstinence from alcohol in order to make women and families safe from the destruction resulting from alcohol use. WCTU is the oldest voluntary, non-sectarian women's organization. Chapters were formed throughout the U.S. and Canada. As more of the branches did work with the Negro populations, it was decided by the national union that there needed to be Negro branches to work with their people. The Work Among Negroes Department was formed in 1883. On the state level, the Kentucky Woman's Christian Temperance Union (KWCTU), was formed in 1881 by Mrs. Judson, who lived in Ohio, and Julia Shaw was elected president. The first state convention was held in Lexington in 1881. Though there was some work with Negroes in Kentucky, the membership was not opened to Negro women until a discussion of the topic during the KWCTU Executive Committee Meeting in 1905. It was voted that KWCTU branches would be requested to organize auxiliary unions among Negroes. In 1945, the Negro auxiliary branches were separated from the KWCTU and reorganized under the Kentucky Sojourner Truth Woman's Christian Temperance Union, with Mrs. Elizabeth B. Fouse as president. The Sojourner Truth Union was a second union in Kentucky, an auxiliary to the national WCTU. In 1956, Mrs. Decora A. Williams was president of the Sojourner Truth Union. During the KWCTU Executive Meeting, May 10, 1963, a motion by Mrs. T. E. Bowen was passed to accept Negro women members rather than have the union segregated, if the Negro women agreed. Below is a list of some of the Negro unions that were formed in Kentucky, 1906-1963.

  • 1906 Pineville (Bell County)
  • 1906 Hopkins County
  • 1907 Carlisle (Nicholas County) - Mrs. Sadie Hall
  • 1907 Lexington Negro Woman's Christian Temperance Union established a Colored industrial school in the old Good Samaritan Hospital on East Short Street. The school had a day nursery, and plans included having Negro nurses for baby care. The goal of the school was to prepare Negro children to go into the field of labor [source: see Lexington Leader below].
  • 1908 Henryville (Nicholas County)
  • 1911 Princeton (Caldwell County)
  • 1912 Paducah (McCracken County)
  • 1912 London (Laurel County)
  • 1914 Lexington, Beauchamp #2 (Fayette County) - Mrs. C. M. Freeman
  • 1915 Pembroke #2 (Christian County)
  • 1917 Winchester #2 (Clark County)
  • 1918 Nicholasville (Jessamine County)
  • 1923 Violet Whyte was paid for organization work in Winchester, Mt. Sterling, Wilmore, Nicholasville, and Harrodsburg
  • 1932 Middlesboro (Bell County)
  • 1939 Beatrice Laine, from Richmond (Madison County), endorsed as National Organizer among Negroes
  • 1939 Esther B. Isaacs, a Negro worker sent to Kentucky by the national WCTU
  • 1945 Negro KWCTU auxiliary branches are reorganized under the Kentucky Sojourner Truth Woman's Christian Temperance Union
  • 1949 Paducah (McCracken County) Sojourner Truth WCTU
  • 1952 Henderson (Henderson County) Sojourner Truth WCTU
  • No date - Jessamine County; Louisville Local No. 2 (Jefferson County) - Mrs. Annie Rice, President; Lexington Sojourner Truth WCTU (Fayette County) - Mrs. Ballard and Mrs. Elizabeth B. Fouse
For more, see the chapter by F. E. W. Harper, "The Woman's Christian Temperance Union and the Colored Woman" in Standing Before Us, by D. M. Emerson, et al. The chapter is a reprinted article from the African Methodist Episcopal Church Review, July 1888; A Glorious Past & a Promising Future, by P. Woodring; and "Industry," Lexington Leader, 08/31/1907, p. 8.
Subjects: Alcohol, Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Kentucky

New Homemakers of America, Kentucky
Start Year : 1945
End Year : 1965
The New Homemakers of America (NHA) was the African American organization that was to parallel the Future Homemakers of America (FHA). Both were established as segregated organizations for girls, beginning in 1945. The two organizations merged in 1965. Boys became members of the FHA starting in 1974-75. In 1999, FHA was renamed Family, Career and Community Leaders of America. The official magazine of the FHA was Teen Times, published four times per year. The official magazine for the NHA was Chatter Box, published two times per year. September 20, 1945, the Official Guide for the Organization and Development of the Program of the New Homemakers of America was published in Washington, D.C. During the initial years of the FHA,1944-45, Kentucky was the first state to qualify for a state charter. Among the 16 southern states, Kentucky was 8th to have NHA Chapters; there were 27 chapters with 777 members [source: The Growth and Development of New Homemakers of America by M. C. Moffitt, p.43]. The next year, there were 28 chapters with 792 members. The goal of both the NHA and the FHA was to bring together high school and junior high school home economic clubs, and NHA chapters were established in states that maintained segregated schools for African Americans. One of the NHA chapters was located at the Mayo-Underwood School in Frankfort, KY. In 1949, the state body of the Kentucky NHA was reorganized to strengthen the organization [source: "Kentucky," Chatter Box, v.5, no.1, Fall 1949, p.6]. During the year, there were four district meetings and the state convention was held in June of 1949. Two years later, the spring rally was held at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], and Mrs. Roxie B. Butler and her college homemaking students were hosts to the NHA delegates [source: "Kentucky in the spring," Chatter Box, v.6, no.2, Spring 1951, p.14]. The last year of the NHA, there were 2 chapters in Kentucky with 102 members; it was the lowest number of chapters and members per state [Mofitt, p.57]. For more see History of FHA-FCCLA, a Nicholas County, KY, school website; Chatter Box: for New Homemakers of America, 1945-1965 [bound issues of the Chatter Box publication]; and The Growth and Development of New Homemakers of America by M. C. Moffitt. There are photographs of members of the New Homemakers of America at Kentucky State University, within the Rufus Ballard Atwood Papers, ca. 1929-1965: New Homemakers of America - Photographs -, [n.d] [box: 27, folder: 10].


See photo image of NHA students at Mayo-Underwood School, at Kentucky Historical Society Digital Collections.



  • National Officers of the NHA from Kentucky -- Sources: The Growth and Development of New Homemakers of America by M. C. Moffitt, pp.101-106; and Chatter Box 
    1. Patricia Jane Small, Elkton, V. P. Sec. B, 1952 [previously served as Kentucky NHA reporter and historian]
    2. Barbara Lynem, Frankfort, V. P. Sec. B, 1953 (replaced P. Small)
    3. Emolyne Hines, Anchorage, Treasurer, 1954
    4. Lois Robertson, Louisville, Treasurer, 1955
    5. Mary Lois Williamson, State Adviser, 1954-55
    6. Lois Irene Robinson, Drakesboro, Secretary, 1955
    7. Emolyne Hines, Anchorage, Secretary, 1956
    8. Maxine Brown, V. P. Sec. B, 1956
    9. Sandra C. Wright, Lincoln Ridge, V.P. Sec. B, 1956-57 (replaced Maxine Brown)
    10. Naomi Thomas, Hopkinsville, Chatter Box Committee, 1958-59
    11. Emilie High, State Adviser, 1958-59
    12. Gladys Carroll, Lincoln Ridge, Secretary, 1961-62
    13. Talberta Owens, Lexington, Historian, 1963
    14. Barbara Ann Williams, Lincoln Ridge, Historian, 1963-64 (replaced T. Owens) [also served as member of the national executive council, Kentucky NHA secretary, and president of Kentucky NHA Association]

 

  • New Homemakers of America, Kentucky Chapters -- Source: Chatter Box
  1. Benham High School, Benham
  2. Bond-Washington High School, Elizabethtown
  3. Caverna Independent High School, Horse Cave
  4. Douglas High School, Lexington
  5. Drakesboro Community School, Drakesboro
  6. Dunbar High School, Somerset
  7. DuBois High School, Mt. Sterling
  8. Liberty High School, Hazard
  9. Lincoln Institute, Lincoln Ridge
  10. Mayo-Underwood High School, Frankfort
  11. Palmer-Dunbar High School, Wheelwright
  12. Riverview High School, Hickman
  13. Todd County High School, Todd County

 

  • Three photograhs within the Rufus Ballard Atwood Papers, ca.1929-1965: New Homemakers of America - Photographs -, [n.d], Box 27, folder 10. Back of photos: George A. Hall Studios, 214 W. 2nd Street, Frankfort. Items in Kentucky State University, Special Collections.
  1. Barbara Johnson, Western High School, Owensboro
  2. Bettie Ann Goodwin, Western High School, Owensboro
  3. Jamie Bell Brouaugh, Earlington
  4. Marie O. Drake, State President, Drakesboro

Subjects: Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Nurse, John Robert
Birth Year : 1899
Death Year : 1964
Born in Louisville, KY, Nurse was the physician-in-charge of infant welfare at Central Louisville Health Center from 1919-1935, a time when infant mortality was beginning to decline. Nurse was also medical director of the Mammoth Life Insurance Company in Louisville, beginning in 1946. He was the son of Robert L. and Pattie Nurse. In 1900 the family of four lived on Oak Street in Louisville, according to the U.S. Federal Census. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Medical Field, Health Care
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Par Makers Golf Club (Bowling Green, KY)
Start Year : 1964
In August of 1964, members of the Par Makers Golf Club were the first African Americans to hold an open golf tournament in Kentucky. It was a 36-hole open medley event held over a two day period in Bowling Green, KY. David Milliken was president of the club. Joe Owmby was secretary. The tournament was open to all races. There was also a special division for women. The cost was $10 for men and $7 for women. A dinner and dance were held after the first day of play at Elks Lodge No.1282. The golf tournament continues to be held as an annual event. A video of the 45th tournament awards ceremony is available online. For more information about the first tournament see "Club of local Negro golfers plans tourney," The Park City Daily News, 06/10/1964, p.13.  For more about current tournaments contact the Par Makers Golf Club in Bowling Green, Kentucky. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  See 45th Annual Par-Makers Golf Tournament video at Vimeo  
Subjects: Golf and Golfers
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Parks, Suzan-Lori
Birth Year : 1964
Suzan-Lori Parks was born in Fort Knox, KY, but lived in a number of states; her father was in the military. This playwright has received a number of awards, including the 2002 Pulitzer Prize for Drama for her play, Topdog/Underdog. She wrote the screenplay for Girl 6 and is author of a number of books, including Getting Mother's Body: a novel and Venus. Parks is a graduate of Mount Holyoke College in Massachusetts. For more see Women of Color, Women of Words; Biography Index, vols. 20-26; and Contemporary Black Biography. Profiles from the international black community, vol. 34.

See photo image of Suzan-Lori Parks at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Authors
Geographic Region: Fort Knox, Bullitt, Hardin, and Meade Counties, Kentucky

Payne, Clarence H., Sr.
Birth Year : 1892
Death Year : 1965
Dr. Clarence H. Payne was one of two African Americans appointed to the Chicago Municipal Tuberculosis Sanitarium in 1937. He served on the medical staff for more than 20 years. He had practiced medicine in Chicago for about 15 years and specialized in chest diseases. Prior to his appointment at the sanitarium, Dr. Payne had served in the U.S. Army and was among the first African Americans to attend the Negro Officer's Training School in Des Moines, Iowa. He was commissioned a First Lieutenant and served with the 365th Infantry during WWI. When WWII began, Dr. Payne and Dr. Roscoe Conklin were summoned to the White House by President Franklin D. Roosevelt for a conference on integrating the U.S. Armed Forces. Dr. Payne was twice elected the Illinois Surgeon General of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, he was the first African American elected to that post. Dr. Clarence H. Payne was born in Hopkinsville, KY, the son of Nora L. and Aaron H. Payne II. He attended school in Louisville, KY, and was a 1911 graduate of Fisk University and a 1921 graduate of Rush Medical College of the University of Chicago [now part of Rush University]. For more see "Clarence H. Payne" on page 7 of the Chicago Negro Almanac and Reference Book edited by E. R. Rather.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Tuberculosis: Care and Deaths
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Paynewhite, Brenda Phillips
Birth Year : 1964
Brenda Phillips Paynewhite served in Operation Desert Storm and Operation Enduring Freedom. Known then as Brenda Phillips, she was the first African American female Warrant Officer with the Kentucky Army National Guard. She completed the Officers Candidate School (OCS) in 2004, and was the only female that started and graduated with the Traditional Officer Candidate School class. There were two other females in the Accelerated Class who also graduated with the Traditional Class. Brenda Phillips took her Commission on September 1, 2005. Her highest rank was CW2 (Chief Warrant Officer II). In 2011, Brenda P. Paynewhite was a veteran and a volunteer with a nonprofit organization in Lexington, KY, called Veterans Outreach. The charitable organization provided assistance to veterans by covering some of the social services gaps. From 2008-2009, Brenda P. Paynewhite was a fundraiser, she was the volunteer coordinator and assistant program director through VISTA (Volunteers In Service To America) for the King Center in Frankfort, KY. Brenda P. Paynewhite was born in Georgia and resides in Frankfort, KY, where she is a notary signing agent for Kentucky. The name of her business is Bluegrass Signing Agent and Consulting LLC. The Chamber of Commerce in Frankfort did the ribbon cutting when the business opened in 2009 at 624 Shelby Street. The business is listed in OpenCorporates: The Open Database of the Corporate World. Brenda P. Paynewhite is also a Kentucky Colonel, and she is the author of the 2012 published poem “Please Don’t Utter a Word.”  For more information see “WO1 Brenda J. Phillips KYARNG” in GX [Guard Experience], v.2, issue 6, p.36 [online]; M. Davis, “Agency closes gaps in veteran’s social services – Success leads to second office in Kentucky,” Lexington Herald-Leader, 07/10/2011, city/region section, p.B1 [online version]; and B. J. S. Paynewhite, "Please Don't Utter a Word," Journal of Military Experience, v.2, issue 2, Article 51 [online].
Subjects: Businesses, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Poets
Geographic Region: Georgia / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Phillips, Joseph "Joker"
Birth Year : 1963
Joker Phillips became the first African American head football coach at the University of Kentucky, January 6, 2010. Phillips, a Kentucky native, was born in Franklin, where he became an outstanding football player at Franklin-Simpson High School. He was quarterback on two of the school's 3A championship teams. He next attended the University of Kentucky where he was a wide receiver on the football team, 1981-1984. Phillips caught 75 passes for 935 yards and nine touchdowns. He played two seasons in the NFL with the Washington Redskins, and one season with the Toronto Argonauts of the CFL. After his professional football career, Phillips was an assistant for several college football teams and returned to Kentucky in 2004 as the offensive coordinator under Rich Brooks. In 2010, Phillips was one of three African American head football coaches hired at Kentucky universities: Charlie Strong at the University of Louisville, and Willie Taggart at Western Kentucky University. November 4, 2012, after a three year record of 12-23, UK Athletic director Mitch Barnhart announced in an open letter (on football website) that Phillips would be dismissed at the end of the season. Phillips was hired by the University of Florida as the receivers coach and recruiting coordinator for the Gators' football team [source: C. Low, "Gators strengthen staff with Joker Phillips," 12/03/2012, online at ESPN] .  For more see B. W. Jones, "The Joker Phillips Timeline," Kentucky Kernel, 01/06/2010; "States hiring of Black coaches is very impressive," Daily News (Bowling Green, KY), 01/15/2010, Opinions section; C. Westerhaus, "Minority coaching ranks on the rise," The Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 01/13/2010, Opinion section, p.A15; M. Story, "For those who came before - UK football's Black pioneers appreciate Phillip's ascension," Lexington Herald-Leader, 01/10/2010, Sports section, p.C2; and the 2010 interview "Coach Joker Phillips," program #533 [available online] on Connections With Renee Shaw at Kentucky Educational Televisions (KET).
Subjects: Football
Geographic Region: Franklin, Simpson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Reed, Steven S.
Birth Year : 1962
Steven S. Reed was born in Munfordville, KY. In 1999, President Clinton named Reed the first African American U.S. Attorney in Kentucky, and he served the state's Western District for two years. He was also the first African American to chair the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees, from 2002-2004. For more see Steven Reed Takes Reins of UK Board of Trustees; and "Steve Reed nominated as federal prosecutor," Lexington Herald-Leader, 10/09/99.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Munfordville, Hart County, Kentucky

Rhodes, Todd Washington
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1965
Rhodes was a pianist and an arranger, he was born in Hopkinsville, KY, and grew up in Springfield, OH, where he studied at the Springfield School of Music. He also studied at the Erie Conservatory and graduated in 1921. He began his career with William McKinney's Synco Jazz Band. Rhodes moved on to Detroit where he formed his own band, he died in Flint. Todd's albums include Your Daddy's Dogin' Around and Blues for the Red Boy. Todd Rhodes was the son of Mattie Johnson and the stepson of John Johnson. For more see "Todd (Washington) Rhodes" in Oxford Music Online Database; and Todd Rhodes by Dave Penny, a Black Cat website. View the image and listen to Todd Rhodes - Blues for the Red Boy on YouTube.

Subjects: Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky / Flint Michigan

Richardson, Saunders, Jr. "Smoke" and Family
Birth Year : 1906
Death Year : 1963
One of the most recognized musicians in Lexington, KY, was Saunders "Smoke" Richardson. He was born in Covington, KY, the son of Julia Mae Thompson Richardson (1883-1934) and Saunders Richardson Sr. (1879-1935). Kentucky has been home to his family for several generations. His mother was from Covington, KY, and his father from Lexington. His parents lived on Price Street in Lexington in 1902; Saunders, Sr. was employed as a porter [source: p. 463, The Lexington City Directory and Rural Postal Delivery Routes for 1902-1903, Volume 1]. His brother Robert Richardson was born in Lexington, September 5, 1902 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 1149]. By 1904, the family lived in Covington, and Smoke's sister Elza Richardson was born at home on Washington Street, June 19, 1904 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Live Birth Registrars No. 30A]. Two years later, Saunders "Smoke" Richardson, Jr. was also born in Covington. By 1909, the Richardson family was living in Lexington at 323 Race Street, and Saunders, Sr. was a bartender [source: p. 516 in Lexington City Directory, 1909. volume v]. He was also an umpire for the colored baseball games in Lexington [source: "The Lexington Hustlers..." in  "Colored Notes," Leader, 06/01/1913, p. 7, col. 6; and "The Cumminsville, O., ..." in "Colored Notes," Leader, 06/01/1914, p. 5, col. 5]. In 1920, Saunders, Sr. owned a soft drink store, and his son Robert worked with him as a salesman while Elza and Saunders, Jr. attended school [source: U.S. Federal Census]. His wife Julia Richardson may have been part owner of the store: the store name is given as J. Richardson Company, groceries, on p. 648 in The Lexington City Directory, 1923. A couple years later, while Julia and Saunders, Sr. continued with the store, their son Robert became a tailor, daughter Elza a school teacher; and son Saunders, Jr. a musician [source: pp. 661 & 662 in R. L. Polk & Co.'s Lexington (Kentucky) Directory, 1925]. It was during this time that Saunders, Jr. left Kentucky. The following information comes from Saunda C. Richardson Coleman, daughter of Saunders Richardson, Jr., and Carol Mills Richardson. "Around his junior year of high school, Smoke Richardson quit school and started playing music professionally; he played the baritone saxophone. He got the nickname Smoke because he smoked cigarettes all the time. He went to New York City for a brief period and studied under musician Coleman Hawkins. He was back in Lexington by the 1930s. His specialty was big band music, and he was pretty much a local entertainer." In 1928, the Richardson family lived at 301 E. 4th Street, and Julia and Saunders Sr. worked at the store along with Robert, who was a clerk; Elza was still a school teacher, and Saunders, Jr. was still away in New York [source: p. 451 in Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory, Vol. XIV, 1928]. Saunders, Jr. was back in Kentucky by 1930; he is listed in the city directory as a musician on p. 491 (Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory, Vol. XV, 1930). He was not listed in the 1931-32 directory with his parents, who had a confectioner business at 146 W. Vine St.; his brother Robert was a cook at Drake Cafeteria and lived at 515 E. 2nd Street; no occupation was listed for Elza, who lived with her parents [source: p. 425 in Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory, Vol. XVI, 1931-32]. In the previous directory, Saunders, Jr. was listed as a musician and the husband of Louise [source: p. 418, Polk's Lexington City Directory, 1931]. There is no further mention of Louise in the Richardson household in subsequent directories. A few years later, Smoke's family suffered a loss when Julia M. Thompson Richardson died, December 19, 1934; she was the daughter of Robert Thompson from Fayette County and Julia Johnson Thompson from Kenton County [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 1110]. Four months later, Saunders Richardson, Sr. died on April 13, 1935; he was the son of Henry Richardson from Fayette County and Mary E. Smith Richardson from Montgomery County [sources: Obituary in "Colored Notes," Leader, 04/16/1935, p. 10, col. 6-7; and Kentucky Certificate of Death File No. 332]. Both Saunders Richardson, Sr. and Julia Thompson Richardson are buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington. It was during this time of loss that Saunders "Smoke" Richardson, Jr. and His Orchestra began playing for events at the University of Kentucky [source: "Final dance of semester will be held Saturday," The Kentucky Kernel, 08/09/1938, front page, column 4]. The University of Kentucky was a segregated school for white students, but African American bands were hired to entertain at social events. The group also played at Kentucky State College for Negroes (now Kentucky State University) and at high school events in Lexington and surrounding counties. In 1940, Smoke Richardson and his brother Robert were living with their sister Elza at the home place, 301 E. 4th Street; Elza was a maid, Robert was a waiter at a hotel, and Smoke was a musician [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The eldest sibling, Robert Richardson, died from tuberculosis on December 14, 1947 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 1149]. After his brother's death, Smoke Richardson continued to live at 301 E. 4th Street with his sister Elza [source: p. 552 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, vol. XXX, 1953]. He provided music for events such as the Zeta Tau Alpha annual houseparty at the University of Kentucky [source: p. 124 of the 1958 Kentuckian]. His music can be heard on an untitled 78 rpm album that has four songs on each side: a copy of the album is at the Isaac Scott Hathaway Museum on Georgetown Street in Lexington, KY. By 1960, Smoke Richardson and His Orchestra had been the house band at Circle H for several years {the establishment had been named the Circle Bar} [source: The Kentucky Kernel, 11/17/1958, p. 11]. Also by 1960, Smoke Richardson was the husband of Carol Mills Richardson; the couple lived at 301 E. 4th Street with Elza Richardson, who was the executive director of the Phyllis Wheatly {Colored} Branch of the Lexington YWCA [source: pp. 556 & 557 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY) City Directory, vol. XXXVI, 1960]. Elza Richardson had been a maid at the colored YWCA in 1942 [source: p. 331 in Polk's Lexington City Directory, 1942]; she was the assistant director in 1952 [source: p. 394 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, vol. XXVIX, 1952]; and she became the executive director in 1956 [source: p. 511 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, vol. XXXIII, 1956]. Elza Richardson had started at the YWCA as early as 1940 [source: p. 528 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, vol. XXII, 1940-41]. In 1945, she was a cook at the Lexington Signal Depot [source: p. 317 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, vol. XXV, 1945], and she was still there in 1947 [source: p. 465 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, vol. XXVI, 1947]. In 1958, she was an elevator operator at Kaufman Clothers [source: p. 441 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory, vol. XXVII, 1948-49]. Three years later, she was the assistant director at the Phyllis Wheatly {Colored} Branch of the Lexington YWCA. Elza O. Richardson died January 26, 1983 [source: Kentucky Death Index], she outlived her brother Smoke by 20 years: Saunders "Smoke" Richardson, Jr. died September 12, 1963 in Fayette County, KY [source: Kentucky Death Index]. One of his last performances was at the patients' picnic at Eastern State Hospital in June of 1962 [source: Kentucky's First Asylum by A. W. Deese, p. 313]. This entry was suggested by Saunda C. Richardson Coleman.

 

*Robert Thompson (maternal grandfather)

*Julia Johnson Thompson (maternal grandmother)

*Henry Richardson (paternal grandfather)

*Mary E. Smith Richardson (paternal grandmother)

*Saunders Richardson, Sr., 1879-1935 (father)

*Julia Mae Thompson Richardson, 1883-1934 (mother)

*Robert Richardson, 1902-1947 (son)

*Elza Richardson, 1904-1983 (daughter)

*Saunders "Smoke" Richardson, Jr., 1906-1963 (son)

*Saunda Carol Richardson Coleman (daughter of Saunders "Smoke" Richardson, Jr.)

 

  See April 1934 photo image of Smoke Richardson and His Orchestra, photo at Explore UK (Smoke Richardson, top row, center).
Subjects: Baseball, Businesses, Education and Educators, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association), Tailors
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Robinson, James H., Sr.
Birth Year : 1887
Death Year : 1963
James Hathaway Robinson, Sr. was born in Sharpsburg, KY, the son of Nathaniel and Martha Robinson. He moved to Cincinnati in 1915 to teach sixth grade at Douglass School. Robinson was a World War I veteran. He would become the Executive Secretary of the Negro Civic Welfare Association, which sponsored African American social work for the City of Cincinnati. He was also author of a number of publications, including the "Cincinnati Negro Survey" (later called "The Negro in Cincinnati"), published by the National Conference of Social Work in 1919; and "Social Agencies and Race Relations," a printed address in the Proceedings of the National Inter-Racial Conference (1925). Robinson attended Fisk University, earning his A.B. in 1911. He earned a second A.B. degree in 1912, an M.A. degree in 1914, and then pursued his Ph.D. in sociology, all at Yale University. He was the first African American to receive a fellowship at Yale University, the Larned Fellowship in 1913. Robinson also studied sociology and social service at the graduate level at Columbia University from 1914-1915. James H. Robinson, Sr. was a member of several organizations, including Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity, and he was the only African American member of the National Council of the American Association of Social Workers. He was the husband of Neola E. Woodson, who was a graduate of the University of Cincinnati and a member of the newly formed Zeta Chapter in 1920. She was a school teacher in Cincinnati and at Covington High School. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927; River Jordan, by J. W. Trotter, Jr.; Race and the city: work, community, and protest in Cincinnati, 1820-1970, by H. L. Taylor; and Cincinnati's Colored Citizens, by W. P. Dabney.

See photo image of James Hathaway Robinson, Sr. within the Digital Images Database at Yale University Manuscripts and Archives.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Welfare (Social Services) Organizations, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Social Workers, Sociologists & Social Scientists, Fraternal Organizations, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Sharpsburg, Bath County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Robinson, William Henry
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1962
Born in Louisville, KY, William H. Robinson was head of the Physics and Math Department at Tillotson College [now Houston-Tillotson University] and Bricks Junior College, in North Carolina, and assistant director of the Mechanical Arts Department at Prairie View College [now Prairie View A&M University] before becoming head of the Physics and Math Department at North Carolina College [now North Carolina Central University], beginning in 1938. Robinson received his Ph.D. in 1937. He was author of several articles, including "The Negro and the Field of Physics," Beta Kappa Chi Bulletin (1945). William H. Robinson died in Durham, NC, on March 27, 1962, he was the son of Amanda Obannon Robinson and Lee Robinson [source: North Carolina Death Certificate]. He was the husband of Fannie Robinson. William H. Robinson's funeral arrangements were handled by A. D. Porter and Sons in Louisville, KY, and he was buried in Eastern Cemetery. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration West, Physicists, Migration East, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / North Carolina / Texas

Spaulding, Jane Morrow
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1965
Jane M. Spaulding was born in Logan County, KY, and raised in Nashville, TN. Her ancestors founded Keysburg in Logan County. She was the first African American female assistant secretary in the cabinet of a U.S. President; she was later appointed by President Eisenhower as Assistant to the Secretary of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare. At that time the position made her the highest paid African American employed by the federal government. In 1953, she was named Woman of the Year by the National Council of Negro Women. Spaulding had served as chairman of finance for the organization. In 1951, she served as the U.S. representative to the Triennial Council of Women in Athens, Greece. She was a graduate of Fisk University. Jane Spaulding was the wife of Dr. Albert L. Spaulding, Sr. and mother of Dr. Albert L. Spaulding, Jr. For more see J. Eads, "In Washington," The Independent Record, 06/29/1953, p.4; In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., edited by M. M. Spradling; and Notable Black American Women. Book II, edited by J. C. Smith.
Subjects: Welfare (Social Services) Organizations, Migration North, Social Workers, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Keysburg, Logan County, Kentucky / Nashville, Tennessee / Washington, D.C.

Still, Valerie
Birth Year : 1961
Born the ninth of ten children, Valerie Still, the 6' 1" forward was the leading scorer and rebounder in the history of the University of Kentucky basketball with 2,763 points and 1,525 rebounds; she was second in the nation in both categories. Her jersey (no. 12) was retired in Memorial Coliseum in January 2003. She played professional basketball in Italy for 12 years and also acted and had a television show there. She was a WNBA player with the Washington Mystics. Still was born in Camden, NJ. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 11th -15th ed., and Who's Who of American Women, 21st ed.

See photo image of Valerie Still at UK Athletics Blog, Cat Scratches.
Subjects: Basketball, Television, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Camden, New Jersey / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Italy, Europe

Strauss, Mattye O.
Birth Year : 1886
Death Year : 1962
Strauss was born in Paducah, KY. She was a schoolteacher for 14 years before becoming assistant principal of Lincoln High School in Paducah, then served as principal of Garfield School beginning in 1928. While at Garfield she organized a number of clubs. She sought funding to provide needy children with free lunches; an additional two snacks per day were given to underweight children. Strauss was awarded the Kentucky State Life Certificate for her outstanding work. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1941-1944.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Taylor, James T. "Big Jim" [Harrods Creek, Kentucky]
Birth Year : 1885
Death Year : 1965
Taylor developed the Harrods Creek community in Jefferson County, KY. He purchased the land in 1919 and sold lots to African Americans. The Jacob School was built in 1916, named for Jefferson Jacob, a former slave. Students came from Harrods Creek and nearby African American communities such as The Neck and Happy Hollow, both of which no longer exist. The school and the community are recognized with a Kentucky Historical Marker [#2038]. James Taylor, raised by his grandmother, grew up to become a farmer, a school bus driver, a road and bridge builder, and president of the James T. Taylor Real Estate Co. Wilson Lovett was vice president of the company, Joseph Ray, Sr. secretary, and Abram L. Simpson manager. For more see B. Pike, “Looking back: subdivision may be named after early developer,” Courier-Journal, 08/28/2002, Neighborhoods section, p. 1N; and D. R. Smith, “Cover Story: 40059,” The Lane Report, September 2006.
Subjects: Businesses, Communities, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Harrods Creek, Jefferson County, Kentucky / The Neck and Happy Hollow, Jefferson County, Kentucky [no longer exist]

Taylor, Kimberly Hayes
Birth Year : 1962
Kimberly Hayes Taylor, born in Louisville, KY, is the daughter of Loraine S. and James E. Hayes. She is a 1984 communications graduate of Morehead State University and was the health and features writer with the Detroit News. In 1991 she received the Top Well Done Award for the series "Street Under Siege." In addition to being a journalist, Taylor is also a professional speaker and author of Black Civil Rights Champions and Black Abolitionists and Freedom Fighters. Her books and articles have been referenced in teacher guides as well as books on history and immigration. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1992-2006; and Kimberly Hayes Taylor, a USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism website.


Subjects: Authors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Children's Books and Music
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Detroit, Michigan

Turpin, William Henderson "Ben"
Birth Year : 1897
Death Year : 1962
Turpin, also known as Mr. Ben, was a police officer and a baseball fanatic who lived in Detroit, MI. According to author Richard Bak, Turpin came from Kentucky to Detroit in 1925, and he had been a shoe shine boy. Turpin had lived in Burgin, KY, and was a tanner for J. T. Huguley in Danville, KY, according to his WWI draft registration card. He was a porter at Union Station before being appointed a Detroit policeman in 1927. Turpin was a large man who kept the peace in the Black Bottom area with physical force and his two revolvers. Turpin was also a serious baseball fan, and in the 1930s he organized a team called Black Bottom under Turpin's Athletic Club. Turpin sometimes served as the team's catcher with a revolver strapped to each side of his body. William Henderson Turpin was the husband of Bessie Turpin [they are mistakenly listed as white in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census]. For more see Turkey Stearnes and the Detroit Stars, by R. Bak; In Black and White, Supplement, 3rd ed., by M. M. Spradling; "Tough Mr. Ben won respect based on fear", in Blacks in Detroit: a reprint of articles from the Detroit Free Press by S. McGehee and S. Watson, pp.72-73.
Subjects: Baseball, Migration North, Corrections and Police, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Burgin, Mercer County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Detroit, Michigan

Van Leer, Darryl
Birth Year : 1961
Darryl Van Leer is an actor, vocalist, writer, and photographer. He was born in Madisonville, KY, and is a graduate of Western Kentucky University. He began his career on BET's "Bobby Jones Gospel Show." Van Leer has appeared in First Time, a Nickelodeon movie, and HBO's The Second Civil War and Up Against the Wall. He was nominated for a 1996 NAACP Theatre Award and was recognized by the National Association of Campus Activities. His one-man plays, which he wrote and produced, represent African Americans such as Malcolm X, Nat Turner, and Marcus Garvey. His more recent work is Rubycat Lawson’s Roadhouse Lounge. There are several videos of Van Leer's performances on YouTube. Darryl Van Leer is also a public speaker, a musician, and he has done stand-up comedy. For more see the Darryl Van Leer website.

See Darryl Van Leer in the YouTube video Roadhouse Lounge.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Authors, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Photographers, Photographs, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Madisonville, Hopkins County, Kentucky

Walker, Frank X
Birth Year : 1961
Frank X Walker was born in Danville, KY. He is a visual artist, poet, author, educator, and motivator. Walker is a founding member of the Affrilachian Poets, editor of Eclipsing a Nappy New Millennium, and author of Affrilachia and Buffalo Dance: the Journey of York. He has given over 250 poetry readings, including readings at the Verbal Arts Centre in Derry, Northern Ireland, and in Santiago, Cuba. He has received many awards, appeared on television and been heard on the radio; he was the first writer from Kentucky to be featured on NPR's This I Believe. Walker was director of the Kentucky Governor's School for the ARTS, 1998-2004, leaving that position to become an English professor at Eastern Kentucky University. He has also been a visiting professor at Transylvania University. His teaching experience includes writing workshops at various locations and writing classes at the university level, including the University of Louisville and the University of Minnesota. Walker is a graduate of the University of Kentucky and Spalding University, and he received an honorary Doctorate of Humanities from the University of Kentucky and an honorary Doctor of Letters from Transylvania University. In 2010, Frank X. Walker joined the University of Kentucky Department of English, and in 2011 he was named director of both the African American Studies & Research and the Africana Studies Programs at UK. In 2013, Frank X Walker was named Kentucky's poet laureate [source: M. Meehan,"Lexington writer Frank X Walker named Kentucky poet laureate," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/15/2013, p.A3]. At the age of 51, he is the youngest to be named the state's poet laureate and he is also the first African American to receive the honor. For more see Frank X. Walker website; Affrilachian Poets; and The Columbia Granger's Index to African-American Poetry, by N. Frankovich and D. Larzelere.


  See photo images of Frank X Walker by Rachel Eliza Griffiths at the Frank X Walker website.

  View Kentucky Muse: (#503) Frank X Walker "I Dedicate This Ride" at KET Video (Kentucky Educational Television).

Access Interview Read about the Frank X Walker oral history interviews available in the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records are in the SPOKE Database.

 

   View video at Vimeo: "Accpetance Speech: The Induction of Frank X Walker, Kentucky Poet Laureate, 2013-2014 - April 24, 2013, Capitol Rotunda, Frankfort, Kentucky." Video footage courtesy of the Kentucky Arts Council. Edited by Nyoka Hawkins for Old Cove Press.

 

 
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Authors, Education and Educators, Poets
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Wells, Johnny
Birth Year : 1905
Death Year : 1965
Wells, born in Kentucky, was a drummer, singer, comedian, and dancer at the Apex Club in Chicago. Later, during the 1920s and 1930s, he played with Jimmie Noone's Band in Chicago, replacing drummer Olie Powers. Wells played on several of the band's recordings. He also played with a number of other bands before leaving Chicago for New York, where he performed and recorded with Joe Sullivan and his Cafe Society Orchestra. For more see Johnny Wells in Oxford Music Online (database); and Joe Sullivan and his Cafe Society Orchestra, a redhotjazz.com website.
Subjects: Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / New York

Whitley, Kimberly
Birth Year : 1965
Whitley is the second African American female to become a warden in Kentucky. (The first was Cookie Crews.) Whitley was born in Danville, KY, the daughter of Roland and Frances Whitley. She is a graduate of Danville High School and Kentucky State University, where she earned a B.A. in corrections education (1987) and a masters degree in public administration with a concentration in personnel management (1990). Whitley also holds a certificate in Management Fundamentals as a graduate of the Governor's Minority Management Training Program (Patton administration). She has been a government employee since 1986, when she was a student employee via the Kentucky State University Cooperative Extension Program with the Department of Corrections. In 1990, Whitley was hired full-time as a classification and treatment officer at Northpoint Training Center in Burgin, KY. She has also been employed with the Kentucky Department of Corrections in the Lexington Corrections Division of Probation and Parole, and she was a Court Designated Worker with the Division of Youth Services. In 1995 she left corrections for a position with the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives, but after two years returned to the Department of Corrections. She was promoted to Deputy Warden II at the Frankfort Career Development Center in 2002; Deputy Warden III at the Blackburn Correctional Complex in Lexington in 2004; and transferred in 2005 to Northpoint Training Center. In 2006, Whitley was promoted to Warden II at the Frankfort Career and Development Center. This entry was submitted by Roland Whitley with additional information provided by his daughter, Kimberly Whitley.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Burgin, Mercer County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Wilkinson, Crystal
Birth Year : 1962
Crystal Wilkinson was born in Ohio and reared in Indian Creek, KY. She chaired the Creative Writing Department for the Kentucky Governor's School for the Arts, taught creative writing at the University of Kentucky, served as a writer-in-residence at Eastern Kentucky University, and was a member of the faculty of Spalding University's MFA Program. In 2007, she was a writer in residence at Morehead State University. Wilkinson is author of Blackberries, Blackberries; Water Street; and a host of works in anthologies and serial publications. Her works have received a number of awards and recognitions, including the 2002 Chaffin Award for Appalachian Literature. Crystal Wilkinson and her husband are owners of the Wild Fig Book Store in Lexington, KY. For more see Crystal Wilkinson, Poet, on Connections with Renee Shaw, video #422 [available online]. 

  See photo image of Crystal Wilkinson and additional information at the Baggot Asher Bode blog site.

Access Interview Read about the Crystal Wilkinson oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records are in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Authors, Businesses, Education and Educators, Poets
Geographic Region: Ohio / Indian Creek, Whitley County, Kentucky

Wilson, James Hembray, Sr. (musician/band director)
Birth Year : 1880
Death Year : 1961
Born in Nicholasville, KY, James Hembray Wilson was a noted band director and musician, he played the cornet. He was a faculty member at Alabama A&M College [now Alabama A & M University] 1903-1904, he took over the school band, succeeding W. C. Handy, the former band director. Wilson left the school to tour with Billy Kersands and the Georgia Minstrels. Wilson returned to the school in 1907 to remain there until his retirement in 1951. He had been a musician in Jacob Litt's 'In Old Kentucky' Company in 1896, bandmaster in Al Martin's Uncle Tom's Cabin from 1897-1899, cornetist in Mahara's Minstrels in 1899, and worked with many other groups. He became the first African American treasurer at Alabama A&M in 1947 and served as the first African American postmaster at the school from 1919-1942. The James Hembray Wilson Building, located on the Alabama A&M campus, houses the James Hembray Wilson State Black Archives Research Center and Museum. James Hembray Wilson was the son of Hester and Jacob Wilson, and the husband of Eveline Wilson. He graduated from high school in Cincinnati, OH, and from Moody Bible Institute in Chicago. He died in Normal, Alabama on October 2, 1961 [source: Alabama, Deaths and Burials Index]. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; "New Acquisitions" on p.3 in the Newsletter of the Yale University Collection of Musical Instruments, Fall 2006, no.29 [online .pdf]; and Alabama A&M Wilson Building under the headline "Why is it named that" by D. Nilsson on p.6 in Pen & Brush, February 2003, vol.43, issue 4 (newsletter of the Huntsville/North Alabama Chapter of the Society for Technical Communication and others).
Subjects: Education and Educators, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Postal Service, Migration South, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Nicholasville, Jessamine County, Kentucky / Huntsville and Normal, Alabama

Young, Laura R.
Birth Year : 1896
Death Year : 1962
Laura Ray Young was born in Lebanon, KY, the daughter of Richard and Ella Ray. She was a teacher at Lincoln Institute, the first African American Post Master in Kentucky and the second one in the U.S. She was the wife of Whitney M. Young, Sr and the mother of Eleanor Young, Arnita Young Boswell, and Whitney Young, Jr. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; and In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., edited by M. M. Spradling.
Subjects: Mothers, Postal Service
Geographic Region: Lebanon, Marion County, Kentucky

 

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