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Adair County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Adair County, named for General John Adair, is located near the Tennessee border in south-central Kentucky. The county was developed in 1801 from a portion of Green County, KY. General John Adair was born in South Carolina and came to Kentucky in 1786. He was a U.S. Senator in 1805, served as a Kentucky Legislator, and was the Governor of Kentucky 1820-1824. He was a U.S. Representative 1831-1833. Once Adair County was established, there were 800 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census. In 1830, there was one African American slave owner in the county. There were 8,000 people counted in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from the 1850-1870 census records.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 486 slave owners
  • 1,886 Black slaves
  • 239 Mulatto slaves
  • 108 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulattoes
With the country moving closer to the beginning of the Civil War, there were still about 8,000 people in Adair County, according to the 1860 U.S. Federal Census (minus the slaves). The number of slaves and slave owners had decreased, as had the number of free Blacks. The number of persons listed as Mulatto had increased.

1860 Slave Schedule
  • 341 slave owners
  • 1,342 Black slaves
  • 260 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 40 free Mulattoes
Five years after the Civil War and the freeing of Kentucky slaves with the ratification of the 13th Amendment, the numbers had not drastically changed when the 1870 U.S. Federal Census was completed:
  • 1,783 Blacks (including Parker Hiram Jackman)
  • 32 Mulattoes
  • About 35 U.S. Colored Troops of the Civil War had reported that they were born in Adair County, KY.
For more see "Adair County" and "John Adair" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; Historical Sketches of Kentucky, by L. Collins [available at Google Books]; and Notes on Adair County, Kentucky, by J. A. Steele and M. C. Watson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Adair County, Kentucky

Adams, John Quincy "J.Q."
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1922
John Quincy Adams was born in Louisville, KY. In 1879, Adams established the Bulletin as a weekly newspaper in Louisville. He served as president of the American Press Association (the African American press organization). In 1886, he left Louisville to join the staff of the Western Appeal in St. Paul, Minnesota, assuming ownership of the newspaper within a few months. Adam's career also included his position as Engrossing Clerk of the Arkansas Senate. He was also a school teacher in both Kentucky and Arkansas. He was a civil rights activist and served as an officer in the National Afro-American Council. Adams was a graduate of Oberlin College. He was a charter member of the Gopher Lodge No.105, Improved Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World. He was the son of Henry Adams and Margaret P. Corbin Adams. J. Q. Adams died September 3, 1922, after being struck by an automobile while waiting to board a street car. He was the husband of Ella B. Smith, and they had four children. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, by R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston; D. V. Taylor, "John Quincy Adams: St. Paul editor and Black leader," Minnesota History, vol.43, issue 8 (Winter, 1973), pp.282-296; and for a history of J. Q. Adams career see, "Crowds throng to Adam's rites fill Pilgrim Baptist Church to capacity Elks conduct services," The Appeal, 09/16/1922, p.1.

See photo image and additional information on John Quincy Adams at African American Registry website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Saint Paul, Minnesota / Arkansas

African American Schools in Boyle County, KY
Start Year : 1837
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least four colored schools in Boyle County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. According to William F. Russell's thesis, The History of Education of Boyle County, pp. 217-221, Willis Russell taught the first colored school in Danville, located in a frame house on Green Street (around 1837); a second school on Green Street was taught by Gib Doram. There were also schools taught at the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Baptist Churches. There was also a private school that cost $2.00 per month. The colored schools in Boyle County were counted in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In 1881, John W. Bate came to Danville and took over teaching at what had been the Danville Freedmen School [source: Russell thesis, pp. 218 & 228]. The school house was described as a "barn-like frame structure" that was replaced by a brick school building in 1912. The school was under the county school system until 1892 when it was placed under the newly established city school system; all other colored schools remained under the county system. During the 1920s, the Danville Colored School had over 400 students in grades 1-12 taught by 12 teachers, four of whom taught the high school classes [source: Russell thesis, pp. 219-221]. High school students were bused to the school from Lancaster and Stanford, KY. In the county school system, from 1880-1881, there were seven colored schools reported by the county commissioner of schools [source: Russell thesis, pp. 208-210, & 227]. Four of the teachers were Martha Tadlock, Robert Turner, Lizzie Green, and James Hughes [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. The schools had one room with one teacher. More county schools opened after 1881 and there were 12 in 1895, with 11 schools taught for five months and 1 school taught for more than five months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.236-239]. One school was held in a log building and the others were held in frame buildings. There were 15 teachers 1895-96, and 16 teachers 1896-97. The highest average attendance for the two year period was 633 sudents in 1895. In 1900, the highest average attendance for all schools in Boyle County was 1,009 students [source: Russell thesis]. By 1925, the high school had been renamed Bate High School, it was a Class 1 school, and J. W. Bate was the principal and one of the four high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.39 & 69]. By 1928 many of the elementary schools had been discontinued and there were only six in the county and one in Danville. Another school that had been established in 1885, for colored deaf children, was within the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb, located in Danville [see NKAA entry Early Schools for Negro Deaf and Blind Children]. The colored school for the deaf was actually a department, it opened on February 2, 1885, with eight pupils, Morris T. Long as teacher and supervisor, and his wife, Nannie R. Long was the matron [source: Russell thesis, pp. 149-155]. In 1929, the instructors were Mrs. Mary Fosdick and A. D. Martin. Between 1885 and 1929, there were never more than 16 students in the *colored department. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Boyle County were Margaret Andrews, Lucill Bennifield, Lillian Caldwill, Sophia Craig, Lala M. Dele, Gerogia Dannaher, Malinda Doneghy, Horase Epperson, John Fisher, Florence Ingram, Maggie E. Jones, Susie Lich, Ella M. Marshall, Eliza Mitchell, Elizabeth Parr, Jesse Raach, Sanford Raach, Frances Richardson, Zula Sanders, Gertrude Sledd, Sara Sutka, and Earnest Wofford [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421, were Danville High School and The Kentucky School for the Deaf. The Danville schools were fully integrated in 1964.

  • Danville Freedmen School
  • Bate School
  • Danville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Parksville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Shelby City Freedmen School
  • Danville School #1 on Green Street (Willis Russell)
  • Danville School #2 on Green Street
  • Methodist Church School
  • Presbyterian Church School
  • Baptist Church School
  • Stony Point School
  • Wilsonville School
  • Perryville School
  • Zion Hill School
  • Atoka School
  • Junction City School
  • Colored Department of the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb

*See the Biennial Reports of the Kentucky Institute for Deaf Mutes, 1887-1903 for more information about the Colored Department.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Deaf and Hearing Impaired, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Christian County, KY
Start Year : 1845
End Year : 1952
Between 1845 and 1856, 40 school districts were sketched in Christian County, KY, by Enoch A. Brown, the County School Commissioner (who was white), according to Claybron W. Merriweather's, "Hopkinsville Colored Schools," pp. 293-295 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham. After the Civil War, the number of districts were increased from 40 to 84 by G. A. Champlin, the new commissioner. Between 1866-1870, there was a Freedmen School in Hopkinsville [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. By 1881 there were 41 colored school districts with 23 schools, most of which were log buildings in poor condition. The Booker T. Washington Colored School was located on 2nd Street in Hopkinsville. In 1884, G. A. Champlin wrote "The Colored Schools," an essay that appeared on p. 252 in Counties of Christian and Trigg, Kentucky. According to Champlin, the first colored common schools in 1875 were located within five school districts, and there were 500 school-age children counted in the colored school census. The schools were a result of the Kentucky Colored School Law, which provided the bare minimum of school funding from taxes and fines collected from colored people. Similar information about the colored schools during the year 1876 was included in Charles J. Petrie's thesis, The History of Education in Christian County, pp.93-98. According to Petrie, the County Commissioner's report showed that there were only two teachers in the colored schools, and prior to 1881, most of the colored schools were not free and the best schools were located in Hopkinsville. The Booker T. Washington School was constructed in 1882, a two story frame structure, and in 1930 a third story was added [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County, Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, p. 11]. By 1889, there were 55 teachers at the colored schools, the male teachers earned an average of $44.76 and the female teachers earned an average of $35.70 [Petrie, p.96]. The leaders of the Christian County Colored Teachers Association in 1891 were Ephraim Poston, president; T. C. Woosley, vice president; Miss Augusta Brewer, secretary; T. S. Gaines, assistant secretary; and P. A. Hamby, treasurer [Petrie, p. 98]. In 1899 there were 54 colored school districts [source: Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/23/1899, p. 5], one of which was Crofton Colored School with teacher George Robinson [source: "Crime of Cain," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/31/1899, p. 1]. In 1890, A. H. Payne was principal of the Colored school in Hopkinsville and there were six teachers [Petrie, pp.135]. The school was considered the best colored school in the county, it operated within the common school system with a nine month term and with a Colored school board. In 1908, the school was placed under the white school board and supported by Negro property taxes [Petrie, p.122]. The school held grades 1-8 in a two-story building on E. Second Street. In 1912, the school was moved back under the county system and two years of high school were added. The trustees were Edward M. Glass, Frank Boyd, and Ned Turner. Julien Colored School was also a county school [source: Dr. Stanley Dean," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 04/17/1906, p. 8]. Teacher Nina Anglin was removed from the Lafayette Colored School in 1906, and she filed suit against the superintendent and the trustees [source: "Circuit court," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 10/25/1906, p. 1]. The Clarksville Colored School was one of three schools to receive an improved chemical fire extinguisher in 1910 [source: "Here and there," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/30/1910, p. 4]. The number of school districts had increased from 52 in 1890 to 54 in 1900, then to 75 in 1910 [Petrie, p. 132]. There was an average attendance of 2,034 students in 1909 [Petrie, p. 134]. Attucks High School was built in 1916 at First and Vine Streets and the school had the first four-year high school for Negroes in Hopkinsville [Petrie, p. 183]. The early principals were L. A. Posey, J. W. Bell, P. Moore, and B. E. Perkins [Kentucky Education Collection (KEC), Series 1, pp. 11-12]. The county school system contracted with the city school board for students to attend Attucks High School [KEC, Series 1, p. 9]. In 1939, the Attucks High School had 227 students, 11 teachers, and 35 students graduated [Petrie, p. 188]. The Male & Female College in Hopkinsville, KY, opened in 1883 [now Hopkinsville College of the Bible]. In 1896 there were 70 colored teachers in the county schools [source: "Colored institute this week," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/18/1896, p. 1]. During the 1911 election of colored trustees, Peter Postell and Lucian Dade were re-elected, and George Leavell became the newly elected trustee [source: "The Colored election," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 05/09/1911, p. 8]. In 1909, a colored graded school and high school were opened in Pembroke, and the school served as a training school for teachers up to 1924 [Petrie, p. 122]. In 1914, the legality of the staff election for the Pembroke Colored School was called into question, and the finding was in favor of the school [source: 2nd paragraph of "Railroad case begun," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/06/1914, p. 1]. In 1924, the Pembroke School was moved back to the county administration and the school's two-year high school course continued until 1929. The high school was re-established in 1936 and operated under the independent graded school system with one or two teachers and 20-25 students. At the end of 1911, the colored school house near Sinking Fork was burned by an incendiary [source: "Suspicious fire," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/07/1911, p. 8]. In 1912, Ephraim Poston had almost completed the school census of colored children and found that there were 1,396 students, which was 188 more students than had been incorrectly counted the previous year, all of which meant that the schools would receive about $800 more from the state [sources: "Colored school census," 05/11/1912, p. 5, and "1411 Colored children," 05/18/1912, p. 4, both articles in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian]. It was expressed in Petrie's thesis that the school census for colored children may have been "padded" [p.132]. The Zion Colored School was destroyed by fire in 1916, the fire started by a stranger in town who went by the name of Katherine Denton. She was badly burned and later died from her injuries [source: "Woman died Thursday," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/02/1916, p. 1]. In 1928, there were five male teachers and 51 female teachers in the colored schools, and in 1937, the average attendance was 1,055 students [Petrie, pp. 178 & 180]. The names of other colored schools in Christian County, KY, can be found on pp. 292-293 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham, who was also editor of the Hopkinsville Kentuckian newspaper. There is also a list of the schools and the names of the head teacher/principal during the 1938-39 school term, all on p.23 of Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County. In 1940, there were at least 90 Negro teachers in the schools of Christian County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The names of the schools, including those that held classes in churches, are listed below. A later school, the Fort Campbell Dependent School, was the first school in Christian County to be listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory (1952-53, p.418) as having both white and colored students, though the term "integrated" was not used. The second school to be listed with students of both races was in the 1954-55 directory, the SS. Peter and Paul School, a parochial school in Hopkinsville [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1954-55, p.563]. Both schools are listed as integrated in the 1956-57 directory. All of the schools in Christian County are listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, pp. 101-102.

  • Attucks High School
  • Banneker School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 848]
  • Barkers Mill School
  • Beech Grove School
  • Booker T. Washington School
  • Blue Springs School [photo image, p. 12, Rosenwald Schools]
  • Brent Shop School
  • Canton Heights School
  • Carver School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p. 848]
  • Caskey School
  • Cedar Bluff School
  • Center Point School
  • Chopped Hickory School
  • Clarksville School
  • Crofton School
  • Dyers Chapel School
  • Durretts Avenue School
  • Elmo School
  • Edgefield School
  • Fairview School
  • Forks of Road School
  • Foston's Chapel School
  • Gainesville School
  • Garrettsburg School
  • Gee School
  • Gracey School
  • Hensleytown School
  • Herndon School
  • Hopkinsville Freedmen School
  • Hopkinsville School
  • Julien School
  • Kelly School
  • Kentucky Trade Institute Automotive Mechanics for Colored Men [source: "Announcing the opening of the Kentucky Trade...," Kentucky New Era, 08/24/1949, p. 10]
  • Lafayette School
  • Male & Female College
  • Massies Chapel School
  • Moonlight School
  • McClain's Chapel School
  • Mt. Herman School
  • Mt. Vernon School
  • New Zion School
  • Oak Grove School
  • Pee Dee School
  • Pleasant Green School
  • Pleasant Grove School
  • Pleasant Hill School
  • Pembroke School
  • Reeves Chapel School
  • Salem School
  • Sinking Fork School
  • Spring Hill School
  • Walnut Grove School
  • West Union School
  • White Oak Grove School
  • Zion Hope School

 

See the image of Attucks High School on postcard at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center.

 
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Monroe County, KY
Start Year : 1846
End Year : 1963
In 1846, the Mt. Vernon Church was built in Gamaliel, KY, and the building also served as a school [source: Black Heritage Sites by N. C. Curtis, pp.99-100]. The church and school were established near Freetown, and the dual purpose log structure was built by George Pipkin, Albert Howard, and Peter West. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Tompkinsville, KY, supported by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; however, the school was burned down [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1886, there were five colored schools in Monroe County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 9 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.591-594]. Four of the 9 school houses were made of logs, and 5 were frame structures, and during the 1896-97 school term another colored district was added, but classes were not held because there was not a school house or a teacher. During the 1895 school year, there were 80 students attending school regularly, and the following year there was an average of 133 students each school day. Each of the 9 schools had one teacher. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School in Monroe County [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1926, the teachers at the Gamaliel Colored School were Mrs. Elma and Mr. Roscoe W. Pipkin [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.54], classes were still held in the Mt. Vernon Church [source: Curtis, p.100]. The African American children of Monroe County attended high school in Hickory Ridge [source: Curtis, p.100]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Monroe County were Kate Barkesdale, Vera Edwards, Roscoe W. Pipkin, Elma Pipkin, and Winfred Pipkin [source: U.S. Federal Census]. School integration started during the 1963-64 school term at the following schools: Fountain Run, Gamaliel Elementary and High School, and Tompkinsville High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.134].

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Tompkinsville Freedmen School
  • Gamaliel School
  • Fountain Run School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Moonlight School
  • Roy's Chapel School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22, File: Monroe County, Title: WPA 3, Monroe Co. - Education (Lenneth Jones-643-4), List of Schools, p.4, July 16, 1939]
  • Forkton School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Tooley's Ridge School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Bethlehem School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]

  See photo image of the Mt. Vernon Church and School at Gamaliel, at the flickr site by The Freedman.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Monroe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Morgan County, KY
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1907
It is not known when the first colored schools opened in Morgan County, KY, but there were 7 free Blacks attending school in Morgan County in 1850, according to author M. B. Lucas in his book A History of Blacks in Kentucky, 2003, p.145. In 1906, there were at least five Negro teachers who received teaching certificates in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907, p. 421]. During the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance at the one colored school was 11 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, pp. 407 & 345], and there was one teacher in the school, it was the teacher's first year teaching in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p.427]. Very little data about the colored school, teachers, and students in Morgan County were published in the biennial reports from the Kentucky Superintendent's Office. The colored school is not mentioned in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926 or any of the subsequent volumes. During the 1961-1962 school term, the Salem Schools were the first in Morgan County to integrate [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 882].

  • Colored School (1850)
  • Colored School (1906)
  • Salem School

*This entry was completed with assistance from Morgan County, KY, historian Ron Gevedon.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Morgan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Shelby County, KY
Start Year : 1849
End Year : 1956
As early as 1849, a colored school was attempted in Shelbyville, KY; Rev. C. W. Robinson was flogged in the school room by the Shelby County chief patrol officer for Robinson's daring to have a Sunday School for free Negroes and for slaves who were given permission to attend the school. Another early colored school in Shelbyville, was the American Missionary Association School, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedman Schools]. The teacher at the school was assaulted by the county judge and run out of town. Still, there were colored schools established in Shelby County, KY.  In 1880 there were four teachers: Sarah Clark in Shelbyville; Lucy Gwinn in Christianburg; P. Charles Jones in Shelbyville; Lewis Lawson in Shelbyville; and Ada Mumford in Shelbyville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1886, there were 13 colored school districts with 13 colored schools, and two of the schools were open for eight months [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, June 1886 and June 1887, pp.64, 76, & 92-93]. Most of the schools were taught in churches. A new school, Colored Common School No.14, in Drewsville was built on land William M. Blackwell sold to the school trustees in 1887 [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.63]. The number of colored schools continued to increase and by 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Shelby County, KY [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.677-680]. There was an average attendance of 708 students, 1895-96, and 1,020 students, 1896-97. There were 25 teachers employed in the schools, and their average monthly salaries were $42.12, 1895-96, and $28.35, 1896-97. In 1898, there were 20 colored schools in Shelby County [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.280].  From 1907-1919, Daisy Morgan Saffell was the school principal at the colored school in Shelbyville, and her husband George W. Saffell Jr. was a teacher at the school [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.170].  In 1912, Lincoln Institute opened in Lincoln Ridge, KY. The school came about after Berea College became segregated by court order. In 1925, J. W. Roberts was the superintendent for the colored city schools; Shelbyville was one of eight city school systems in Kentucky to have a colored school superintendent [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. J. W. Roberts was also the principal of the Shelbyville Colored High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. It was a 3rd class high school with 2 teachers and 26 students. There were 9 elementary schools in the county, and 6 teachers in Shelbyville [pp.68-69]. In 1936, the Shelbyville School System devised a contract for providing high school education to colored students; transportation was provided to Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. The arrangements were made between the schools of Shelbyville, Shelby County, Henry County, and Eminence. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Wil Allen in Shelbyville; Beatrice Boyd in Shelbyville; Marie Brown in Shelbyville; Joseph and Kathleen Carroll in Simpsonville; Katherine Freeman in Simpsonville; Mary Greenfield in Simpsonville; Lamont Lawson in Simpsonville; Lula McCampbell in Simpsonville; Herbert McCoy in Simpsonville; Martha Nuckols in Simpsonville; A. G. Pinbury in Simpsonville; Jewel J. Rabb in Shelbyville, wife of Dr. Maurice F. Rabb, Sr.; James Ray in Simpsonville; Helen Shouse in Simpsonville; James Taylor in Simpsonville; and Whitney Young, Sr. in Simpsonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1945, fire destroyed the Shelbyville Colored School and a new school was built at the corner of 11th and High Streets in Martinsville [source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. Shelbyville Elementary School was the first to be noted as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.447.    

  • Colored Schools (20)
  • Shelbyville Sunday School
  • American Missionary Association School (supported by the Bureau)
  • Shelbyville School
  • Christianburg School
  • School No.14 in Drewsville
  • Simpsonville School
  • Chestnut Grove School
  • Stringtown School
  • Olive Branch School
  • Todds Point School
  • Southville School
  • Scotts Station School
  • Buck Creek School
  • Harrisonville School
  • Benson School
  • Clarks Station School
  • Logans Station School
  • Evansville School
  • Bagdad School
  • Clayvillage School
  • Rockbridge School
  • Clear Creek School
  • Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville
  • Lincoln Model School (closed in 1940 - source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, pp.281-282)
  • Montclair School (replaced Lincoln Model School)
  • High Street School
  • Mulberry School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.890]
  • Waddy School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Trimble County, KY
Start Year : 1833
End Year : 1925
In 1833, there was a Miss Davis in Trimble County, KY, who opened a school for slaves, she gave them books and was teaching them to read, which caused a stir and the school was shut down [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas, pp.141-142]. In 1874, there was a colored school in Trimble County with Maria F. Carter as the teacher. There were three colored school districts in 1895, each with one school, and one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, p.703-706 ]. The average attendance was 55 students 1895-96, and 28 students 1896-97. During the 1899-1900 school term, the average salary for the teachers was $24.91 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.15]. The following school year, the average salary was $24.10. During the 1901-02 school term, the average attendance at the colored school was 24 and the school teacher's average monthly wages were $24.50; and the following school term the average attendance was 25 and the teacher's average monthly wages were $20.79 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903, pp.329 & 355]. The colored school in Trimble County was still in operation during the 1912-1913 school term when there was an enrollment of 5 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, pp.112 & 122]. By 1925, there was no longer a colored school in Trimble County, KY, though the school census listed 7 colored school-age children in the county [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. There is no mention as to where the children attended school or if they attended school. In 1930, there were no children of school age listed for Trimble County in the U.S. Federal Census. The Milton Elementary School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

  • Miss Davis' School for Slaves (1833)
  • Colored School (M. F. Carter)
  • Colored Schools (3)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky

African Americans in Kentucky Killed By Lightning
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1940
In early newspapers are articles about people in Kentucky killed by lightning, and the articles were many times front page stories.  There are also lightning deaths noted in the U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, 1850-1885 and in the annual Mortality Statistics volumes, some of which are available full-text at Google Books. See Lightning Fatalities by State, 1956-2012, a NOAA website, for a rank of where Kentucky stands in terms of deaths due to lightning. This entry is an introduction to the names, geographic locations, and data on African Americans in Kentucky who were killed by lightning. 

 

Since 2006, there have been less than 50 lightning deaths per year in the United States, according to the statistics at the NWS (National Weather Service) Lightning Safety, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) website. For earlier data, back to 1940, and additional information, see Victims/SurvivorsSafety Tips, and other educational links on the National Weather Service, NOAA website. See also Lightning Casualties and Their Proximity to Surrounding Cloud-to-ground Lightning (thesis) by M. M. Lengyel; An Epidemiological Description of Lightning-related Deaths in the United States by P. J. Duclos and L. M. Sanderson; and search in PubMed for articles on lightning and lightning injuries.

  • 1850 - Jenny, a slave, killed by lightning strike, May 1850. Warren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, line 1, Year Ending 1st of June 1850.
  • 1860 - Robert, a slave and farm hand, killed by lightning, April 1860. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.2, line 10, Year Ending 1st of June 1860.
  • 1860 - Nathaniel White, a 13 year old slave was killed by lightning May 1860. Barren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.3, line 12, Year Ending 1st of June 1860.
  • 1860 - Ruben White, a slave who was married, was killed by lightning May 1860. Barren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.3, line 12, Year Ending 1st of June 1860.
  • 1868 - Two white men and a colored man killed by lightning in London, KY. June 26, 1868. Laurel County. Source: "Three men killed by lightning in Kentucky," New York Times, 06/28/1868, p.1.
  • 1870 - James Diggs, a farm hand, killed by "effice [efficacy] of lightning," November 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 29, Year Ending 1st of June 1870.
  • 1870 - Edmond White, 9 years old, was killed by lightning July 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 27, Year Ending 1st of June 1870.
  • 1870 - Pauline White, 13 years old, was killed by lightning July 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 27, Year Ending 1st of June 1870.
  • 1890 - Lish Wilson, 15 years old, was one of two boys killed by lightning in Louisville, KY. The boys and two others had been out fishing and took shelter under a tree when it started to rain and lightning. June 1890. Jefferson County. Source: "Article 2 - No Title," The New York Times, June 15, 1890, p.2.
  • 1902 - Nelson Holmes a Negro farm hand was killed by lightning in Mt. Sterling, KY. July 1902. Montgomery County. Source: "Severe storm in Kentucky," Spokane Daily Chronicle, 07/28/1902, p.1.
  • 1907 - Evans Duncan, colored, was killed by lightning at Cleaton. July 1907. Muhlenberg County. Source: "Here and there," Interior Journal, 07/23/1907, p.1.
  • 1907 - A Negro named Mimms was struck by lightning and killed while plowing the fields of Frank Waldron near Allensville, KY. The two mules attached to the plow were also killed. August 1907. Todd County. Source: "News notes," Interior Journal, 08/20/1907, p.1.
  • 1908 - Thomas Gaines, a 13 year old colored boy, was struck by lightning and instantly killed while passing under a tree on the farm of Catesby Woodford. June 1908. Bourbon County. Source: "Prominent farmer and colored boy killed by lightning," Bourbon News, 06/16/1908, p.1. Thomas Gaines was the son of Gertie Hanline Gaines; the family lived in Flat Rock. Source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census.
  • 1911 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 20-29, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1911: twelfth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.385.
  • 1916 - One colored person in Kentucky, a child 5-9 years old, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1916: seventeenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.321.
  • 1917 - Three colored persons were killed by lightning: a baby under 1 year old; person between 20-29 years old; and a person of unknown age. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1917: eighteenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.347.
  • 1918 - Four colored persons were killed by lightning: a child between 5-9 years old; a child between 10-19 years old; a person between 20-29 years old; and a person between 40-49 years old. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1918: nineteenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.326.
  • 1919 - Three colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning: two children between the ages of 10-19; and a person between 40-49. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1919: twentieth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.336.
  • 1920 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 40-49, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1920: twenty-first annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.361.
  • 1922 - Two colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning: a child 10-14 years old; and a person 35-44 years old. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1922: twenty-third annual report, part 1, by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.410.
  • 1925 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 35-44, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1925: twenty-sixth annual report, by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.185.
  • 1929 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 35-44, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1929: thirtieth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.284.
  • 1931 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 45-54, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1931: thirty-second annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.249.
  • 1932 - Three colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning; they were all between the ages of 25-34. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1931: thirty-third annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.246.

Subjects: Killed by Lightning
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Baptist Church (Henderson, KY)
Start Year : 1840
The African Baptist Church of Jesus Christ, located in Henderson, KY, held its meetings in fields, barns, or any location where they could gather. In 1840, the African Baptist Church received membership into the white Baptist Church, according to "African Baptist Church," pp. 476-480 in the History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling. The group stayed within the white Baptist Church until 1845, when the African Baptist Church was organized, after which the group held services in the basement of the white Baptist Church. Willis Walker, a slave, was chosen as the pastor of the African Baptist Church, and the church purchased his freedom for $560. Rev. Walker died during a creek baptism and was replaced by Rev. Henry Green from Danville, KY. In 1866, the African Baptist Church split: 33 members left to form the Race Creek Baptist Church. In 1866, the African Baptist Church separated from the white Baptist Church and moved into its first building, the old Methodist Church building at the corner of Elm and Washington Streets. The church was renamed First Missionary Baptist Church, and several more churches would grow out of the congregation: St. Paul's Baptist Church in Corydon; St. John Baptist Church; New Hope Baptist Church; Walnut Hill Baptist Church; and Fourth Street Baptist Church.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky

African Church (Danville, KY)
Start Year : 1846
The first Saturday of August 1846, the First Baptist Church for whites, separated its 126 African American members into their own independent church known as the African Church. The first pastor was Rev. Jordan Meaux, a property owner who was consider a good leader in the church. Rev. Henry Green was the second minister, followed by Rev. Isaac Slaughter who served for 26 years. For more information and a picture of the church, see Negro Baptist History, 1750-1930 by L. G. Jordan
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Allen County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1920
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1920
Allen County, located in south-central Kentucky, was formed in 1815 from parts of Barren and Warren Counties. The county is named for Colonel John Allen, and the county seat, Scottsville, is named for Kentucky Governor Charles Scott. Allen County is one of the Kentucky locations to experience oil booms: 1850, 1890, and 1915-1920. Below is the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and free Mulattoes listed in the U.S. Federal Census for Allen County for the period during the oil booms.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 179 slave owners
  • 795 Black slaves
  • 102 Mulatto slaves
  • 25 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 314 slave owners
  • 1,246 Black slaves
  • 283 Mulatto slaves
  • 27 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
Available online are the Allen County slave births, 1852-1861, provided by Sharon Tabor. The listing includes the names of a few free born Blacks, also.

1870 Federal Census
  • 806 Blacks
  • 199 Mulattoes
  • About 44 U.S. Colored Troops listed Allen County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 718 Blacks
  • 175 Mulattoes
1900 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,100 Blacks
  • 3 Mulattoes
1920 U.S. Federal Census
  • 634 Blacks
  • 143 Mulattoes
  • There were about 110 draft registration cards by Blacks, and 1 Colored, in Allen County, KY.
For more see A History of Scottsville and Allen County, by H. H. Patton; the "Allen County" entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and Till Freedom Came: slaves in Allen County, 1815-1866 by G. Conner. For more on the oil fields in Kentucky, see Brandon C. Nuttall, "Oil and Gas History of Kentucky: 1860-1900" at the University of Kentucky Geological Survey website.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky

Allen, Dudley
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1911
Dudley Allen, a slave born in Lexington, KY, was owned by either Walter or John Dunn. Allen would become a noted thoroughbred owner and trainer. He owned a stock farm in Lexington, where he trained his own young horses and sold others to wealthy horsemen. Allen had purchased the farm after serving in the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry Regiment. He was the first African American to own a Kentucky Derby winner: he was part owner of the 1891 winner Kingman, ridden by Isaac Murphy. Allen was one of two leading trainers at Churchill Downs in Louisville, KY. The following was submitted by University of Kentucky Anthropology Researcher Nancy O'Malley: Dudley died at his residence, 416 Kinkead Street in Lexington, KY. He and his wife, Margaret Crittenden Allen (d. 1919), had lived in the home since around 1871, when Margaret purchased the lot from George B. Kinkead. The couple was married by Reverend George Downing in Lexington in 1866, after Dudley Allen had served in the Army with Company M of the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry, 1864-1866 as a Quartermaster Sergeant. The 5th Colored Cavalry fought October 2, 1864, in Saltville, VA; "many of the soldiers had not been adequately trained and were not properly equipped, and a disastrous defeat followed." The 5th Colored Cavalry also fought at Lexington on October 19, and at Harrodsburg on October 21, retuning to Virginia in December when the Saltville works were destroyed. For more see Dudley Allen in the Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States, by G. B. Kirsch, et al. See also "The Allen House Lot," chapter XI in Kinkeadtown: Archaeological Investigation of an African-American Neighborhood in Lexington, Kentucky, by N. O'Malley. Quotation from Nancy O'Malley's submission.

Nancy O'Malley, Assistant Director
William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology and
Office of State Archeology
1020A Export Street
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506
Ph. 859-257-1944
FAX: 859-323-1968
Subjects: Businesses, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Allensworth, Allen [Allensworth, California]
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1914
Allen Allensworth was born a slave in Louisville, KY, the son of Levi and Phyllis Allensworth. He escaped and became a nurse during the Civil War and later joined the Navy and became a chief petty officer. After the war, he returned to Kentucky and became a schoolteacher, an ordained minister, and a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1880 and 1884. He was appointed chaplain of the 24th Infantry by President Cleveland and received promotion to lieutenant colonel. In 1890, Allensworth moved to California and established a company to assist African Americans in their migration to California. The town of Allensworth was developed, the first and still the only California town founded by African Americans. Today the area where the town once stood is Colonel Allensworth State Historical Park. Allen Allensworth was the husband of Josephine Leavell Allensworth, also a Kentucky native. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, ed. by R. W. Logan and M. R. Winston; "Rev. Allen Allensworth, A.M." on pp.198-199 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in KentuckyHistory of Allensworth, CAFriends of Allensworth; and for more about Allen Allensworth's military career see his entry in On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier by F. N. Schubert.

See photo image of Allen Allensworth on p.189 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, at the NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Parks, Religion & Church Work, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Nurses
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Allensworth, California (no longer exists)

Allensworth, James L., Sr.
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1922
Reverend James L. Allensworth, Sr. was a pastor, veteran, and respected man; he was also the first African American coroner in Hopkinsville, KY. He owned a single lot of land on Lovier Street, according to the city property tax list for 1893 and 1894. He was manager of the Good Samaritan Association in Hopkinsville [see NKAA entry Colored Lodges - Hopkinsville, KY]. He was editor of The Baptist Monitor newspaper while it was located in Hopkinsville [source: "Papers published by Negroes" in Chapter 13 of A History of Christian County Kentucky by C. M. Meacham]. He was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. In 1905, he ran for re-election as the county coroner, and his son James Allensworth, Jr. (1872-1927), was named for the position of constable [source: "Nominated for magistrate, and Jim Allensworth, Jr., for constable," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 09/12/1905, p. 1]. Allensworth, Sr. was re-elected as coroner in 1905 and 1909 [source: "Slate went through easy," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 04/27/1909, p. 1]. He was first elected to the position of coroner in 1894 and in 1895 held an inquest into the death of a man who was hit by a train while walking down the tracks [source: "A stranger killed," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 01/22/1895, p. 1]. He is listed among Christian County's first elected Negro officials [see NKAA entry], and he served as the coroner of Hopkinsville until 1920. Rev. Allensworth's duties included cutting down the bodies of lynched persons and burying them, one case being that of "Booker" Brame, who was said to have been lynched by an unknown party [source: "Coroner cuts down body," Springfield Sun, 04/19/1909, p. 1]. Rev. Allensworth was the husband of Gracie McComb Allensworth; they married in May of 1899 [source: "County Corner weds," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/02/1899, p. 5]. Gracie McComb Allesnworth is listed on James's military pension record. His previous wife was Minerva Perkins Allensworth. Rev. Allensworth, his wife, and their four children are listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. Rev. Allensworth was a Civil War veteran, having served with the 13th Heavy Artillery division of the U.S. Colored Troops. According to his enlistment record, James L. Allensworth, Sr. was born in Christian County, KY, around 1845; he enlisted in Bowling Green, KY, on September 24, 1864. He may have been a slave prior to enlisting in the military; his parents were listed as unknown on his death certificate.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Military & Veterans, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

American/Brazilian Slaver "Kentucky" (ship)
Start Year : 1844
In 1844, the slave ship Kentucky, which had been sold by Americans to Brazilians, sailed to Inhambane and Quelimane, Mozambique, under the American flag. The crew was made up of both Americans and Brazilians. Inhambane and Quelimane, located on the southeast coast of Africa, were off limits to the slave ship by treaty. Nonetheless, once the cargo of 530 adult Africans was shackled aboard the Kentucky, the ship was turned over to the Brazilians, and all or some of the American crew returned to Brazil on another ship. The next day, the Africans attempted an unsuccessful revolt. Those thought to be guilty were tried by the ship captain, and 46 African men and one woman were hanged, then shot in the chest and thrown overboard. In addition, 20 men and six women were severely flogged. When the ship reached Brazil, the entire incident was recounted and recorded at the U.S. Consul in Rio de Janeiro and forwarded to the U.S. Congress [House Ex. Doc. 61 & Senate Ex. Doc. 28, both in 30th Congress]. In 1845, Consul Henry A. Wise (Virginia) appealed to President James K. Polk to take a stand against pirate slave ships sailing under the American flag as license for the types of barbarity exhibited on the Kentucky and the slave trade in general. No stand was taken. The Kentucky was eventually found by a British armed vessel, it was tucked away on the Angozha [Angoche] River in Mozambique. With no way to escape by sea, the crew of the Kentucky set the ship on fire and escaped by land. For more see The American Slave Trade: an account of its origin, growth and suppression, by J. R. Spears (published in 1900); and An Exposition of the African Slave Trade: from the year 1840, to 1850 inclusive, by U.S. Department of State, Representative Meeting (1851) [both titles available in full-text via Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Lynchings, Riots and Protests Outside Kentucky, Slave Trade (U.S.)
Geographic Region: Inhambane and Quelimane, Mozambique, Africa / Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, South America / United States

Anderson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Anderson County is located in central Kentucky within the Bluegrass Region, bound by seven other counties. Slaves arrived with the first settlers in the 1770s. Lawrenceburg, the county seat, was incorporated as Lawrence in 1820. Anderson County was established in 1827. There were 573 persons [heads of households] counted in the county in the 1830 U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. By 1870, there were 5,500 persons counted in the census. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes in Anderson County between 1850 and 1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 307 slave owners
  • 1,021 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 19 free Blacks
  • 11 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 285 slave owners
  • 1,211 Black slaves
  • 146 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 646 Blacks
  • 67 Mulattoes
  • About 93 U.S. Colored Troops listed Anderson County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see "Anderson County" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and History and Families Anderson County, Kentucky, by Turner Publishing Co.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky

Anderson, Robert B.
Birth Year : 1843
Death Year : 1930
Anderson was born in Green County, KY. His mother and siblings were the property of Colonel Robert Ball, and his father was the property of Alfred Anderson. When he was six, Anderson's mother had a dispute with the mistress and was sold for field work in Louisiana. Robert never saw his mother again. In 1864, Anderson ran away to Lebanon, KY, where he joined the Army. He served in the west and received an honorable discharge, whereupon he returned to Kentucky but eventually moved out west, in 1870 settling in Nebraska. As a farmer, he had both years of prosperity and years of poverty until he finally found security with a farm of 1,120 acres that grew to be 2,000 acres. Anderson married in 1922 at the age of 79; his wife was 21. His wife's family soon moved in and his wife took over his affairs, which resulted in the land being heavily mortgaged. It was around that time, in 1927, that Anderson had his book published by the Hemingford Ledger: From slavery to affluence; memoirs of Robert Anderson, ex-slave. In 1930, he deeded all of his property to his wife. Robert Anderson died after the car he was riding in overturned; his wife, her brother and a friend survived. Ball's wife, Daisy Anderson, who passed away in 1998, had been one of the three surviving Civil War widows in the U.S. For more see D. D. Wax, "Robert Ball Anderson, ex-slave, a pioneer in Western Nebraska, 1884-1930," Nebraska History, vol. 64, issue 2 (1983), pp. 163-192.
Access InterviewListen to the oral history and read the transcript of Daisy Anderson and Alberta Martin, two of the last living Civil War widows, at radiodairies.org.
Subjects: Agriculturalists, Agriculture, Produce, Authors, Freedom, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky / Lebanon, Marion County, Kentucky / Box Butt County, Nebraska

Anderson, W. H.
Birth Year : 1843
In 1852 the separate coach bill became law in Kentucky. In 1893, Rev. W. H. Anderson, from Indiana, and his wife, Sarah J. Steward Anderson, tested the law by sitting in the white section of the train and refusing to move. They were put off the train and subsequently filed a $15,000 lawsuit against L & N Railroad. U.S. District court ruled the law unconstitutional and void for interstate commerce, and the Andersons won their lawsuit. W. H. Anderson was a Civil War veteran, having served in the 13th Regiment U.S.Colored Infantry. He was the minister of McFarland Chapel in Evansville, IN, in 1889, when he became the first minister in the state to receive an honorary Doctor of Divinity from State University in Louisville, KY [Simmons University]. For more see Kentucky's Black Heritage, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; A. A. Marshall, "Kentucky's separate coach law and African American response, 1892-1900," Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 98, issue 3 (2000), pp. 241-259; and "Rev. W. H. Anderson, D.D." on pp.36-42 in Our Baptist Ministers and Schools by A. W. Pegues.

See photo image of Rev. W. H. Anderson on p.299 in Sermons, Addresses and Reminiscences and Important Correspondence, With a Picture Gallery of Eminent Ministers and Scholars by E. C. Morris, online at Documenting the American South.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Vigo County, Indiana / Kentucky

Atwell, Joseph Sandiford
Birth Year : 1831
Death Year : 1881
Rev. Joseph S. Atwell, from Barbados, was the first colored man ordained a Deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Kentucky, according to his obituary on p.5 of the New York Times, 10/10/1881. Rev. Atwell was Rector at St. Phillips Protestant Episcopal Church on Mulberry Street in New York City when he died of typhoid fever in 1881. He had attended Codrington College in Barbados, and came to the United States in 1863 to attend the Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, PA. He graduated in 1866 and next came to Kentucky where he was ordained a deacon by Bishop Smith. Rev. Atwell was a missionary worker in Kentucky and next went to Petersburg, VA, where he was ordained a priest in 1868 and became Rector of the St. Stephen's Church and was head of a parish school. He then went to Savannah, GA, in 1873 and was Rector of the St. Stephen's Church. He went to New York in 1875. Rev. Joseph S. Atwell was the husband of Cordelia Jennings Atwell, a mulatto from Pennsylvania, and the father of Joseph, Robert, and Earnest Atwell [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. The family lived at No.112 Waverley Place.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Immigration, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Barbados, Lesser Antilles / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Kentucky / Virginia / Savannah, Georgia / New York

Ball, William Baton
Birth Year : 1839
Death Year : 1923
Ball, a former slave, was born in Danville, KY, and graduated from Oberlin College. He served in the U.S. Army, 99th Division, 149th Regiment, and later moved to Texas, where in 1871 he formed a reserve militia, 25th Regiment Company K in Seguin, Guadalupe County. That same year, Ball and Leonard Ilsley, a white minister, established Abraham Lincoln School, the first school for African Americans in Guadalupe County. He also helped found the Negro Baptist College. Ball also served as pastor of the Second Baptist Church in Seguin. A street and a school in Seguin were named in his honor. For more see William B. Ball, by N. Thompson, at The Handbook of Texas Online website; Ball Early Childhood Center website; and A Sure Foundation, by A. W. Jackson.
See William Baton Ball photo images at Southern Methodist University CUL Digital Collections.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Seguin, Texas

Ballard County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Ballard County, located in western Kentucky, was established in 1842 from parts of Hickman and McCracken Counties. The county was named after Captain Bland Ballard, a District Court Judge and member of the Kentucky Legislature. Wickliffe was voted the county seat of Ballard County in 1882. The first U.S. Federal Census for Ballard County was taken in 1850 when 4,654 persons were counted, excluding slaves. Below are the figures for slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 190 slave owners
  • 646 Black slaves
  • 195 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 19 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 336 slave owners
  • 1,132 Black slaves
  • 585 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks
  • 24 free Mulattoes
Note: The 1850 population for Ballard County (given above) is lower than that provided at Ballard County, Kentucky, Free Black and Mulatto Residents. by Kathleen Hill. Additional information about the free Black and Mulatto families can be found at this website.

1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 979 Blacks
  • 483 Mulattoes
  • About 30 U.S. Colored Troops listed Ballard County, KY, as their birth location
For more see the Ballard County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. Kleber; and Ballard and Carlisle Counties History, by Ballard-Carlisle Historical and Genealogical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky

Barber, Paul Peter
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1929
Barber was born in Louisville, KY, the child of slaves. His last name was Smith until he was 4 years old, when Barber was sold to Philetus Swift Barber. On the Barber Farm in Bardstown, KY, Paul learned to train, ride, race, and care for the horses. He went to Ottawa, Canada, around 1885, one of the first African Americans to become a permanent resident of Ottawa. In 1892 he married Elizabeth Brown, a white woman twenty years younger than he. Their marriage is thought to have been the first interracial marriage in Ottawa. They had five children: Paul Jr., John (Jack), Joe, Tom, and Mary. Paul Barber, Sr. supported his family with wages from his job as a horse trainer. When the automobile replaced the horse, Barber worked as a laborer for the city of Ottawa. For more see T. Barber, "The Kentucky gentleman was a pioneer black resident," The Ottawa Citizen (newspaper), 02/05/2001, p. D4.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North, 1st African American Families in Town
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky / Ottawa, Canada

Barr, Henry
Birth Year : 1834
Death Year : 1902
Barr, a barber, was the first African American to build a commercial building in Watertown, NY, prior to 1910 when there 76 African Americans in the community. Barr had arrived in Watertown in 1865; he was an escaped slave from Kentucky and had been living in Montreal before moving to New York. Barr had a chicken farm and owned a dry cleaners and clothes dying shop before building the three story building named Barr Block. He was a successful businessman and leader in the African American community. He was one of the first Board of Trustee members of what is today Thomas Memorial AME Zion Church. The Henry Barr Underground Railroad Community Development, Inc. was named in his honor. For more see L. L. Scharer, "African-Americans in Jefferson County, New York; 1810-1910," Afro-Americans in New York Life and History, vol. 19, no. 1 (Jan. 31, 1995), pp. 7ff.; and J. Golden, "Blacks have long had faith in Watertown," Watertown Daily Times, 02/26/1995, Lifestyles and Leisure section, p. G1.
Subjects: Barbers, Businesses, Freedom, Migration North, Religion & Church Work, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Watertown, New York

Barren County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Barren County is located in south-central Kentucky, surrounded by six other counties. The county was established in 1798 from parts of Warren and Green Counties. It was named for the meadowlands known as the barrens. Many of the early white settlers were veterans of the Revolutionary War who had received land grants in Barren County as payment for their military services. The county had a large number of Scottish families, which was a major influence in the naming of the county seat, Glasgow. There was a total of 4,784 persons counted in Barren County in the Second Census of Kentucky 1800: 4,279 whites and 505 slaves. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner in Barren County. By 1850, there was a population of 15,657, excluding slaves, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes in the county from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 944 slave owners
  • 3,921 Black slaves
  • 628 Mulatto slaves
  • 63 free Blacks
  • 1 free Colored [Turnedo Bass born in Mexico]
  • 49 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 729 slave owners
  • 3,649 Black slaves
  • 421 Mulatto slaves
  • 37 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,152 Blacks
  • 375 Mulattoes
  • About 68 U.S. Colored Troops listed Barren County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Barren County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Heart of the Barrens, by C. E. Goode; Barren County, Kentucky: African-American Male Marriage Index Book, by M. B. Gorin; Barren's Black Roots, by M. B. Gorin; and Ralph Bunche National Historic District - Oral History Project (FA 457), at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky

Bath County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bath County is located in the north-eastern part of Kentucky, surrounded by five other counties. It was established in 1811 from part of Montgomery County, though white settlers had come to the area as early as 1775. Bath County was named for its medicinal springs. The county seat was originally Catlett's Flats, but it was changed to Owingsville in 1811. In 1820, the population of Bath County was recorded as 1,132 [heads of households] in the U.S. Federal Census; the population had grown to 9,747 in 1850, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 823 slave owners
  • 3,216 Black slaves
  • 50 Colored slaves
  • 567 Mulatto slaves
  • 94 free Blacks
  • 2 free Colored [Caroline Duncan and her daughter Mary Duncan]
  • 34 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 441 slave owners
  • 1,933 Black slaves
  • 562 Mulatto Slaves
  • 90 free Blacks
  • 2 free Colored [Eli Burton and James Burton]
  • 51 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,438 Blacks
  • 283 Mulattoes
  • About 100 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bath County, KY, as their birth location
For more see the Bath County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and A History of Bath County, Kentucky, by J. A. Richards.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bath County, Kentucky

Bell, Charles W.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1910
Charles W. Bell, who may have been a slave, was born in Kentucky on August 12, 1848 [source: Ohio Death Certificate, File #44018]. Bell was an educator, a newspaper man, and a pen artist in Cincinnati, OH. He was the husband of Ophelia Hall Nesbit Bell (b.1847 in Jackson, MS), who was a school teacher in Cincinnati. The couple lived at 1112 Sherman Avenue after they were married. By 1870, the family of four lived in the northern section of the 7th Ward in Cincinnati, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Charles Bell was a graduate of the Cincinnati School of Design. He was employed by the Cincinnati School System from 1868-1889; he was the superintendent of writing in the Colored public schools beginning in 1874 with an annual salary of $1,000, and was later also the special teacher of writing for some of the schools attended by white children. Bell also served as president of the Garnet Loan and Building Association. He was one of the editors of the Colored Citizen newspaper in Cincinnati, and he published a newspaper titled Declaration in the 1870s when it was the only African American newspaper in Cincinnati. He was also a columnist for the Commercial Gazette, the column was an early version of the Colored Notes. Charles Bell was also a politician, and had put forth the name of George W. Williams for the Ohio Legislature, but was one of many African Americans who turned against Williams when he pushed through the bill to close the Colored American Cemetery in Avondale, OH. In 1892, while Charles W. Bell was serving as treasurer of the Colored Orphan Asylum, it came to light that more than $4,000 were missing. Charles and Ophelia Bell mortgaged their home at 76 Pleasant Street for $3,000, and Charles Bell was to make restitution for the remaining $1,623.87. Also in 1892, Charles Bell established a newspaper publication called Ohio Republican. According to the Census, by 1910, the Bells were living on Park Avenue in Cincinnati, Ohio with their daughters Alma and Maggie. Charles Bell was employed as a clerk in an office. Ten years later, Ophelia was a widow living with Alma and her husband James Bryant, along with Maggie and two of James Bryant's nieces. Charles W. Bell died August 22, 1910 in Cincinnati, OH, and is buried in the Union Baptist Cemetery [source: Ohio Death Certificate, File #44018]. For more see Ophelia Hall Nesbit in The Geneva Book by W. M. Glasgow [available online at Google Book Search]; see Charles W. Bell in George Washington Williams: a biography by J. H. Franklin; Charles W. Bell in Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900 by M. S. Haverstock et. al.; see "At a meeting of the Columbus, O., Board of Education...," Cleveland Gazette, 08/10/1889, p.2; "Disbanded," Freeman, 06/20/1891, p.4; "Burned $1,623.87," Cleveland Gazette, 03/19/1892, p.1; "The Ohio Republican...," Plaindealer [Michigan], 09/23/1892, p.3; and G. B. Agee, "A Cry for Justice" [dissertation] [available online at ETDS].
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Bentley, Daniel S.
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1916
Reverend Daniel S. Bentley was born in Madison County, KY. Bentley attended Berea College and later left Kentucky for Pennsylvania. In Pittsburgh, he founded The Afro-American Spokesman newspaper, owned by the Spokesman Stock Company, of which Bentley was president. During this time, Bentley was also pastor of the Wylie Avenue A.M.E. Church in Pittsburgh. Bentley also authored Brief Religious Reflections in 1900. Rev. D. S. Bentley died suddenly in the pulpit of his church, St. Paul A. M. E. in Mckeesport, PA, on November 12, 1916 [source: "Dr. Bentley Dead," Cleveland Gazette, 12/09/1916, p.2]. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Centennial Encyclopedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church..., by Richard Allen and others (Philadelphia: 1816), p. 38, at Documenting the American South website; and The Afro-American Press and Its Editors, by I. G. Penn (1891) [available full view at Google Book Search].

A brief bio and picture of Rev. Daniel S. Bentley are on pp.186-187 in The Sons of Allen by H. Talbert [available full text at Documenting the American South website].
Subjects: Authors, Businesses, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky / Pittsburgh and Mckeesport, Pennsylvania

Bentley, George, Sr.
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1923
George Bentley, Sr. was born in Danville, KY. He is listed as Mulatto in the U.S. Census, and according to the Fort Davis Administrative History, Bentley's father was white, his mother was a slave, and he had a brother. Bentley may also have been a slave. He enlisted in the U.S. Army on December 8, 1866, in Louisville, KY [source: Army Enlistment Records]. He was discharged from Company K of the 9th U. S. Cavalry on December 8, 1871. Bentley remained in Texas at Fort Davis, employed as a civilian--he worked as teamster. On September 17, 1879, Bentley purchased 160 acres of land [source: Texas Land Title Abstract]. The infamous story often associated with George Bentley is the curse that was supposedly placed upon his children because Bentley had bayoneted a baby during a military campaign at an Apache village; many of Bentley's and his wife's children died in infancy. The couple had children who were listed in the 1910 Census: Lucy, Josephine, and George Jr. George Sr.'s wife's name is given as Chana. By 1920, George Bentley, Sr. was a widower and shared his home with his son, George, Jr.; and his daughter, Lucy Bentley Brown, her husband, Jessie, and their three children. George Bentley, Sr. died February 20, 1923 [source: Texas Death Index]. For more see George Bentley in On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier II, by I. Schubert and F. N. Schubert; and the Fort Davis History website by the Chamber of Commerce.
Subjects: Migration West, Military & Veterans, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Fort Davis, Texas

Berry, Isaac, Sr.
Birth Year : 1831
Death Year : 1914
Isaac Berry, Sr. was a violin player who was born a slave in Garrard County, KY. He was willed to one of his owner's daughters. The daughter married James Pratt, and the family moved to Missouri. With the permission of Mrs. Pratt, Berry ran away and James Pratt posted a $500 reward for Berry, dead or alive. Berry made his way to Ypsilanti, MI, [see George McCoy] by following the railroad tracks, the trip taking him three weeks. Members of the Underground Railroad helped Berry to make his way on to Detroit, then to Canada. Berry's daughter, Katy Pointer, was born in Windsor, Ontario, Canada, in 1864, and the family moved to Mecosta, MI, in 1877. Isaac Berry, Sr. was a blacksmith and a carpenter, he was the husband of Lucy, who was born in New York; both are last listed in the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. The Berry family was among the early settlers of Morton Township in Mecosta, MI, where Isaac Berry built a school for Negro children and other structures. Isaac Berry, Sr. was born March 10, 1831 and died January 11, 1914 [source: Michigan Certificate of Death at Seeking Michigan, online digital archive]. For more see Negro Folktales in Michigan, edited by R. M. Dorson; and A northside view of slavery. The Refugee: or the Narratives of Fugitive Slaves in Canada, by B. Drew (1856).
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Migration West, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Blacksmiths, Inheritance, Carpenters, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky / Missouri / Ypsilanti, Detroit, and Mecosta, Michigan / Canada

Black, Isaac E.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1914
Issac Black grew up in Covington, KY. He served as the law librarian and janitor at the Kenton County Courthouse from 1869-1874. It is not known what library training Black received; he was paid only for being the janitor. He had considered suing the Law Library Association for $2,500, the wages he felt he was owed for the five years he served as a librarian. Black would go on to become a lawyer after being mentored by Lt. Governor John G. Carlisle, teaming up with Nathaniel Harper to form the first African American law firm in Kentucky, Harper & Black, located in Louisville. For more see T. H. H. Harris, "Creating windows of opportunity: Isaac E. Black and the African American Experience in Kentucky," The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 98, issue 2 (2000), pp. 155-177.
Subjects: Businesses, Lawyers, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Booker, Elzey
Birth Year : 1841
Death Year : 1937
Elzey Booker was a horseman in Chicago, IL. He was born in Allen County, KY, and died in Bremen, IL on July 30, 1937 [source: Illinois Deaths and Stillbirths Index]. He is buried in Rest Vale Cemetery in Chicago.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Boone County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Boone County is located in northern Kentucky along the Ohio River and is bordered by three counties. Named for Daniel Boone, it was formed from Campbell County in 1798. The county seat is Burlington. In 1800, the county population was about 1,534: 1,194 whites, 325 slaves, and 15 free coloreds, according to the Second Census of Kentucky. [See the Boone County, KY, website for additional information.] At the completion of the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, the population, excluding slaves, was 9,165. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 194 slave owners
  • 676 Black slaves
  • 116 Mulatto slaves
  • 36 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 468 slave owners
  • 1,256 Black slaves
  • 489 Mulatto slaves
  • 35 free Blacks
  • 12 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,013 Blacks
  • 207 Mulattoes
  • About 20 U.S. Colored Troops gave Boone County, KY, as their birth location.
For more, see the Boone County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Boone County, Kentucky, by A. M. Yealey; and A Brief History of Slavery in Boone County, Kentucky, by M. S. Caldwell.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Boone County, Kentucky

Bourbon County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bourbon County is located in central Kentucky in the Bluegrass Region. The county was developed from a part of Fayette County in 1785. The county seat was named Hopewell, then Bourbonton, and finally renamed Paris in 1790. Bourbon County was one of the nine counties organized by the Virginia Legislature before Kentucky became a state. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 6,929 whites and 908 slaves. Ten years later, the total population was 12,825 in the Second Kentucky Census 1800: 10,627 white, 2,136 slaves, and 62 free colored. In 1830 there were nine African American slave owners in the county. When the 1850 Census was completed, there were 7,401 persons, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 1,075 slave owners
  • 5,495 Black slaves
  • 1,576 Mulatto slaves
  • 171 free Blacks
  • 74 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 960 slave owners
  • 5,678 Black slaves
  • 1,086 Mulatto Slaves
  • 240 free Blacks
  • 102 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S Federal Census

  • 5,710 Blacks
  • 863 Mulattoes
  • About 350 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bourbon County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Bourbon County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Bourbon County in Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky: History of Kentucky, vol. 2, by L. Collins and R. H. Collins [available at Google Book Search]; and History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky, by W. H. Perrin and R. Peter.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky

Bowen, James Lyman
Birth Year : 1842
Bowen, born in Liberty, KY, was a chef for Buffalo Bill and had fought against Sitting Bull. His reputation for helping settle the West was well known: Bowen was received by royalty during his tour of Europe. He settled in Danville, IL, where he celebrated his 90th birthday in 1932. His name has also been written as James Lyman Brown. For more see Africa's Gift to America, by J. A. Rogers; and Henry Brown, "He rode with Buffalo Bill," The Chicago Defender, 10/30/1948, p.A2.
Subjects: Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Migration North, Migration West
Geographic Region: Liberty, Casey County, Kentucky / Danville, Illinois

Boyd, Francis A.
Birth Year : 1844
Death Year : 1872
Francis A. Boyd was born in Lexington, KY, to Nancy and Samuel Boyd, free African Americans. Reverend Francis Boyd was author of Columbiana: or, The North Star, Complete in One Volume (Chicago: Steam Job and Book Printing House of G. Hand, 1870). His biography and criticism can be found in Early Black American Poets, pp. 76-77. For more see Black American Writers Past and Present: a biographical and bibliographical dictionary, by Rush, Myers, & Arta.
Subjects: Authors, Freedom, Poets
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Boyle County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Boyle County, located in central Kentucky, was formed in 1842 from Lincoln and Mercer Counties. It was named for Judge John Boyle, who was born in Virginia and moved to Kentucky, where he became a state Legislator, a Chief Justice, a District Judge, and a member of the U.S. House of Representatives. John Boyle died around 1835, prior to the naming of Boyle County. The county seat is Danville. The first U.S. Census of Boyle County was completed in 1850: 5,693 persons were counted, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes between 1850 and 1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 612 slave owners
  • 2,968 Black slaves
  • 456 Mulatto slaves
  • 129 free Blacks
  • 189 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 505 slave owners
  • 2,677 Black slaves
  • 2 Colored slaves [1 owned by R. W. Washington, 1 owned by Wm Owsley]
  • 559 Mulatto slaves
  • 192 free Blacks
  • 243 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,995 Blacks
  • 657 Mulattoes
  • About 103 U.S. Colored Troops listed Boyle County, KY, as their birth location.
For more, see the Boyle County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Danville and Boyle County, Kentucky, 1774-1992, by R. C. Brown; History of Mercer and Boyle Counties [Kentucky], by M. T. Daviess; and Boyle County's Black Physicians, by R. C. Brown [thesis]; and see Michael J. Denis' rootsweb page with records of African American marriages, free persons and slaves, and an index of death certificates, all pertainging to Boyle County.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky

Bracken County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bracken County is located along the northern edge of Kentucky, and is bordered by the Ohio River and four other counties. Bracken County was named for William Bracken, an early settler. The county was formed in 1796 from parts of Mason and Campbell Counties. Augusta is the county seat. In the 1870s, Bracken County was among the top wine producing counties in the United States. The small population in the late 1700s had grown to 2,606 in 1800, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,349 whites, 243 slaves, and 14 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner. By 1860, the population was 10,193, according to the U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 208 slave owners
  • 129 Black slaves
  • 33 Mulatto slaves
  • 114 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto [Laura E. Blythe]
See also J. E. Leming, Jr, "The Great Slave Escape of 1848 ended in Bracken County," The Kentucky Explorer, June 2000, pp.25-29.

1860 Slave Schedule
  • 177 slave owners
  • 553 Black slaves
  • 196 Mulatto slaves
  • 55 free Blacks
  • 28 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 554 Blacks
  • 66 Mulattoes
  • About 28 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bracken County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Bracken County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and African-American Records by C. R. Miller.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bracken County, Kentucky

Bradford, Harrison
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1867
Twenty-four year old Sergeant Harrison Bradford was killed leading a protest at San Pedro Springs, located in San Antonio, Texas, on April 9, 1867. Bradford was shot while protesting the brutality of Lt. Edward Heyl. The shot that killed Bradford was fired by Lt. Frederick Smith during what is called the San Pedro Springs Mutiny. Lieutenant Seth E. Griffin also died from wounds he received during the fight. Harrison Bradford, from Scott County, KY, was a veteran of the Civil War and had served with the 104th Colored Infantry. He re-enlisted in October of 1866 in Louisiana along with fellow Kentuckian, former slave, and Civil War veteran, Jacob Wilks [info]. Bradford served with Company E of the 9th Cavalry [source: U.S. Army Register of Enlistments]. In 1867, the 9th Cavalry Colored soldiers were part of the movement of federal troops sent to Texas, a former Confederate state, to keep order after the Civil War. Troops from the 9th Cavalry Companies A, E, and K arrived in San Antonio at the end of slavery when there was a political debate over whether to extend voting rights to Colored men. The situation was compounded by the racial disagreements and morale issues within the troop companies. The companies were led by white officers. The 9th Cavalry arrived in San Antonio to jeers and curses from community members who felt the federal government was overstepping state's rights, and it was an added insult to have Colored troops reinforce the federal government's power. However, the first military action that resulted in injury and death did not involve the community but occurred during a fight between the 9th Cavalry troops and officers. Lt. Edward Heyl had ordered three Colored troops be hung from trees by their wrists because he felt that they had been slow in responding to his orders. The three troops were Private Fayette Hall, a Civil War veteran; Private Alphonse Goodman; and Private Albert Bailey. Lt. Heyl left camp and went to a saloon, and when he returned, he beat one of the three troops with his saber. Sergeant Harrison Bradford took issue with the behavior and led the protest, confronting Lt. Heyl. Bradford was shot by either Lt. Heyl or Lt. Griffin. Sergeant Bradford and another soldier retaliated. Lt. Heyl, Lt. Seth Griffin, and Lt. Fred Smith were injured. Lt. Smith fired the shot that killed Sergeant Bradford, which led to an all out fight: shots were exchanged between the officers and the Colored troops. Peace was restored with the arrival of troops led by Colonel Wesley Merritt. Lt. Seth Griffin suffered a head wound when he was struck by a saber; he died April 14, 1867. Corporal Charles Wood and Private Irving Charles, Colored troops, were arrested and received death sentences for their part in the fight. Several of the Colored troops involved in the fight were sentenced to prison terms. By the summer of 1867, the 9th Cavalry had been redistributed to other posts in West Texas. Also during the summer of 1867, the Colored people of San Antonio held their first Juneteenth Celebration at San Pedro Springs Park. It was not much later that Corporal Charles Wood, Private Irving Charles, and the Colored troops of the 9th Cavalry who had been sentenced to prison terms were all pardoned and returned to duty; troops were desperately needed on the West Texas front to protect against highway bandits, cattle rustlers, and Native Americans. Lt. Heyl remained with the 9th Cavalry until 1881; he was a colonel in the Inspector General's Department when he died in 1895. Lt. Frederick Smith also stayed with the 9th Cavalry, excelling as an officer, until December of 1869, when his wife was about leave him: Lt. Smith shot himself in the head. The 9th Cavalry developed into a major fighting force in Texas but still received racial hostility from the public and was therefore removed to the New Mexico Territory. For more see On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier II, by I. Schubert and F. N. Schubert; African Americans and Race Relations in San Antonio, Texas, 1867-1937, by K. Mason; chapter 6, "The 9th Cavalry in Texas: Mutiny at San Pedro Springs, Texas, April 1867" in Voices of the Buffalo Soldier, by F. N. Schubert; the entry "9th Cavalry" in African Americans at War: an encyclopedia, Vol. 1, by J. Sutherland; E. Ayala, "Time to recall chains broken," San Antonio Express-News, 06/19/2009, p. 3B; The Buffalo Soldiers: a narrative of the Black Cavalry in the West, by W. H. Leckie and S. A. Leckie; and Black Valor: Buffalo Soldiers and the Medal of Honor, 1870-1898, by F. N. Schubert. Read more about the career of Lt. Frederick Smith in "African American troops of Company K, 9th Cavalry fought in the Battle of Fort Lancaster," an article by W. R. Austerman in the Wild West journal, February 2005 issue [article available online at Historynet.com]. The location of Sergeant Harrison Bradford's grave is not known at this time.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Military & Veterans, Emancipation Day / Juneteenth Celebrations, Riots and Protests Outside Kentucky
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky / San Pedro Springs, San Antonio, Texas

The Bransfords
Start Year : 1838
Nick and Matt [or Mat] Bransford and Stephen Bishop were slaves who served as guides at Mammoth Cave; Matt was a guide for 49 years, beginning in 1838. He was the son of Thomas Bransford and a slave woman. Henry Bransford, Matt's son, was a guide for 19 years. Matt W. and Lewis Bransford, Henry's sons, were also guides, Matt for 32 years. Lewis resigned in 1940, and in 1948 Mammoth Cave was turned over to the federal government. Eight of the Bransford men had been guides in Mammoth Cave. In 2002, Jerry Bransford became a guide at the cave, he is the great-great-grandson of Mat Bransford. For more see Kentucky's Black Heritage, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; Louisville Defender, 04/12/1942; The News-Enterprise (Hardin County, KY), 02/09/04; J. C. Schmitzer, "The sable guides of Mammoth Cave," Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 67, issue 2 (1993), pp. 240-258; K. Ohlson, "Illuminating his heritage," American Profile, 11/8-14,2009, pp.6-7; and Making Their Mark: the signature of slavery at Mammoth Cave by J. Lyons. 

See photo image of Matt Bransford at NYPL Digital Gallery.

See photo image of William Bransford at NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Parks
Geographic Region: Mammoth Cave National Park, Edmonson County, Kentucky

Breathitt County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Breathitt County, located in eastern Kentucky in the Cumberland Plateau, is surrounded by eight counties and was formed from Clay, Perry, and Estill Counties. Breathitt County was formed in 1839, and was named for Kentucky Governor John Breathitt. Jackson is the county seat. The population was 359 in the 1840 U.S. Federal Census [heads of households], and grew to 5,673 by 1870, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 46 slave owners
  • 118 Black slaves
  • 51 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks
  • 8 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 46 slave owners
  • 115 Black slaves
  • 75 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks
  • 19 free Mulattoes [last names Freeman and Smith]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 75 Blacks
  • 103 Mulattoes
  • At least 2 U.S. Colored Troops listed Breathitt County, KY, as their birth location [Henson Calamees and Robert Chanler].
For more see the entry for Breathitt County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Breathitt County, Kentucky by J. E. Munson [thesis]; and History of Breathitt County, Kentucky by D. Wullschleger [thesis].
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Breathitt County, Kentucky

Breckinridge County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Breckinridge County was formed in 1799 from part of Hardin County, KY, and is bordered by five counties and the Kentucky River. Breckinridge County is located in the mid-western part of the state, and was named for John Breckinridge, a U.S. Attorney General and a Senator, an Attorney General and House Member in Kentucky, and a veteran of the American Revolutionary War. John Breckinridge died in 1806, shortly after Breckinridge County was formed. The county seat is Hardinsburg. The total population in 1800 was 807, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 765 whites, 41 slaves, and 1 free colored. By 1860 the population was 10,896, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 408 slave owners
  • 1,569 Black slaves
  • 380 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 2 Colored [Thomas Alexander and Hardin Alexander]
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 476 slave owners
  • 1,837 Black slaves
  • 499 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes [3 last name Piles, 1 last name Tanner]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,143 Blacks
  • 413 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Breckinridge County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Breckinridge County in Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky, v.2 by L. Collins and R. H. Collins; History and Legend of Breckinridge County, Kentucky by B. Thompson; and Breckinridge County, Kentucky Pictorial History by Breckinridge County Bicentennial Committee.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Breckinridge County, Kentucky

Breeding, Polly
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1939
Polly Breeding was born New Year's Day, 1849, in Lafayette, KY, the daughter of Phyllis Hiser, a slave, and Thomas Pound, a freeman. Thomas Pound's family had gained freedom when his grandmother, who was white, had a child by his grandfather, who was one of her slaves. According to the reprint from WPA Projects, "Aunt Polly Breeding was the oldest and most noted slave near Edmonton, Kentucky." A brief history of the family is in the Quarterly of the Metcalfe County Historical Society, vol. 4, issue 1 (Winter 1985). Polly Breeding died of influenza on March 12, 1939, according to her Kentucky Death Certificate #8186 file #87. She was a widow, her husband was Milton Breeding.
Subjects: Freedom, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Lafayette and Edmonton, Metcalfe County, Kentucky

Brodis, James, Sr. "Jim" [Joseph M. Dorcy v. Maria Brodis et al.]
Birth Year : 1833
Jim Brodis, Sr. was a runaway slave from Kentucky. He escaped from his master while they were mining in California. Brodis fled to Pajaro Valley, California, where he eventually purchased a farm. A street there is named in his honor and memory in Watsonville. Brodis [or Brodies] is listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census as a farmer, also listed are his wife Maria (b.1843 in Nova Scotia) and their five children. In 1908, the Supreme Court of California denied a rehearing in the case of Joseph M. Dorcy v. Maria Brodis and others. James Brodis had passed away, leaving all assets to Maria and the children. A land dispute led Dorcy to file a lawsuit against Maria et al. over the ownership of a tract of land in Santa Cruz. The court had ruled in favor of Maria et al., and Dorcy sought a retrial. For more see Dorcy v. Bordis on p.278 of v.96, first series of the Pacific Reporter, July 6-September 7, 1908 [full view at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Migration West, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Santa Cruz, California

Brown, Edward D. "Brown Dick"
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1906
Edward Dudley Brown, born in Kentucky, was a slave owned by R. A. Alexander. At the age of seven, Brown was sold on the steps of the Lexington Courthouse to Alexander. Brown was a jockey, and won the 1870 Belmont Stakes aboard Kingfisher, trained by Raleigh Colston, Sr. Dudley was the trainer for the horse Baden-Baden, winner of the 1877 Kentucky Derby. Brown also owned and trained his own horses. He was inducted into the National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame in 1984. For more see Black winning jockeys in the Kentucky Derby, by J. R. and M. R. Saunders.

See photo image of Edward D. Brown at Black Jockeys website.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Bruner, Peter
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1938
Peter Bruner was born a slave in Winchester, KY. After several attempts at running away, he finally succeed in 1864 by enlisting in the Union Army at Camp Nelson, KY. For 2 1/2 years, he served in the 12th U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery Regiment - Company G. Bruner next settled in Ohio, where he attended school and married. He was later employed at the Western Seminary near Oxford, Ohio, and also worked at Oxford College and Miami University. [Oxford and Western were merged into Miami University.] Peter Bruner is buried in the Woodside Cemetery in Oxford, Ohio. For more see A Slave's Adventures Toward Freedom; Not Fiction, but the True Story of a Struggle, by P. Bruner [full-text available at UNC University Library Documenting the American South website].

See several photo images of Peter Bruner at NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North
Geographic Region: Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky / Oxford, Ohio

Bullitt County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Bullitt County is located in the western Bluegrass Region of Kentucky, and is bordered by four other counties. Shepherdsville is the county seat, named for Adam Shepherd, an engineer and Revolutionary War veteran. Shepherdsville was founded in 1793, three years before the county was established. Bullitt County was formed from parts of Jefferson and Nelson Counties, and was named after Alexander Scott Bullitt, the state's first Lieutenant Governor. The total population in 1800 was 3,542, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,564 whites, 969 slaves, 9 free colored. In 1830, there were two African American slave owners in the town of Mount Washington. The 1860 population was 5,631, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 252 slave owners
  • 1,186 Black slaves
  • 169 Mulatto slaves
  • 23 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 294 slave owners
  • 1,067 Black slaves
  • 391 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 3 free Mulattoes [women]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 984 Blacks
  • 189 Mulattoes
  • About 16 U.S. Colored Troops listed Bullitt County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Bullitt County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Bullitt County, Kentucky by Turner Pub. Co.; and Rogers Family African American Graveyard (Fox Chase) a Bullitt County History Museum website.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Bullitt County, Kentucky

Burleigh, Angus A.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1939
Angus A. Burleigh was the first adult African American to attend and graduate from Berea College in Berea, KY. Burleigh had been born free, the son of an English sea captain and an African American woman, but after his father's death the family was sold into slavery, first in Virginia, then in Kentucky. Burleigh ran away and joined the Union Army when he was 16 years old. In 1866, he had finished his stint with the Army and enrolled at Berea with the encouragement and support of John G. Fee. After his graduation in 1875, Burleigh immediately left Kentucky and headed north, where he would spend the rest of his life preaching and teaching. For more see "Hasan Davis and the story of A.A. Burleigh," Kentucky Life, Program 807. Hasan Davis gives a phenomenal live performance of A. A. Burleigh's life in The Long Climb to Freedom. You have got to see it! Program 807 is available at the UK Young Library Audio Visual Services.

See photo image of Angus Burleigh at the Long Climb to Freedom website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Virginia / Berea, Madison County, Kentucky

Butler County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Butler County is located in the western part of Kentucky and is bordered by six counties. It was formed in 1810 from portions of Logan and Ohio Counties, and was named for Richard Butler, a Revolutionary War veteran from Pennsylvania. The county seat is Morgantown. There were 322 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census for Butler County, and the population had increased to 7,117 by the year 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 177 slave owners
  • 574 Black slaves
  • 107 Mulatto slaves
  • 14 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 213 slave owners
  • 560 Black slaves
  • 212 Mulatto slaves
  • 25 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 622 Blacks
  • 16 Mulattoes
  • About 17 U.S. Colored Troops listed Butler County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Butler County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Butler County, Kentucky by L. Russ; and African-American life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Butler County, Kentucky

Caesar
Birth Year : 1758
Death Year : 1836
Caesar, born into slavery, was a carpenter. In 1733, he was inherited by James Robertson. Caesar accompanied Robertson on his journey to the Natchez District and on to Fort Nelson (Louisville, KY). When Robertson died, Caesar became the property of Philip Barbour, who then sold him to John Campbell. When Campbell died, his heir, William Beard, brought Caesar to Lexington, KY, where he lived for the remainder of his life. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Explorers, Inheritance, Carpenters
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Caldwell, Charles
Birth Year : 1831
Death Year : 1875
Caldwell, a blacksmith, was born in Kentucky and later became an elected state senator in Mississippi. He was the husband of Margaret Ann Caldwell. In 1868, Charles Caldwell and the son of a judge were involved in a shootout that left the judge's son dead. Caldwell was tried by an all-white jury and found not guilty; he was the first African American in Mississippi to kill a white man and be found not guilty by the courts. Caldwell continued as a state senator and helped write the state constitution. He would later command an African American militia troop in Clinton, MS, and try unsuccessfully to prevent a race riot. The riot lasted for four days, and on Christmas Day, 1875, Caldwell was gunned down by a gang of whites. For more see A People's History of the United States: 1942-present (2003), by H. Zinn; and "Charles Caldwell, State Senator," in Great Black Men of Masonry, 1723-1982 (2002), by J. M. A. Cox.
Subjects: Blacksmiths, Migration South, Riots and Protests Outside Kentucky, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Clinton, Mississippi

Caldwell County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Caldwell County is surrounded by six counties, it is located in the western section of the state. The county was formed in 1809 from a portion of Livingston County. and was named for John Caldwell, a veteran of the Indian Wars, a Kentucky Senator, and the 2nd Lieutenant Governor of Kentucky. The first community was Eddy Grove and the first county seat was Eddyville. The new county seat of Princetown was selected around 1817, named for land owner William Prince, and the town name was later changed to Princeton. The 1810 population for Caldwell County was 659 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and that increased to 6,912 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 566 slave owners
  • 2,723 Black slaves
  • 384 Mulatto slaves
  • 95 free Blacks
  • 43 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 433 slave owners
  • 2,013 Black slaves
  • 418 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,342 Blacks
  • 656 Mulattoes
  • About 228 U.S. Colored Troops listed Caldwell County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Caldwell County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Caldwell County, Kentucky History by S. W. Steger; and First History of Caldwell County, Kentucky by C. R. Baker. See photo image of Caldwell County Negro high school in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Caldwell County, Kentucky

Calloway County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Calloway County is located in south-western Kentucky, surrounded by two counties, the Kentucky Lake, and the Tennessee state border. It was formed from a portion of Hickman County in 1822, and named for explorer Richard Calloway. The county seat was first named Williston, then Pooltown, then Pleasant Springs, and finally named Murray in 1844 after John L. Murray, a Kentucky Legislator and a U.S. Congressman. The county population was 822 [heads of households] according to the 1830 U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 8,424 in 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 255 slave owners
  • 866 Black slaves
  • 126 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [teenagers Henry and Dan Cooper]
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 336 slave owners
  • 1,135 Black slaves
  • 348 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [last names Harper and Mays]
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 775 Blacks
  • 81 Mulattoes
  • About 29 U.S. Colored Troops listed Calloway County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Calloway County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A Distant Light by B. Cunningham; History of Calloway County, Kentucky 1931 by E. A. Johnston; and The Story of Calloway County, 1822-1976 by D. Jennings and K. Jennings.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Calloway County, Kentucky

Calvin, Mandy
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1942
Mandy Calvin became an actress in 1941 when she was selected to play the part of an aged native woman in the Hollywood film Tarzan's Secret Treasure, by MGM starring Johnny Weissmuller and Maureen O'Sullivan. Mandy Calvin, supposedly born around 1839, had been a slave in Kentucky, and was living in Los Angeles, CA. She was selected for the film after movie director Richard Thrope asked talent scouts to find the oldest African American woman. Mandy Calvin's name is not listed in the credits, nor are the names of others who had minor parts in the the film. Mandy Calvin is listed in he 1940 U.S. Federal Census with an estimated birth year of 1849, she lived with her grandson Roy P. Lanier and a lodger named Mary Dews. Mandy Calvin died June 5, 1942, according to the California Death Index, and her birth date is given as April 10, 1850. Her mother's maiden name was Ford and her father's last name was Grist, her parents were from Mississippi. For more see "Ex-slave makes her movie debut at 102," Baltimore Afro-American, 10/18/1941, p.14.; "Woman, 102 years makes screen debut," The Sunday Morning Star, 10/26/1941, p.8; and "Mandy begins career at age 102, estimated," Ogden Standard Examiner, 10/09/1941, p.19.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Migration West, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Los Angeles and Hollywood, California

Campbell County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Campbell County, located in northern Kentucky, is bordered by two counties and the Ohio River. It was formed in 1794 from portions of Harrison, Mason, and Scott Counties. The county was named for John Campbell, who was born in Ireland. He was a veteran of the Revolutionary War, and he was a Kentucky Senator. The county seat is Alexandria. The county population in 1800 was 1,903, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,612 whites, 279 slaves, 12 free coloreds. By 1860 the population was 20,673, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 59 slave owners
  • 115 Black slaves
  • 62 Mulatto slaves
  • 65 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 50 slave owners
  • 81 Black slaves
  • 35 Mulatto slaves
  • 68 free Blacks
  • 20 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 253 Blacks
  • 228 Mulattoes
  • About 4 U.S. Colored Troops listed Campbell County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see The Encyclopedia of Kentucky edited by J. E. Kleber; Campbell County, Kentucky, 200 Years, 1794-1994 by Campbell County Historical Society; History of Campbell County, Kentucky by M. K. Jones [available at Google Book Search]; and see Tid-bits of Northern Kentucky History: Wm. S. Bailey of Newport, and his anti-slavery newspapers, by M. S. Hartman, online at Northern Kentucky Views [.pdf].
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Campbell County, Kentucky

Caroline (escaped slave) [Donnell v. State]
Start Year : 1847
End Year : 1852
Caroline was a runaway slave from Trimble County, KY, who made a daring escape with her four children in 1847. Escorts in the Underground Railroad helped the family reach the Greenbriar Settlement in Indiana (near the Decatur County/Franklin County line), where they were captured and locked in a livestock feed house. Owner George Ray had posted a reward for the family, and he sued Luther Donnell for rescuing the family from the feed house and helping them toward freedom in Canada. For more see Hoosier farmer gave costly help to fleeing slave and her children at Indianapolis Star Library Factfiles website, indystar.com; and pictures of the historical marker at IN.gov.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Court Cases, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky / Greenbriar Settlement, Decatur County, Indiana / Canada

Carpenter, Eliza
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1924
She was known as Aunt Eliza, the only Colored race horse owner in Oklahoma, her real name was Eliza Carpenter. She had been a slave, born in Virginia, sold to a Kentucky master at age six, and sold again at age eight to a Missouri planter. Carpenter gained her freedom at the end of the Civil War and returned to Madisonville, KY, where she learned the business of buying, training, and riding race horses. She then moved to Kansas where she purchased several horses, and would move on to Ponca City, Oklahoma where she shared her home with a boarder, Athather Johnson, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. Carpenter's occupation is given as a trader of livestock. She had come to Ponca City when the Cherokee Strip was opened for settlement in 1893, and with a $1,000 prize going to the first person to reach the Ponca City site. There was a heated race to the site and Carpenter was one of the competitors. Some sources say that she was the first to stake a claim, while other sources say that she did not win the race. Either way, Carpenter settled in Ponca City where she trained her horses, was one of the few African American stable owners in the West, and when dissatisfied with the way a race was going, she had ridden her own horses. Carpenter, as a jockey, had won a few races. Her regular jockey was Olla "Lucky" Johnson. Some of her horses names were Irish Maid, Blue Bird, and Little Brown Jug. Eliza Carpenter had also stood up for herself when she won a horse racing bet and the person she was betting with refused to pay-up. Carpenter visited family in Kentucky on several occasions and on her final visit she was thrown from a buggy when her horse became spooked; Carpenter suffered a fractured skull and never fully recovered. She died in Oklahoma. She was the aunt of Frank and Virgil Gilliam of Madisonville, KY. For more see "Fans mourn woman jockey," Baltimore Afro-American, 12/20/1924; "Reproduced the Strip Run," Hutchison News, 09/17/06, p.8;
Subjects: Businesses, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration West
Geographic Region: Virginia / Madisonville, Hopkins County, Kentucky / Missouri / Kansas / Oklahoma

Carroll County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Carroll County is located in north-central Kentucky along the Ohio River, bordered by four counties. One of the smallest counties in the state, it was formed in 1838 from portions of Gallatin, Henry, and Trimble Counties. Both Carroll County and its county seat, Carrollton, were named for Charles Carroll, who was a U.S. Senator for Maryland. Of all who signed the Declaration of Independence, Charles Carroll (1737-1832) lived the longest. There are Carroll Counties in 12 states and two Parishes in Louisiana, all named for Charles Carroll. In Carroll County, KY, the first U.S. Census of the county was taken 1840, when there was a population of 572 [heads of households]. By 1860 the population was 5,533, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes in Carroll County for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 243 slave owners
  • 788 Black slaves
  • 159 Mulatto slaves
  • 21 free Blacks
  • 7 free Mulattoes [including Wheeling Gaunt, his wife, and brother]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 264 slave owners
  • 1,629 Black slaves
  • 233 Mulatto slaves
  • 32 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 529 Blacks
  • 6 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Carroll County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Carroll County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Carroll County, Kentucky, by M. A. Gentry; and Carroll County, Kentucky History and Biographies by L. Collins, et al.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Carroll County, Kentucky

Carter County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Carter County is located in northeastern Kentucky and is surrounded by six counties. It was formed in 1838 from parts of Greenup and Lawrence Counties. Both the county and the county seat, Grayson, were named for William Grayson Carter, who was a Kentucky Senator 1834-38. Senator Carter had been awarded 70,000 acres in the Carter County area for his service in the American Revolution. The county population was 364 [heads of households] according to the 1840 U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 8,207 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 60 slave owners
  • 190 Black slaves
  • 67 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 11 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 63 slave owners
  • 218 Black slaves
  • 92 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks [most with last names Bell, Black, and Garner]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [all with last name Nickell]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 99 Blacks
  • 1 Mulatto
  • About 11 U.S. Colored Troops listed Carter County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Carter County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Carter County, Kentucky

Casey County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Casey County was created from Lincoln County in 1806, and is named for William Casey, the great-grandfather of Samuel Clemens [Mark Twain]. William Casey was from Virginia, he was a veteran of the Revolutionary War. Prior to the development of Casey County, the land had been given to war veterans as payment for their military services. President Abraham Lincoln's grandfather was one of the settlers in the area around 1780. Casey County is surrounded by seven counties, and Liberty is the county seat. There were 514 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 Census, and the population had increased to 5,800 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 121 slave owners
  • 598 Black slaves
  • 37 Mulatto slaves
  • 24 free Blacks
  • 35 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 110 slave owners
  • 582 Black slaves
  • 84 Mulatto slaves
  • 24 free Blacks
  • 33 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 507 Blacks
  • 34 Mulattoes
  • About 31 U.S. Colored Troops listed Casey County, Kentucky as their birth location.
For more see The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Searching for Jim by T. Dempsey; Casey County, Kentucky, 1806-1977 by G. C. Thomas; Free African Americans in Casey County During the Era of the Underground Railroad by D. Y. Wilkinson; and see Michael J. Denis' rootsweb page with census records on slaves and military records on U.S. Colored Troops, all pertaining to Casey County.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Casey County, Kentucky

Cato (slave jockey) [Grey Eagle v Wagner]
Start Year : 1839
On Monday, September 30, 1839, the infamous race between the Virginia-bred horse Wagner and the Kentucky-bred horse Grey Eagle took place at the Oakland Course in Louisville, KY, for a purse of $14,000. Grey Eagle was a four year old owned by hemp dealer Alfred Lawrence Shotwell of Louisville, and ridden by Stephen Welch, a white jockey who weighed 83 pounds. Grey Eagle had run the fastest two miles in the United States. Wagner, a five year old owned by John Campbell of Maryland, was ridden by Cato, a slave jockey owned by John Campbell. The race was set for three four-mile heats. The winner of two heats would be declared the champion. Bets between individuals were made in dollars and in slaves. It was estimated that there were over 10,000 people in attendance to witness Wagner win two heats back to back and be declared the overall winner. A new record of 7:44 was set in the second heat. Fans still wanted the opportunity to prove Grey Eagle's winning ability, so it was agreed that another race would take place on the same course in five days. Wagner was again the victor. Grey Eagle was injured during the competition and never raced again. Cato, the slave jockey, was given his freedom in exchange for the victories. He would continue as a jockey for John Campbell. For more see "Some Great Races," chapter three in The American Turf, by J. H. Davis [available full-text at Google Book Search]; and Black Maestro, by J. Drape.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Maryland

Christian County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Christian County is located in southwestern Kentucky, bounded by the Tennessee state border and five Kentucky counties. It was formed from a portion of Logan County in 1797 and named for the American Revolutionary War veteran William Christian who was from Virginia. There is also a Christian County in Illinois and another in Missouri. In Kentucky, the county seat of Christian County is Hopkinsville, which was incorporated in 1804 and named for Samuel Hopkins, a Kentucky Representative and Senator, and a U.S. Congressman who was born in Virginia. The 1800 Christian County population was 2,318 according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,021 whites and 297 slaves. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner in Hopkinsville. By 1860, the county population was 11,676, excluding the slaves, all according to the U.S. Federal Census. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule  

  • 1,184 slave owners
  • 7,120 Black slaves
  • 1,020 Mulatto slaves
  • 121 free Blacks
  • 30 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 1,178 slave owners
  • 8,055 Black slaves
  • 1 Colored slave [owned by Elizabeth J. Barnett]
  • 1,878 Mulatto slaves
  • 34 free Blacks
  • 22 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 9,518 Blacks
  • 259 Mulattoes
  • About 500 U.S. Colored Troops listed Christian County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Christian County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane by C. M. Meacham; Christian County, Kentucky, Historical and Biographical by W. H. Perrin; and The Dark Side of Hopkinsville by T. Poston and K. Hauke
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

Clark County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Clark County was formed in 1792 from portions of Bourbon and Fayette Counties. Clark County is located in north-central Kentucky on the eastern edge of the Bluegrass Region, and is surrounded by six counties. It is named for George Rogers Clark, Revolutionary War veteran who was born in Virginia, and a brother to William Clark of the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition. The county seat is Winchester, named for Winchester, VA. The 1800 county population was 7,653, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 6,075 whites, 1,561 slaves, and 17 free coloreds. The 1810 county population was 11,519, according to the Third Census of the United States (1810 Census), Clark County, Kentucky: 8,562 whites, 2,934 slaves, and 23 free coloreds. In 1830 there were two African American slave owners. The 1860 population was 6,727, according to the U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 833 slave owners
  • 4,349 Black slaves
  • 574 Mulatto slaves
  • 103 free Blacks
  • 32 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 769 slave owners
  • 4,417 Black slaves
  • 347 Mulatto slaves
  • 113 free Blacks
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,349 Blacks
  • 393 Mulattoes
  • About 380 U.S. Colored Soldiers listed Clark County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Clark County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A.C. Quisenberry, "Clark County, Kentucky, in the Census of 1810" The Register of the Kentucky State Historical Society, 1922, vols.1-20, pp.68-84 [available at Google Books]; and Clark County, Kentucky: a history by T. D. Clark. See photo image of Oliver School (1892-1956) in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Clark County, Kentucky

Clay County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Clay County is located in southeastern Kentucky in the Cumberland Mountains and is surrounded by seven counties. During the 1800s, Clay County was the major salt producer for the state of Kentucky. The county was formed in 1807 from portions of Madison, Floyd, and Knox Counties, and is named for Green Clay from Virginia, he was a veteran of the War of 1812 and the American Revolutionary War. Green Clay was a surveyor in Kentucky, and later became a Kentucky Representative in the Virginia House of Delegates. He was also a member of the Kentucky Legislature. The town of Greenville was also named for Green Clay, but the name was later changed to Manchester, which is the county seat. The name change was in honor of Manchester, England. The 1810 Clay County population was 428 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 6,303 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 51 slave owners
  • 349 Black slaves
  • 82 Mulatto slaves
  • 58 free Blacks
  • 118 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 85 slave owners
  • 215 Black slaves
  • 139 Mulatto slaves
  • 49 free Blacks
  • 209 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 366 Blacks
  • 176 Mulattoes
  • About 25 U.S. Colored Troops listed Clay County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Clay County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Clay County, Kentucky, 1767-1976 by K. Morgan and H. S. Morgan; Clay County, Kentucky: history and families by the Clay County Genealogical and Historical Society; and Appalachians and Race by J. C. Inscoe.
See photo image of the Colored Graded School in Manchester, KY, at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Clay County, Kentucky

Clay, Theodore H., Sr.
Birth Year : 1843
Theodore H. Clay, Sr. was born in Fayette County, KY, his father was from Virginia and his mother was from Kentucky. Clay grew up in Lexington and became one of the early African American horse trainers who owned his own business, [as was Dudley Allen]. Clay is listed as Colored in the Sheppard's Lexington City Directory 1873 and 1874, owner of a breaking and training stable on Deweese Street opposite Correll [Corrall] Street. He is the only "Colored" person listed under the heading 'Horse Trainer' on p.234 of the 1873-74 city directory. His account record at the U.S. Freedmen Bank dated May 26, 1871, gives his occupation as a self employed trainer, and includes his wife's name, Louisa, a child named Brice, and a brother named Marshall. The Clays lived on Deweese Street. The family is listed in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census and includes the name of a second son named Theodore, and their property was valued at $800. The Clay family would leave Kentucky and move to Kansas. In 1880 they lived in Shawnee, KS: Theodore and Maria Louisa Clay (b.1848 in KY) and their three sons, all born in Kentucky, Brice Henry Clay (b.1868), Theodore H. Clay, Jr. (b.1870), and Edward Marshall Clay (b.1873). Theodore, Sr. supported the family as a farmer. By 1900, Theodore Clay was a widower living at 545 Tracy Street in Kansas City, MO, his occupation was listed in the census as farmer. He is last listed in the 1910 census, when Theodore shared his home with his son Edward and his family.
Subjects: Businesses, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration West
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Shawnee, Kansas / Kansas City, Missouri

Clinton County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Clinton County is located in south-central Kentucky, on the Tennessee border and neighboring three Kentucky counties. The county was formed in 1835 from portions of Cumberland and Wayne Counties, and was named for DeWitt Clinton who was a U.S. Senator and the Governor of New York. The county seat is Albany; some of the earliest settlers came to the area from Albany, NY. There were 631 [heads of households] counted in the 1840 U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,523 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 78 slave owners
  • 233 Black slaves
  • 29 Mulatto slaves
  • 35 free Blacks [most with the last name of Cowan or Cozens]
  • 3 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 77 slave owners
  • 181 Black slaves
  • 78 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 202 Blacks
  • 108 Mulattoes
  • About 18 U.S. Colored Troops listed Clinton County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Clinton County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and Clinton County, Kentucky: a pictorial history by Clinton County Historical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Clinton County, Kentucky

Coleman, William David (Liberia)
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1908
William D. Coleman was born in Fayette County, KY. He was a slave who gained his freedom then settled in Liberia, Africa. Coleman was Vice President of Liberia before becoming its 12th president (1896-1900). He first completed President J. J. Cheeseman's term and was then elected to the presidency. His dates have also been given as 1869-1900. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. DunniganThe Political and Legislative History of Liberia, by C. H. Huberich; and William David Coleman, a Liberia Past and Present website.

See image of William D. Coleman at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Liberia, Liberian Presidents & Diplomats, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Presidents, National Presidential Candidates and Party Nominees
Geographic Region: Fayette County, Kentucky / Liberia, Africa

Coletown (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1834
Coletown is located on Walnut Hill Road in Lexington. Prior to the formation of the community, the land belonged to Sarah Johnson. Johnson willed ten acres to Milley Cole in 1834; Cole had been a slave owned by Johnson's brother, Horatio Johnson. The land was subdivided among the heirs of Milley Cole, and thus began Coletown. In 1971, there were 30 people living in the community. For more see Negro Hamlets and Gentlemen Farms: a dichotomous rural settlement pattern in Kentucky's Bluegrass Region, by P. C. Smith; and Historical Communities Near Lexington, a Bluegrass Community & Technical College website.
Subjects: Communities
Geographic Region: Coletown, Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Colored Christian Church (Midway, KY)
Start Year : 1834
What is thought to be the first Negro Christian Church in the United States was founded as a congregation in 1834. It was later named the Midway Colored Christian Church, then renamed the 2nd Christian Church of Midway. According to former historian, Mrs. Katherine Johnson, the initial congregation was made up of colored members of the white churches at New Union, Grassy Spring, and Georgetown, KY. Meetings were held at the Kentucky Female Orphan School, where one of the members would volunteer to lead the weekly services. Alexander Campbell, a slave who was purchased by the white Christian Church for $1000 in order to become the preacher and manager of the congregation's affairs. A log cabin church was later built for the members on the banks of Lee's Branch. Under Campbell's leadership, the church soon had 300 new members and the congregation outgrew the log cabin. In 1872, the congregation purchased the Presbyterian Church building on Stephens Street, and that church was replaced by a new building in 1906. For more see Negro Disciples in Kentucky, 1840-1925 (thesis), by C. Walker; History of the Midway Colored Christian Church, by K. Johnson (1955); and "Old slave church remembered," Lexington Leader, 12/27/1976, p.A9. See also the entry for the Stone-Campbell Movement in Kentucky.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Midway, New Union, and Grassy Spring, Woodford County, Kentucky / Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky

Colored Union Benevolent Society No.1 and No.2 (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1843
According to author Jacqui Malone, the Union Benevolent Society was formed in 1843 by free African Americans in Lexington, KY, to bury the dead, care for the sick, and give support to orphans and widows. The organization received support from whites who permitted a lodge run by slaves in 1852. The organization also secretly participated in the Underground Railroad, assisting in the escape of slaves. The organization was also referred to as the Lexington Colored People's Union Benevolent Society No 1. The Union Benevolent Society, No.2, of Colored People of Lexington, was incorporated in 1870. The organization had existed for a number of years. In 1870, the executive members were James L. Harvey, President; Jordan C. Jackson, Vice President; Henry King, Secretary; and Leonard Fish, Treasurer. For more information on the Colored Union Benevolent Society No.1 see Steppin' on the Blues: the visible rhythms of African American dance, by J. Malone. For more about Benevolent Society No. 2 see chapter 699 of Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, 1869, pp.349-351 [available full view at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Orphans and Orphanages in Kentucky, Fraternal Organizations, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research, Benevolent Societies
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Columbia (KY) Temperance Society
Start Year : 1840
Columbia Temperance Society in Adair County, KY, was probably the first white temperance society in Kentucky to have an African American member. The organization was formed in 1839 at the Baptist Church. In 1840, there were 139 members of which 44 were women, one of whom was a slave. Columbia was the first Kentucky town to prohibit the sale of alcohol. For more see Mythic Land Apart, by J. D. Smith and T. H. Appleton; and V. Kolbenschlag, 1839 entry in "Walking tour of Columbia," Columbia Magazine, issue 13 [available online].
Subjects: Alcohol
Geographic Region: Columbia, Adair County, Kentucky

Covell, Henry
Birth Year : 1850
Henry Covell is listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census as a horse jockey in Boston, MA. Born around 1850 in Kentucky, Covell was the husband of Helen Covell, a laundrywoman who was born in Massachusetts.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Boston, Massachusetts

Crittenden County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Crittenden County, located in southwest Kentucky, is named for Kentucky Governor John Jordon Crittenden, who resigned before his term as governor was completed. The county was established on April 1, 1842, and is bordered by the Ohio River and five Kentucky counties. The county seat is Marion, named for Francis Marion, a Revolutionary War veteran from South Carolina. In the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, 5,604 person were counted in the county and there was an increase to 7,817 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 190 slave owners
  • 720 Black slaves
  • 116 Mulatto slaves
  • 14 free Blacks
  • 15 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 226 slave owners
  • 702 Black slaves
  • 234 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks [most with last name Yeaky]
  • 11 free Mulattoes [most with the last name of Going or Thralkeld]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 619 Blacks
  • 161 Mulattoes
  • About 70 U.S. Colored Troops listed Crittenden County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the entry for Crittenden County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Crittenden County, Kentucky: volume 1 by T. Tucker; and Crittenden County, Kentucky History and Biographies by L. Collins and W. H. Perrin.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Crittenden County, Kentucky

Cumberland County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1870
Cumberland County is located in south-central Kentucky, bordered by the state of Tennessee and five Kentucky counties. The county was formed in 1798 from a portion of Green County, and is named for the Cumberland River that flows through the county. The county seat, Burkesville, was incorporated in 1846. It was named for Samuel Burk, a citizen in the community. The city had been known as Cumberland Crossings prior to the name change to Burksville. The county population was 3,284 in the Second Census of Kentucky 1800; 3,012 whites, 236 slaves, and 36 free coloreds. By 1860, the population had increased to 5,927, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 295 slave owners
  • 1,150 Black slaves
  • 332 Mulatto slaves
  • 45 free Blacks 
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 273 slave owners
  • 1,213 Black slaves
  • 203 Mulatto slaves
  • 47 free Blacks
  • 192 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,288 Blacks
  • 251 Mulattoes
  • About 32 U.S. Colored Troops listed Cumberland County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Cumberland County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Cumberland County, Kentucky Yesterday and Today by R. Wooten; and History of Cumberland County by J. W. Wells.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Cumberland County, Kentucky

Daviess [Daveiss] County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Daviess County, located in the Western Coal Field region of Kentucky, was formed in 1815 from a part of Ohio County. It is on the Indiana state border, with four neighboring counties in Kentucky. The county was named for Joseph H. Daveiss, a lawyer and an orator who was killed during the battle of Tippecanoe. The present day spelling of the county name was the recording clerk's error in 1815. The Kentucky General Assembly passed an act to correct the spelling to "Daveiss", but it never caught on. The county seat is Owensboro and was originally named Yellowbanks, in reference to the color of the soil along the river banks. When the city was incorporated in 1817, it was spelled "Owensborough," named for Abraham Owen, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and a Kentucky Legislator who was born in Virginia. The name of the town was later shortened to the present day spelling of Owensboro. In the first U.S. Federal Census for the county in1820, there was a population 501 [heads of households], and by 1860 there was a population of 12,035, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 585 slave owners
  • 2,359 Black slaves
  • 524 Mulatto slaves
  • 17 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 669 slave owners
  • 2,856 Black slaves
  • 22 Colored slaves
  • 611 Mulatto slaves
  • 75 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,173 Blacks
  • 527 Mulattoes
  • About 7 U.S. Colored Troops listed Daviess County. KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Daviess County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Born With a Purpose by N. Johnson et. al.; and A Generation Remembers Oral History Project by the Kentucky Oral History Commission and Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Daviess [Daveiss] County, Kentucky

Davis, Ellen
Birth Year : 1843
Death Year : 1927
Ellen Davis was the daughter of John Davis, an Irishman [John J. Cummins is listed as the father on her death certificate]. She was from Fayette County, KY, and had been a slave belonging to the mother of wealthy horseman John T. Hughes (1840-1924) of Fayette County. When Davis was about 18 years old, she had a son by Hughes, who never married. Their relationship was temporarily interrupted during the Civil War, but resumed in 1872, when Davis became free and after J. T. Hughes' mother had died. The relationship continued until 1924 when J. T. Hughes died. In his will, he left $30,000 to various persons, and his faithful colored man, Alex Rankin, received 96 1/2 acres of land [Alex Rankin d.1935, his wife Nannie d.1939, they are buried in African Cemetery No.2]. Ellen Davis received the mansion Elkton and hundreds of acres of farmland plus all of the home belongings, farm equipment, and stock. Their son, Robert Henry Hughes, who had spent most of his life in Buffalo, NY, received 160 acres. The remainder of the estate went to the Midway Orphan's Home. The will was contested and the case went to the Kentucky Court of Appeals, December 1925. The will was allowed to stand as written and Ellen Davis, in a situation very similar to that of Margaret Pryor, was thought to be the wealthiest Negro woman in Kentucky. But unlike Pryor, 80 year old Davis sold the estate that neighbored thoroughbred farms that belonged to wealthy men such as John E. Madden, Samuel D. Riddle, and Joseph E. Widener, who bought 587 acres. Payne Whitney, a relative of J. T. Hughes from New York, bought the Elkton mansion and 277 acres. Ellen Davis died at the age of 84 in Fayette County, KY, on December 8, 1927. According to her death certificate, she is buried in the Greenwood Cemetery. For more see "Bayless v. Hughes' EX'Rs et al. (Court of Appeals of Kentucky. Dec. 15, 1925)," South Western Reporter, vol. 278, pp. 162-163; "Made richest Negress in South by court," New York Times, 12/17/1925, p. 13; and "New property cost breeders $326,000," New York Times, 03/01/1926, p. 14. The Rankins' death dates and cemetery information provided by Yvonne Giles - "The Cemetery Lady".
Subjects: Freedom, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North, Inheritance, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Dunbar, Matilda
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1934
Mother of Paul Laurence Dunbar, she was born Matilda Murphy in Shelby County. She left Kentucky after the ratification of the 13th Amendment freed all slaves in Kentucky. Dunbar, who outlived her son by 28 years, kept his library until her death. Dunbar House is the first publicly-owned historic site to honor an African American (Dayton, OH). In 2006, the grave of Matilda's youngest child and only girl, Elizabeth Florence Dunbar, was placed next to her mother's grave in Woodland Cemetery in Dayton Ohio. The child had died at the age of 2 from sickness and malnutrition and was buried in a potter's field. Shortly after Elizabeth's death, Joshua Dunbar and Matilda divorced. For more see In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed.; African American Women: a Biographical Dictionary (1993), by D. Salem; and M. McCarty, "Dunbar family together," Dayton Daily News, 02/12/06, Local section, p. B1.

See photo image of Matilda Dunbar at Wikimedia.
Subjects: Migration North, Mothers
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky / Dayton, Ohio

Duncan, Cruz [Cruz McClusky]
Birth Year : 1844
Death Year : 1916
In 1910, Cruz Duncan was appointed an aid on the staff of Commander in Chief Van Sant of the G. A. R. (Grand Army of the Republic). Duncan was a former slave by the name of Cruz McClusky. He escaped slavery in Kentucky and joined the Union Army in Pennsylvania, serving with the 8th U.S. Colored Infantry and surviving the Civil War. After the war, he changed his last name to Duncan and returned to Kentucky. He married Mary Beal (also from Kentucky) with whom he had three children; Mary's daughter, Florence Keller, also lived with them. They lived in Louisville, KY, until 1871, then moved to Indianapolis, IN, where the family lived at 23 Columbia Street. Duncan was employed as a laborer. He became a minister and also held all of the leadership positions with the G. A. R. Martin R. Delany Post [Colored] in Indianapolis. He was one of the first African Americans to be elected to the National Encampment. For more see "Wooden Indian inspires; starts Negro in ministry," The Indianapolis Star, 01/16/1910, p. 12; and "No color line allowed", New York Times, 08/07/1891, p. 1. A picture of Cruz Duncan appears on p. 12 of The Indianapolis Star, 01/16/1910.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Early School in Louisville, KY
Start Year : 1838
End Year : 1838
Jerry Wade, described as a mulatto, was a barber at the Galt House in Louisville, KY. He had purchased his freedom and that of his family. Wade was fairly well off and rented one of his homes to his son and his family. The front of the house was rented to Jane Grey Cannon Swisshelm and her husband, both of whom were white. Jane Swisshelm, from Pennsylvania, was an abolitionist and advocate for women's rights. Around 1838 she opened a school for African Americans in the Wade home. Both she and the students were harassed by whites, and Wade was notified that his house would be burned down if the school continued. All of the students withdrew from the school. For more see Half a Century, by Jane Grey Cannon Swisshelm, 1815-1880; and Jane Cannon Swisshelm was active against slavery!, an African American Registry website. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Barbers, Education and Educators, Freedom, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Pennsylvania

Early Shelby County School for Free Persons and Slaves
Start Year : 1849
In 1849, C. W. Robinson, a white minister, attempted to establish a Sunday School for free Negroes, and for slaves who were given permission by their masters to attend the school. For his efforts, Rev. Robinson was flogged in the school room by the Shelby County chief patrol officer. The story was printed in the Shelby News, and retold in the Northhampton Herald and The North Star. There were about 150 free Negroes in Shelby County in 1850 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "A Preacher flogged," The North Star, 07/20/1849, p.3. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Sunday School
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky

Ecton, George French
Birth Year : 1846
Death Year : 1929
George F. Ecton was a slave born in Winchester, KY, the son of Antonia and Martha George Ecton. He and a friend received forged freedom papers and made their way to Cincinnati in 1865. They were employed as deck hands on the Sherman (ship). Ecton soon returned to Cincinnati, where he was employed at a number of locations. He also came down with small pox there but recuperated and began attending a school taught by Miss Luella Brown. In 1873, he left Cincinnati for Chicago, where he managed the Hotel Woodruff dining room. While in Chicago, Ecton ran for and was elected to a seat in the 35th General Assembly. He was also the owner of property worth $10,000. Ecton married Patti R. Allen (b. 1855) in 1877; she was also from Winchester, KY. George F. Ecton died September 17, 1929 and is buried in the Lincoln Cemetery in Chicago [source: Illinois Death Certificate #rn26889]. For more see "Hon. George French Ecton" in Men of Mark, by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner [available full-text at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio / Chicago, Illinois

Edmonson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Edmonson County is located in the Pennyrile and Western Coal Field Regions of Kentucky, and is surrounded by five counties. It was formed in 1825 from portions of Hart, Grayson, and Warren Counties, and was named for John Edmonson, who was from Virginia and was killed during his service in the Battle of River Raisin during the War of 1812. The county seat is Brownsville, established in 1828 and incorporated by the General Assembly in 1860, was named for General Jacob J. Brown, a Quaker from Pennsylvania and an American Army officer in the War of 1812. In 1830, the Edmonson County population was 369 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and that increased to 4,374 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 78 slave owners
  • 297 Black slaves
  • 16 Mulatto slaves
  • 12 free Blacks [most with the last name Cowles]
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 68 slave owners
  • 210 Black slaves
  • 63 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [last name Cowl] 
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 224 Blacks
  • 20 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops gave Edmonson County, KY, as their birth location. 
For more see The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; 1825-1900 Edmonson County by R. Carroll; Pictorial History, Edmonson County, Kentucky, 1825-1998 by Edmonson County Historical Society; and Edmonson County, Kentucky History and Biographies by L. Collins et. al.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Edmonson County, Kentucky

Estill County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Estill County was formed in 1808 from portions of Clark and Madison Counties. The county is located in eastern Kentucky, surrounded by five counties, and named for James Estill who was killed during the Revolutionary War. [Monk Estill was the slave of James Estill, before becoming the first freed slave in Kentucky.] The county seat of Irvine was established in 1812, and is named for William Irvine who was wounded in 1782 during Estill's Defeat, also known as the Battle of Little Mountain. The county population in 1810 was 295 [heads of households], and it increased to 6,378 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 119 slave owners
  • 359 Black slaves
  • 52 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Judy Wages]
  • 1 free Mulatto [Lucy Jones]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 132 slave owners
  • 379 Black slaves
  • 128 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks [5 children with the last name Corner]
  • 7 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 446 Blacks
  • 152 Mulattoes
  • About 3 U.S. Colored Troops listed Estill County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Estill County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Irvine and Estill County, Kentucky by E. C. Park; and Estill County, Kentucky: a pictorial history by Citizen Voice and Times.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Estill County, Kentucky

Estill, Monk
Death Year : 1835
Monk Estill arrived in Kentucky in the 1770s as a slave and was later freed, the first freed slave in Kentucky. He made gunpowder at Boonesborough, KY. His son, Jerry, was the first African American born in Kentucky. For more see the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000 [electronic version available on the University of Kentucky campus and off campus via the proxy server], and The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan.


See depicted image and additional information about Monk Estill at Madison County Historical Society website.
Subjects: Businesses, Early Settlers, Freedom
Geographic Region: Boonesborough, Madison County, Kentucky

Farris, Samuel
Birth Year : 1845
Samuel Farris was born in Barren County, KY. At a young age, he was taken to Mississippi to work on a cotton plantation. After his master died, Farris attempted to make his way back to Kentucky but ended up in Alabama, then later made his way to Memphis. He worked on steamboats for 13 years, then changed his occupation to undertaking. His business was located at 104 DeSoto Street in Memphis, according to the Memphis, TN, City Directory for 1890 and for 1891. In the 1890s Samuel Farris was a member of the A.M.E. Church and considered a wealthy businessman -- worth $15,000. For more see the Samuel Farris entry in Afro-American Encyclopaedia: Or, the Thoughts, Doings... by James T. Haley, pp. 207-208 [UNC University Library, Documenting the American South].

  See photo image of Samuel Farris on p.208 of the Afro-American Encyclopaedia by J. T. Haley.
Subjects: Businesses, Freedom, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Migration South
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky / Memphis, Tennessee

Fayette County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Fayette County is one the three original counties formed by Virginia in 1780. Today the county is located in the central Bluegrass Region surrounded by six counties, including its southern boundary of the Kentucky River that is shared with Madison County. Fayette County was named for Marquis de Lafayette, a French aristocrat who was a military officer in the American Revolutionary War and during the French Revolution. There are many locations in the United States named for General Lafayette. The county seat of Fayette County in Kentucky is Lexington, created by Virginia in 1782, and named after Lexington, MA. Fayette County encompasses the second largest population in Kentucky. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 14,626 whites, 3,752 slaves, and 32 free persons. In 1800, the population was 14,028, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 9,715 whites, 4,225 slaves, and 88 free coloreds. In 1830, there were 13 African American slave owners in Fayette County, and 15 in Lexington. By 1860, the county population had increased to 12,585 [excluding the slaves], and ten years later, after slavery had ended in Kentucky, the Fayette County population was 26,736, according to the U.S. Federal Census. There was a significant slave population in Fayette County, below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 1,553 slave owners
  • 9,946 Black slaves
  • 858 Mulatto slaves
  • 518 free Blacks
  • 153 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 1,720 slave owners
  • 8,537 Black slaves
  • 1,611 Mulatto slaves
  • 453 free Blacks
  • 232 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 10,795 Blacks
  • 1,590 Mulattoes
  • About 406 U.S. Colored Troops listed Fayette County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Fayette County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Lexington, Kentucky by G. W. Ranck; History of Fayette County, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin; Black Marriage Bonds of Fayette County, Kentucky, 1866-1876 by G. Garrison; and African American Presence by Historic South Hill Neighborhood Association.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Fayette County, Kentucky

Fitzbutler, Henry
Birth Year : 1837
Death Year : 1901
Henry Fitzbutler, born in Maiden, Ontario, Canada, attended medical school in Detroit, enrolling in the Detroit Medical School in 1871 at the age of 29. He practiced medicine with his wife, Sarah, in Louisville, KY, where he pushed for a medical school for African Americans: the Louisville National Medical College opened without race restrictions. Fitzbutler also published the African American newspaper, Ohio Falls Express. Only the July 11, 1891 issue is still available, on microfilm, at the University of Louisville Archives and Record Center. Henry Fitzbutler was the father of Mary Fitzbutler Waring. For more see Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000; see Henry Fitzbutler at Find a Grave; and the Henry Fitzbutler entry in The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography by J. T. White [available full-text at Google Book Search].

See photo image of Henry Fitzbutler at Find A Grave website.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration South
Geographic Region: Maiden, Ontario, Canada / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Detroit, Michigan

Fitzbutler, Sarah Helen M.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1923
Dr. Fitzbutler graduated from the Louisville National Medical College in 1892. She was the first woman of color to earn a medical degree in Kentucky; she went on to practice medicine in Louisville with her husband, Dr. Henry Fitzbutler. Sarah was born in Pennsylvania, according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, and after marrying Henry, the Fitzbutler family lived in Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada before moving to the U.S. Sarah died in Chicago in 1923, according to her death certificate. She was the mother of Dr. Mary Fitzbutler Waring and several other children. For more see "Henry Fitzbutler: Detroit's First Black Medical Student," by L. L. Hanawalt, Detroit in Perspective: a Journal of Regional History (Winter 1973), pp. 126-140; and In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., edited by M. M. Spradling.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Mothers, Migration South
Geographic Region: Pennsylvania / Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Fleming County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Fleming County, located in northeastern Kentucky, was formed in 1798 from a portion of Mason County. It is bordered by four counties along the Licking River. The county was named for John Fleming an early settler who secured land in Kentucky via the Virginia Land Act. Flemingsburg is the county seat, it was founded in 1796. The county population was 5,016, according to the 1800 Second Census of Kentucky; 4,752 whites, 254 slaves, and 10 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Fleming County. The population increased to 10,471 by 1860, according to the U. S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 530 slave owners
  • 1,812 Black slaves
  • 325 Mulatto slaves
  • 115 free Blacks
  • 44 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 609 slave owners
  • 1,412 Black slaves
  • 668 Mulatto slaves
  • 73 free Blacks
  • 40 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,067 Blacks
  • 477 Mulattoes
  • About 122 U.S. Colored Troops listed Fleming County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Fleming County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Blacks Living in Fleming County, Ky.: federal census 1880 by E. R. H. Grady; and Blacks Living in Fleming County, Kentucky: federal census 1900 by E. R. H. Grady.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Fleming County, Kentucky

Floyd County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Floyd County, located in eastern Kentucky, was formed in 1800 from portions of Fleming, Montgomery, and Mason Counties, and is surrounded by five counties. The county was named for John Floyd, a land surveyor and early explorer. Prestonsburg, once named Preston's Station, is the county seat, named for its founder John Preston from Virginia. Preston, a land surveyor, was also a member of the Virginia Legislature. Prestonsburg is the oldest settlement in the Big Sandy Valley. The 1800 county population was counted as 478 in the Second Census of Kentucky: 447 whites and 31 slaves. The population increased to 6,241 in 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 42 slave owners
  • 110 Black slaves
  • 39 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 185 slave owners
  • 105 Black slaves
  • 42 Mulatto slaves
  • 4 free Blacks 
  • 0 free Mulattoes 

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 58 Blacks
  • 81 Mulattoes
  • About 4 U.S. Colored Troops listed Floyd County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Floyd County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; The Big Sandy Valley by W. R. Jillson; Slave Narratives, Volume 7 by Projects, A Work Projects Administration; and Floyd County, Kentucky History by the Floyd County Bicentennial History Book Committee.
See photo image of children at recess at the Colored Grade School in Wheelwright, KY, at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Floyd County, Kentucky

Foster, James A.
Birth Year : 1837
Death Year : 1891
Reverend Foster, a Kentucky native who had a limited education, was involved in establishing higher education for African Americans in Alabama. He gained his prominence via the church, serving as the first recording secretary of the Colored Baptist of Alabama State Convention and later as convention president. He had left Kentucky for Alabama when he was a young man, and it is not known if he was ever enslaved. Foster was ordained in Montgomery in 1867 and served as pastor at Mt. Meigs Church and Columbus Street Church. He was a trustee of the Alabama State Normal School and Swayne School. Alabama State Normal was originally Lincoln School in Marion, AL, and later became Lincoln Normal. In 1887, the school was moved to Montgomery and renamed Alabama State Normal School [now Alabama State University]. Swayne School opened in 1867 and was renamed Talladega College in 1869 [now Talladega University]. Reverend Foster was also one of the original incorporators of Selma University in 1881; the school was founded in 1878 as Alabama Baptist Normal and Theological School for the training of ministers and teachers. For more see "Reverend James A. Foster" in The Cyclopedia of the Colored Baptists of Alabama, by C. O. Boothe, pp. 141-142 [available full-text at UNC Documenting the American South].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Migration South
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Montgomery, Alabama

Fountain, Pierson
Birth Year : 1838
Death Year : 1910
Pierson Fountain and his family were among the earliest settlers in Harlan, Iowa, and later in Douglas, Iowa. Pierson Fountain owned 200 acres of land in Douglas, and he and his family were the only African Americans in Shelby County, Iowa. Pierson was a farmer and his wealth came from working the land. He was said to be one of the most influential men in the area. Pierson Fountain was born in Meade County, KY, the son of William and Maria Fountain according to author E. S. White [source: Past and Present of Shelby County, Iowa, v.2. by E. S. White, pp.876-877]. The family was enslaved in Kentucky and Pierson escaped to Indiana [source: The Barber and Lacey Families of Kirkman, Iowa by D. Williams]. According to author E. S. White, Pierson Fountain left Kentucky in 1861 and lived in Noblesville, IN. On May 31, 1863, Pierson Fountain enlisted in the 55th Massachusetts Colored Infantry [source: U.S. Colored Troops Military Service Records]. After his discharge from the Army, Pierson Fountain, his wife Elizabeth Ann Roberts Fountain, and their son Augustus, were living in Harlan, Iowa, with Charles Kidd [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census]. Charles Kidd was a white man, which may have played into the entire household being listed as white in the census. Also, author E. S. White did not mention in his book that Pierson Fountain was a black man. In the census records, 1880-1910, the Fountain family is listed as Black. In 1900, Charles Kidd was again living with the family and was listed as white in the census. Pierson and Elizabeth Fountain were the parents of four children, Augustus, Ida, Jessie, and Edward. Pierson Fountain was a member of the G. A. R. and he was a Mason. For more see "Prominent colored man," Evening World-Herald, 08/18/1910, p.3.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Fraternal Organizations, 1st African American Families in Town
Geographic Region: Meade County, Kentucky / Harlan and Douglas, Iowa

Franklin, Benjamin
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1935
Born in Lexington, KY, into slavery, Benjamin Franklin chose his name during his christening. In 1868 he traveled to Europe, assisting a sick man by the name of Newcomb. He returned to Kentucky and assisted Kentucky Chief Justice George Robertson, who had had a stroke. Franklin was also a barber in Lexington, later moving the business to Midway. For about 40 years, he was a chiropodist in Lexington. He held several other jobs, all of which allowed him to accumulate considerable means, including bank stock. His wife was Susan J. Britton Franklin (d.1914) and their home, "designed in the Richardsonian Romanesque style," was built in 1884 at 560 North Limestone Street in Lexington, KY. Benjamin Franklin died in 1935. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson; Lexington, Heart of the Bluegrass, by J. D. Wright, Jr.; and see Benjamin Franklin in "Colored Notes," Leader, 03/19/1935, p.11 & 03/20/1935, pp.7 & 17.
Subjects: Barbers, Businesses
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky

Franklin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Franklin County, located in central Kentucky, was formed in 1794 from portions of Mercer, Shelby, and Woodford Counties. It is surrounded by six counties, and was named in honor of Benjamin Franklin. Frankfort is the county seat and the state capital, it is believed to have been named for Stephen Frank, a pioneer who was killed during an attack by Indians in 1780 at a location on the Kentucky River that became known as Frank's Ford. The 1800 county population was 5,078, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 3,687 whites, 1,369 slaves, and 22 free coloreds. In 1830 there were six African American slave owners in Frankfort. By 1860, the population was 9,270, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the figures for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 634 slave owners
  • 2,748 Black slaves
  • 612 Mulatto slaves
  • 248 free Blacks
  • 110 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 598 slave owners
  • 2,553 Black slaves
  • 834 Mulatto slaves
  • 252 free Blacks
  • 197 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,647 Blacks
  • 1,048 Mulattoes
  • About 123 U.S. Colored Troops listed Franklin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Franklin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; visit the Center of Excellence for the Study of Kentucky African Americans (CESKAA) at Kentucky State University; Capital on the Kentucky by C. E. Kramer and W. B. Scott; Early Frankfort and Franklin County, Kentucky by W. R. Jillson; A Brief History of the Colored Churches of Frankfort, Kentucky by E. E. Underwood; and Community Memories: a glimpse of African American Life in Frankfort, Kentucky W. L. Fletcher et. al.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Franklin County, Kentucky

Frederick Douglass, Convention Presidential Nominations, and Kentucky
Start Year : 1848
End Year : 1888
June 23, 1888 is hailed as the day that Frederick Douglass received one vote from the Kentucky Delegation at the Republican Convention in Chicago, making him the first African American nominated to be a U.S. presidential candidate. This was actually the second time that Frederick Douglass had received a single vote to be a U.S. presidential candidate; his first vote came during the National Liberty Party Convention, June 14-15, 1848 in Buffalo, NY [source: The African American Electorate, by H. Walton, Jr. et al; see chapter 10: "The first African American nominees and public office holders, 1776-1870," pp. 179-190; and African Americans and the Presidency, edited by B. A. Glasrud and C. D. Wintz; see chapter 1: "Beginning the Trek," pp. 17-30]. Also, Douglass was nominated as a vice president of the United States candidate during the Equal Rights Party Convention in June of 1872; he was to run with Victoria Woodhull, who was nominated as the presidential candidate for the Equal Rights Party; Frederick Douglass declined the nomination [source: The Woman Who Ran for President; the many lives of Victoria Woodhull, by L. B. Underhill]. However, more attention is given to the fact that Frederick Douglass received one presidential nomination vote at the 1848 convention and one at the 1888 convention. He was never a contender for the presidential election; there was some very stiff competition. In 1848, the newly named National Liberty Party nomination winner was Gerrit Smith; during the presidential election, the party was on the ballot in only four states and Gerrit Smith got 2,545 votes. The Liberty Party members were abolitionists and their party was in decline; it had lost members to the newly formed Free Soil Party, which was opposed to the expansion of slavery, but members were not necessarily abolitionists. Martin Van Buren won the Free Soil Party presidential nomination in 1848; both he and Gerrit Smith were defeated in the presidential election by Zachary Taylor. At the 1888 Republican Convention, former Indiana Senator Benjamin Harris won the presidential nomination and went on to win the presidential election, he defeated President Grover Cleveland. Frederick Douglass was a supporter of the Republican Party (see the Frederick Douglass' Papers), beginning in 1856. He believed that the Republican Party had the political strength to end slavery in the United States, much more so than his party, the Radical Abolitionists [source: Frederick Douglass: oratory from slavery, by D. B. Chesebrough]. He would eventually join the Republican Party. In 1888, when Frederick Douglass received a vote from the Kentucky Delegation at the Republican Convention in Chicago, the event was not noted in U.S. newspapers. It was not until the early 1980s that media sources, including those on the Internet, made the 1888 presidential nomination into an annual note, while perhaps not knowing about Frederick Douglass' earlier presidential nomination vote at the 1848 Liberty Party Convention and the vice president nomination at the 1872 Equal Rights Party Convention.

 

Kentucky Delegation at the 1888 Republican Convention

[source: Proceedings of the Ninth Republican National Convention held at Chicago, Ill., June 19, 20, 21, 22, 23 and 25, 1888, printed by order of The Republican National Committee, pp. 92-93].

 

At Large

  • DELEGATES
  • William O. Bradley / Lancaster 
  • John W. Lewis / Springfield
  • George M. Thomas / Vanceburg
  • George Denny / Lexington
  • ALTERNATES
  • William L. Hurst / Campton
  • Thomas Forman / Maysville
  • Isaac Curtis / Louisville
  • Hugh Mulholland, Jr. / Paducah

 

Districts

  • DELEGATES
  • 1. W. J. Deboe / Marion
  • N.S. Allison / Mayfield
  • 2. George W. Jolly / Owensboro
  • Ed. W. Glass / Hopkinsville
  • 3. E. U. Fordyce / Bowling Green
  • W. S. Taylor / Morgantown
  • 4. Andrew Thompson / Springfield
  • Charles M. Pendleton / Hartford
  • 5. A. E. Wilson / Louisville
  • W. P. Hampton / Louisville
  • 6. John M. Wilson / Williamstown
  • John P. Errnst / Covington
  • 7. William Cassius Goodloe / Lexington
  • Louis Lebus / Cynthiana
  • 8. John Bennett / Richmond
  • Logan McKee / Danville
  • 9. W. W. Patterson / Ashland
  • W. A. Warford / Flemingsburg
  • 10. John W. Langley / Prestonsburg
  • G. L. Kirkpatrick / Mt. Sterling
  • 11. E. A. Hobson / Greensburg
  • W. W. Jones / Columbia

 

Districts

  • ALTERNATES
  • 1. J. B. Tyler / Princeton
  • G. W. Witty / Milburn
  • 2. T. W. Gadner / Madisonville
  • A. H. Cabell / Henderson
  • 3. E. Scott Brown / Scottsville
  • J. H. Gray / Russellville
  • 4. John W. Sayers / Deatsville
  • S. A. Smith / Elizabethtown
  • 5. Burton Vance / Louisville
  • J. J. Johnson / Louisville
  • 6. Paris E. Morgan / Falmouth
  • D. B. Wallace / Warsaw
  • 7. A. B. Sowards / Georgetown
  • James Walker / Owenton
  • 8. John T. Ballard / Shelbyville
  • James M. Sebastian / Booneville
  • 9. H. C. Metcalf / Brookville
  • H. H. Gambril / Louisa
  • 10. D. G. Colston / Pineville
  • J. L. Bosley / Winchester
  • 11. E. W. Porch / Somerset
  •  W. L. Hazelip / Glasgow

 

Republican National Convention. Fifth Day. Saturday, June 23, 1888. The Fourth Ballot. [p. 183]

Kentucky Total Votes 26

  • Russell Alexander Alger 3
  • William B. Allison 2
  • Walter Q. Gresham 2
  • Benjamin Harrison 6
  • John Sherman 10
  • James G. Blaine 1
  • Joseph B. Foraker 1
  • Frederick Douglas 1

Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Presidents, National Presidential Candidates and Party Nominees
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Buffalo, New York / Chicago, Illinois

Free Negro Farm (Meade County, KY)
Start Year : 1847
End Year : 1931
The Free Negro Farm was located near the segregated community of Stithton in Hardin County, KY. Around 1918, African Americans from Louisville were brought to the area as laborers for the construction of Fort Knox. The laborers were greeted by an armed mob that had to be dispersed before the laborers were led to the Free Negro Farm in Meade County. There are several different accounts of the origin of the Free Negro Farm. The community predated the existence of Stithton and continued long after Stithton became defunct during the development of Fort Knox. The Free Negro Farm was an African American community situated on about 300 acres of land from as early as 1847 to 1931. There is also speculation that the community is much older and was established by Hardin County's first freeman, General Braddock, who was freed in March of 1797. There is also speculation that the community was started by freeman Pleasant Moreman, whose descendants remained in the community until around 1931. For more see P. W. Urbahns, "More Moremans, Pleasant Moreman: the Free Negro of Meade County" Ancestral News, vol .19, issue 3 (Fall 1994), pp. 101-104.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom
Geographic Region: Free Negro Farm, Meade County, Kentucky (no longer exists) / Stithton, Hardin County, Kentucky (no longer exists) / Fort Knox, Bullitt, Meade and Hardin Counties, Kentucky

Free Station (Owen County, KY)
Start Year : 1847
Tom Frazier was the first slave to be freed in Owen County, KY, in 1825. He had been owned by members of the Hardin family and Benjamin F. Hawkins. The next slave to be freed was Tobias in 1827; he had been owned by Alexander Guthrie. By 1843, there were 1,143 slaves in Owen County, including those owned by Susannah Herndon Rogers. In 1847, Rogers' will emancipated her slaves, and her property was divided into 10 lots and given to her former slaves, all of whom had the last name Locust. The community that was formed became known as Free Station. In 1849, it became law in Kentucky that a security bond must be posted for every slave who was freed. The law would stall the emancipation of Rogers' brother's slaves [James Herndon]. For more see Mountain Island In Owen County, Kentucky: the settlers and their churches, by J. C. Bryant.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom
Geographic Region: Free Station, Owen County, Kentucky

Freetown, Kentucky
Start Year : 1846
Located on the Kentucky-Tennessee border, around 1846 it became the first African American community in Monroe County, KY. The community members were the freed slaves of William Howard, who gave them 400 acres to build homes. Albert Martin gave the land for the church, which was also built in 1846. For more see Mount Vernon AME Church in African American Historic Places by B. L. Savage and C. D. Shull.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches
Geographic Region: Freetown (Gamaliel), Monroe County, Kentucky

Fulton County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Fulton County, located in southwestern Kentucky, was formed from a portion of Hickman County in 1845. The county is bordered by one Kentucky county, the Mississippi River on the west side, and the state of Tennessee on the south side. The county was named for Robert Fulton [online biography]. Fulton, from Pennsylvania, was an engineer and developed the first commercially successful steamboat, and an enhanced steam warship and submarine. There are many places in the United States named for Robert Fulton. The county seat of Fulton County, KY is Hickman, which was previously named Mills Point in honor of James Mills who settled in the area on a military grant. The town was renamed to Hickman in 1837, in honor of Mrs. G. W. L. Marr (her maiden name was Hickman); Mr. Marr had owned the town site. The 1850 county population was 3,503, and increased to 4,239 in 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 209 slave owners
  • 751 Black slaves
  • 192 Mulatto slaves
  • 4 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 216 slave owners
  • 901 Black slaves
  • 141 Mulatto Slaves
  • 16 free Blacks
  • 3 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 824 Blacks
  • 113 Mulattoes
  • About 8 U.S. Colored Troops listed Fulton County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Fulton County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Declaration of Marriage of Negroes and Mulattoes, the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 12 May 1866 to 2 April 1874 by M. H. Adams; Fulton County, Kentucky: histories and biographies by L. Collins and W. H. Perrin; and Fulton by E. R. Jones.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky

Furbush, William H.
Birth Year : 1839
Death Year : 1902
Thought to be born in Kentucky, Furbush was the first sheriff of Lee County, Arkansas, and also a member of the Arkansas General Assembly. He was a photographer in Ohio, then fought in the Civil War, later moved to Liberia, returning to the U.S. in less than a year. In 1874 he survived an assassination attempt. He may have been the first African American Democrat in the Arkansas General Assembly. For more see B. Wintory, "William Hines Furbush: African-American Carpetbagger, Republican, Fusionist, and Democrat," The Arkansas Historical Quarterly, vol. 63 (Summer 2004), pp. 107-165.
Subjects: Liberia, Liberian Presidents & Diplomats, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Photographers, Photographs, Corrections and Police, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Lee County, Arkansas / Liberia, Africa

Gaddie, Daniel Abraham, Sr.
Birth Year : 1836
Death Year : 1911
Reverend D. A. Gaddie was born in Hart County, KY, the son of a slave owner whose last name was Jamison. He changed his last name to Gaddie after he was freed. Gaddie was a blacksmith and became an ordained minister in 1865. A very active member of the Association of the Kentucky Baptist, he was pastor of a number of churches in Louisville, including the Green Street Baptist Church during the 1870s. It is estimated that Rev. Gaddie baptized more than 1,000 people. Rev. Gaddie received an honorary Doctor of Divinity in 1887 from State University [later Simmons University] in Louisville, KY. Some sources say that he was a graduated of the school. Gaddie was also a member of the school's Board of Trustees for seven years, and of the Executive Board for 16 years. Rev. D. A. Gaddie's name can be found on a number of African American marriage certificates, including that of James Cambron and Lucenda Fry Cambron, married in 1895. For more see Afro-American Encyclopaedia: Or, the Thoughts, Doings..., by James T. Haley, p. 476 [available online at the UNC Library, Documenting the American South website]; the Daniel Abraham Gaddie entry in v.4 of the Afro-American Encyclopedia; and the Rev. Daniel Abraham Gaddie entry in Men of Mark by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner [available full view at Google Book Search].

See depiction of Reverend D. A. Gaddie on p.648 in Men of Mark by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner.
Subjects: Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Blacksmiths
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gallatin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Gallatin County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1798 from portions of Franklin and Shelby Counties. It is surrounded by four counties, with the Ohio River as the northern border. The county was named for Albert Gallatin, born in Switzerland, who was a U.S. Senator, the longest serving Secretary of the Treasury, and the founder of New York University. There are other U.S. states with a county named Gallatin. The county seat of Gallatin County, KY, is Warsaw, which was first known as Ohio River Landing, established in 1814. The name was changed to Fredericksburg and incorporated in 1831. But, there was already a Fredericksburg in Washington County, so the name was changed to Warsaw in honor of author Jane Porter's fictional book Thaddeus of Warsaw [full-text at Google Book Search and Project Gutenberg]. The Gallatin County, KY, population in 1800 was 1,291, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 960 whites, 329 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. By 1860 the population had increased to 4,348, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 141 slave owners
  • 512 Black slaves
  • 75 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 170 slave owners
  • 539 Black slaves
  • 169 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 601 Blacks
  • 97 Mulatto
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Gallatin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Gallatin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Gallatin County, Kentucky by G. M. Gray; and The Negro Population of Kentucky by A. L. Coleman and D. I. Kim.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Gallatin County, Kentucky

Garner, Margaret
Birth Year : 1833
Death Year : 1856
Margaret Garner was a runaway slave who was later recaptured and died in a shipwreck on the way back to Kentucky. She had killed one of her children rather than have the child returned to slavery. Toni Morrison's novel, Beloved, is based on Margaret Garner. For more see "Horrible Affair," Louisville Daily Courier, 01/30/1856; and Modern Medea, by S. Weisenburger.
Subjects: Freedom
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Garrard County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Garrard County is located on the edge of the Bluegrass Region of central Kentucky. It was formed in 1796 and is surrounded by six counties. The county was named for James Garrard, the second governor of Kentucky 1795-1804, and the first governor to succeed himself. The county seat is Lancaster, founded in 1797, and named for Lancaster, PA. The 1800 county population was 6,186, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 4,921 whites, 1,259 slaves, and 6 free coloreds. By 1860, the population had increased to 6,953, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 572 slave owners
  • 2,899 Black slaves
  • 275 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 653 slave owners
  • 3,206 Black slaves
  • 384 Mulatto slaves
  • 79 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,406 Blacks
  • 535 Mulattoes
  • About 202 U.S. Colored Troops listed Garrard County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Garrard County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Garrard County, Kentucky and Its Churches by F. Calico; and Kentucky: portrait in paradox, 1900-1950 by J. C. Klotter. See photo image of Lancaster Colored School in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky

Gough, Louisa Smith
Birth Year : 1833
Death Year : 1913
Gough, the daughter of Louis Hardin and Betty Smith, had been a slave in Graves County, KY. She later moved to Illinois and married Kentucky native John Gough in 1866. One of their children was Belle Gough Micheaux (1856-1918), mother of Oscar D. Micheaux (1884-1951), an author who established the Micheaux Film and Book Company. He became a producer of films, the first of which was The Homesteader (a silent film). For more on Oscar D. Micheaux see The Life and Work of Oscar Micheaux: Pioneer Black Author and Filmmaker, 1884-1951, by E. J. Young.
Subjects: Migration North, Mothers, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Graves County, Kentucky / Illinois

Gragston, Arnold
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1938
Gragston was born Christmas Day on the Jack Tabb Plantation in Mason County, KY. Tabb allowed Gragston and other male slaves to visit nearby farms, and it was while Gragston was out "courtin'" that he received his first offer to become an Underground Railroad conductor by taking a pretty girl across the river to Ripley, OH, where she would be met by other conductors. That was in 1860, and for the next four years Arnold would carry slaves by boat across the Ohio River, making three or four trips a month from Dover (Mason County), KY, to Ripley. All during this time, Gragston remained in slavery, never receiving any kind of payment for helping others to freedom. His days as a conductor ended in 1864, the night he was pursued after returning to the Kentucky side of the river. He dared not return to the Tabb Plantation for fear of being caught; Gragston hid in the woods and fields, sometimes sleeping in the trees and in hay piles. The riverbank was being guarded, so Gragston waited for the right opportunity, then he and his wife slipped across the Ohio River to Ripley. They eventually moved on to Detroit, MI, where they remained as their family grew to include 10 children and 31 grandchildren. For more see Arnold Gragston in the Gutenberg EBook, Slave Narratives, vol. 3, Florida Narratives; and "Bracken County marker to honor abolitionist, slave," Kentucky Post, 06/21/2002.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Dover, Mason County, Kentucky / Ripley, Ohio / Detroit, Michigan

Grant County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Grant County was formed in 1820 from a portion of Pendleton County, and is surrounded by six counties. It is located in north-central, Kentucky, and was named for one or all of the frontiersmen brothers, Samuel Grant, John Grant, and Squire Grant. The county seat is Williamstown, it was incorporated in 1825, named for William Arnold, a native of New Jersey, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, and builder of the first Grant County courthouse in 1821. The 1820 Grant County population was 278 [heads of households] in the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 7,660 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 164 slave owners
  • 452 Black slaves
  • 80 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 195 slave owners
  • 500 Black slaves
  • 197 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks
  • 12 free Mulattoes [last names Lair, Prudean, and 1 King]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 331 Blacks
  • 176 Mulattoes
  • About 18 U.S. Colored Troops listed Grant County, Ky, as their birth location.
For more see the Grant County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Grant County, Kentucky by J. B. Conrad; and Grant County, Kentucky Biographies by L. Collins et. al. See photo image and additional information about the Dry ridge Consolidated Colored School at the National Trust for Historic Preservation website.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Grant County, Kentucky

Grant, Thomas and Amanda
Birth Year : 1848
Born in Germantown, KY in 1848, Thomas Grant was a member of the U.S. Army Colored Soldiers. According to the U.S. Civil War and Soldier Records and Profiles, Grant enlisted with the U.S. Colored Troops in Lexington, KY, on March 4, 1865. He was stationed in El Paso, TX, in 1870, and at Fort Davis, TX, in 1880. Grant arrived in Tuscon, AZ in 1892, remaining there after he retired from the 10th Cavalry. He was one of the five African American pioneers in the Arizona Territory [Arizona became the 48th state in 1912]. Grant was a stationary engineer and lived on North Main Street in Tucson, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. In 1910, he was employed as a hotel porter, and was the husband of Amanda G. Grant (b.1870 in TX). Amanda's parents were former slaves who were born in Kentucky. Both her daughter, Rita Wellis, and her granddaughter, Christina Wellis, lived with Amanda and Thomas Grant in Tucson. The family lived on West 22nd Street at 11 Avenue. Grant was still alive in 1933 when he was included in J. W. Yancy's thesis on African Americans in Tucson. For more see In the Steps of Esteban: Tucson's African American Heritage, by the University of Arizona Library; and The Negro of Tucson, Past and Present (thesis) by J. W. Yancy.

See photo image with Thomas Grant at the University of Arizona website.
Subjects: Early Settlers, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Germantown, Bracken County, Kentucky / Tucson, Arizona

Graves County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Graves County is located in far western Kentucky on the Tennessee state line and borders five Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1824 from a portion of Hickman County and is the largest county in the Jackson Purchase Region. The county is named for Benjamin Franklin Graves, born in Virginia, was a soldier who was killed at the Battle of River Raisin during the War of 1812. The county seat is Mayfield, named in 1824 for the major waterway Mayfield Creek, which is supposedly named for George Mayfield from Mississippi, who was shot and died in the creek. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner in Graves County. The 1830 Census for the county showed a population of 380 [heads of households], and that increased to 13,348 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 353 slave owners
  • 1,125 Black slaves
  • 232 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Easter Negro]
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Maples and Owens]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 566 slave owners
  • 2,309 Black slaves
  • 535 Mulatto Slaves
  • 2 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,933 Blacks
  • 328 Mulattoes
  • About 54 U.S. Colored Troops listed Graves County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Graves County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Graves County, Kentucky, History & Families by Turner Publishing Co.; and Sugar of the Crop by S. Butler.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Graves County, Kentucky

Grayson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Grayson County, located in the western central region of Kentucky, was established in 1810 from portions of Hardin and Ohio Counties. It was named for William Grayson, who was a lawyer and one of the first two U.S. Senators from Virginia. William Grayson was an aid to George Washington, and Washington was also a early landowner in the Grayson County area. The county seat is Leitchfield, also founded in 1810 and named for David Leitchfield when his widow donated the land for the county seat. The 1810 county census was 357 [heads of households], and it increased to 7,551 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 92 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 72 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [Jesse Fenley and Bill Kelly]
  • 5 free Mulattoes [all with last name Holden]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 97 slave owners
  • 226 Black slaves
  • 125 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last names Harrel and Lowden]
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 307 Blacks
  • 37 Mulattoes
  • About 9 U.S. Colored Troops listed Grayson County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Grayson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; see the Grayson Co., KY Black Vital Statistics website submitted by K. Adjodha; and Historical Sketches and Family Histories, Grayson County, Kentucky by the Grayson County Historical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Grayson County, Kentucky

"The Great Slave Escape of 1848 Ended in Bracken County"
Start Year : 1848
This article, by John E. Leming, Jr., describes this escape attempt as "the largest single slave uprising in Kentucky history." Patrick Doyle, a white, was the suspected leader of the slave revolt; he was to take the 75 slaves to Ohio, where they would be free. The armed contingent of slaves made its way from Fayette County, KY, to Bracken County, KY, where it was confronted by a group of about 100 white men led by General Lucius Desha of Harrison County, KY. During an exchange of gunfire some of the more than 40 slaves escaped into the woods, but most were captured and jailed, along with Patrick Doyle. Doyle was sentenced to 20 years of hard labor in the state penitentiary, and the slaves were returned to their owners. For more see Leming's article in The Kentucky Explorer, June 2000, pp. 25-29; and American Negro Slave Revolts, by H. Aptheker.
Subjects: Freedom, Rioting, Insurrections, Panics, Protests in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Fayette County, Harrison County, & Bracken County, Kentucky

Green County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Green County, located in south-central Kentucky, is bordered by five counties and was formed in 1792 from portions of Lincoln and Nelson Counties. The county was named for Nathanael Greene, a major general of the American Revolutionary War. The county center was named Glover's Station in 1780, and once the county name became Green, the county seat was named Greensburg. The 1800 Green County population was 6,096, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 5,257 whites, 836 slaves, and 3 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Green County. The county population increased to 6,353 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 430 slave owners
  • 2,504 Black slaves
  • 105 Mulatto slaves
  • 96 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Rilda Cox and Mark Mathews]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 361 slave owners
  • 2,052 Black slaves
  • 317 Mulatto slaves
  • 94 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,551 Blacks
  • 382 Mulattoes
  • About 95 U.S. Colored Troops listed Green County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Green County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Green County, Kentucky, 1793-1993 by K. P. Evans; and Green County Black Records by M. Bishop.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky

Green, Nancy
Birth Year : 1834
Death Year : 1923
Born a slave in Montgomery County, KY, Nancy Green was the world's first living trademark: she was the original "Aunt Jemima." It has been said that Green did not develop the pancake mix, while an article in the Negro Star newspaper states that a milling company in St. Louis obtained the pancake recipe from Green, but there are no details as to the agreement [source: "Mrs. Nancy Green of "Aunt Jemima" fame, is dead," Negro Star, 09/14/1923, p.1]. Nancy Green did not own the pancake company. Green was first introduced as Aunt Jemima at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. She received a lifetime contract and traveled all over the country promoting Aunt Jemima Pancake Mix until her death in 1923. The pancake company was sold to the Quaker Oats Company in 1925. The image of Aunt Jemima on the pancake box continued. During the 1950s, there was outspoken criticism. Since that time the image has received a number of upgrades. Nancy Green left Kentucky for Chicago when she was hired as a nurse for the Walker family whose children grew up to become Chicago Circuit Judge Charles M. Walker and Dr. Samuel Walker. Green was the first African American missionary worker and an organizer of the Olivet Baptist Church, one of the largest African American churches in Chicago. She died in a car accident in 1923. For more see Nancy Green, the original "Aunt Jemima", an African American Registry website; Notable Black American Women. Book III, ed. by J. C. Smith; and "Aunt Jemima, victim of auto," Urbana Daily Courier, 10/27/1923, p. 7 [full-text of article in Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection].


 
  See image of Nancy Green as Aunt Jemima at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Businesses, Freedom, Migration North, Religion & Church Work, Nurses
Geographic Region: Montgomery County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Green Street Baptist Church [George Wells]
Start Year : 1844
George Wells (1788-1850), was born in Kentucky, and is listed in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census as a free man who is a Baptist minister in Louisville, KY. In 1844, he founded what is today named the Green Street Baptist Church, one of the oldest African American churches in Kentucky. The church was located on First Street in Louisville, KY, and moved to Green Street in 1848. It was first called Second African Church, then Second Colored Church, before being given the present name in 1860. Wells was pastor of the church from 1844-1850. The second minister was Rev. Sneathen, who died in the 1870s, and he was followed by Rev. Gaddie. Today the church is located at 519 E. Gray Street. For more see the Green Street Baptist Church Records in the University of Louisville Libraries Special Collections and Archives; Kentucky Historical Marker #1949, at the Kentucky Historical Society Markers Database; A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas; and History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten by W. H. Gibson.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Greenup County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Greenup County, located on the northeastern border of Kentucky, was formed in 1803 from a portion of Mason County. It is bordered by the Ohio River and three Kentucky counties. Both the county and the county seat are named Greenup, named for Kentucky Governor Christopher Greenup from Virginia, who was also a veteran of the Revolutionary War. The county seat was incorporated as Greenupsburg in 1818, and the name was changed to Greenup in 1872. The county population was 316 [heads of households] in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census, and it grew to 8,325 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 135 slave owners
  • 443 Black slaves
  • 163 Mulatto slaves
  • 44 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 89 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 114 Mulatto slaves
  • 34 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 317 Blacks
  • 144 Mulattoes
  • About 2 U.S. Colored soldiers listed Greenup County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Greenup County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Greenup County, Kentucky by N. M. Biggs and N. L. Mackoy; and Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1834, Chapter 736, p.185, concerning the county levy on all slaves in Greenup County, KY [available online at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Greenup County, Kentucky

Grubbs, Albert, Sr.
Birth Year : 1832
Death Year : 1901
Albert Grubbs, Sr. was born in Lexington, KY. He is referred to as one of the pioneers of Sacramento, having arrived in California in 1854, two years after the death of Henry Clay. Grubbs had been the servant of Henry Clay, whom he had accompanied throughout the United States. Grubbs closed Clay's eyes when Clay died. In California, Grubbs was in the laundry and teaming businesses. In 1901, he was bedridden and a lamp tipped over on him. Grubbs, one of the oldest African Americans in Sacramento, was badly burned and, as reported at the time, not expected to survive his injuries. He was the father of Albert Grubbs, Jr., a trusted employee of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, who received a letter of commendation in 1906. Albert, Jr. had been a drummer boy, and his father had been a member of the Sacramento Zouaves, an African American military company formed to provide military training at the end of the Civil War. Similar companies were formed in other locations in California. Albert Jr.'s son, an electrician who got discouraged by prejudice in the United States, learned Spanish and moved with his wife, Carrie Phelps, who was from Chicago, to Buenos Aires, Argentina. For more see The Negro Trail Blazers of California, by D. L. Beasley; "Sacramento man who was Henry Clay's servant," The Evening Bee, 01/13/1900; "Albert Grubbs terribly burned," The Evening Bee, 10/19/1901: and "Albert Grubbs" in the Obituary section of the Los Angeles Times, 10/31/1901.
Subjects: Migration West, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Sacramento, California / Chicago, Illinois / Buenos Aires, Brazil, South America

Hamilton, Jeff
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1941
Jeff Hamilton, a slave, was sold to Texas Senator Sam Houston; he had been placed on the auction block in Huntsville, TX, in 1853. Jeff Hamilton was born on the Gibson Plantation in Kentucky, and the Gibsons had moved to Texas. Mr. Gibson was killed and his widow married James McKell, who had both gambling and drinking habits. McKell had sold Hamilton to pay a debt. Jeff Hamilton remained with the Houston family even after Sam Houston freed all of his slaves in 1862, becoming Sam Houston's personal servant. After Houston died, Hamilton was employed as a janitor at Baylor Female College [now the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor]. During his lifetime, Hamilton was recognized at historical events due to his close association with the historical figures he had met while serving as Houston's personal servant. After his death, Hamilton was honored with two historical markers, one at his grave in East Belton Cemetery and the other at Mary Hardin-Baylor campus. He was the author of My Master: the inside story of Sam Houston and His Time. For more see Jeff Hamilton, by J. C. Davis at The Handbook of Texas Online website.

See photo image with Jeff Hamilton at Walker County Treasures website
Subjects: Authors, Freedom, Migration West
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Texas

Hancock County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hancock County was formed in 1829 from portions of Ohio, Breckinridge, and Daviess Counties. It is located on the north-western edge of Kentucky along the Ohio River and bordered by three counties. Hancock County was named for John Hancock, whose signature is the most flamboyant on the U.S. Declaration of Independence. There are nine other Hancock Counties in the U.S. The county seat of Hancock County, KY, is Hawesville, named in 1829 for Richard Hawes who donated the land for the town. Hawes was born in Virginia, he was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky, and also served as Governor of Kentucky. The 1830 population of Hancock County was 190 [heads of households] according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,395 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 134 slave owners
  • 590 Black slaves
  • 32 Mulatto slaves
  • 12 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto [Elizabeth Shaw]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 205 slave owners
  • 677 Black slaves
  • 143 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 707 Blacks
  • 43 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hancock County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hancock County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; A Social and Educational History of Hancock County, Kentucky by C. A. Clinton; and Hancock County, Kentucky, a Pictorial History by the Tawana Publishing Company.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hancock County, Kentucky

Hardin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hardin County, KY, created in 1792 from a portion of Nelson County, is located on the Ohio River and bordered by seven Kentucky counties. It was named for John Hardin from Virginia, who fought in the Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. There are six states with a county named Hardin. The county seat of Hardin County, KY, is Elizabethtown, which was originally named Severn's Valley Settlement, named for early explorer John Severns. The name of the town was changed to Elizabethtown in 1797, named for Elizabeth Hynes; her husband, Andrew Hynes, had provided the land for the county buildings. The 1800 county population was 3,653, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,317 whites, 325 slaves, 11 free coloreds. The population increased to 12,660 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and not including the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 593 slave owners
  • 1,993 Black slaves
  • 615 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks [many with the last name Kelly]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 589 slave owners
  • 1,815 Black slaves
  • 818 Mulatto slaves
  • 21 free Blacks [many with the last name Kelly]
  • 13 free Mulattoes [Goodin, Moton, Sheckles, one Caloway, one Spurrier]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,653 Blacks
  • 607 Mulattoes
  • About 35 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hardin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hardin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Lincoln of Kentucky, by L. H. Harrison; Two Centuries in Elizabethtown and Hardin County, Kentucky, by D. E. McClure; and Kentucky Life #905, Emma Reno Connor Black History Gallery.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hardin County, Kentucky

Harlan County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Harlan County, located in southeastern Kentucky, is bordered by the state of Virginia and four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1819 from a portion of Knox County, and named for Silas Harlan who died during the Battle of Blue Licks. The town of Harlan was incorporated in 1876, it is the county seat of Harlan County. The county population was 309 [heads of households] in 1820, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 5,367 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 29 slave owners
  • 71 Black slaves
  • 52 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last name Bailey]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names Smith and Sturgeon]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 0 slave owners
  • 0 Black slaves
  • 0 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Elizabeth Coffman]
  • 12 free Mulattoes [most with last name Bailey; other last names Beaty, Coffman, and Glasgow]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 67 Blacks
  • 33 Mulattoes
  • About 6 U.S. Colored Troops listed Harlan County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Harlan County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History Records of Harlan County, Kentucky People by A. W. Burns; Harlan County, Kentucky by E. Middleton; and Those Were the Days by J. Renfro, C. Warren, and T. Garland. 


   See the photo image of Harlan Negro School, in Explore UK.

 

  See the photo image of Harlan (Colored) Negro School, in Explore UK.

 

 
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky

Harmon, Martha
Birth Year : 1841
In 1911, Martha Harmon, a widow, held the distinction of being the oldest student in the public schools in the state of New York. The board of education awarded Harmon two gold medals, one for the accomplishments of her studies, and the second for her attendance record. She had been born a slave in Kentucky. She lived at 198 W. 134th Street with her widowed daughter Mary O. Watson (b.1863 in KY) and her grandson Arthur Harmon, and two lodgers, one of whom was Richard McPherson (1883-1994), aka Cecil Mack, a lyricist and music publisher from North Carolina. For four years Harmon had attended public night school no. 157 at 125th Street and Manhattan Avenue. The school was in session from October to April of each year. Harmon walked to school each day, never missed a class, and was late only once. She had moved from Kentucky to Dayton, OH, where she spent most of her adult life before moving to New York. For more see Martha Harmon in "Items of race interest," The Freeman, 05/06/1911, p.2; and "70 years old she wins two medals," Cleveland Gazette, 06/24/1911, p.1.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Dayton, Ohio / New York

Harper, Nathaniel R.
Birth Year : 1846
Death Year : 1921
One of the first two African Americans to practice law in the Louisville courts, Nathaniel R. Harper was the first African American judge in Kentucky. He established the Harper Law School in his office. Nathaniel R. Harper was born in Indiana, the son of Hezekiah and Susan Harper who was born in 1828 in Kentucky. The family lived in Centre Township in Indianapolis, IN, and according to the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, they were free and the family was supported by Hezekiah who was a blacksmith. Nathaniel was married to Maria [or Mariah] Harper, born 1851 in Pennsylvania. Kentucky Governor W. O. Bradley appointed Nathaniel Harper a member of the State Industrial Bureau. He was to investigate, organize, and encourage members of his race toward industrial ventures. Harper traveled the state assisting in the establishment of industrial societies. In 1872, Harper was co-founder of the newspaper Louisville Weekly Planet. Harper was owner of the Tallaboo Dramatic Company, and in 1912 the company was touring central Kentucky. For more see Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000; The Owl: The Newsletter for Employees of the University of Louisville, vol. 17, issue 1 (February 2002), p. 2; "Kentucky's Negro Lawyers," New York Times, 11/28/1871, p. 5; The Commercial history of the Southern States by Lipscomb and Johnston; and see the paragraph "Lawyer N. R. Harper's "Tallaboo"..., within the column "At Kentucky's Capital" in Freeman, 06/01/1912, p.4.

See photo image of Nathaniel R. Harper at the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights website.

 
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Lawyers, Blacksmiths, Migration South, Judges, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Indiana / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Harris, H. C.
Birth Year : 1850
H. C. Harris was a former slave who was born in Kentucky and owned by Alexander Moore, a bookbinder in Lexington. Harris was stolen by Tatin Sites Harper and became one of the best jockeys in the state. Harris later rode for J. T. Moore, Williams and Owens, and T. F. Tracey. He was also a stable foreman for Tracey. In 1875, Harris went to New York to work for Frank Bennece until he was able to develop his own stable. Harris retired from the horse industry and moved to Washington, D. C. in 1881. By 1898, he was an attaché caring for the horses at the White House. For more see Leading the Race by J. M. Moore; and "Mrs. Harris surprised," Colored American, 06/25/1898, p.5
Subjects: Freedom, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / New York / Washington, D. C.

Harrison County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Harrison County, located in north-central Kentucky in the Bluegrass Region, was formed in 1793 from portions of Bourbon and Scott Counties. It was named for Benjamin Harrison [not to be confused with President Benjamin Harrison]. Harrison was born in Virginia and lived in Pennsylvania before coming to Kentucky. He was a veteran of Dunmore's War and the American Revolutionary War. After moving to Kentucky, Harrison helped write the Kentucky Constitution and was a Kentucky legislator. The first white settlers in Harrison County had come from Pennsylvania and settled near what would become Cynthiana, the county seat. Cynthiana, built on land donated by Benjamin Harrison, was established in 1793 and named for Harrison's daughters, Cynthia and Ana. The 1800 county population was 4,350, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,925 whites, 406 slaves, and 19 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Harrison County. The population increased to 10,491 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 665 slave owners
  • 2,701 Black slaves
  • 640 Mulatto slaves
  • 88 free Blacks
  • 59 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 620 slave owners
  • 2,398 Black slaves
  • 894 Mulatto slaves
  • 91 free Blacks
  • 58 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,636 Blacks
  • 735 Mulattoes
  • About 97 U.S. Colored Troops listed Harrison County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Harrison County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland, by J. B. Hudson; African American Marriage Index, Harrison County, Kentucky, by P. A. Naff; Cynthiana Since 1790, by V. Peddicord; and Cynthiana, by M. B. Kennerly.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Harrison County, Kentucky

Hart County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hart County is located in south-central Kentucky in the Pennyroyal Region, surrounded by seven counties. Established in 1819 from portions of Hardin and Barren Counties, it is named for Nathaniel G. T. Hart, who was killed at the Battle of River Raisin. Munfordville is the county seat, named for Richard I. Munford, who was the first Kentucky Legislator from Hart County. Munfordville was called Big Buffalo Crossing until Munford gave 100 acres for the development of a town in 1816, and Munfordville became the county seat in 1819. The county population in 1820 was 584 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 8,953 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the numbers for slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 333 slave owners
  • 1,104 Black slaves
  • 196 Mulatto slaves
  • 29 free Blacks [many with the last names Owens and Woodson]
  • 4 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 339 slave owners
  • 957 Black slaves
  • 440 Mulatto slaves
  • 32 free Blacks [many with the last names Clark, Cowl, and Woodson]
  • 43 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Mills and Temerideth]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 1,768 Blacks
  • 447 Mulattoes
  • About 28 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hart County, KY as their birth location.

For more see the Hart County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Hart County, Kentucky Pictorial History by the Tawana Publishing Co.; and Hart County, Kentucky History and Biographies  by L. Collins, et. al.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

Hart, Henry
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1915
Henry Hart was born in Frankfort, KY, the son of Frederick Hart, from Boone County, and Judith Brown, from Frankfort. Henry Hart moved to Cleveland, OH, when he was 14 years old and there learned to play the violin. He later lived in New Orleans, where he was employed as a violin player and where he met his wife, Sarah, a pianist. The couple moved to Evansville, IN, in 1867, where Henry Hart was employed as a barber and also performed as a musician. Hart formed the Alabama Minstrels in 1872; the group included Kentucky native Tom McIntosh. Hart's minstrels performed in blackface by using burnt cork. By 1885, the Hart Family was living in Indianapolis, performing as a family string orchestra. The Harts had five daughters: Estelle, Lillian [who died as an infant], Myrtle, Hazel, and Willie. Myrtle became a concert harpist and toured the United States, billed as the only colored harpist in the world. Hazel, also a musician, was a school principal in Indianapolis. She died in a bus accident in 1935; the Hazel Hart Hendricks School is named in her honor. For more see Henry Hart, a Wikipedia website; and "Henry Hart" in Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians, by E. Southern.

See photo image of Henry Hart from the Indianapolis News, 04/06/1901
Subjects: Barbers, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Heath, Andrew
Birth Year : 1832
Death Year : 1887
Andrew Heath was a slave born in Henderson County, KY. He had become an ordained minister in 1867 and was an assistant pastor. Heath became a free man, and after the death of Rev. Henry Adams, he was named pastor at Fifth Street Baptist Church in Louisville, KY. Heath was also a member of the first Baptist Convention held in Kentucky and served in several leadership capacities with the General Association. He is said to have baptized 1,500 persons. Heath was well respected among the Baptists; thousands of people paid their respects when he died in 1887. For more see the Andrew Heath entries in the Afro-American Encyclopedia; and in Men of Mark, by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner.

See photo image of Rev. Andrew Heath at the New York Public Library Digital Library.
Subjects: Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Henderson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Henderson County, established in 1798 from a portion of Christian County, is located in western Kentucky, bordered by the Ohio River and four counties. It is named for Richard Henderson, a lawyer and judge from Virginia and founder of the Transylvania Company. The company purchased millions of acres of land (in Kentucky and Tennessee) from the Native Americans, which was in violation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763; therefore the sale was void. In compensation for their losses, the Virginia House of Delegates gave the Transylvania Company members 200,000 acres of land on the Ohio River (present day Henderson County, KY). The settlement of Red Banks would later become the county seat named Henderson. The 1800 county population was 1,468, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,076 whites, 390 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Henderson County. By 1860, the population was 8,495, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 677 slave owners
  • 3,988 Black slaves
  • 407 Mulatto slaves
  • 53 free Blacks [many with the last name Pointer]
  • 68 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Hamilton, Drew, Fisher, and Bradley]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 993 slave owners
  • 5,046 Black slaves
  • 726 Mulatto slaves
  • 38 free Blacks [many with the last names Painter and Fisher]
  • 37 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Painter, Fisher, and Piner]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 4,526 Blacks
  • 1,478 Mulattoes
  • About 168 U.S. Colored Soldiers listed Henderson County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Henderson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling [available at Google Book Search]; The Annals and Scandals of Henderson County, Kentucky, 1775-1995, by M. Arnett; and Henderson Kentucky Black Births of the City, 1896-1910, by the Henderson County Historical Society.
  See photo images of Colored School at Anthoston, Henderson County, KY, 1916, at Library of Congress.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky

Henry County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Henry County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed from a portion of Shelby County in 1798. It is named for Patrick Henry, who was Governor of Virginia, a Revolutionary War patriot, and considered by some as a founding father of the U.S. The Henry County seat is New Castle, founded in 1798; the origin of the name is unknown. The county population was 3,258 in 1800, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,848 whites, 406 slaves, and 4 free coloreds. The population increased to 8,638 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 676 slave owners
  • 2,754 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 21 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 752 slave owners
  • 2,555 Black slaves
  • 750 Mulatto slaves
  • 26 free Blacks [most with last names Adams or Mastason]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,121 Blacks
  • 295 Mulattoes
  • About 201 U.S. Colored Troops listed Henry County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Henry County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Henry County, Kentucky, by M. J. Drane; Henry County, Kentucky, 1798-1995, by the Henry County Historical Society; Henry County Public Library Oral History Collection, by the Henry County Public Library (Eminence, KY); and Who's Who Among African Americans of Henry County, by the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission and First Baptist Church (Eminence, KY).
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky

Heth, Joice
Death Year : 1836
Joice Heth was supposedly a 161 year old African American woman, billed by P. T. Barnum as having been the nurse of George Washington when he was a baby. When her popularity started to fade, Barnum circulated the rumor that she was not human but rather an automaton made from various materials. After Heth's death in 1836, Barnum arranged a public autopsy - 50 cents admission - which proved that Heth was no more than 80 years old. Heth was actually a disabled slave who supposedly was brought to Paris, KY, by Mr. John S. Boling and later purchased by R. W. Linsday, who exhibited her around several states, including Kentucky, before selling her to Barnum. For more see The Showman and the slave, by B. Reiss.

See the handbill with an image of Joice Heth and additional information at the "Joice Heth Archive website at cuny.edu.
Subjects: Hoaxes
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Hickman County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hickman County, established in 1821, is located in the far southwestern tip of Kentucky in the Jackson Purchase region. It is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River, on the southern tip by the state of Tennessee, and on all other sides by three Kentucky counties. Wolfe Island is separated from the county by the Mississippi River and borders the state of Missouri. The county was named for Paschal Hickman, who was killed during the Battle of River Raisin. The settlement of Iron Banks became Columbus, which was the first county seat; the town was renamed for explorer Christopher Columbus. In 1830 the county seat was moved to the town of Clinton. The 1830 population was 690 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 5,758 by the year 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 234 slave owners
  • 653 Black slaves
  • 188 Mulatto slaves
  • 16 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [James Cousins and Frank Waide]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 322 slave owners
  • 938 Black slaves
  • 314 Mulatto slaves
  • 18 free Blacks [many with the last name Cromwell]
  • 1 free Mulatto [Wesley James]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,286 Blacks
  • 327 Mulattoes
  • About 63 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hickman County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hickman County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Hickman County History, by the Hickman County Historical Society; Hickman County, Kentucky, Slaves and Black Vital Statistics, 1852-1906, 1907 and 1948, by E. Jewell and S. L. P. Morrison; and Hickman County Public Library Oral History Collection, Hickman County Public Library (Clinton, KY).
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hickman County, Kentucky

Hillman, John W.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1911
Hillman was born in Trigg County, KY, the son of Dan Hillman. After slavery ended, he moved to Covington and worked at several hotels as a waiter and steward, then later became custodian of the City Building of Covington, or, as author W. D. Johnson characterized it, Hillman was considered the first city official. Hillman was the husband of Ellen W. Hillman, born 1850 in Virginia. In 1880, the family lived on Pike Street in Covington, according to the U. S. Federal Census. In 1910, John was a janitor in a bank, and his son Fred was a filing clerk at the bank. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentucky / Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky

Hopkins County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hopkins County, located in western Kentucky and surrounded by five counties, was created in 1806 from a portion of Henderson County. It was named for Samuel Hopkins, a lawyer, Kentucky Senator, and Revolutionary War veteran; several of the early settlers in the Hopkins County area were Revolutionary War veterans who had received land grants from Virginia. Madisonville, which became the county seat of Hopkins County in 1808, was named for James Madison, who later became the fourth President of the United States. During the early 1800s, there was also a community named Charleston in Hopkins County; it was named for a former slave and tavern owner named Free Charles. The Hopkins County population was 414 [heads of households] in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census, and it grew to 9,866 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 555 slave owners
  • 1,815 Black slaves
  • 335 Mulatto slaves
  • 16 free Blacks [most with last name Herrin]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names Earle, Lewis, and Oakley]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 457 slave owners
  • 1,451 Black slaves
  • 557 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 20 freee Mulattoes [many with last names Baker and Fisher]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,458 Blacks
  • 340 Mulattoes
  • About 83 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hopkins County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • Charleston, Hopkins County, Kentucky: 41 African Americans, many with last name Metcalf; and 16 Mulattoes with the last names Bishop, Morris, Paravel, and one Smouthers. Total population 1,575. According to the title Kentucky Place Names, by R. N. Rennick, (p. 56), there was a post office in Charleston from 1855-1909 and a coal loading station that was on the Illinois Central Railroad line.
For more see the Hopkins County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Non-White Marriage Index 1866-1914, by the Hopkins County Genealogical Society (KY); NAACP Administrative File, Part 20, White resistance and reprisals, 1956-1965; and History of Hopkins County, by M. K. Gordon.
Subjects: Communities, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Hopkins County, Kentucky

Hubbard, Philip A.
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1902
Rev. Phillip A. Hubbard was a slave born in Kentucky, the son of Philip and Rosanna Hubbard. He was chairman of the first Republican convention held in Boone County, MO. Hubbard had served with the Union Army during the Civil War. He was licensed to preach in 1872 and was admitted to the AME Church Missouri Conference in 1873. He had several nicknames, such as "Silver Dollar Hubbard" and "The Dollar Money King," due to his success in collecting the per capital tax of the church while serving as the presiding elder of the Colorado Springs District of the A. M. E. Church. His remarkable ability with finances led to his being named the financial secretary of the AME Church. He also served as pastor at several churches and in 1901 was a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference in Europe. Rev. Hubbard set sail for England in August of 1901 and his wife joined him in September. While they were in England, Rev. Hubbard became ill and the couple returned to the U.S. Rev. Hubbard died in Washington, D.C. in January of 1902. His body was taken by train to Macon, MO where he was buried. For more see Rev. Philip H. Hubbard on p.583 in The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright; "May be Bishop Hubbard in 1900," Colored American, 11/12/1898, p.8; "Rev. Hubbard a delegate. He goes to England to represent the great A. M. E. Church," Colored American, 04/07/1900, p.14; and "The Late Dr. Philip Hubbard," Freeman, 02/01/1902, p.4.

See photo image of Rev. Phillip A. Hubbard on p.119 in Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church by R. R. Wright.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Migration West, Religion & Church Work

Hubbard, Theodore C.
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1904
Theodore C. Hubbard was the first African American to enlist at Camp Lincoln with the Illinois National Guard; he was an orderly under Edgar P. Tobey, captain of Battery D. Hubbard joined the Union Army in 1861, the only African American soldier at the camp until the formation of the 9th Battalion of Chicago in 1893. The battalion would later become the 8th Illinois, the first Negro regiment sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American War. At the time of his enlistment, Theodore C. Hubbard was a fugitive slave who was born in Kentucky. After the war, he served as the official messenger of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago from 1887-1904. He was the husband of Amanda Hubbard. In 1900, the family of four lived on 30th Street in Chicago, sharing their home with four boarders, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Hubbard was a commander of the John Brown Post No. 60 G.A.R., colonel of the commander in chief's staff of the G.A.R., and a member of the 19th Illinois Veteran's Club. For more see Theodore C. Hubbard in "Telegraphic Brevities," Grand Rapids Tribune, 04/27/1904, p. 2; and Illinois Writer's Project, "Camp Lincoln," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, vol. 34, issue 3 (Sept. 1941), pp. 281-302.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Hughes, Harriet
Birth Year : 1844
Death Year : 1901
Harriet Hughes was the wife of Thomas Hughes and the mother of 17 children. In 1870, the family lived in Flat Rock (Bo.Co.), KY, and later moved to Carlisle, KY. Harriet was a mail carrier for the route between Carlisle and Jackstown, KY, near the Bourbon County line. She was one of the first African American women mail carriers in Kentucky and the United States. She held the highest ranked government job among all other African American women in Carlisle and was well respected. There was a large attendance at her funeral: 63 carriages were in the procession to the cemetery. For more see "A Remarkable Colored Woman," The Bourbon News, 05/03/1901, p. 2.
Subjects: Postal Service
Geographic Region: Flat Rock, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Carlisle and Jackstown, Nicholas County, Kentucky

Jackman, Parker Hiram
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1915
P. Hiram Jackman was a slave born May 24, 1845, near Creelsboro, KY, the son of George Jackman, according to his death certificate. Hiram Jackman was taught to read and write before he became a freeman. After fighting in the Civil War, he taught in the Colored schools in Adair and Russell Counties, one of the first African American teachers in the area. He continued to teach for 45 years. Jackman was also a minister and performed the first marriage ceremony in Adair County for an African American couple. In 1908, he and others attempted to establish a colored library in Columbia, KY. The Rosenwald School, built on Taylor Street in Columbia, KY, in 1925, was named after Hiram Jackman. It was one of five schools for African Americans in Adair County. The school burned down in 1953. P. Hiram Jackman was the husband of Francis Jackman. For more see "The Story of Hiram Jackman, for whom Jackman High Named," Columbia Adair County-Chamber Insights [online] at Columbiamagazine.com; "Rosenwald School: Jackman High, Taylor St, Columbia, KY," photograph [online]; "Dedication of Jackman High commemorative well attended, 08/12/2006, Columbia Magazine [online]; and "Commemorating Jackman graded and high school," photo, 08/12/2006, Columbia Magazine [online]. For more on the number of slaves and free African Americans in Adair County, see the NKAA entry for Adair County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes 1850-1870. See also the NKAA entry for African American Schools in Adair County, KY.

Plaque dedicated to Rosenwald School, Jackman High at ColumbiaMagazine.com.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Creelsboro, Russell County, Kentucky / Columbia, Adair County, Kentucky

Jackson, Alfred M.
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1888
Alfred M. Jackson was a horse trainer who was born in Lexington, KY, around 1850 and died in Chicago, IL, March 22, 1888 [source: Cook County, Illinois Deaths Index]. He and his wife, Fannie Jackson, lived on South First Street in Terre Haute, IN, in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Alfred M. Jackson is buried in the Oakwood Cemetery in Chicago.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Jackson, Edward C.
Birth Year : 1831
Death Year : 1912
Edward C. Jackson, a slave, was born in Lexington, KY. In 1850 he married Matilda C. Blair, who was free and who had also purchased his freedom. The couple moved to Xenia, OH, where they owned a grocery store, and during the Civil War, they moved to Springfield, OH, where they owned a second-hand store. By 1868, the couple had moved back to Xenia, where Jackson became one of the first African American city council members. He was also a trustee on the Board of Wilberforce University and was a member of the Wilberforce Lodge Free and Accepted Masons. Jackson and his wife had eight children, and he was the uncle of John H. and Jordan Jackson Jr. For more see "Born a slave in Lexington," Lexington Leader, 02/11/1912, p. 2.

*Additional information provided by Yvonne Giles: Edward C. Jackson's wife's name is misspelled [Malinda C. Blain] in the obituary notice found in the Lexington Leader, her name was Matilda C. Blair [source: Deed book #35, p213, 12 October 1858; taxes and fees paid May 1859]. She signed a contract with George W. Sutton for the purchase of her husband Edward Jackson on 12 October 1858. She paid $800, four hundred down and four hundred by May 1859 even though the contract was for three years. The contract makes no mention that Matilda C. Blair is a 'free woman of color.' The contract called for a deed of emancipation to Edward Jackson once all money had been received.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Xenia, Ohio / Springfield, Ohio

Jackson, Eliza or Isabelle (Belle) Mitchell
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1942
Mitchell was born in Perryville, KY and raised in Danville, KY. Her parents, Mary and Monroe Mitchell, purchased their freedom. Belle became an abolitionist and the first African American teacher at Camp Nelson, with John G. Fee. She became a prominent teacher in Fayette County and one of the founders of the African American Orphan Industrial Home. She was actively involved with the Colored women's club movement. She was married to Jordan Jackson. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson; African American Women: a biographical dictionary, by D. C. Salem; and Lexington's Colored Orphan Industrial Home by L. F. Byars.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Freedom, Orphans and Orphanages in Kentucky, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Perryville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Fayette County, Kentucky

Jackson, John Henry
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1919
Educated at Berea College, John H. Jackson was the last African American professor hired at the school before its 1904 segregation. He was the first president of the State Association of Colored Teachers [later named the Kentucky Negro Educational Association], first president of State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University], president of Lincoln High Schools in Kansas City, MO, and author of History of Education: from the Greeks to present time. He was the son of Jordon C. Jackson, Sr., a well-known businessman, and James Ann Jackson, and he was the brother of Jordan C. Jackson, Jr. John H. Jackson was born in Lexington, KY. Limited information about John H. Jackson can be found at Kentucky State University Library and the Office of the President Records, a Kentucky Digital Library webpage. 

 


   See photo image an additional information about John H. Jackson, including his stay in Missouri, at Biographical Sketches: Biographies from the Cole County People, by the Cole County Historical Society.

 

  See photo image and additional information about John H. Jackson at the Berea College Hutchins Library website by J. Bradley.

  
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Berea, Madison County, Kentucky / Kansas City, Missouri / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Jackson, Jordan C., Jr.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1918
Jordan C. Jackson, Jr. was born in Lexington, KY, the son of James Ann and Jordan C. Jackson, Sr. An attorney and an African American Republican leader in Kentucky, Jordan Jr. was the first African American undertaker in Lexington, along with his partner William M. Porter. Jackson eventually bought out Porter. Prior to getting into the undertaking business, Jackson was editor of the American Citizen newspaper. He also contracted with the federal government to carry mail from the train to the post office. He was chairman of the committee behind the creation of Douglass Park in Lexington, KY. He was married to Isabelle Mitchell Jackson and brother of John H. Jackson. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson; and Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p. 136.

See photo image of Jordan C. Jackson, Jr. on page 513 in Evidences of Progress Among Colored People by G. F. Richings, at the UNC Documenting the American South website.
 
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Lawyers, Parks, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Postal Service, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Jefferson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Jefferson County was established in 1780; it was one of the original three counties created when Kentucky County was subdivided by the Virginia General Assembly. Jefferson County is located in the western part of the state along the Ohio River, bordered by four counties. It is named for Thomas Jefferson, who was then governor of Virginia, and who would become the third U.S. President. Jefferson County is the most populated county in Kentucky. The county seat is Louisville; George Rogers Clark is credited as the founder of Louisville in 1778, and the city was named for King Louis XVI of France in 1780. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 3,857 whites, 903 slaves, and 5 free persons. The 1800 population of Jefferson County was 8,754, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 6,325 whites, 2,406 slaves, 23 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Jefferson County and five in Louisville. By 1860, the population had increased to 79,060, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 2,394 slave owners
  • 8,814 Black slaves
  • 2,093 Mulatto slaves
  • 1,062 free Blacks
  • 589 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 2,664 slave owners
  • 6,786 Black slaves
  • 1,922 Mulatto slaves
  • 1,244 free Blacks
  • 762 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 13,944 Blacks
  • 4,940 Mulattoes
  • About 443 U.S. Colored Troops listed Jefferson County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Jefferson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Early Kentucky Settlers, by the Genealogical Pub. Co.; A Brief History of the Schools, Public and Private, for Colored Youths in Louisville, Ky. for fifty years, from 1827 to 1876, inclusive, by J. Meriwether; The Bulletin [newspaper], by the Adams Bro.; The Ohio Falls Express [newspaper], by H. Fitzbutler; Berrytown-Griffytown, a walk through history, by J. G. Grube; Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Founding of Colored Parkland or "Little Africa," Louisville, Kentucky, 1801-1916, by J.S. Cotter; and A Survey of the Economic and Cultural Conditions of the Negro Population of Louisville, Kentucky, by J. H. Kerns.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Jefferson County, Kentucky

Jessamine County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Jessamine County, named for  the jasmine (jessamine) flower and Jessamine Creek, was established in 1798 from a portion of Fayette County. Located in the Bluegrass Region, it is surrounded by five counties. The county seat is Nicholasville, named for George Nicholas, who was appointed the first U.S. Attorney in Kentucky by President George Washington. Nicholas was born in Virginia and was a veteran of the U.S. Revolutionary War. He drafted the first Kentucky constitution and was the first professor of law at Transylvania College. He had come to Kentucky around 1788 and died in 1799, about a year after Jessamine County was formed. The total county population for 1800 was 5,461, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,879 whites, 1,561 slaves, and 21 free coloreds. Ten years later the population was 8,377, according to the Third Census of the United States (Census of 1810), Jessamine County, Kentucky: 3,072 white males, 2,786 white females, 2,483 slaves, and 36 free Black persons. In 1830 there were three African American slave owners. By 1860, the population had increased to 5,776, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 615 slave owners
  • 3,367 Black slaves
  • 457 Mulatto slaves
  • 116 free Blacks 
  • 42 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 572 slave owners
  • 3,153 Black slaves
  • 572 Mulatto slaves
  • 73 free Blacks
  • 23 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,862 Blacks
  • 634 Mulattoes
  • About 88 U.S. Colored Troops listed Jessamine County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Jessamine County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; A History of Jessamine County, Kentucky, by G. H. Young; A History of Jessamine County, Kentucky, by R. Fain; Slaves to Soldiers, by B. R. Eades; and Camp Nelson, Kentucky, by R. D. Sears.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Jessamine County, Kentucky

Johnson, Beverly [James Williams, Sr.]
Birth Year : 1840
In 1858, Beverly Johnson escaped from slavery in Kentucky and made his way north to York, MI. Johnson changed his name to James Williams, Sr. and was a cigar maker; he is listed in the 1860 census. He later established a cigar factory in Saline, MI, and became a farmer. He was the husband of Mary Williams who was born in Ohio, and her mother was from Kentucky [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. The couple had three sons, James Jr., Henry, and Charles. James Williams, Sr. was a widower in 1900, according the census. This was about the same time that his son Charles E. Williams graduated from the University of Michigan Law School and started practicing law in Detroit with Michigan's renowned Negro lawyer, **Robert J. Willis. Under the new civil service law, Charles Williams was appointed a life tenure of office as a general clerk in the Detroit Assessor's Office. For more see "Charles E. Williams" in the Michigan Manual of Freedmen's Progress, compiled by F. H. Warren [available full text online as a .pdf at the Western Michigan University website].

**The mother of Robert Jones Willis was an escape slave from Kentucky, for more see "Michigan gives lawyer a birthday" in Day by Day column by Wm. N. Jones in the Baltimore Afro-American, 05/25/1929, p.6.
Subjects: Businesses, Fathers, Freedom, Lawyers, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / York and Saline, Washtenaw County, Michigan / Detroit, Michigan

Johnson, "Big Winnie"
Birth Year : 1839
Death Year : 1888
Johnson was born in Henry County, KY, on either Boyd Club Farm or E. M. Bryant Farm. She was billed as the biggest woman in the world. Johnson was a widow and mother of ten children, she turned to show business after her husband died in 1882. At her death, Johnson weighed 849 pounds. She had been showcased from a boxcar, travelling throughout the United States. Johnson died of fatty degeneration of the heart and was buried in Laurel Cemetery in Baltimore, Maryland. At the time of her death, only three of her children were alive. For more see "Big Winnie Johnson," American Sideshow: an encyclopedia of history's most wondrous and curiously strange performers by M. Hartzman; and "Big Minnie's Burial, The Prize Fat Colored Woman Laid to Rest Yesterday," The Baltimore Herald, 09/14/1888.
Subjects: Circus
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky / Baltimore, Maryland

Johnson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Johnson County, established in 1834, is located in eastern Kentucky, and surrounded by five counties. It was created from portions of Floyd, Lawrence, and Morgan Counties, and named for Richard M. Johnson, who was born in Kentucky and served as a U.S. Representative, Senator, and Vice President under President Martin VanBuren. The county seat of Johnson County is Paintsville, established in 1834 and named for the pictures found on the trees in the area and thought to be the work of Native Americans. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 14 slave owners
  • 20 Black slaves
  • 10 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 11 slave owners
  • 13 Black slaves
  • 14 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 19 free Mulattoes [most with last names Dale or Spencer, 2 Blanton, 1 Collins]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 14 Blacks
  • 28 Mulattoes [most with last names Right and Spencer]

For more see the Johnson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Johnson County, Kentucky by C. M. Hall; and Johnson County, Kentucky by Johnson County Historical and Genealogical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Johnson County, Kentucky

Jones v Van Zandt (1847)
Start Year : 1842
End Year : 1847
The case was the second of four major slave cases heard by the U.S. Supreme Court. In 1842, a civil suit was brought by Wharton Jones for $500, the value of an escaped slave who had left Kentucky with eight other slaves and traveled into Ohio. The slaves had been aided by abolitionist and Underground Railroad conductor, John Van Zandt, who had been born in Fleming County, KY. Van Zandt later moved near Glendale, Ohio, where Van Zandt was caught transporting the nine escaped slaves from Boone County, KY. One of the slaves, Andrew, thought to be worth $500-$600, escaped, and the others were placed in jail. Van Zandt and the eight remaining slaves were extradited to Kentucky, where Van Zandt was charged with harboring and concealing the escaped slaves. His attorneys, Salmon P. Chase and William H. Seward, unsuccessfully argued that in Ohio all people were presumed free, and Van Zandt could not have known that he was transporting runaway slaves. The U.S. Supreme Court heard the case in 1847 and upheld the Fugitive Slave Act of 1793. The slaves remained in bondage, and Van Zandt was ordered to pay the fee. For more see Paul Finkelman "Slavery," The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, Kermit L. Hall, Oxford University Press, 2005; Oxford Reference Online; Jones v Van Zandt, 46 U.S. 215 (1847); and the Jones v Van Zandt case, full text at Justia.com.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Court Cases, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Fleming County, Kentucky / Boone County, Kentucky / Glendale, Ohio

Joplin, Florence G.
Birth Year : 1841
Death Year : 1881
Florence Givens Joplin was born free in Kentucky around 1841; her family moved to Texas when she was a child or teen. It is believed that she was the daughter of Milton and Susie Givens (or Givins). Florence was the wife of Giles (or Jiles) Joplin, and the mother of composer Scott Joplin, the second of her six children. Florence Joplin was a banjo player and singer. For more see In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., supp., ed. by M. M. Spradling; and Ragging it: getting Ragtime into history (and some history into Ragtime), by H. L. White.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration West, Mothers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Texas

Joplin, Giles
Birth Year : 1842
Giles (or Jiles) Joplin was a slave who may have passed through Kentucky on the way to Texas with his master. They had come from North Carolina, where it is speculated that Giles was born around 1842. Giles Joplin, a fiddler, was the father of composer Scott Joplin. Giles left his wife, Florence, and their six children, in 1880 for another woman. For more see In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., supp., ed. by M. M. Spradling; and Ragging it: getting Ragtime into history (and some history into Ragtime), by H. L. White.
Subjects: Fathers, Freedom, Migration West, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Texas

Jordan, George
Birth Year : 1847
Death Year : 1904
Born in Williamson, KY, George Jordan's thirty years of military service began in 1866 when he joined the 9th Cavalry in Nashville and ended at Fort Robinson, Nebraska, in 1897. He participated in conflicts with Native Americans, Mexicans, and U. S. outlaws: he helped open the West, winning a Congressional Medal of Honor for his efforts. Jordan retired to Crawford, Nebraska, in a small African American community. He later became ill but could not gain entrance into the Fort Robinson hospital and died a few days later. He is buried at Fort McPherson National Cemetery in Maxwell, Nebraska. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, by R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston.

  See photo image of George Jordan at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Williamson, Kentucky / Nashville, Tennessee / Fort Robinson and Crawford, Nebraska

Kennedy, Paul Horace
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1921
Reverend Paul H. Kennedy was born in Elizabethtown, KY, son of John M. and Caroline Kennedy. He was a minister and a musician who authored and published the Baptist Directory and Year Book in Henderson, KY, and he was editor of the Kentucky Missionary Visitor. Rev. Kennedy was also an instructor of the organ, piano, violin, and band instruments. He served as a U.S. Marshall during the administration of President McKinley. For more see Paul H. Kennedy in Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915; and Rev. Paul H. Kennedy in the Afro-American Encyclopaedia: Or, the Thoughts, Doings..., by James T. Haley, pp. 613-614 [available online at the UNC University Library, Documenting the American South].


Subjects: Authors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Elizabethtown, Hardin County, Kentucky / Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky

Kenton County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Kenton County, located in northern Kentucky along the Ohio River, was formed in 1840 from a portion of Campbell County. Kenton County is surrounded by three counties, it was named for frontiersman Simon Kenton, who was a friend of Daniel Boone and a veteran of the Indian Wars and the War of 1812. There are two county seats in Kenton County, Independence and Covington. Independence was incorporated in 1842 and the name is in reference to Kenton County being separated from Campbell County. Covington, originally known as Point, was established in 1815 and named for Leonard Wales Covington, who was killed during the War of 1812. Covington was the second largest city in Kentucky in 1850, and had served as the unofficial county seat until Independence was established in 1842. As Covington continued to grow, it became the center for county business and court matters, and in 1860, the Kentucky Legislature made Covington the second county seat. The 1840 county population was 1,303 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it grew to 24,861 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 298 slave owners
  • 721 Black slaves
  • 109 Mulatto slaves
  • 61 free Blacks
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 212 slave owners
  • 451 Black slaves
  • 116 Mulatto slaves
  • 58 free Blacks
  • 27 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,224 Blacks
  • 358 Mulattoes
  • About 27 U.S. Colored Soldiers listed Kenton County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Kenton County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; African-American Residents of Kenton County, Kentucky transcribed by T. H. H. Harris; History of Kenton County, Kentucky, in the World War, 1917-1919 by S. D. Rouse; The Evolution of Covington's Black Residential Pattern, 1860-1980 by E. T. Weiss; and A Comparative Study of the Educational Effectiveness of the White and Negro Schools of Covington, Kentucky by W. F. Hargraves. See photo image and history of Kenton County Colored School at Kenton County Public Library website.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Kenton County, Kentucky

Kentucky and Insurance Policies on Slaves
Start Year : 1836
End Year : 1866
There is a long history of insurance policies on the lives of slaves, dating back to medieval times. In the 1500s, when slaves from Africa were considered part of the cargo brought to European countries, the slaves were insured. The practice of insuring human property was not new when African slaves were brought to the United States. In Kentucky, during the 1800s, slave owners had several options for purchasing policies on the lives of their slaves. Within the state, was the Lexington Fire, Life and Marine Insurance Company. This particular company was chartered by the Kentucky Legislature in 1836 with John W. Hunt as president, and board members John Norton, John Tilford, Elisha Warfield, John Brand, and Thomas Smith, all in Lexington; Thomas Y. Brent in Paris; and David Irvine in Richmond [source: "Chapter 425. An Act to Incorporate the Lexington Fire, Life and Marine Insurance Company. Acts Passed at the First Session of the Forty-Fourth General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1836, pp.601-604]. The table of rates was published within the company ads, an example is the ad in the Covington Journal dated 06/22/1850, on p.4. The company's earliest ads in 1836 did not mention policies on slaves; that notation was added around 1838, see the Lexington Fire, Life and Marine Insurance Company ad on p.4 of the Kentucky Gazette, 05/24/1838. In Frankfort, KY, H. B. Farrar was an insurance agent on St. Claire Street, his ad read "Lives of Negroes Insured. Insurance on Slaves." [source: Daily Commonwealth (Frankfort, KY), 03/04/1854, p.1]. Other companies that offered life insurance policies to slave owners in Kentucky included the Phoenix Life Insurance Company in St. Louis, MO, see "Insure Your Slaves" within the ad for Mutual Life Insurance on p.2 of the Daily Commonwealth, 10/31/1849. In Danville, KY, the Aetna Life Insurance Company agent was A. S. McGororty, see their ad on p.1 of The Kentucky Tribune, 02/22/1856; the Aetna Life Insurance Company was located in Hartford, Connecticut. In Louisville, KY, the Thomas S. Kennedy and Brothers, General Insurance Agents at No.413 South Side of Main Street, represented insurance companies in New York, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Connecticut. The ad for Thomas S. Kennedy Brothers on p.4 of the Daily Louisville Democrat, 09/05/1861, included the line "INSURANCE ON LIVES OF SLAVES engaged in any kind of employment." These are only a few of the companies, there were many others. For the names of more insurance companies that insured the lives of slaves in Kentucky, see the advertisements placed in Kentucky newspapers prior to 1866. For more on the history of insuring slaves, see The Development of the Principles of Insurance Law in the Netherlands from 1500 to 1800 volume one by J. P. Van Niekerk; Speculators and Slaves: masters, traders, and slaves in the old south by M. Tadman; Encyclopedia of the Middle Passage edited by T. Falola and A. Warnock; and Investing in Life: insurance in Antebellum America by S. A. Murphy. See also the online article by M. S. Quinn,  "Slavery & insurance: examining slave insurance in a world 150 years removed," Insurance Journal, 05/15/2000.

Subjects: Slave Injury and Death Reimbursement & Insurance
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kentucky Gambling Law, Negroes
Start Year : 1836
Gambling with cards and dice greatly increased following the American Revolution. Every state had passed laws to curtail gambling, particularly among the "lower classes" where such vices were thought to create theft, idleness, and other immoral indulgences. In 1836, the Kentucky penal code was amended to include gambling between Whites and African Americans. "Be it enacted by the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, That all persons hereafter gulity of playing with a free Negro, mulatto or slave, any game at cards, or with dice, or any other game whatever, whereby money or property is won or lost, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall be fined therefore, at the discretion of a jury, a sum not exceeding fifty dollars, upon the presentment of a grand jury." From Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December Session, 1836, Chap. 430-AN ACT to amend the Penal Laws, 305-306. See also, P. D. Jordan, "Lady Luck and her Knights of the Royal Flush," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, vol. 72, issue 3, pp. 295-312.
Subjects: Gambling, Lottery
Geographic Region: Kentucky

The Kentucky Union for the Moral and Religious Improvement of the Colored Race
Start Year : 1834
This organization was formed in 1834 with White members from several denominations in Kentucky; the members were referred to as the best religious leaders in the state. They were also referred to as the "Gradual Abolitionists" by author G. H. Barnes. The group's purpose was to provide religious and moral instruction to slaves and to support the gradual emancipation of slaves for colonization. Reverend H. H. Kavanaugh of Lexington was president, the ten vice presidents were from various parts of Kentucky, and the executive committee of seven members was located in Danville, KY, with Reverend John C. Young, Centre College, serving as the chair. The group produced a circular that was distributed to ministers of the gospel in Kentucky. In 1835, the group brought before the Kentucky Legislature the bill that called for the gradual emancipation of the slaves--the bill did not pass, losing but by a narrow margin. For more see The Religious Instruction of the Negroes. In the United States, by Charles C. Jones [available online at UNC Documenting the American South website]; The Evangelical War Against Slavery and Caste, by V. B. Howard; The Feminist Papers by A. S. Rossi; The Anti-Slavery Examiner, Omnibus, by American Anti-Slavery Society [available online via Project Gutenberg]; and The Antislavery Impulse, 1830-1844, by G. H. Barnes.
Subjects: Freedom, Religion & Church Work, Colonies, Colonization
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Kersands, William "Billy"
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1915
Billy Kersands was a blackface minstrel performer and a vaudeville performer who was known for his comedy, dancing, singing, musical performances, and acrobatics. Kersands was about six feet tall and weighed near 200 pounds. He had a large mouth, which he filled with various objects during his stage performances. He was one of the most popular African American entertainers of his time. Kersands began as a minstrel performer in the 1860s. His exact birth location is not known, but has been given as Baton Rouge, LA. Though, in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, New York was listed as his birth location when Kersands was living in Louisville, KY, at the home of Carrie Jackson. Kersands was listed as Jackson's son-in-law. According to a newspaper article, Kersands had been a slave in Kentucky and was freed after the Civil War [source: Iowa State Reporter, 12/04/1878, p.8]. In 1895, Billy Kersands married Louisa Strong in Ascension, LA, and the couple would later own a vaudeville company. Billy Kersands performed with a number of groups, the Charles Hicks Minstrels, the Harvey Minstrels, Richards and Pringle's Georgia Minstrels, and others, including his own company Kersands' Minstrels, and Louisa and Billy Kersands' vaudeville company. Billy Kersands performed throughout the United States and in England for Queen Victoria. For more see by F. Cullen and et. al.; The Ghost Walks by H. T. Sampson; and Staging Race by K. Sotiropoulos.
Subjects: Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Knox County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Knox County, located in southeastern Kentucky, was established in 1799 from a portion of Lincoln County and is surrounded by four counties. The county was named for Henry Knox, a bookseller from, Boston, MA, who would become the first Secretary of War. Knox County industries included mining and and the discovery of oil beginning in 1900. The county seat is Barbourville, established in 1800 and named for James Barbour, who gave the land for the city site. The 1800 county population was 1,109, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 1,044 whites, 62 slaves, and 3 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Knox County. The population increased to 7,218 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 123 slave owners
  • 414 Black slaves
  • 198 Mulatto slaves
  • 56 free Blacks
  • 143 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 115 slave owners
  • 311 Black slaves
  • 179 Mulatto slaves
  • 62 free Blacks
  • 123 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 279 Blacks
  • 365 Mulattoes
  • About 40 U.S. Colored Troops listed Knox County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Knox County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Knox County, Kentucky, by K. S. Warren; Marriage Certificate Book (Freemen's Marriage Register), 1851-1867, from Knox County (KY) County Clerk; and Tax Assessment Books (1800-1892), from Knox County (KY) County Clerk.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Knox County, Kentucky

The Ladies (of color)
Start Year : 1847
The Ladies (of color), in Frankfort, KY, are thought to have been free African American women. In 1847 the group held a fair for "benevolent purposes" at the home of Mrs. Rilla Harris. For more see A Thousand Years Over a Hot Stove: a history of American women told through food, recipes and..., by L. Schenone, p. 131.
Subjects: Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Colored Fairs, Black Expos, and Chautauquas, Women's Groups and Organizations, Benevolent Societies
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Larue County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Larue County or LaRue County, located in central Kentucky and surrounded by five counties, was created in 1843 from the lower portion of Hardin County. It is named for John LaRue, an early settler who was the grandfather of Kentucky Governor John LaRue Helm. U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was born in Larue County in 1809. There is only one Larue County in the entire United States. The county seat is Hodgenville, named for Robert Hodgen, who was born in England, lived in Pennsylvania, and moved to Kentucky. Hodgenville was created in 1818 on land that had belonged to Robert Hodgen. The 1850 county population was 5,187, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,992 in 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 186 slave owners
  • 508 Black slaves
  • 157 Mulatto slaves
  • 8 free Blacks [most with last name Savoree, while others were surnamed Lovelace, Friend, Clay, and Barritt]
  • 7 free Mulattoes [six with the last name Meredith, plus E. Payton]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 221 slave owners
  • 604 Black slaves
  • 297 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Ruebin Balis, a 50 year old blacksmith]
  • 3 free Mulattoes [2 Savorees, 1 Wright]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 626 Blacks
  • 327 Mulattoes
  • About 26 U.S. Colored Troops listed Larue County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Larue County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; LaRue County, by R. H. Nichols; Common Law Marriages, 1866-1876, Colored, Marriages, 1866-1913, Colored, by R. Heady; and Bond-Washington School, 1924-1956, by B. M. Marcus.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Larue County, Kentucky

Laurel County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Laurel County, located in southeastern Kentucky, was established in 1825 from portions of Clay, Knox, Rockcastle, and Whitley Counties, and is surrounded by seven counties. It is named for the laurel shrub found in the area. The county seat is London, named in 1825 for London, England. The county population was 342 [heads of households] in 1830, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,302 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 56 slave owners
  • 141 Black slaves
  • 0 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [Peter Johnathan and Joanna Pin, both born in VA]
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Faris, Leckiter, Wiggins]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 37 slave owners
  • 146 Black slaves
  • 40 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto [Wely Young]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 108 Blacks
  • 31 Mulattoes
  • About 11 U.S. Colored Troops listed Laurel County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Laurel County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Pictorial History of Laurel County, Kentucky, by the Laurel County Historical Society; and Marriage Bond Books (indexed) at Laurel County, KY, County Clerk website. See photo image of the construction of the Negro school in Laurel County in Kentucky Digital Library - images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Laurel County, Kentucky

Lawrence County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Lawrence County was established in 1821 from portions of Greenup and Floyd Counties. It is located in eastern Kentucky, bordered by the state of West Virginia and six Kentucky counties. The county is named for James Lawrence who was born in New Jersey, and was a U.S. naval officer. He commanded the USS Chesapeake during the War of 1812. The county seat of Lawrence County was named Louisa in 1822. The exact origin of the name is not known. The 1830 county population was 618 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 7,453 in 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 41 slave owners
  • 105 Black slaves
  • 32 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Alim Shaw, born in SC]
  • 1 free Mulatto [George Fugett]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 38 slave owners
  • 101 Black slaves
  • 45 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 100 Blacks
  • 22 Mulattoes
  • About 10 U.S. Colored Soldiers listed Lawrence County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Lawrence County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Lawrence County, Kentucky by R. Tackett and et. al.; and Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky, v.2 by L. Collins and R. H. Collins.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Lawrence County, Kentucky

Lawson, William H.
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1913
Lawson was born in Maysville, KY, the son of Robert Lawson. He attended school in Ripley, OH. His family moved to Louisville in 1856 and was listed as free in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census. The family included William; his mother, M. Lawson, who was employed as a wash woman; and two other children. William was training to become a painter, decorator, and photographer. In 1872 he ran unsuccessfully for Marshall of the City Court. From 1879-1886, he operated a photography studio at 319 W. Walnut Street. He was later a U.S. store-keeper and an artist. William Lawson served with the 122nd Regiment of the U. S. Colored Troops; he was a quartermaster sergeant. He helped organize the United Brothers of Friendship and served as a state and national Grand Master. He was also a published poet. William Lawson was married to Emeline Lawson, who was born in 1857 in Tennessee. He was later married to Elizabeth [Lizzie] Lawson. For more see the "W. H. Lawson" entry in Weeden's History of the Colored People of Louisville, by H. C. Weeden; and J. C. Anderson, "Photography," p. 703, middle column, in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, edited by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Businesses, Military & Veterans, Photographers, Photographs, Poets
Geographic Region: Maysville, Mason County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Lee, Amanda
Birth Year : 1843
In 1894, Amanda Lee was the owner of the first house built in the town of Cynthiana, KY, according to Lucinda Boyd. It was not known who actually built the house, a log cabin built around 1790, or how Lee came to own it. Lee was a free woman of color born in Kentucky in 1843. She is listed as a domestic servant of the John Dellows family in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census. Dellows was a tailor from Missouri and his wife, Sallie, was from Ohio. The town of Cynthiana, KY, was established in 1793. Amanda Lee was one of several free African Americans in Harrison County, KY, prior to 1860 who had the last name Lee. One of the earliest, Judy Lee, the daughter of Samuel V. Lee, was born around 1809 and died around 1852. For more see "First House,"  Chronicles of Cynthiana and other Chronicles, p. 9, by L. Boyd.
Subjects: Freedom
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky

Letcher County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Letcher County is located in southeastern Kentucky on the West Virginia border, and adjoins four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1842 from portions of Perry and Harlan Counties, and was named for Governor Robert P. Letcher, who was a Kentucky Representative and was Speaker of the House, and a U.S. Representative. The county seat of Letcher County is Whitesburg, named in 1842 for John D. White, a Kentucky Representative and U.S. Senator. According to the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, the Letcher County population was 2,450, and increased to 4,608 by 1870, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 21 slave owners
  • 51 Black slaves
  • 11 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes [most with last name Moore]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 29 slave owners
  • 87 Black slaves
  • 21 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [Lucinda Banks and Henry Williams]
  • 5 free Mulattoes [most with last name Moore]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 110 Blacks
  • 13 Mulattoes
  • 1 U.S. Colored Troop listed Letcher County, KY, as his birth location. [William McKinnevan]
For more see the Letcher County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Letcher County, Kentucky by W. T. Cornett; Blacks in Appalachia by W. H. Turner and E. J. Cabbell.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Letcher County, Kentucky

Lewis County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Lewis County is located in northeastern Kentucky on the Ohio River and borders five counties. It was developed from a portion of Mason County in 1806, and is named for Merriweather Lewis of the famed Lewis and Clark Expedition. The first county seat was Poplar Flats in 1806, and Vanceburg became the county seat in December of 1863. Vanceburg was named for Joseph C. Vance, a Revolutionary War veteran who was born in Virginia. The 1810 population of Lewis County was 345 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 8,011 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 91 slave owners
  • 251 Black slaves
  • 71 Mulatto Slaves
  • 7 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto [Robert McDowell]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 69 slave owners
  • 134 Black slaves
  • 96 Mulatto Slaves
  • 15 free Blacks [10 with the last name Dennis]
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Jesse Greenway and Menerva Vincent]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 205 Blacks
  • 30 Mulattoes
  • About 13 U.S. Colored Troops listed Lewis County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Lewis County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Lewis County, Kentucky by O. G. Ragan; C.B. Shepard Deed of Emancipation, 1826; and Tax Assessment Books, 1807-1911 (Lewis County).
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Lewis County, Kentucky

Lightfoot, Carter
Birth Year : 1794
Death Year : 1845
This entry was researched, written and submitted by
Nancy O’Malley, Assistant Director
William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology and
Office of State Archeology
1020A Export Street
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506
Ph. 859-257-1944
FAX: 859-323-1968

Carter Lightfoot was a free black man who lived in Paris, Kentucky where he made a living as a barber. Nothing is known of his early life or the circumstances of his freedom.  However, he was free by 1830 when he is listed in the Bourbon County federal census as the head of a household of four, including himself (between 36 and 55 years of age), an adult female between 24 and 36 years of age, and a male and a female both between 10 and 24 years. The older female may have been his wife, Jane, although she was still technically a slave in 1830. On April 4, 1831, Carter purchased Jane’s freedom from John Harvey (alternately spelled Hervie) of Frankfort. The manumission record described him as 37 years old, with yellow skin color (a common way to identify light-skinned people of color), 5’ 3 ½” in height "spare but of good size" and with a scar on his left nostril. The manumission record indicated that Carter signed with his mark. 
 

Two white men, named Joseph (abbreviated as Jos.) and possibly Josiah (abbreviated as Jos’h) Lightfoot, and living in separate households, are also listed in the 1830 census for Bourbon County and may have some connection to Carter. Only one of the men, Jos’h (Josiah), owned slaves.
 

The other two younger household members are unidentified but probably were not his children. In late June of 1833, Carter Lightfoot had his will prepared, possibly in reaction to the cholera that was raging through Kentucky at the time and aware that he might be one of its victims. His will instructed his executor, John G. Martin, to pay all his debts and leave the rest of his property to his wife Jane. Of their children, he wrote, “If she [Jane] could in any way be instrumental with the property I have given her above in obtaining the freedom of my children by her I greatly desire it."
 

Carter may have also wished to secure his wife’s inheritance of the house and lot after his death. His will made reference to a house and lot that he owned in Paris. On March 29, 1831, Carter entered into a mortgage agreement with Aris Throckmorton, Joseph Biggs and J. C. Smith in which they served as security for the purchase of the house and lot referred to in the will. Carter and the three men negotiated a promissory note for $550.00 that enabled the purchase of the property, giving Carter until October of 1831 to pay the note back. This he managed to do and the deed was formally transferred to him on October 20, 1831. The property lay on the northwesterly side of Main Street and was part of inlot 2. Carter’s lot fronted 13 ½ ft on Main Street, extending back 72 ft. It was sandwiched between an impressive three story commission house belonging to Charles S. Brent and a building that occupied the corner of Main Street and present day 2nd Street. Its current address is 203 Main Street. The building on the lot today is a two story brick commercial building with a heavy Italiante cornice both on the shopfront and at the roofline. Langsam and Johnson (1985) suggest that this building was built after 1877. If this is so, it replaced the earlier building purchased and occupied by Carter Lightfoot from approximately 1830 until 1845 when he died; his wife Jane may have lived here a few years longer, possibly to 1851, when a court appointed administrator sold it to Benedict B. Marsh.
 

Around the time Carter Lightfoot bought his Main Street property in Paris, he submitted an advertisement in the local Paris newspaper, The Western Citizen. The ad appeared in an 1831 issue but is dated October 30, 1830 so must have run multiple times. It read:

CARTER LIGHTFOOT

BARBER, HAIR-DRESSER, &C

RESPECTFULLY informs his customers and the public generally that he has settled himself permanently in Paris and may be found at his shop, opposite Timberlake’s Hotel, where he will accommodate all those who may please to call on him. Those having demands against him, will present them for payment—and those indebted will please recollect that punctuality is the life of business.

The ad is interesting for several reasons. It indicates that he had taken possession of his Main Street property by October of 1830, possibly renting it with the intent to purchase, and operated his barbering business there. He probably also lived there, a common practice of tradesmen of the time. He acknowledged having some personal debts which he was in a position to repay and was owed money that he wished to collect. Although he was apparently illiterate, the wording of the ad suggests a certain gentility and refinement in its use of the adage about punctuality in paying one’s debts. Finally, the postscript references the continuation of his services from an earlier time, perhaps on a more itinerant basis, in which he traveled to his customers rather than working out of a shop. With the acquisition of a shop on the main street of the county seat, however, he took his place as one of the town’s businessmen with a social status that greatly contrasted with the status of a slave or even a free black laborer of lesser skills. It is also possible that he was the only barber in business in Paris in the 1830s and early 1840s. Five years after his death in 1845, only one black barber, George Morgan, was identified as such in the 1850 federal census and, like Carter Lightfoot, he owned real estate—probably in Paris and possibly next to a hotel operated by Charles Talbott.
 

Barbering was an occupation with some intriguing social implications between the barber and his customers. By the 19th century, the occupation of barber had become closely associated with African-Americans, largely due to the common practice of the white elite to have their hair cut and beards shaved by slaves. This association led to a decline in status of barbers among whites and a decline in white competition. Free blacks benefited as a result even though their clientele was, by necessity, exclusively white, a practice that tended to encourage segregation of barbering services and placed black barbers in the position of being dependent on white clients for their livelihood. Given the very personal nature of cutting and dressing hair and its relationship to personal image and appearance, barbers had to be very careful in performing their services. Complaints about barber shop hygiene were common and barbers were cautioned to disinfect their tools at an early date. Many customers brought their own brushes, razors and towels when they visited a barber to avoid infection.
 

Carter Lightfoot’s household was again censused in 1840. Only three people were listed: a man and a woman who were between 36 and 54 years of age (Carter and Jane) and a male between 10 and 23. Two of the persons in the household were employed in manufacture and trade. One of these was undoubtedly Carter whose barbering business would have been considered a trade. It’s probable that their children were still held as slaves.
 

Carter died in 1845 and his wife appears to have followed him in death by 1851 when their house and lot were sold by a court appointed agent to Benedict B. Marsh to settle their estate. None of the probate documents associated with the Lightfoot estate mentioned any children and their whereabouts, even their names are unknown. Marsh sold the house and lot in 1855 to another free man of color, Jefferson Porter. Eleven years later, Porter sold the property and the adjoining corner lot to Robert P. Dow and John Hickey. Robert Dow established a prominent commercial presence on this corner as a grocer.
 

Carter Lightfoot was one of only a few men of color who owned property in Paris prior to the Civil War. His profession as a barber was a higher status one for men of color that required more specialized skills and catered to an exclusively white clientele. In many parts of the south, a black barber had either white or black clients but not generally both. It is likely that Lightfoot sought white clients since he went to the trouble of advertising his establishment of a barber shop in Paris in the local newspaper. Had his clients been men of color, he would not have had to advertise in the local paper since many free black men could not read or write. While he did not speculate in urban lots or acquire any other city or county property than his house/barbershop on Main Street, he must, for a time, have been a well known fixture around town. The fate of other Lightfoot family members is unknown. Neither Carter nor his wife Jane succeeded in procuring the freedom of their children before the Civil War abolished slavery. Their children may have lived in Franklin County where Jane’s former master, John Hervie, lived in 1830. With the demise of Carter and Jane Lightfoot within a few years of each other, and no evidence that any of their heirs came forward to claim the estate, the proceeds of the sale of their property on Main Street might have been used to settle their debts and/or added to the city’s coffers as unclaimed assets.
 

Sources:

  • Bourbon County deeds
  • Federal census returns for 1830, 1840 and 1850
  • 1831 Western Citizen on file, The Bourbon Citizen/Citizen Advertiser office, Paris, Ky.
  • Julie Ann Hurst (2005), "Barbershops in Harrisburg’s Old Eighth, 1890-1905,"Vol. 72, no. 4, pp. 443-453, Pennsylvania History.
  • Walter E. Langsam and William Gus Johnson (1985), Historic Architecture of Bourbon County, Kentucky. Historic Paris-Bourbon County, Inc., Paris, and Kentucky Heritage Council, Frankfort.

Subjects: Barbers, Businesses, Freedom
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Lincoln County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Lincoln County was one of the original three counties established by Virginia in 1780 [Fayette and Jefferson were the other two counties]. The three counties were created in order to make it easier for the state of Virginia to govern the huge area previously known as Kentucky County. The present day boundaries of Lincoln County were established in 1843, and it is surrounded by five counties. Lincoln County was named for Benjamin Lincoln, a Revolutionary War general who was captured by the British. Stanford is the county seat, it was founded by Benjamin Logan in 1775; the exact origin of the city name is not known. It was first known as St. Asaph, then Fort Logan. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1970, there were 5,446 whites, 1,094 slaves, and 8 free persons. The 1800 Lincoln County population was 8,621, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 6,822 whites, 1,776 slaves, and 23 free coloreds. The 1810 population was 8,676, according to the Third Census of the United States, Lincoln County, Kentucky: 6,297 whites, 2,341 slaves, and 38 free colored persons. The 1860 population was 7,177, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes from 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 515 slave owners
  • 2,878 Black slaves
  • 476 Mulatto slaves
  • 65 free Blacks
  • 41 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 531 slave owners
  • 2,270 Black slaves
  • 1,159 Mulatto slaves
  • 54 free Blacks
  • 106 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 2,072 Blacks
  • 921 Mulattoes
  • About 210 U.S. Colored Troops listed Lincoln County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Lincoln County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Lincoln County, Kentucky by the Lincoln County Historical Society; Slave Records, 1781-1784 of Stephen Trigg; and the Anne Butler audio interview, Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky at the Kentucky Historical Society website. See photo image of Negro High School in Stanford, KY in Kentucky Digital Library - images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Lincoln County, Kentucky

Livingston County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Livingston County, located in southwestern Kentucky, was created in 1798 from a portion of Christian County. It is bordered by the Kentucky River, the Tennessee River, Kentucky Lake, and Lake Barkley, and is adjacent to four counties. The county is named for Robert R. Livingston, who helped draft the Declaration of Independence (but did not sign it), negotiated the Louisiana Purchase, and was a member of the Erie Canal Commission. Eddyville was the first county seat of Livingston County in 1799, then Centerville in 1804, and Salem in 1809. The present county seat, Smithland, named in honor of James Smith of Pennsylvania, was established in 1841. The 1800 county population was 2,856, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,396 whites, 456 slaves, and 4 free coloreds. The 1860 population was 5,983, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 231 slave owners
  • 981 Black slaves
  • 136 Mulatto slaves
  • 28 free Blacks
  • 31 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 261 slave owners
  • 999 Black slaves
  • 224 Mulatto slaves
  • 14 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 600 Blacks
  • 396 Mulattoes
  • About 111 U.S. Colored Troops gave Livingston County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Livingston County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Livingston County, Kentucky by Livingston County Historical and Genealogical Society; Schools. Kentucky, Cowper, C.A. et al. v. Livingston County Board of Education, 1941-42, Papers of the NAACP; and Marriage Bond Books (indexed), Livingston County Clerk. 


   See 1936 photo image of Colored School in Smithland, KY [Livingston County] at ExpoloreUK.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Livingston County, Kentucky

Logan County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Logan County is located in south-central Kentucky on the Tennessee state line and borders five Kentucky counties. It was formed from Lincoln County in 1792 and named for Benjamin Logan, a Revolutionary War veteran and a pioneer from Virginia. Logan County is one of the largest counties in Kentucky. The county seat is Russellville, named for William Russell, Sr., who was also a Revolutionary War veteran. The 1800 population for Logan County was 5,807, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 4,939 whites, 775 slaves, 93 free coloreds. In 1830 there were five free African American slave owners in Russellville. The 1860 population was 12,667, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 981 slave owners
  • 4,591 Black slaves
  • 791 Mulatto slaves
  • 301 free Blacks
  • 64 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 1,230 slave owners
  • 4,863 Black slaves
  • 1,501 Mulatto slaves
  • 265 free Blacks
  • 105 free Mulattoes
1870 U. S. Federal Census
  • 3,955 Blacks
  • 1,691 Mulattoes
  • About 295 U.S. Colored Troops listed Logan County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Logan County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Logan County, Kentucky by the Logan County Chamber of Commerce; "Does God See This?": Shakers, Slavery, and the South (thesis) by R. L. Fletcher; Colored Marriage Bonds, Logan County, Ky. to 1900 by M. Vanderpool; Russellville's Black Bottom Project (videorecording) by M. A. Morrow and D. Rightmyer; and History of the A. M. Todd Family by M. A. Morrow.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Logan County, Kentucky

Louisville, Kentucky, City Directories
Start Year : 1832
End Year : 1990
The Louisville City Directories contain detailed information on businesses, government, churches, social, and educational organizations, and the residents of Louisville, KY. Available at the University of Louisville's Ekstrom Library's Special Collections. Several of the directories are also available at the University of Kentucky Libraries' Special Collections Library.
Subjects: Directories
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Lower Street (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1844
The area was platted in 1844, and the least expensive lots were sold to African Americans following the end of the Civil War. The neighborhood was located on the western side of Lexington, backed by railroad tracks [off present day Broadway near the railroad overpass]. The Lower Street School, one of the three main schools for African Americans, was in place by 1888. The street name was changed in 2004 from Lower Street to Patterson Street. Information for this entry comes from J. Kellogg, "The Formation of Black Residential Areas in Lexington, Kentucky, 1865-1887," The Journal of Southern History, vol. 48, issue 1 (Feb. 1982), pp. 21-52; "Ask us - answers to your burning questions," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/01/2004, Communities section, p. D1; and D. Wilkinson, "Achievement gap inseparable from the history of inequality from slavery on, African Americans have faced uphill struggle for education," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/26/2001, Opinions and Ideas section, p. J1.
Subjects: Communities, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Madison County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Madison County, named for 4th U.S. President James Madison, is located in central Kentucky, surrounded by seven counties. Madison County was formed in 1785 and the town of Milford served as the county seat until 1798 when Richmond became the county seat. [Judge John Kincaid had named the first county seat after his slave named Milford. It has been written that Kincaid granted Milford his freedom.] Richmond was located on land owned by State Representative John Miller, who named the town for his birthplace, Richmond, VA. In the First Kentucky Census, 1790, there were 5,035 whites and 737 slaves. The 1800 county population was 10,490, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 8,761 whites, 1,726 slaves, and 3 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner. In 1860, the population was 11,173, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 812 slave owners
  • 4.392 Black slaves
  • 844 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks
  • 37 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 945 slave owners
  • 5,039 Black slaves
  • 999 Mulatto slaves
  • 86 free Blacks
  • 63 free Mulattoes

1870 U. S. Federal Census

  • 5,811 Blacks
  • 378 Mulattoes
  • About 356 U.S. Colored Troops listed Madison County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Madison County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Berea and Madison County by J. G. Burnside; A Study of the black Warford and Bates families of Madison County, Kentucky by M. Groth; Connections: the Richmond, Kentucky area African-American heritage guide by the Richmond Tourism and Visitor Center; and History of Middletown Elementary School (archival material). Milford source: see Judge John Kincaid on p.564 in The History of Kentucky by Z. F. Smith.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky

Magowan, John Wesley [Brooks]
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1895
John W. Brooks was a slave born on the Magowan Farm in Montgomery County, KY. In 1864, Brooks and seven other African Americans left the Magowan farm and headed to Louisville to join up with the 109th Regiment, Company A of the United States Colored Infantry. After the Civil War, Sergeant Brooks returned to Montgomery County and took the last name Magowan. He married Amanda Trimble, supporting his wife and children through his trade as a carpenter. John W. Magowan was one of the more prosperous African Americans in Montgomery County. The family lived in Smithville, and four of the children attended Berea Academy. John and Amanda's sons, Noah and John D. Magowan, were the first African Americans to establish a newspaper in Mt. Sterling, KY: The Reporter. Another son, James E. Magowan, was a successful businessman and community leader in Mt. Sterling. John Wesley Magowan died of consumption [tuberculosis] on February 3, 1895. This entry was submitted by Holly Hawkins of the Montgomery County Historical Society, and comes from her work included in the Civil War display at the Montgomery County Historical Society Museum in 2011. See the death notice for John Wesley Magowan in the Mt. Sterling Advocate, 02/05/1895, p. 1, col. 3. There are several Magowan families listed in the U.S. Federal Census noted as Black and living in Montgomery County, KY.
Subjects: Fathers, Freedom, Military & Veterans, Carpenters, Tuberculosis: Care and Deaths
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling and Smithville, Montgomery County, Kentucky

Marion County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Prior to becoming Marion County, the area contained a Roman Catholic settlement with a population from Maryland and was home to the first Roman Catholic church built in Kentucky. The county, located in central Kentucky, was formed from a portion of Washington County in 1834. It is surrounded by seven counties and was named for Francis Marion, a veteran of the Revolutionary War who was known for his guerrilla warfare skills. The county seat, Lebanon, was established in 1814 by Benedict Spadling and John Handley and named for the Biblical Lebanon. The 1840 population was 1,449 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 9,114 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 579 slave owners
  • 2,618 Black slaves
  • 463 Mulatto slaves
  • 54 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 628 slave owners
  • 2,845 Black slaves
  • 636 Mulatto slaves
  • 92 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 2,700 Blacks
  • 656 Mulattoes
  • About 106 U.S. Colored Troops listed Marion County, Kentucky, as their birth location.

For more see Marion County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Marion County, Kentucky vol. 1, by the Marion County Historical Society; Searching for Jim: Slavery in Sam Clemen's World, by T. Dempsey; and "McGoodwin v. Shelby" in Legal History of the Color Line: the rise and the triumph of the one-drop rule, F. W. Sweet.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Marion County, Kentucky

Marrs, Elijah P.
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1910
Elijah P. Marrs wrote an autobiography of his life as a slave in Shelby County - Life and History of the Rev. Elijah P. Marrs [available on the University of North Carolina University Library's Documenting the American South website]. He was the son of Andrew Marrs, who was free, and Frances Marrs, who was a slave, both from Virginia. Marrs, who learned to read and write, left the plantation to become a Union solider. After the war, he was founder of several churches and the first African American school teacher in Simpsonville. Marrs also taught at the school in Lagrange , New Castle, and the school held in a church in Braxton [Bracktown] in Lexington, KY. Elijah and his brother, J. C. Marrs, are credited as co-founders of Simmons University. After four years, Elijah Marrs sold his interest in the development of the school in 1874. While in Lagrange, KY, Elijah Marrs was the first African American to become president of the Republican Club of Oldham County, and he established the first colored agriculture and mechanical fair for the Simpson and Logan Counties  [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116 & p.134]. In New Castle, KY, he established the Loyal League for the Protection of Negroes.  For more see Notable Black American Men, by J. C. Smith; and Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1879-1930, by L. H. Williams.

See photo image of Elijah P. Marrs at Find a Grave.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Simpsonville, Shelby County, Kentucky / Virginia / Bracktown [Braxton], Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Marshall County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Marshall County, located in far western Kentucky and created in 1842, was part of Hickman County, and later it was the northern part of Calloway County. Prior to that, the land belonged to the Chickasaw Indians, and was bought as part of the Jackson Purchase. Marshall County is surrounded by six counties and was named for U.S. Chief Justice John Marshall. In 1842, Benton was named the county seat in honor of Thomas H. Benton, a U.S Senator from Missouri, who was born in North Carolina. The 1850 county population was 5,020, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 6,635 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 86 slave owners
  • 204 Black slaves
  • 45 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks [most with last name Davis, 3 Whitesides, 1 Grear, 1 Oglevey, 1 Still]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [2 Davis, 1 Grear, 1 Whitesides]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 125 slave owners
  • 275 Black slaves
  • 80 Mulatto slaves
  • 18 free Blacks
  • 17 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 282 Blacks
  • 86 Mulattoes
  • About 19 U.S. Colored Troops listed Marshall County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Marshall County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Marshall County, Kentucky, with illustrations and biographical sketches by Marshall County Genealogical Society; Tax Assessment Books 1843-1892 from Marshall County (KY) County Clerk; Oral History Interview with William Pryor.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Marshall County, Kentucky

Mason County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Mason County, located in northern Kentucky, was formed in 1788 and was one of the first eight counties established by the Virginia Legislature. It borders four Kentucky counties, and is bound on the north by the Ohio River. Mason County was named for George Mason, who was from Virginia and drafted an early version of the Bill of Rights. Maysville, named for Virginia surveyor John May, is the county seat, and was previously known as Limestone. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 2,500 whites and 229 slaves. The 1800 county population was 12,182, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 10,347 whites, 1,747 slaves, and 88 free coloreds. In 1830 there were nine free African American slave owners in Mason County and three in Washington. By 1860, the population was 14,451, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 967 slave owners
  • 3,454 Black slaves
  • 837 Mulatto slaves
  • 227 free Blacks
  • 155 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 779 slave owners
  • 2,903 Black slaves
  • 862 Mulatto slaves
  • 227 free Blacks
  • 158 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 2,830 Blacks
  • 743 Mulattoes
  • About 316 U.S. Colored Troops listed Mason County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Mason County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A Historical Sketch of Mason County, Kentucky by L.C. Lee; Free Negroes: inhabitants of Randolph Co., N.C., 1850-1860 by E. R. H. Grady; Marriage Bond Books, 1852-1979 by Mason County (KY) County Clerk; and Slavery in Mason County, Kentucky by C. R. Miller.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Mason County, Kentucky

McCoy, Elijah J.
Birth Year : 1843
Death Year : 1929
Though it has been written otherwise, Elijah McCoy was not from Kentucky. He was born in Ontario, Canada. McCoy was the son of Mildred and George McCoy, escaped slaves from Louisville, KY. Elijah was a mechanical engineer known as the "Father of Lubrication." In 1872 he first patented an invention for self-oiling machines; automatic lubrication became known as "the real McCoy." He also invented an ironing table and lawn sprinkler. For more see World of Invention. History's most significant inventions and the people behind them, 2nd ed.

See photo and additional information about Elijah J. McCoy at the African American Registry website.
Subjects: Inventors, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering
Geographic Region: Ontario, Canada / Louisville, Kentucky

McCracken County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
McCracken County is located in southwestern Kentucky in the Jackson Purchase region. It was formed from a portion of Hickman County in 1825, and is bordered by the Ohio and Tennessee Rivers and four Kentucky counties. McCracken County was named for Virgil McCracken who was a soldier during the War of 1812. He was wounded in the Battle of the River Raisin and soon after was killed in a raid. Virgil McCracken had been a member of the Kentucky General Assembly, representing Woodford County. The county seat of McCracken County is Paducah, named for the Chickasaw leader Paduke (or Paduoca). There is a statue and historical marker honoring Chief Paduke at the corner of 19th and Jefferson Streets in Paducah. In 1830, the McCracken County population was 205 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 8,622 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 212 slave owners
  • 666 Black slaves
  • 135 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks
  • 15 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 396 slave owners
  • 1,460 Black slaves
  • 288 Mulatto slaves
  • 26 free Blacks
  • 42 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 2,229 Blacks
  • 998 Mulattoes
  • About 56 U.S. Colored Troops listed McCracken County, KY as their birth location.

For more see McCracken County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia by J. E. Kleber; King to Obama: living the legacy while passing the torch by W. C. Young Community Center; The Light House newspaper; and West Kentucky Vocational School - Minute Book, 1924-1934 Office of Vocational Education. Also listen to the oral history recordings of African Americans from Paducah, KY, at Murray State University.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: McCracken County, Kentucky

McCray, Mary F.
Birth Year : 1837
Death Year : 1894
Mary F. McCray, born a slave in Kentucky, was the wife of S. J. McCray. She was freed at the age of 21 after the woman who owned her family, Miss Polly Adams, died in 1859. Fannie, her husband, and family moved to De Smet in the Dakota Territory, where they established the first church and sunday school in their home. Mary, who could not read or write, would become one of the first African American women licensed to preach in the territory; she was pastor of the Free Methodist Church. Mary and her husband also founded the first school for African Americans in De Smet. When their crops failed, the McCray family returned to Ohio, where Mary and S. J. founded the First Holiness Church of Lima. For more see "Mary F. McCray" in vol. 5 of the African American National Biography, edited by H. L. Gates, Jr. and E. B. Higginbotham; and The Life of Mary F. McCray, by her husband and son [available online at UNC University Library, Documenting the American South].

See image of Mary F. McCray on p.4 of The Life fo Mary McCray.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Migration West, Religion & Church Work, Sunday School
Geographic Region: Kentucky / De Smet, South Dakota Territory / Lima, Ohio

McIntosh, Tom
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1904
McIntosh, born in Lexington, KY, was a comedian who had his greatest success with Callender's Georgia Minstrels. In addition to his great comedic talent, McIntosh was also an exhibition drummer and singer. During his career, he teamed with female impersonator Willis Ganze, performing on some of the leading circuits in the U.S. He then teamed with his wife, Hattie McIntosh, for a short period. McIntosh later took the starring role of Mr. Bullion in "Southern Enchantment" with the Smart Set Company; he replaced Kentucky native Ernest Hogan [Reuben Crowders]. McIntosh died of a stroke while the Smart Set Company was en route to Indianapolis. For more see his career review by Sylvester Russell, "Tribute to Tom M'Intosh," Indianapolis Freeman, 04/09/1904, p. 5; and Profiles of African American Stage Performers and Theatre People, 1816-1960, by B. L. Peterson, Jr.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers, Cross Dressing, Dress in Drag
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

McRidley, Wendell H. [Cadiz Normal and Theological College]
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1932
Rev. Wendell H. McRidley was editor and publisher of the Cadiz Informer, a Baptist weekly newspaper in Cadiz, KY. In 1887, he founded and was president of the Cadiz Normal and Theological College; the school had 269 students in 1895 and was still in operation as an elementary school in 1915 with at least 18 students. McRidley was also an alternate Kentucky Delegate to the Republication Convention in 1900 and 1916. He was treasurer of the Colored Masons' Mt. Olive Lodge #34 in Louisville, organized in 1880. McRidley was born in Tennessee, he was the husband of Anna M. Crump McRidley, born 1864 in KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927; McRidley, at The Political Graveyard website; Chapter 4 of The History of Prince Hall Grand Lodge in Ohio, by C. H. Wesley; and the Photo on p. 301 in Sermons, Addresses and Reminiscences and Important Correspondence..., by E. C. Morris [available on the UNC University Library's Documenting the American South website]. For more about the Cadiz Normal and Theological College, and the School, see p.117 of the Sixty-third Annual Report of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, May 30th and 31st, 1895; and p. 278 of Negro Education, by T. J. Jones [both available online at Google Book Search]. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Tennessee / Cadiz, Trigg County, Kentucky

Meade County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Meade County, located in northwestern Kentucky along the Ohio River, was formed in 1823 from the bordering counties of Breckinridge and Hardin. The county was named in honor of James Meade, who was killed in the Battle of River Raisin. Fort Knox was constructed in 1918, and 15,000 acres of the site were located in Meade County. Brandenburg was named the county seat in 1825, although the community had existed since the early 1800s, when Solomon Brandenburg purchased a tract of land and built his tavern; the town of Brandenburg developed around the tavern. The 1830 county population was 570 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 6,966 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 335 slave owners
  • 1,232 Black slaves
  • 339 Mulatto slaves
  • 16 free Blacks
  • 5 free Mulattoes [all with last name Alexander]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 372 slave owners
  • 1,463 Black slaves
  • 468 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,061 Blacks
  • 253 Mulattoes
  • About 15 U.S. Colored Troops gave Meade County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Meade County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Civil War Incidents in and Around Meade County, Kentucky, by M. Myers; Marriage Books, 1824-1974, Meade County (KY) County Clerk; and Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in Kentucky, by J. B. Hudson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Meade County, Kentucky

Mercer County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Mercer County, located in central Kentucky, was formed in 1785 from a portion of Lincoln County. It was named for Hugh Mercer, from Scotland, who was a physician killed during the American Revolutionary War. Mercer County was the sixth county formed in Kentucky, and it is surrounded by six counties. Harrodsburg, the county seat, was first called Harrod's Town. It was founded in 1774 by James Harrod, who was a pioneer, explorer, and a soldier in the French and Indian War. Harrodsburg is considered the first permanently established settlement in Kentucky. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 5,745 whites, 1,339 slaves, and 7 free persons. The 1800 county population was 9,646, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 7,297 whites, 2,316 slaves, and 33 free coloreds. In 1830 there were nine free African American slave owners. By 1860, the population had increased to 10,427, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 619 slave owners
  • 2,952 Black slaves
  • 295 Mulatto slaves
  • 261 free Blacks
  • 73 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 618 slave owners
  • 2,353 Black slaves
  • 732 Mulatto slaves
  • 103 Colored slaves
  • 167 free Blacks
  • 1 free Colored [Parellee Meaux]
  • 89 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 2,691 Blacks
  • 566 Mulattoes
  • About 142 U.S. Colored Troops listed Mercer, KY, as their birth location.

For more see Mercer County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Letters to Ministers and Elders on the Sin of Holding Slaves, and the Duty of Immediate Emancipation, by J. G. Birney; Marriage Books, 1786-1984, Mercer County (KY) County Clerk; and Through Two Hundred Years, by G. M. Chinn and R. W. Conover.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Mercer County, Kentucky

Micheaux, Melvina
Birth Year : 1832
Death Year : 1916
Micheaux was born in Alabama. She and her husband, David Micheaux, were slaves in Calloway County, KY. Melvina and her three children moved to Illinois, later joining other Exodusters in the move to Nicodemus, Kansas. One of her children, Calvin Swan Micheaux, Sr. (1847-1932), was the father of Oscar D. Micheaux (1884-1951), an author who established the Micheaux Film and Book Company. He became a producer of films, the first of which was The Homesteader (a silent film). For more on Oscar D. Micheaux, see The Life and Work of Oscar Micheaux: Pioneer Black Author and Filmmaker, 1884-1951, by E. J. Young. Melvina Micheaux was the mother of Andrew Jackson Micheaux, the great, great grandfather of pro football player Austin Wheatly. See Andrew Jackson Micheaux and Melvina Micheaux photos.
Subjects: Migration West, Mothers, Nicodemus, Grandparents, Exodusters [African Americans migrating West around Reconstruction Era], Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Alabama / Calloway County, Kentucky / Nicodemus, Kansas

Migration from Kentucky to Florida
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1945
In 1910, Florida was one of six states to have the greatest gain from Negro migration (the other five states were Arkansas, Pennsylvania, Oklahoma, New York, and Illinois). Florida received a greater migration than any northern state. Kentucky was not a major contributing state; there were very few African Americans who migrated from Kentucky to Florida prior to the mid 20th Century. Looking at the Florida State Census (1867-1945), the U.S. Federal Census (1850-1930), and the World War I and World War II Draft Registrations, there are little more than 1,000 African Americans listed as born in Kentucky and residing in Florida. For those who did move, they were not concentrated in one particular region of Florida or employed in one particular industry. One of the first Kentucky natives listed in the Census is Oather Bell, who in 1850 was a carpenter in Jacksonville. In 1870, Eli Adams was a farm laborer in Leon County; in 1885, Robert Adams was a laborer in Pensacola; in 1900, David Straws was a farmer in Jefferson County; in 1910, Lannie Jake was a sewer ditch digger in Quincy. During 1917-18, at least 23 African Americans born in KY registered for the Army Draft in Florida during World War I. In 1920, Ruthanne Adams ran a lodging house in Winter Haven; in 1935, Hallie O'Brien was a laundress in Dade County; in 1945, Victor C. St. Clair was a caretaker in Orange County; and at least 46 African Americans born in KY enlisted in Florida during World War II Army Enlistments from 1938-1946. More recently, in the 2004 Louisville Urban Studies Institute Research Report, Florida ranked as one of the top destinations for persons who moved from Kentucky (not defined by race). For more see Negro Migration During the War, by E. J. Scott. For more recent migration trends, see the University of Louisville Urban Studies Institute, Kentucky Population Research, and Kentucky State Data Center - Research Report by Price, Scobee, and Sawyer, Kentucky Migration: consequences for state population and labor force, February 2004 [available online .pdf]; and Migration by Race and Hispanic Origin: 1995-2000, Census 2000 Special Reports, issued October 2003 [available online .pdf].
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Migration South
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Florida

Migration to Rough and Ready, Yuba County, California
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
When the gold mining town of Rough and Ready, CA, was established in 1849, there was a male population of mostly Wisconsin miners, and included 82 men from Kentucky. The total population was 672 men, according to the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, and 12 of them were African Americans. Two of the African Americans were from Kentucky, Samuel [no last name] and Silas [Mc?], both born in 1825 and both were listed as traders; the men were probably slaves who were brought West by their owners. By 1860, there were four Mulattoes from Kentucky, and among them was Allen Kinkade (b.1825), the first African American to be listed as a miner from Kentucky. Also listed is Kentucky native Caroline Allen (b.1824), who is said to have been a slave in Rough and Ready in 1851 when she planted one of the two legendary trees in the town. The tree fell in 1967. Another version of the story is that the infamous tree is where a slave girl was hung in the 1850s. Writer Arthur W. Knight did not know which story was true, but learned that the stump of the tree had been made into a loveseat that was placed on the porch of the local general store. African Americans still lived in the town in 1870. There were 9 Blacks and one Mulatto from Kentucky, they were employed as wood choppers, farm laborers, and domestic servants. No African Americans from Kentucky were counted in the census of Rough and Ready between 1880-1930. Rough and Ready had been a gold mining town, and in April 1850, it was the only one to secede from the Union; the miners were rebelling against the federal mining tax. Three months later, in order to celebrate the 4th of July, the citizens of the Great Republic of Rough and Ready voted the town back into the Union. The town had been established by the Rough and Ready Company from Wisconsin. The company was named for Zachary Taylor who was nicknamed Old Rough and Ready. The town was originally located in what was Yuba County, and it is now in Nevada County, which was created from a portion of Yuba County. For more see the Rough and Ready website; A. W. Knight, "The Great Republic of Rough and Ready," Anderson Valley Advertiser, 09/10/2003 [online]; Northern California Curiosities by S. Rubin; and Rooted in Barbarous Soil by K. Starr and R. J. Orsi.
Subjects: Migration West
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Rough and Ready, California

Monroe County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Monroe County is located in south-central Kentucky on the Tennessee state line and is bordered by four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1820 from portions of Barren and Cumberland Counties and is named for James Monroe, fifth president of the United States. Tompkinsville, which became the county seat in 1820, is named for Daniel Tompkins, who was Vice President during the Monroe administration. Tompkinsville was first known as Watson's Store, founded in 1809, receiving its present name in 1819. The land for the town was owned by Thomas B. Monroe, a cousin of President James Monroe. The 1820 county population was 723 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 7,629 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 190 slave owners
  • 697 Black slaves
  • 134 Mulatto slaves
  • 17 free Blacks [most with last names Fulkes and Howard]
  • 7 free Mulattoes [last names Speakman, Page, Kingrey, Fulkes, and Bedford]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 200 slave owners
  • 775 Black slaves
  • 150 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks [last names Howard, 1 Jackson, 1 Taylor]
  • 9 free Mulattoes [most with last name Speakman, 2 Howard, 1 Colter, 1 Chism]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 599 Blacks
  • 143 Mulattoes
  • About 15 U.S. Colored Troops listed Monroe County, KY as their birth location.

Freetown

  • Around 1845, Freetown (or Free-town) was established for the freed slaves of William Howard, a wealthy slave owner in Monroe County. Freetown was the first African American community in the county, established on the land that had been provided by William Howard. A roadside historical marker has been placed near the Mount Vernon Church, which also served as a school for the Freetown community. There is also a cemetery near the church.

 
For more see Monroe County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; South Central Kentucky Vital Statistics, by M. B. Gorin; The Saga of Coe Ridge, by W. L. Montell; Black Heritage Sites, by N. C. Curtis; and the Cora Mae Howard oral history interview by James Kelly Shirley (FA 474), at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Monroe County, Kentucky

Montgomery County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Montgomery County was established in 1796 and bordered the state of Virginia before the land was subdivided into four additional counties, three of which border Montgomery County today. The county was named for Richard Montgomery, a general who was killed during the American Revolutionary War. The county seat is Mt. Sterling, founded in 1792 and named for Stirling, Scotland, by proprietor Hughes Forbes. The 1800 county population was 7,082, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 6,304 whites; 767 slaves, and 11 free coloreds.  In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner. By 1860, the population had increased to 5,180, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slave population. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 532 slave owners
  • 2,588 Black slaves
  • 483 Mulatto slaves
  • 128 free Blacks
  • 37 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 479 slave owners
  • 1,969 Black slaves
  • 783 Mulatto slaves
  • 133 free Blacks
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Davis, Glover, King, and Reavis]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,037 Blacks
  • 599 Mulattoes
  • About 174 U.S. Colored Troops listed Montgomery County, KY as their birth location.
For more see Montgomery County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; The Early History of Montgomery County, Kentucky by E. P. McCollough; P. W. L. Jones Collection (archival material); and articles in the Mt. Sterling Advocate newspaper.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Montgomery County, Kentucky

Moore, Henry
Birth Year : 1846
Moore, a barber, was born in Kentucky and moved to Indianapolis, IN, in 1873. He was a porter before partnering with Charles H. Lanier to become a co-owner of the Denison House Barbershop in 1891. Lanier was born in 1851 in Tennessee, and his father was a Kentucky native. Henry Moore was one of the most prominent barbers in the African American community in Indianapolis. He was also a Mason. Henry and Emma Moore (b.1851 in KY) lived on Missouri Street in Indianapolis, according to the 1900 U. S. Federal Census. For more see Slave and Freeman: the autobiography of George L. Knox, by G. L. Knox.
Subjects: Barbers, Migration North, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Morgan County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Morgan County was created from Bath and Floyd Counties in 1822, and was named for Daniel Morgan, an American Revolutionary War veteran and a U.S. Representative for Virginia. Morgan County is located in east-central Kentucky, and West Liberty is the county seat. The 1830 county population was 474 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 9,068 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 59 slave owners
  • 187 Black slaves
  • 0 Mulatto slaves
  • 26 free Blacks [last names Collins, Jackson, and Masters]
  • 18 free Mulattoes [most with last name Perkins, 1 Jones, 1 Letrel, and 1 with no last name]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 53 slave owners
  • 115 Black slaves
  • 55 Mulatto slaves
  • 58 free Blacks [last names Gibson, Gipson, Nickell, Phillips, and Reffet]
  • 23 free Mulattoes [last names Collins and Perkins]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 21 Blacks
  • 20 Mulattoes
  • About 33 U.S. Colored Troops listed Morgan County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see Morgan County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and Morgan County, Kentucky, Historical, Industrial, Past, Present, Future by Licking Valley Courier.

 

The following information was provided by Morgan County, KY, historian Ron Gevedon.

  • 1840  Free Colored: 3  -  Slaves: 61   [Historical Sketches of Kentucky.1848.p.152]
  • 1844 Slaves over 16: 56  /  1845 Slaves over 16: 49  [Kentucky Public Documents.1845.pp.164-165]
  • 1845 106 slaves total in Morgan County with value of $36,550  /  1846 127 slaves with value $41,550  /  1845 Slaves over 16: 49  /  1846 slaves over 16: 62  [Kentucky Public Documents.1846.pp.208-209]
  • 1847 Total no. slaves: 139 with value of $48,425  /  1846 Total no, slaves: 127 with value $41,550  /  1847 slaves over 16: 60  /  1846 slaves over 16: 69  [Kentucky Public Documents.1847.pp.208-209]
  • Mr. Harris presented a petition of Thomas B. Keeton, of Morgan County, praying for passage of law permitting him to import a slave into this state  [Journal for the Senate of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.1844.p.90. 15 Jan. 1845]
  • 1848 157 slaves with value of $56,115  /  1847 139 slaves with value of $48,425  /  1848 slaves over 16: 74  /  1847 slaves over 16: 66  /  [Kentucky Public Documents.1848.pp.210-211]
  • 1849 154 slaves with value $64,250  /  1849 Slaves over 16: 76  {Kentucky Public Documents.1849.pp.218-219]
  • 1851 151 slaves with value $56,800  /  1850 175 slaves with value $ 64,250  /  1851 slaves over 16: 72  /  1850 slaves over 16: 83  [Kentucky Public Documents.1851.pp.267-268]
  • 1853 183 slaves with value $79,500  /  1852 184 slaves with value $72,130  /  1853 slaves over 16: 85  /  1852 slaves over 16: 84  /  Total Births & Deaths as of 31 Dec. 1852: Births: 5 (2 male, 3 female)  /  Deaths: isn’t listed  /  Total colored population as of 1850 census: 225  [Kentucky Public Documents.1853.pp.168-169]
  • 1856 Population: 225  /  Births: 8 (5 male3 female)  /  Deaths: 6 (4 male, 2 female)  [Report to General Assembly…Vol.s 4-6,1 856.p.7]
  • 1857 206 slaves with value $120,647  /  1856 187 slaves with value $110,899  /  1857 slaves over 16: 94  /  1856 slaves over 16: 93  /  Births: 8 (7 male1 female)  /  Deaths: 26 (7 male, 19 female)  /  Average age at death: 18.9 years  [Kentucky Public Documents.1857.V.2.pp.176-177, p.12]
  • 1859 198 slaves with value $118,825  /  1858 204 with value $116,550  /  1859 slaves over 16: 90  /  1858 slaves over 16: 91   [Kentucky Public Documents.1860]
  • 1863 115 slaves with value $48,150  /  1862 112 slaves with value $65,250  / 1863 slaves over 16: 57  / 1862 slaves over 16: 48  [Kentucky Public Documents.1864.pp.182-183.Doc.No.10]
  • 1867 Negroes over 18: 0  /  1867 children between 6 & 20: 0  /  1866 Negroes over 18: 6  /  1866 children between 6 & 20: 17  [Kentucky Public Documents.Vol.1, 1867.pp.214-215]

 
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Morgan County, Kentucky

Morrell, Benjamin F.
Birth Year : 1841
Death Year : 1930
Benjamin F. Morrell was born in Madison County, KY. On December 1, 1872, he enlisted in the U.S. Army in New Orleans, LA, at the age of 31 [source: U.S. Army Register of Enlistments]. He served with the 25th Infantry, Company A, and was the best marksman in the company. Sergeant Morrell received an honorable discharge on December 1, 1877, and would re-enlisted in the U.S. Army several times. In 1889, he was stationed at Ft. Greble on Dutch Island in Rhode Island. Morrell would remain in Rhode Island, where he was quite prosperous and owned several properties on Clark Street in Jamestown. He was frequently mentioned in the local newspapers during his lifetime, and after his death, there were articles for several years concerning the settling of his estate. The Sergeant Morrell House is on the Newport County (RI) Historical Register. According to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, Benjamin F. Morrell was the husband of Nannie A. Morrell, and they had an adopted son, Frederick G. M. White. The couple had been in Rhode Island since at least 1889 and were considered prominent in the Jamestown community [source: "Shiloh Church Anniversary," Newport Mercury, 08/20/1892, p. 1]. Nannie A. Morrell was born around 1846 in North Carolina and died November 1904 in Jamestown, RI [source: "Deaths," Newport Mercury, 12/03/1904, p. 4]. In the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, there were 956 persons in Jamestown, RI, including an all time high of 81 Blacks (of which Benjamin F. Morrell and Gabriel B. Miller were the only two from Kentucky) and two Mulattoes. Very, very few free Blacks from Kentucky had settled in the state of Rhode Island, one of the first being 26 year old Fanney Birkshire, who is listed as a free woman in the 1850 Census. By 1900, Benjamin Morrell was one of 18 Blacks from Kentucky living in Rhode Island and one of two in Jamestown. In 1906, Benjamin Morrell married Lucy J. Morrell; the couple lived on Clark Street. They are listed in the 1910 and the 1920 Census. Lucy J. Morrell was born around 1865 in Virginia. In 1899, Benjamin Morrell was considered the best choice when he was appointed the administrator of the James Walker estate [source: "Jamestown," Newport Daily News, 12/27/1899, p. 5]. By 1910, Benjamin Morrell had retired from the Army a commissioned officer, according to the census. Both Benjamin and Lucy Morrell were property owners; on September 30, 1914, Lucy ran an ad in the newspaper offering to lease a six-room tenement at 66 John Street [source: "TO LET," Newport Daily News, p. 17]. In 1917, Benjamin Morrell was in the hospital in Newport, RI, recovering from an illness, and his wife Lucy had moved to the city to be near him [source: "Sergeant B. F. Morrell...," Newport Journal and Weekly News, 12/14/1917, p. 4]. The couple would return to their home in Jamestown, and in 1929, Benjamin Morrell was one of the guests of honor at the American Legion Post and Auxiliary celebration [source: "Tuesday evening at the town hall...," within the article "Jamestown," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 09/27/1929, p. 7]. Sergeant Benjamin F. Morrell died February 8, 1930, and was given a military burial at Cedar Cemetery in Jamestown, RI. According to the obituary notice, Sergeant Morrell was a member of the 9th Cavalry [source: "The funeral of Sergeant B. F. Morrell..." within the article "Local Briefs," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 02/14/1930, p. 5]. In November of 1930, a petition was posted in the newspaper seeking the appointment of a guardian for Lucy J. Morrell and her estate [source: "The petition..." within the article "Jamestown," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 11/07/1930, p. 8]. By 1932, Lucy Morrell had died, and in June of 1933, the Rhode Island Supreme Court ruled that the Morrell estate was to go to the next of kin of Benjamin F. Morrell [source: "Supreme Court gives opinion in will case," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 06/30/1933, p. 1]. The land and buildings on John Street, which had belonged to Lucy Morrell, were transferred over to Marcus F. Wheatland [source: "According to a deed filed...," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 09/22/1933, p. 5, column 3]. In 1941, the Benjamin F. Morrell estate was was back in the newspapers, the case was to be heard in the superior court [source: "In the Newport Trust Company...," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 07/11/1941, p. 3, column 7]. For more see the Benjamin Morrell entry in On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldiers II, by I. Schubert and F. N. Schubert; see the Sergeant Morrell House -74- entry at the Newport County Historical Register website; "8 - Sergeant Benjamin F. Morrell died, 83," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 01/09/1931, p. 6, top of column 4; and "Three local cases in Superior Court," Newport Mercury and Weekly News, 08/01/1941, p. 3.
Subjects: Migration North, Military & Veterans, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky / Dutch Island and Jamestown, Rhode Island

Morris, Horace
Birth Year : 1835
Born a freeman in Louisville, KY, Morris assisted slaves in the underground railroad. He was the only African American cashier in the Freeman's Savings and Trust Bank of Louisville. Morris was the first African American steward at Louisville's Marine Hospital and an early newspaper publisher. He was editor of the Kentuckian; was one of the editors of the Colored Citizen (Louisville, KY) newspaper beginning in 1866; and was editor of the Bulletin newspaper that was established by J. Q. Adams in 1879. Morris was a daguerreotype artist in Cincinnati, OH, during the 1850s when he was employed at the gallery of James P. and Thomas C. Ball. He also lived in Xenia, OH, before returning to Kentucky. In 1890, he was co-editor of The Champion newspaper with G. W. Hatton [source: "We have noticed...," The Progress, 03/22/1890, p.2, top of 2nd column]. Horace Morris was the son of Shelton Morris. In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, his birth date is given as about 1832, and his race is given as white. His exact death date is not known, but occurred between 1880, when he was last listed in the U.S. Census, and 1900, when his wife Wilhelmina was listed as a widow. For more see Life Behind a Veil, by G. C. Wright; see the Horace Morris entry in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and Horace Morris in Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900 by M. S. Haverstock et. al.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Civic Leaders, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Medical Field, Health Care, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Cincinnati and Xenia, Ohio

Moulton, Elvina
Birth Year : 1837
Death Year : 1917
Elvina Moulton, also known as Aunt Viney, was a former slave born in Kentucky. She was the first African American woman in Boise, Idaho, arriving around 1867. She was employed at a laundry and was also a nurse and housekeeper. She was a founding member of the First Presbyterian Church in Boise; Moulton was the only African American member. For more see Elvina Moulton in "Idaho Territory Days" an idaho-humanrights.org website; and A. Hart, "Idaho history - Pioneers of the Gem state," Idaho Statesman, Life section, p. 3.

See photo image of Elvina Moulton at Columbia River Basin Ethnic History Project website.
Subjects: Early Settlers, Freedom, Migration West, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Boise, Idaho

Mountain Island (Owen County, KY)
Start Year : 1850
Mountain Island, in Owen County, KY, was an early white settlement, beginning in the late 1700s. At that time, the area was located in Scott County [Owen County would not be formed until 1819]. Mountain Island is located where Eagle Creek forks into two branches, reconvening on the other side of the island. James Herndon, a bachelor, owned a mill, tavern, and slaves on the island. Flooding, which washed out the roads leading to the island, had begun to make it less ideal as a community. In 1850, Herndon, who still lived on the island, began the attempt to emancipate his slaves, as his sister, Susan Herndon Rogers, had done, but his case was stalled in the courts. The slaves would not be freed until after James Herndon's death in 1853. His will not only freed his 23 slaves but also left them and their heirs Herndon's estate, 125 acres on Mountain Island. The land was to be theirs forever, as stated in Herndon's will. Neighbors put up the security bonds required by Kentucky law for each freed slave. The former slaves had the last names of Carroll, Vinegar, Smith, and Warfield. This entry was suggested by Yvonne Giles. For more see Mountain Island In Owen County, Kentucky: the settlers and their churches, by J. C. Bryant.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom
Geographic Region: Mountain Island, Owen County, Kentucky

Mt. Sterling Station (Church) [Colored Members]
Start Year : 1839
End Year : 1878
Prior to the establishing of Keas Tabernacle Church in 1878, in Smithville [Montgomery County], KY, Rev. William H. Miles was the pastor of the colored church named Mt. Sterling Station. The earlier Mt. Sterling Station Church, led by white members, existed in 1839, and according to the 1840 Minutes of the Annual Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church, for the years 1829-1839, Volume II, p. 85, the Mt. Sterling Station Church was within the Kentucky Conference. It had a total church membership of 251 persons: 167 whites and 84 colored (slaves). In 1867, following the end of the Civil War and slavery, the former slave members of the Methodist Episcopal Church separated from the parent church and organized the Kentucky Colored Conference. It was the second annual conference established by former slave members of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. At the 1869 Kentucky Colored Conference, held in Winchester, KY, Rev. William H. Miles was named the Presiding Elder of the Mt. Sterling District and pastor of the newly formed Mt. Sterling Station Church for the colored people. A year later, in 1870, William H. Miles was one of the reserve delegates of the Kentucky Colored Conference, where he was named Sunday School Agent and Missionary Supervisor for Kentucky. He was elected a bishop of the newly established Colored Methodist Episcopal Church (CME) in 1870. Eight years later, the Mt. Sterling Station Church for colored people was renamed Keas Tabernacle Church in honor of Samuel G. Keas, who was Bishop William H. Miles' friend and cohort. Keas also became the new pastor at the church. It was Keas, a former slave from Montgomery County, who had been named pastor of the CME Center Street Church in Louisville in 1869, and he was able to regain possession of the church building from the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church (AMEZ), which put an end to an ongoing controversy between the two churches. For more see The History of the CME Church (Revised), by O. H. Lakey.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Mt. Sterling and Smithville, Montgomery County, Kentucky

Muhlenberg County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Muhlenberg County was formed from portions of Christian and Logan Counties in 1798, and is located in west-central Kentucky, surrounded by seven counties. It is named for John Peter Gabriel Muhlenberg, a minister, an American Revolutionary War veteran, and he served in the U.S. House and Senate from Pennsylvania. The county seat is Greenville, named for Nathanael Greene who was also a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, and served in the Rhode Island General Assembly. The 1800 county population was 1,443, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,313 whites, 125 slaves, and 5 free coloreds. The population increased to 9,143 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 337 slave owners
  • 1,260 Black slaves
  • 256 Mulatto slaves
  • 23 free Blacks
  • 15 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 348 slave owners
  • 1,175 Black slaves
  • 409 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 20 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,227 Blacks
  • 367 Mulattoes
  • About 11 U.S.Colored Troops listed Muhlenberg County, KY as their birth location.
For more see Muhlenberg County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Around Muhlenberg County, Kentucky, a Black History by L, S. Smith; A History of Muhlenberg County by O. A. Rothart; Muhlenberg County, First Black Marriage Book by G. R. Carver; and Muhlenberg County School Census, 1930. See photo image of Central City Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library- Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M]
Geographic Region: Muhlenberg County, Kentucky

Murry, Philip H. [The Colored Kentuckian]
Birth Year : 1842
Murry was born in Reading, PA, the son of Samuel and Sarah Murry. His family was free born and had not been slaves. Murry was a school teacher and advocate for the education of African American children; he taught school in Kentucky and several other states. He was also a journalist and newspaper publisher, and is recognized along with J. P. Sampson for establishing the first African American newspaper in Kentucky, in 1867: The Colored Kentuckian. Though, the Colored Citizen newspaper was published in Louisville in 1866. For more see "Philip H. Murry" in Men of Mark [available full-text at Google Book Search], by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner; and "He prefers Sherman," Titusville Herald, 08/10/1887, p. 1.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration South
Geographic Region: Reading, Pennsylvania / Kentucky

Narratives of Fugitive Slaves (literature influence)
Start Year : 1845
In 1849, The Christian Examiner recognized the narratives of fugitive slaves as a new and marketable addition to American literature; it also provided an early analysis of the potential impact and influence of African American literature. Five authors were noted: Frederick Douglass (pub. 1845), Henry Watson (pub. 1848), and Kentucky authors William W. Brown (pub. 1847), Lewis and Milton Clarke (pub. 1848), and Josiah Henson (pub. 1849). The biographies were expected to have a major effect on public opinion because it was the beginning of an era of more widely-produced book-formatted literature from the voices of those who had been enslaved. The books were translated into European languages and sold overseas. William W. Brown's book had sold more than eight thousand copies in 1848, and Frederick Douglass' went through seven editions before it went out of print. The first slave narratives were written in the latter half of the 1700s and gained wider recognition beginning in the 1840s. The five mentioned narratives, and many others, are available full-text online at the UNC Documenting the American South website. For more see The Christian Examiner and Religious Miscellany, 4th Series, vol. 12 [available online at Google Book Search]; and Slave Narratives and Uncle Tom's Cabin at the PBS website.
Subjects: Authors, Freedom, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky

National Convention of Colored Men of America, and Kentucky
Start Year : 1843
In 1843, the first National Convention of Colored Men of America was held in Buffalo, New York, attended by hundreds of freemen and escaped slaves from throughout the United States. The convention was also referred to as the Colored National Convention. The purpose of the organization was to bring together forces to end slavery and fight for African Americans' human rights. The convention was held in Louisville, KY, in September 1883. Frederick Douglass was president and Henry Scorff was a vice president, representing Kentucky. A digital copy of the text of the 1883 convention program is available at the Library of Congress website. See also "Frederick Douglass" at the Louisville Free Public Library, Western Branch website.

Access Interview
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Nelson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Nelson County, located in west-central Kentucky, is surrounded by seven counties. It was the fourth county established in Kentucky, formed in 1784 from a portion of Jefferson County and named for the governor of Virginia, Thomas Nelson. The county seat is Bardstown, first known as Salem and later renamed for one of the original town settlers, David Bard (spelled as Baird in some sources). In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 10,032 whites, 1,248 slaves, and 35 free persons. The county population in 1800 was 9,866, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 7,948 whites, 1,902 slaves, and 16 free coloreds. In 1830 there were four free African American slave owners in Bardstown. The population increased to 10,270 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 997 slave owners
  • 4,156 Black slaves
  • 969 Mulatto slaves
  • 94 free Blacks
  • 1 free Colored [Charlot Humphrey]
  • 21 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 1,053 slave owners
  • 4,918 Black slaves
  • 578 Mulatto slaves
  • 79 free Blacks
  • 32 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,092 Blacks
  • 796 Mulattoes
  • About 221 U.S. Colored Troops listed Nelson County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see Nelson County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Abstracts of Wills Nelson County, Kentucky 1785-1823: complete index including slaves, Blacks, and servants by Nelson County Historical Society; Marriage Bond Books, 1785-1913 by Nelson County Clerk; From Out of the Dark Past Their Eyes Implore Us: the Black roots of Nelson County, Kentucky by P. Craven and R. L. Pangburn; and Declaration of Marriage of Negroes and Mulattoes: the Commonwealth of Kentucky [1900-1985?] by Nelson County Historical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Nelson County, Kentucky

Nicholas County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Nicholas County was formed in 1799 from portions of Bourbon and Mason Counties. It is bordered by five counties and was named for George Nicholas from Virginia, who was a veteran of the American Revolutionary War and was the first Kentucky Attorney General. Carlisle, in Nicholas County, is one of the state's smallest county seats. It was established in 1816. The town was developed on land that had belonged to John Kincart, who named the town in honor of his father's hometown of Carlisle, Pennsylvania. The 1800 Nicholas County population was 2,925, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,597 whites, 322 slaves, and 6 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner. By 1860, the population was 9,416, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 421 slave owners
  • 1,283 Black slaves
  • 214 Mulatto slaves
  • 121 free Blacks
  • 48 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 381 slave owners
  • 1,407 Black slaves
  • 207 Mulatto slaves
  • 112 free Blacks
  • 42 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 955 Blacks
  • 225 Mulattoes
  • About 75 U.S. Colored Troops listed Nicholas County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Nicholas County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; for more on George Nicholas stand on slavery see Kentucky and the Question of Slavery, a Kentucky Educational Television website; Edmund Lyne Papers [slaves manumission]; Marriage Books (indexed), 1800-1934 by Nicholas County Clerk; and Nicholas County Memorial Library Oral History Collection.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Nicholas County, Kentucky

Ohio County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Ohio County, located in the western region of Kentucky, was established in 1798 from a portion of Hardin County, and was named for the Ohio River. The county ran along the river before it was divided into additional counties. Hartford is the county seat, and was named for a deer crossing, hart ford. The land was part of a grant that Gabriel Madison received from Virginia, and Fort Hartford was one of the first settlements in the area. The 1800 county population was 1,223, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,069 whites, 151 slaves, and 3 free coloreds. The population increased to 10,919 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 327 slave owners
  • 865 Black slaves
  • 268 Mulatto slaves
  • 40 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 320 slave owners
  • 825 Black slaves
  • 547 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 9 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,190 Blacks
  • 132 Mulattoes
  • About 42 U.S. Colored Troops listed Ohio County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Ohio County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Spider Webs, a Steamer-trunk, and Slavery by L. E. Lindley and E. L. Bennett; Papers (bulk 1857-1863), 1843-1947, Slavery - Emancipation [letters from a former slave in Liberia]; and Interview with Eva Carmen Rearding Her Life (FA154), Manuscript and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Ohio County, Kentucky

Oldham County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Oldham County is located along the Ohio River and is bordered by four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1823 from portions of Henry, Jefferson and Shelby Counties, and named for William Oldham who fought in the American Revolutionary War. The original county seat was West Port, and in 1827 was moved to the new town of LaGrange [also spelled La Grange], which was named for the French estate of the Marquis de Lafayette. In 1828, the Kentucky General Assembly moved the county seat back to West Port, and ten years later, the county seat was moved permanently to La Grange. The 1830 county population was 1,127 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 4,852 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 468 slave owners
  • 2,118 Black slaves
  • 306 Mulatto slaves
  • 36 free Blacks
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 369 slave owners
  • 2,031 Black slaves
  • 319 Mulattoes
  • 35 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [James Newman and Liter Poetch]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,224 Blacks
  • 569 Mulattoes
  • About 44 U.S. Colored Troops listed Oldham County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Oldham County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A Survey of African-American Cemeteries, Oldham County, Kentucky, 2004 by the Oldham County Historical Society; and History & Families Oldham County, Ky by the Turner Publishing Company.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Oldham County

Owen County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes,1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Owen County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1819 from portions of Franklin, Gallatin, and Scott Counties. It is bordered by five counties, and was named for Abraham Owen, an early Kentucky Legislator who was killed in 1811 during the Battle of Tippecanoe. The county seat is Owenton, which was also named for Abraham Owen. In 1820, the county population was 305 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 11,535 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 367 slave owners
  • 1,220 Black slaves
  • 294 Mulatto slaves
  • 48 free Blacks [most with last name Lucas]
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Palina Skilman and Benjamin Yancey]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 398 slave owners
  • 1,299 Black slaves
  • 361 Mulatto slaves
  • 46 free Blacks
  • 23 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 995 Blacks
  • 174 Mulattoes
  • About 26 U.S. Colored Troops listed Owen County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Owen County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; New Liberty by C. Roland; Big Eagle Country by R. R. Williamson; and History of Owen County, Kentucky, "Sweet Owen" by M. S. Houchens.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Owen County, Kentucky

Owsley County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Owsley County, located in eastern Kentucky, was formed in 1843 from portions of Breathitt, Clay, and Estill Counties. It is surrounded by five counties and was named for William Owsley, a Kentucky governor who also served in the Kentucky House and Senate, and was Kentucky Secretary of State. The county seat is Booneville, named for Daniel Boone. The 1850 county population was 3,956, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,223 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 41 slave owners
  • 114 Black slaves
  • 22 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks [last names Orchard, 1 Jenkins, 1 Butcher]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [last names Butcher, Ross, 1 Clark, 1 Ferey, 1 Goosey]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 29 slave owners
  • 77 Black slaves
  • 35 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last names Hornsby, 1 Buford]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [last names Goosey, Ross, 2 Norman, 1 Smith, 1 Ward]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 26 Blacks [last names Cawood, Guess, Minter, 1 Pendleton, 1 Ambrose]
  • 17 Mulattoes [last names Cawood, Ross, 3 Ambrose, 1 Bowman, 1 Clark, 1 Minter]
  • At least one U.S. Colored Troop listed Owsley County as his birth location [Allen Jett].
For more see Owsley County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; and Owsley County, Kentucky, and the Perpetuation of Poverty by J. R. Burch.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Owsley County, Kentucky

Parker, Noah
Birth Year : 1850
Noah Parker was an African American minister born in Kentucky around 1850 to Cato and Winnie Parker. Noah Parker died after 1880, and according to the U.S. Federal Census, he was a preacher. In the rural area of Clintonville, Kentucky, in the late 1800s it was rare to find an African American male listed with an occupation other than farm hand or laborer. Clintonville, KY. was established around 1800 by George and John Stipp. First known as Stipp's Crossroads, this community was later named Clintonville in 1831. Noah Parker was instrumental in organizing the Pleasant Valley Baptist Church that is located on Clintonville Road. The actual congregation was formed in 1860 by residents of what would become the community of Boonetown, an African American community also located on Clintonville Road. The land was given to local African Americans after the Civil War by George Boone. Noah Parker was the first minister to this religious group of African Americans, even before there was a church building. Around 1873, the residents of Boonetown built the Pleasant Valley Baptist Church. According to population statistics from the 1870 U.S. Federal Census there were approximately 339 blacks and mulattoes in the Clintonville, KY precinct. This population number grew to approximately 446 by 1880 according to the U.S.Federal Census. Today the Pleasant Valley Baptist Church is still in the original building and, according to Mrs. Ora Mae Jacobs, the eldest member of the church, there is still a small and active congregation. Few personal or historical facts have been found about Noah Parker. However, he was an early African American minister who showed leadership skills and was able to read and write. Led by men of such strong leadership, it was not uncommon for African American churches to become the foundation for early black schools in rural areas of Kentucky. Churches such as Pleasant Valley Baptist Church served as a benevolent organization, caring for the ill and indigent, and a meeting place to discuss community issues.

Sources: 1870 and 1880 U. S. Federal Census for Bourbon County, KY; Kentucky Place Names by Robert M. Rennick; Historic Architecture of Bourbon County, Kentucky by Historic Paris-Bourbon County, Inc. and The Kentucky Heritage Council; Interview with William Brown of Paris, KY; oral history interview with Ora Mae Jacobs, longtime resident of Clintonville, KY; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky: from slavery to segregation, 1760-1891 by Marion B. Lucas. This entry was submitted by Kellie Scott of the Paris-Bourbon County Public Library.
Subjects: Communities, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: (Boonetown) Clintonville, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Parker, Titus
Birth Year : 1833
Death Year : 1913
Titus Parker was one of the first African American coal miners in Earlington, Kentucky [source: "Uncle Titus Parker dead," The Bee, 05/09/1913, p.4]. Parker worked for the St. Bernard Coal Company. His exact age was not known, but he is listed in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census with a birth year of 1833. He is listed as a farmer in Seminary, KY, the husband of Sarah Parker, and the father of five children. In the 1880 Census, Titus Parker and his family were living in Hecla, KY, where Titus was a coal miner. His new wife was Charlotte Prather; the couple had married in November of 1878 [source: Kentucky Marriages Index]. In the 1900 Census, Tittus Paker had retired from the coal mines and was bottoming chairs. His third wife was Meta Parker; the couple was married in 1883 and lived in Earlington. Titus Parker was a former slave born in Todd County, KY [source: J. Phillips, "Locomotive Blasts," The Bee, 04/11/1895, p.2]. His name appears in documents during the Civil War. Titus Parker fought for the Confederacy. His enlistment date was October 1, 1861 in Hopkinsville, KY, and his service started on October 17, 1861, found on p.532 within the Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Kentucky, Confederate Kentucky Volunteers, War 1861-1865. Parker was a private in Company K, Kentucky First Cavalry Regiment. He mustered out October 17, 1862 [source: U.S. Civil War Soldier Records]. 
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills
Geographic Region: Todd County, Kentucky / Earlington, Hecla, and Seminary, Hopkins County, Kentucky

Pendleton County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Pendleton County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1798 from portions of Campbell and Bracken Counties. It is bordered by five counties and was named for Edmund Pendleton from Virginia, who was a delegate to the first Continental Congress. The county seat is Falmouth, named for Falmouth, VA. The 1800 county population was 1,613, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,371 whites, 240 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. The population increased to 10,019 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 127 slave owners
  • 462 Black slaves
  • 46 Mulatto slaves
  • 36 free Blacks [most with last names Monday and Southgate]
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Elsey Hues and Charity Sothgate]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 121 slave owners
  • 335 Black slaves
  • 89 Mulatto slaves
  • 24 free Blacks [most with last name Monday]
  • 17 free Mulattoes [most with last name Southgate]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 503 Blacks
  • 127 Mulattoes
  • At least 8 U.S. Colored Troops listed Pendleton County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Pendleton County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; An Account of the Life of James Bradley, Black Abolitionist, website by Pendleton County Genealogy Project; see "Charity's House" in African American Historic Places by B. L. Savage and C. D. Shull; see Chapter 7 in I've Got a Home in Glory Land by K. S. Frost; and The Grave of a Forgotten Soldier, by H. R. Seibert, Jr. [online], article originally published in Northern Kentucky Heritage Magazine, (Autumn/Winter 1994), v.2, issue 1.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Pendleton County, Kentucky

Perry County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Perry County, located in southeastern Kentucky, was formed in 1820 and named for Oliver Hazard Perry, a naval officer during the War of 1812. Hazard is the county seat, founded in 1821. It was originally named Perry until the name was changed to Hazard in 1854. Both county seat names were in honor of Oliver Hazard Perry. The 1830 county population was 488 [heads of households], and the population increased to 3,877 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 33 slave owners
  • 85 Black slaves
  • 32 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black (Joseph Williams)
  • 8 free Mulattoes (Henry Williams, Hiram Freeman, his wife and five children)
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 28 slave owners
  • 45 Black slaves
  • 28 Mulatto slaves
  • 0 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes [11 with last name Couch, 2 Stacy]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 77 Blacks
  • 7 Mulattoes [4 Crawford, Morgan, Sumler, Walker]
  • At least 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Perry County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Perry County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Britt Combs Collection [Dr. C. Britt Combs]; and NAACP 1940-55 legal file, mob violence, James Robinson [i.e., Robertson], 1942. See the photo image of the Negro School in Hazard in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Perry County, Kentucky

Pike County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Pike County, located in far eastern Kentucky, is bordered by four Kentucky counties, the Virginia state line and the West Virginia state line. Pike County was formed in 1821 and is named for Zebulon M. Pike, an explorer; Pikes Peak is also named in his honor. Pike County is one of the major coal producing counties in the United States. The county seat is Pikeville, founded in 1823 and also named for Zebulon M. Pike. The county population was 433 [heads of households] in 1830, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 7,325 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 29 slave owners
  • 44 Black slaves
  • 58 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [2 with last name Polly, 1 Campbell]
  • 15 free Mulattoes [most with last name White, 4 Dottan, 1 Huffman, 1 Rutherford]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 29 slave owners
  • 37 Black slaves
  • 60 Mulatto slaves
  • 5 free Blacks [all with last name Polly]
  • 35 free Mulattoes [last names Collins, Polly, Slone, and White]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 64 Blacks
  • 32 Mulattoes
  • At least 7 U.S. Colored Troops listed Pike County as their birthplace.

For more see Pike County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, by J. E. Kleber; Curriculum Resources: African American History in Pike County, with Emphasis on the Historical African American Section of Dils Cemetery, by M. F. Sohn and K. K. Sohn; and "The saga of the Polly family..." in The Black Laws: race and the legal process in early Ohio, by S. Middleton. See the photo image of the Negro School in Pikeville in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.



Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Pike County, Kentucky

Polk, James Knox (former slave)
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1918
This entry was submitted by Yvonne Giles, with additional research and sources provided by Brenda Jackson.

James Knox Polk, according to his obituary, was born into slavery January 21, 1845, on the Bosque Bonita farm, owned by Abraham Buford in Woodford County, KY. His mother, Margie Johnson, chose to name him for the newly elected President of the United States. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Abraham Buford joined the Confederacy, taking James Polk with him to serve as a hostler - handler of the horses. He remained throughout the war with Buford. Polk returned to Woodford County and married Mary Bohannon in 1868. They were parents of Reuben Buford, Ellen, James Henry, Lee Christy, John Knox and Dolly Polk. James K. Polk studied and became an ordained minister in 1871. He founded the Pilgrim Baptist Church at Midway, KY, on the second Sunday in January, 1872. He also became a pastor at the African Baptist Church of Christ in Mortonsville around 1873. The church's name was changed to Polk Memorial to honor the minister who served the congregation for 45 years. Polk was a member and served as moderator twice of the Kentucky General Association of Baptists and served as a delegate to the Colored People's Convention of 1898 at Lexington during the Separate Coach Protest. Comment in his obituary: "Reverend James K. Polk was faithful and devoted to his ministry, a good citizen, a man of integrity and force of character, of kindliness, humility and courtesy." Polk died January 27, 1918, and was buried in Woodford County.

Sources:
Death Certificate #5945, Woodford County, KY.
Obituaries - Lexington Leader, January 29, 1918, p. 5, col. 3; Woodford Sun, January 31, 1918, plus photo.
Polk Memorial Baptist - Woodford Sun, October 30, 2003, p. A3.
Kentucky Historical Society Highway Marker Program, June 22, 2008, Marker #2239.
Brenda Jackson, researcher and family member

Note:
Brenda Jackson found an 1870 census record indicating a James Polk serving in the USCT, 25th Infantry in Texas. No mention of his service was made in his obituary.
1880 Woodford County Census Index, p. 408.
1900 Woodford County Census Index, p. 167A.
1910 Woodford County Census Index, p. 238B.

Additional Sources:
"The degree of D. D. was conferred on Rev. J. K. Polk...," Blue-Grass Clipper, 02/03/1903
"Mrs Margie Johnson, colored, aged 76..." in the column "In and About Versailles.," Woodford Sun, 02/10/1898.
"Polk Memorial Church Celebrating 98th Year," Woodford Sun, 10/04/1951.
"Zebulah Baptist Church (Disbanded)" on p. 34 in Scott County Church Histories: a collection, edited by A. B. Bevins and J. R. Snyder.
More on Confederate General Abraham Buford in Marking Time in Woodford County, Kentucky. by D. C. Estridge and R. D. Bryant; and Dr. M. Myers, "General Abraham Buford: fearless cavalryman," Kentucky's Civil War, 1861-1865, 2011 Sesquicentennial Edition, pp. 32 & 36-38.

 

  See photo image of James Knox Polk, bottom left, on p.163 in Golden jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky.
Subjects: Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Midway and Mortonsville, Woodford County, Kentucky

Porter, Benjamin F.
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1911
Dr. B. F. Porter was 3rd Assistant Physician at the Central Kentucky Lunatic Asylum in Louisville, KY, in 1896; he was the first African American doctor at the facility. Porter was born in Williamstown, Massachusetts, and, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, he was the husband of Elizabeth Porter (1843-1910, born in CT) and the father of Wiley Porter (b. 1877 in KY). Dr. Porter received his medical degree in 1878 and was an 1899 graduate of the College of Hypnotism. The family had lived in Columbia, SC, where Dr. Porter was a minister before coming to Kentucky, according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. The Porter's employed two African American servants who worked at their home. While Dr. Porter was employed at the asylum, he and his family lived in the housing provided by the institution. The Central Kentucky Lunatic Asylum had been established in 1874 as a state house for "feeble minded children." A third of the appropriations for the facility were to be used for the Colored inmates, who were to be kept in a separate ward from the white inmates. The facility had formerly been the State House of Reform for Juveniles. Dr. Porter's appointment to the institution by Kentucky Governor William O. Bradley caused a bit of alarm throughout the state when it was reported that Dr. Porter would be treating both Colored and white children. An article by the asylum superintendent, H. F. McNary, was published in The Medical News, reassuring all that Dr. Porter would only be treating the more than 200 Colored patients. With McNary's published letter, The Medical News editor gave the journal's approval to the hiring of Dr. Porter. In addition to his medical duties, Dr. Porter was also pastor of the African Methodist Church in Louisville, KY. By 1910, the Porter Family had left Kentucky for Carbondale, IL, where Dr. Porter practiced medicine, was minister of the Bethel A.M.E. Church, and was a member of the Knights and Daughters of Tabor. The family employed one African American servant. Dr. Porter was also a veteran; he was a barber when he enlisted in the Union Army on February 10, 1864, and served with the 5th Massachusetts Colored Calvary, according to his military service records. For more see "Colored Medical Doctors as Attendants in Insane Asylums," The Medical News, vol. 68, January-June 1896, p. 622 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; "Rev. B. F. Porter," The Daily Free Press, 12/22/1911, p. 5; and Marie Porter Wheeler Papers at the University of Illinois at Springfield. For more about the Asylum see Acts Passed at the ... Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth, Regular Session, December 1873, Chapter 287, pp. 29-30 [available full-text at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Barbers, Kentucky African American Churches, Medical Field, Health Care, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Migration South, Fraternal Organizations, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Williamstown, Massachusetts / Columbia, South Carolina / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Carbondale, Illinois

Porter, Jacob M.
Birth Year : 1848
Jacob M. Porter was one of the first African Americans to run for political office in Paris, KY [see NKAA entry Early African American Political Candidates, Bourbon County, KY]. With permission, the following entry comes from the unpublished letter written by Mrs. Rogers Bardé, titled "Porter Children." Mrs. Rogers Bardé is a researcher in Bourbon County, KY. 

 

"Jacob M. Porter was born in August 1848 (Census 1900). He married Josie M. Palmer in Bourbon County, Ky on 23 Mar 1871 (Colored Marriage Book, 1, page 56). In 1870 in Bourbon County, Ky he lived with his father and was listed as a grocer, along with his father and brother, Beverly. In the 1900 census he was listed as a bank clerk, and lived in Indianapolis, on California Street. He and his wife Josie had two children; William, born Nov 1873 and Edward, born Apr 1883. In 1900 he owned his own home, without a mortgage. He lived in the same house in 1910 and 1920 (listed in the moving business in both censuses); by 1930 Josie was a widow in the same house, living with their son, who by now was listed as Edgar, instead of Edward; Edgar was listed as single. In the 1930 census Josie was head of the house and a widow, and Carrie V. White was listed as her daughter and a widow. I found Carrie, born Dec 1871, married to Maurice White in the 1900 census in Indianapolis on Market Street, in Center Township. They had no children." 

 

Jacob M. Porter was the son of Jefferson Porter [see NKAA entries 1, 2, and 3 for more on Jefferson Porter].
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Porter, William M.
Birth Year : 1850
Porter, born in Tennessee, was an undertaker in Lexington, KY. In 1905, he had been in business with J. C. Jackson for about 13 years. Porter came to Lexington from Cincinnati, OH, where at one time he had been the only African American undertaker in the city. Porter spoke during the convention of the National Negro Business League in New York, pointing out that he had been a hackman for 31 years before becoming an undertaker, and that it was not unusual for hackmen to make $12 or $15 per day because "the street cars were not so convenient." By 1920, Porter was again living in Cincinnati, according to the U.S. Federal Census. For more see Wm. M. Porter, "Undertaking," Records of the National Negro Business League, Part 1 Annual Conference Proceedings and Organizational Records, 1900-1919, 6th Annual Convention, New York City, New York, August 16-18, 1905, reel 1, frame 529; and The Negro in Business by B. T. Washington.
Subjects: Businesses, Migration North, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Migration South, Negro Business League
Geographic Region: Tennessee / Cincinnati, Ohio / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Postell, Peter, Sr. [Peter Glass]
Birth Year : 1841
Death Year : 1901
Postell (spelled Postel in some sources) was a former slave who was born in South Carolina according to census records. He owned a merchant business in Hopkinsville, KY, and was considered quite wealthy. He was often referred to as "The Richest Negro in the South." His estate was valued at $500,000. During slavery, Postell, had the name Peter Glass. He was brought to Kentucky from North Carolina, and he later escaped and joined the Union Army during the Civil War, serving with the 16th U.S. Colored Infantry, according to his military service record, he was in the brass band. Postell had enlisted in Clarksville, TN, in January of 1864, and North Carolina was listed as his birth state. He returned to Kentucky after the war and opened a grocery store in Hopkinsville and is listed in the 1870 U.S Federal Census as Peter Postell. He was the husband of Pauline Buckner Postell, b.1851 in Christian County, KY, [her father was born in S.C.]. Peter Postell was the son of Mrs. C. Kirkpatrick, who was born around 1819 in South Carolina. According to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, the Postell household consisted of Peter, his wife and four children, his mother, her husband and their son, and a boarder. Peter and Pauline Postell had several more children before Peter died in 1901. For more see Evidences of Progress Among Colored People, by G. F. Richings at the the Documenting the American South website; "A Rich Negro," The Adair County News, 08/21/1901, p. 1; and "Death of a wealthy Negro," New York Times, 05/23/1901, p.1.
Subjects: Businesses, Freedom, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: South Carolina / North Carolina / Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Pryor, Margaret
Birth Year : 1835
Death Year : 1910
Margaret Pryor was the richest African American woman in Kentucky as a result of the fortune she inherited from her former owner, horse breeder Major Barak G. Thomas (1826-1906). Thomas, who also raced his horses, had left smaller inheritances to others, including $1,000 to his African American jockey and trainer, John T. Clay, and another $1,000 to Clay's sons, Johnnie and Barak. The will was protested by Thomas's family and friends but was allowed to stand as written. Maj. B. G. Thomas had been born in South Carolina; in 1912 his family moved to Lexington, KY. After making his wealth in the horse industry, and with the onset of failing health, Thomas had sold his stud farm and settled in his city home at 194 West Main Street, where he passed away in 1906. His home was next door to the Henry A. Tandy family home. After Maj. Thomas's death, Margaret Pryor remained in the home and welcomed visitors from throughout the U.S. When she died in 1910, she was buried in Greenwood Cemetery [now Cove Haven Cemetery] in Lexington, though Maj. Thomas had stipulated in his will that she be buried beside him in the then segregated Lexington Cemetery. Margaret Pryor's will was challenged in the Fayette Circuit Court by her heirs, Mary Walker and others. The will was allowed to stand as written. The wills of both Maj. Thomas and Margaret Pryor were reported in all of the major newspapers and many smaller papers in the United States. In 1911, the Atlanta Constitution newspaper reported that Pryor had no children and four women who lived in Macon and Eatonton, GA, were claiming to be Pryor's sisters and were seeking to claim $50,000 that the sisters said was left to them by Pryor. All of the sisters were supposedly once owned by Skelton Napier of Macon, GA. For more see "Major Barak G. Thomas is dead," The Thoroughbred Record, 05/19/1906; "Will of Major Thomas," The Thoroughbred Record, 05/26/1906; "Death of rich ex-slave," Washington Post, 05/13/1910, p. 11; "Margaret Pryor's will," Lexington Herald-Leader, 05/14/1910, p. 6; and "Negroes claim estate of wealthy sister," Atlanta Constitution, 01/24/1911, p. 5.

*Maj. Barak G. Thomas's home at 194 West Main Street had been renumbered to 646 West Main Street by 1907. The property faces the corner of present day Main Street and Old Georgetown Street.
Subjects: Freedom, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North, Inheritance, Court Cases
Geographic Region: South Carolina / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Macon and Eatonton, Georgia

"Public Meeting of the Colored Citizens of Detroit" [Crosswhite Affair]
Start Year : 1848
In response to the federal court decision in the fugitive slave case brought forward by a Kentucky slave owner in reference to the The Crosswhite Affair, in December of 1848 a mass meeting was called by African Americans in Detroit to discuss their relations to slavery in America. The meeting was held at City Hall. A report of the meeting was printed as an article titled "Public meeting of the Colored citizens of Detroit," in Frederick Douglass' Paper, 12/29/1848, p.2. George De Baptiste, (never a slave) from Virginia, was named chair of the gathering; Benjamin F. Dade, secretary; and the vice presidents were Rev. M. J. Lightfoot (former slave) from Virginia; James Maten; and Richard Gordon. Henry Bibb (former slave) from Kentucky; William Lambert (never a slave) from New Jersey; and Edward J. Cooper were assigned to the committee that would draft the resolutions. The full text of the resolutions is included in the newspaper article in Frederick Douglass' Paper. "...Resolved, That we hold liberty dearer than we do our lives, and we will organize and prepare ourselves with the determination, live or die, sink or swim, we will never be taken back into slavery. Resolved, That we will never voluntarily separate ourselves from the slave population in the country, for they are our fathers and mothers, our sisters and our brothers, their interest is our interest, their wrongs and their sufferings are ours, the injuries inflicted on them are alike inflicted on us; therefore it is our duty to aid and assist them in their attempts to regain their liberty... Resolved, That this meeting appoint a committee to draft a petition to Congress praying for the repeal of the *law of 1793, relative to the recapture of fugitive slaves." [*Fugitive Slave Act of 1793]  For more on Rev. M. J. Lightfoot see "A slave revisits the plantation," The Evening Telegram, 06/02/1874, p.1 [online].
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Detroit, Michigan

Pulaski County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Pulaski County was formed in 1798 from portions of Green and Lincoln Counties. The area was settled by veterans of the American Revolutionary War; they named the county for Casimir Pulaski, who was born in Warsaw, Poland, and was known as the "Father of the American Cavalry." Casimir Pulaski died fighting in the Battle of Savannah in 1779. There are seven counties named Pulaski in the United States. In Kentucky, Somerset became the seat of Pulaski County in 1801, named by settlers from Somerset County, New Jersey. The Pulaski County, KY, population in 1800 was 3,161, according to the "Second Census" of Kentucky; 2,928 whites, 232 slaves, and 1 free colored. The population increased to 15,831 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census. This did not include the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 269 slave owners
  • 1,193 Black slaves
  • 7 Colored slaves [one owned by John Long and six owned by William Tarter]
  • 105 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks [last names Buster, Madnel, Moderal, Simpson, Weaver, and Wellens]
  • 12 free Mulattoes [most with last name Roper, and one Drew, Hays, Keeney, and Simpson]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 285 slave owners
  • 1,150 Black slaves
  • 180 Mulatto slaves
  • 18 free Blacks [most with last names Buster and Moderal]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names White and Stevens]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 946 Blacks
  • 133 Mulattoes
  • About 33 U.S. Colored Troops listed Pulaski County, KY, as their birth location.
For more, see Pulaski County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Free Frank, by J. E. K. Walker; and A History of Pulaski County, Kentucky, by A. O. Tibbals. See the photo image of the Negro high school in Pulaski County in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Pulaski County, Kentucky

Records: Race=Negro
Start Year : 1850
The term "Negro" is yet another term for African Americans found in the U.S. Federal Census as early as 1850, and in state census records such as the 1856 Iowa State Census. In the "Second Census" of Kentucky, for the year 1800, there are two person with the term "Negro" included in their names: George -Negro- Stafford in Gallatin County, and Moses -Negro- Tyre in Bullitt County. The term was also used on U.S. marriage, birth, death, and military records, and on ship passenger lists. Due to the penmanship of census workers, there are instances where race is not clearly noted on the schedules, and it is difficult to decipher if a "W" was written for white, or an "N" for Negro. For the state of Kentucky, the clearly written term "Negro" can be found as early as the 1900 U.S. Federal Census [column number 5: "Race or Color"], up to the late 1990s marriage licenses.
Subjects: Race Categories
Geographic Region: United States / Kentucky

Rockcastle County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Rockcastle County was named for the Rockcastle River. The river was named in 1767 by Isaac Lindsey, an explorer who viewed the rock formations along the water and thought they resembled castles. Rockcastle County was formed in 1810 from portions of Lincoln, Madison, Knox, and Pulaski Counties. About a quarter of the county is in the Daniel Boone National Forest. The county seat is Mt. Vernon, established prior to 1790 and named for George Washington's 8,000-acre plantation home in Virginia [info]. The 1810 county population was 245 [heads of households], according to the 1810 U.S. Federal Census; that did not include the 154 slaves. By 1830, there was one free Negro slave owner. In 1860, the county population increased to 4,986, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 163 slave owners
  • 503 Black slaves
  • 124 Mulatto slaves
  • 7 free Blacks [last names, Cabb, True, and 1 Woodall]
  • 26 free Mulattoes [last names Ann and Gatliff, 1 Edwards, 1 Wiggins, 2 Woodall]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 93 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 109 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks [last names Gatliff, Ture, and 1 Rentfroe]
  • 27 free Mulattoes [last names Cornett, Gatliff, Wiggins, Woodall, 1 Hubbard, 1 Moore]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 242 Blacks
  • 85 Mulattoes
  • At least two U.S. Colored Troops listed Rockcastle County, KY, as their birth location [David Newcomb and William Smith, both of whom enlisted at Camp Nelson].

For more, see the Rockcastle County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Oral History Interview of Nettie Sherman, by N. H. Sherman and L. J. Goff; "Rockcastle County (Robert Mullins)" in Slave Narratives, Volume 7, by Work Projects Administration; and the Mt. Vernon Signal, a Kentucky newspaper.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Rockcastle County, Kentucky

Roll of Emigrants to Liberia, 1820-1843, and Liberian Census Data, 1843
Start Year : 1820
End Year : 1843
-Data and Information Services Center, Online Data Archive
Subjects: Liberia, Liberian Presidents & Diplomats
Geographic Region: United States / Liberia, Africa

Ross, Travus
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1908
Travus Ross, from Kentucky, served as a body servant during the Civil War, first for Colonel Roberts and later for General Sherman. After the war, he was appointed to the Post Office Department in Washington, D.C., where he was a special messenger. He served under 17 postmaster generals. In 1901 his annual salary was increased to $1,000. Travus Ross died September 29, 1908 in Washington, D.C. [source: District of Columbia Deaths and Burials, rf #cn 182228]. He was thought to be 60 years old. For more see "Travus Ross," an article in the Special Issue to The New York Times, 09/30/1908, p. 7, and also in Every Where; an American Magazine of World-Wide Interest, vol. 23, issue 1 (September 1908), p. 173 [available full-text at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Migration North, Military & Veterans, Postal Service
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Washington, D.C.

Royal, Wesley
Birth Year : 1844
Royal, a farmer who was born in Virginia, had been living in Christian County, KY, for about five years when he lost his bid for the Kentucky Legislature in 1871. Royal claimed to have had a brother in the Virginia Legislature. By 1880, Royal was one of two African Americans in the Christian County jail. For more see "A Big dusty-colored Negro, named Wesley Royal, is a candidate for the Legislature in Christian County, Kentucky," Daily Arkansas Gazette, 07/15/1871, issue 201, col. E; and the 1880 U.S. Federal Census for Christian County, KY.
Subjects: Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

Russell County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Russell County, located in south-central Kentucky, was formed in 1825 from portions of Adair, Cumberland, and Wayne Counties. Russell County is named for William Russell, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, Indian wars, and the War of 1812. He also served in the Virginia and Kentucky Legislatures. The seat of Russell County is Jamestown, which was formerly named Jacksonville after Andrew Jackson. The town was renamed Jamestown in 1826, named for James Woodridge, who gave the land for the town location. The 1830 county population was 569 [heads of households] according to the U.S. Federal Census; the population increased to 5,425 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 53 slave owners
  • 163 Black slaves
  • 20 Mulatto slaves
  • 9 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes [two with the last name Brummet, one Dunkeson, one Garret]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 134 slave owners
  • 400 Black slaves
  • 159 Mulatto slaves
  • 8 free Blacks [most with last name Jackman and Rowe, one Epperson, one Faubus]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [two Whittle, one Jackman, one Richards]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 248 Blacks
  • 38 Mulattoes
  • About six U.S. Colored Troops listed Russell County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Russell County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Russell Co., Kentucky, Black Marriages, by C. L. Sanders; Russell County (Ky.): cemetery records; and "Jemima - a faithful Negro woman" in History of the Carlock Family and the Adventures of Pioneer Americans, by M. P. Carlock.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Russell County, Kentucky

Sanford, Perry
Birth Year : 1832
Death Year : 1905
Sanford, a former slave from Kentucky, was the last surviving witness to the invasion by armed men from Kentucky in search of runaway slaves at the Quaker Settlement in Cass County, MI. The Quakers resisted, the attack failed, and shortly thereafter the Fugitive Slave Law was passed by Congress. In 1905, Sanford was not expected to survive from the four inch gash he had made in his throat while a patient at Nichols Hospital in Battle Creek, MI. Sanford was in the hospital due to a stroke; he was partially paralyzed, and it had taken him more than an hour to open the knife with one hand and his teeth. Sanford had come to Michigan as a young man, he is first listed in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census as a 28 year old laborer living in Bedford. By 1880, he was married to Elvia Sanford who was born in 1845 in Indiana, and the couple lived in Calhoun County, MI. In 1897, Sanford remarried, his second wife was Mary Sanford, born 1843 in MI, and the couple lived in Battle Creek. For more see, "Aged Colored man tries suicide," Oakland Tribune, 05/08/1905.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Suicide
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Battle Creek, Calhoun County, Michigan / Cass County, Michigan

Scott County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Scott County was formed from Woodford County in 1792, the 11th county in Kentucky. It is located in the north-central part of the state and was named for Kentucky Governor Charles Scott, who was a veteran of the French and Indian War and the American Revolutionary War. Scott County is surrounded by seven counties. The county seat is Georgetown, which was previously named Lebanon. In 1790 the town was renamed George Town in honor of George Washington. After Scott County was established in 1792, George Town became the county seat, and the spelling was changed to Georgetown [one word] in 1846. The 1800 population was 8,007 and included 6,085 whites, 12 free coloreds, and 1,910 slaves, according to the Second Census of Kentucky. By 1860, the population was 8,675, excluding the slaves, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Below are the numbers for slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 909 slave owners
  • 5,378 Black slaves
  • 456 Mulatto slaves
  • 174 free Blacks
  • 47 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 1,070 slave owners
  • 4,854 Black slaves
  • 678 Mulatto slaves
  • 162 free Blacks
  • 66 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,355 Blacks
  • 561 Mulattoes
  • About 267 U.S. Colored Troops listed Scott County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Scott County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, by J. E. Kleber; Scott County, Kentucky (map), by M. A. Cabot; History of the Development of Education for Negroes in Scott County, Kentucky, by A. B. C. Sowards; A History of Scott County, Kentucky, in the World War, 1917-1919, by Mrs. W. H. Coffman; Spencer Family Papers, 1878-1986, Spencer Family; and A History of Scott County, by A. B. Bevins.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky

Scott, George
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1907
George Scott was a horse trainer from Kentucky, born around 1840; he died in Chicago, February 21, 1907 [source: Cook County, Illinois Deaths Index]. Scott is buried in the Oak Hill Cemetery in Chicago.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Scott, Tom
Birth Year : 1844
Death Year : 1925
Tom Scott, born in Bourbon County, KY, was a survivor of the Saltville Massacre [the murders of wounded African American Union soldiers who were buried in a single grave], which took place in Virginia during the Civil War. Scott was an escaped slave who became a member of the U.S. 5th Colored Cavalry, having joined up in Lebanon, KY. After the war, he relocated to Rocky Springs, MS, and, according to his great-granddaughter, was one of the first African Americans to own land in Claiborne County. In 2000, a permanent marker was placed on Scott's grave, located in the cemetery next to the Second Union Baptist Church, where Scott had been a deacon. Additional information from University of Kentucky Anthropology Researcher Nancy O'Malley: As a slave, Tom Scott was owned by James Scott of North Middletown, KY. Tom Scott was the husband of Phillis Ann Risk, who was owned by Thomas West Brooks. Tom and Phillis Scott had four children when Tom enlisted in the Army. This information comes from the military muster rolls, a copy of which is available at the Kentucky Military History Museum in Frankfort, KY. James Scott had 27 slaves, according to the 1860 U.S. Federal Census. Tom Scott would have been about 16 years old in 1860; there is a black male, aged 16, listed in James Scott's slave census. For more see "Memorial service in Mississippi to honor Kentucky slave-turned -soldier," The Associate Press State & Local Wire, 12/02/2000, State and Regional section; and The Saltville Massacre, by T. D. Mays.

Nancy O'Malley, Assistant Director
William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology and
Office of State Archeology
1020A Export Street
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506
Ph. 859-257-1944
FAX: 859-323-1968
 
Subjects: Freedom, Military & Veterans, Migration South, 1st African American Families in Town
Geographic Region: North Middletown, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Rocky Springs, Mississippi

Sears, George
Birth Year : 1847
Death Year : 1907
The following information comes from "Historic Joplin: George Sears, first Negro in Murphysburg, is dead." George Sears is still recognized as the first African American in Murphysburg, MO. Sears is said to have been born in Louisville, KY, in 1947. He was a young man when he came to Joplin and worked as a miner. When he no longer worked in the mines, George Sears was employed as a janitor at the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was a member of the Baptist Church. He also belonged to the Knights of Pythias and was a Mason. He attended and gave speeches at Republican Conventions, and was known as a good barbeque cook. According to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, George Sears, a lead miner, was the husband of Martha (b. 1856) and the father of Emma (b. 1872), Lucy (b. 1874), and Ralph Sears (b. 1880). His wife Martha was born in Tennessee, their daughter Emma in Kansas, and the other two children in Missouri. The family lived on Kentucky Avenue. According to the Joplin website, George Sears married again in 1885 and had a third daughter. George Sears was active in the community and helped organize the 1891 Emancipation Day Celebration [source: "A Grand Day!," The Southern Argus, 09/10/1891, p. 1, column 3]. Sears was the president of Officers of the Day and co-chairman of the Soliciting Committee. George S. Sears is listed in the city directory as a colored janitor who lived at 112 Pearl Street in Joplin, MO [source: p. 381 of Hoye's Joplin and {Carthage, Carterville, Webb City, Jasper Co.} Directory, 1905-1906]. He is also listed in the 1902 directory. George Sears died February 8, 1907 in Joplin, MO [source: "Mr. George Sears of Joplin, MO...," St. Louis Palladium, 03/23/1907, p. 4].
Subjects: Migration West, Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills, Fraternal Organizations, Emancipation Day / Juneteenth Celebrations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Kansas / Murphysburg and Joplin, Missouri

Seymour, William
Birth Year : 1843
Death Year : 1920
William Seymour was born a slave in Kentucky. He and his wife, Mary Elizabeth, were members of the Exodusters Movement: they settled to Ottawa, Kansas, and later moved on to Colorado Springs, Colorado in the latter part of the 1890s. When the family of eight left Kentucky, it included Sorelda Seymour, the mother of William, his wife and five children. All were born in Kentucky. While in Kansas, William and Mary Elizabeth Seymour had three more children, according to the 1885 Kansas State Census. In 1903, William Seymour would become the first African American to serve on a jury in El Paso County, Colorado. A bronze sculpture of Seymour stands on the lawn of the Pioneer Museum, which was the former location of the El Paso County Courthouse. Seymour also helped found the St. John's Baptist Church. According to the 1920 U.S. Federal Census, the Seymour family lived on Moreno Street in Colorado Springs. For more about Seymour and his descendants, see E. Emery, "Bronze honors golden ideals 1st black to sit on El Paso jury," Denver Post, 03/01/2002, p. B-03.

  See William Seymour statue at the waymarking.com website.
Subjects: Migration West, Nicodemus, Religion & Church Work, Exodusters [African Americans migrating West around Reconstruction Era]
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Kansas / Colorado Springs, El Paso County, Colorado

Shaw, Thomas
Birth Year : 1846
Death Year : 1895
Born a slave in Covington, KY, Thomas Shaw ran away to join the Union Army in 1864. His owner, Mary Shaw, wrote the federal government asking for compensation for her loss. After the Civil War, Thomas Shaw remained with the Army and was on the western frontier with Company K, 9th U.S. Cavalry. He earned the Medal of Honor for the defense of his comrades during a fight with Apache Indians in 1881. Shaw retired from the Army in 1894. He is buried at Arlington National Cemetery. For more see African American Recipients of the Medal of Honor, by C. W. Hanna.

See photo image of Thomas Shaw at the Wikipedia website.
Subjects: Freedom, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky

Shelby County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Shelby County, formed in 1792 from portions of Jefferson County, was named in honor of the first Kentucky Governor, Isaac Shelby. The county is located in north-central Kentucky and surrounded by six counties. The county seat, Shelbyville, was also named for Governor Shelby. Shelby County was the 12th county formed in Kentucky, and according to the Second Census of Kentucky, in 1800 the total population was 8,191, with 6,681 whites, 23 free coloreds, and 1,487 slaves. In 1830, there were four free African American slave owners: one in Shelby County and three in Shelbyville. By 1860, the population was 9,799, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 1,266 slave owners
  • 5,875 Black slaves
  • 908 Mulatto slaves
  • 138 free Blacks
  • 55 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 1,192 slave owners
  • 5,668 Black slaves
  • 998 Mulatto slaves
  • 103 free Blacks
  • 61 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,260 Blacks
  • 2,070 Mulattoes
  • About 296 U.S. Colored Troops listed Shelby County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Shelby County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; 1924 Third Annual Fair and Premium List of New Colored Shelby County Fair Association, Inc.; Whitney M. Young, Sr. Papers; Oral History Interview with Maurice Rabb; and History of Shelby County, Kentucky. by G. L. Willis.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky

Simmons, William J.
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1890
William J. Simmons was the second president of Kentucky Normal and Theological Institute (later Simmons University). He was an education advocate who fought for better education for African American children. He was editor of the American Baptist newspaper and established Eckstein Norton Institute in Cain Springs, KY. Simmons was the author of Men of Mark (1887), the forerunner to the irregular serial publication, Who's Who of the Colored Race. Simmons was also an activist; while serving as chair of the executive committee of the Convention of Colored Men of Kentucky, he was the first African American to speak before the Kentucky Legislature on the injustices put upon African Americans in Kentucky. For more see Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1879-1930, by L. H. Williams; and Life Behind a Veil, by G. C. Wright.

See photo image of William J. Simmons at the Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Online Catalog (PPOC).
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Cain Springs, Kentucky

Simpson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Simpson County, in south Kentucky, slightly to the west, is on the Tennessee line and borders the three Kentucky counties from which it was formed in 1819: Allen, Logan, and Warren Counties. Simpson County was named in honor of John Simpson, who was killed during the War of 1812. The county seat is Franklin, established in 1819 and named for Benjamin Franklin. The 1820 county population was 674 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, the population increased to 5,841 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 394 Slave owners
  • 1,664 Black slaves
  • 271 Mulatto slaves
  • 37 free Blacks
  • 7 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 462 Slave owners
  • 1,928 Black slaves
  • 381 Mulatto slaves
  • 92 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes [last names Husketh, 1 Earnest]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,770 Black slaves
  • 381 Mulattoes
  • About 42 U.S. Colored Troops listed Simpson County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Simpson County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; African American Heritage of Simpson County, Kentucky, by the African American Heritage Committee of the Kentucky Heritage Council; Simpson County, KY African American Death Certificates, by M. Denning; Minutes of the First District Association of Colored Baptists, held with the Alpha Baptist Church, Franklin, Kentucky. On Sept. 21, 22, 23 and 24, 1876, by the First District Association of Colored Baptists (KY); and Gospel Musicians (FA191), Folklife Archives Project 191.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

Simpson, Peter
Birth Year : 1848
Born in Clark County, KY, Simpson attended Berea College and became a teacher. He taught at a number of schools, many of which he helped build with his bare hands. He earned $12 per month. He later owned a grocery store in Winchester, KY, where he was considered a prominent businessman of ample means. He is listed in the 1900 U.S. Federal Census as a single man, and he was still a grocer. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Businesses, Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky / Berea, Madison County, Kentucky / Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky

Skillman, Charles
Birth Year : 1844
Death Year : 1888
Charles Skillman was the first African American to be buried in the Lexington Cemetery. Skillman, born in Kentucky, was a shoe and boot maker. He is listed in Prather's Lexington City Directory 1875 and 1876. His first wife was Emma Skillman (b. 1850 in KY); the couple is listed in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census. His second wife was Caroline Skillman (b. 1850 in KY) [source: Civil War Pension Index]. Charles Skillman was a Civil War veteran; he enlisted June 24, 1864 in Lexington, Kentucky, and served in Company C, U.S. Colored Troops, 114 Infantry Regiment. He was a member of the Charles Somner Post, No. 68, G. A. R. Charles Skillman died in April of 1888, and his funeral was attended by about 100 members of the Charles Somner Post and about 1,000 attendees in all. He was the first African American buried in the government quarter of the Lexington Cemetery. For more see "G. A. R. Internment," Lexington Morning Transcript, 04/19/1888, p. 4.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Fraternal Organizations, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Slave Deaths due to Cholera, 1850 U.S. Federal Census Mortality Schedule
Start Year : 1850
The federal mortality schedules, for which data were first collected in 1849, included the cholera deaths of slaves, many listed by name. Prior to 1870, it had been the free African Americans who were listed in the U.S. Federal Census by name, while slaves were listed in the Slave Schedules by sex and age under the names of their owners. The mortality schedules were published 1850-1880, and the number of overall deaths in the U.S. were under reported in the data collection. There were hundreds of deaths in Kentucky due to cholera before, after, and during the year 1850. Cholera is an infection of the small intestine caused by the consumption of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae (more info at MedlinePlus). In 1850, as the U.S. was striving for better public health measures, doctors were still searching for the exact cause of the disease, how it was transferred and how it could be treated and prevented. A nationwide cholera epidemic had taken place in 1848-49. Former U.S. President James K. Polk died of cholera in 1849 after a visit to Louisiana. His presidency was followed by that of 12th U.S. President Zachary Taylor, who died of cholera in 1850. [He was born in Virginia and grew up in Kentucky.] Mary A. Fillmore, daughter of the 13th U.S. President, Millard Fillmore, died of cholera in 1854. Lucy Ware Webb Hayes (whitehouse.gov), the wife of 19th U.S. President Rutherford B. Hayes, lost her father to cholera in 1833 when he came to his hometown, Lexington, KY, to free the slaves that he had recently inherited. In addition to Dr. James Webb, his mother, father, and brother also died of cholera. After the 1830s cholera epidemic, there were publications written for southerns on the medical treatment of cholera in slaves. With the second epidemic in the late 1840s, there was a request for a publication on what was considered an effective treatment by Dr. C. B. New. In 1850 he published Cholera: observations on the management of cholera on plantations, and method of treating the disease [available online]. Included in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census Mortality Schedule are 71 black slaves in Kentucky who died of cholera, most from Scott, Warren, and Woodford Counties; the schedule also lists the death of seven Kelly slaves in Warren County, in June 1850. There were also 16 mulatto slave deaths in Scott, Shelby, Spencer, Union and Warren Counties. S. M. Young, a free mulatto woman from Scott County, also died of cholera in 1850. For more see The Health of Slaves on Southern Plantations, by W. D. Postell; Observations on the epidemic now prevailing in the City of New-York, by C. C. Yates [available full-text at Google Book Search]; Cholera; its pathology, diagnosis, and treatment, by William Story [available full-text at Google Book Search]; T. L. Savitt's Medicine and Slavery; and Finding Answers in U.S. Census Records, by L. D. Szucs and M. Wright. See also the list of Cholera deaths in Lexington, KY, [Whites and Blacks] for the year 1833, a rootsweb site, and for the year 1849.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Inheritance
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Slave Riot Scare (Harlan County, KY)
Start Year : 1842
In September 1842, David Todd and William S. Westervelt, both white students from Oberlin College, were on trial in Harlan County, KY, charged with attempting to incite a slave revolt. David Todd was the son of Captain James Todd, who was against slavery and was known for successfully leading the 2nd Regiment's 1st Brigade of the Pennsylvania Militia during the War of 1812. The charges against David and William stemmed from the facts that they were white men in Kentucky without a good enough reason for being there; they were seen talking to slaves in a friendly manner; and they had come from Ohio and were students at Oberlin College, where a large number of abolitionists resided. The circumstantial evidence was supposedly the sign that led to the discovery of a planned slave insurrection that alarmed the county. For more see John Todd and the Underground Railroad, by J. P. Morgans.
Subjects: Rioting, Insurrections, Panics, Protests in Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky

Smith, Andrew Jackson
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1932
Born in Lyon County, KY, Smith's father and owner was Elijah Smith, his mother was a slave named Susan. At the age of 19 he ran away and became a servant of Major John Warner of the Union Army. When Warner returned home to Clinton, IL, Smith went with him. Smith would leave Illinois to join the 55th Massachusetts Colored Volunteers, participating in the Battle of Honey Hill, SC; for the bravery he displayed in this battle he was awarded the Medal of Honor posthumously in 2001. He was promoted to Color Sergeant and sent to Boston for his formal mustering out. After his discharge, Smith went back to Clinton, IL, and then returned to Eddyville, KY, where he bought and sold land in Between the Rivers. For more information see Andrew Jackson Smith, by Andrew Bowman, grandson of Andrew Jackson Smith; and the Kentucky Historical Marker Database: Andrew Jackson Smith (Marker Number: 2107).

* Between the Rivers is located in Lyon and Trigg Counties, Kentucky, and Stewart County, Tennessee.*

See photo image of Andrew Jackson Smith in his military uniform at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Migration North, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Eddyville, Lyon County, Kentucky / Honey Hill, South Carolina / Clinton, Illinois

Smith, Benjamin
Birth Year : 1850
Benjamin Smith, from Harrison County, KY, enlisted in the U.S. Army on February 3, 1872 in Louisville, KY. He served with the 9th Cavalry, Company L. On August 26, 1876, Private Benjamin Smith accompanied Private James "Jimmy" Miller to a dance hall in West Las Animas, Colorado. The men were stationed at Fort Lyon, and Miller had been to the dance hall earlier that night and was insulted and forced to leave at gunpoint. The dance hall was reserved for whites on this particular night. When Miller returned with Smith, the two men fired into the dance hall from the porch and killed John Sutherland. Smith and Miller were tried in a civilian court: both were found guilty and sentenced to death. Smith's sentence was commuted to life in prison by Colorado Governor John L. Routt (1826-1907), who was born in Eddyville, KY. James "Jimmy" Miller, from Philadelphia, was hanged on February 19, 1877. It was the first execution in Colorado; statehood had been granted to the Colorado Territory on July 1, 1876. For more see "James Miller" in the Catalog of Colorado Executions website; the James Miller and the Benjamin Smith entries in On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier II, by I. Schubert and F. N. Schubert; and "How a soldier was hanged," Logansport Journal, 02/20/1877, p. 2.
Subjects: Executions, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Harrison County, Kentucky / Las Animas, Colorado

Smith, Henry C.
Birth Year : 1839
Smith, from Kentucky, was one of the early African American police officers in the South; he is listed in the 1870 and 1880 U.S. Federal Census with the occupation of city policeman in San Antonio, TX. In 1910, San Antonio was one of four Texas cities that continued to employ African American policemen. New Orleans, LA, is recognized as the southern city that hired the first African American police officers, beginning in 1868. For more see Black Police in America, by W. M. Dulaney.
Subjects: Migration West, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Kentucky / San Antonio, Texas

Spencer County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Spencer County is located on the western side of central Kentucky and surrounded by five counties. It was formed in 1824 from portions of Bullitt, Nelson, and Shelby Counties, and named for Spier Spencer, who died in the Battle of Tippecanoe. The county seat is Taylorsville, named for Richard Taylor, a gristmill owner and land owner. Taylorsville existed prior to 1790 and was incorporated in 1829. The county population was 868 [heads of households] in 1830, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The population increased to 15,615 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 445 slave owners
  • 1,674 Black slaves
  • 477 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks [most with the last name White]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 440 slave owners
  • 1,938 Black slaves
  • 273 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,267 Blacks
  • 133 Mulattoes
  • About 74 U.S. Colored Troops listed Spencer County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Spencer County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Spencer County, Kentucky Negro Marriages, 1866-1914, by J. M. Lily; The History of Spencer County, Kentucky, by M. F. Brown; and "Spencer County" in African American Historic Places, by B. L. Savage.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Spencer County, Kentucky

Steward, William H.
Birth Year : 1847
Death Year : 1935
A former slave, William H. Steward was the first African American mailman in Louisville, KY. He was also founder of the American Baptist newspaper. Steward served as the acting president of State University [later Simmons University], 1905-1906. He was born in Brandenburg, KY, and educated in a Louisville school run by Rev. Henry Adams. He taught in Louisville and Frankfort and later worked for the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Steward was also president of the National Negro Press Association. For more see the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000; and The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan.

See photo image of William H. Steward at courier-journal.com.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Postal Service
Geographic Region: Brandenburg, Meade County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Stoney Point (Warren County, KY)
Start Year : 1848
According to author J. W. Cooke, the African American community of Stoney Point actually began in 1848 when John White died; six of his slaves were freed, and they were allotted land, livestock and other necessities needed to establish their independent livelihoods. In 1866, some of previously freed families were still living in the area that had become known as Stoney Point, though the boundaries of the community had continuously changed as lots and adjoining lands were bought and sold. Other former slaves from the local area who were Civil War veterans were among the new landowners. The Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church was established in 1866 and also served as a school before the new schoolhouse was built in 1908. The schoolhouse was used for a couple of decades before it was closed and the children of Stoney Point began attending school in Smiths Grove. For more see J. W. Cooke, "Stoney Point, 1866-1969," The Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 50, issue 4 (1976), pp. 337-352.
Subjects: Communities, Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Stoney Point and Smiths Grove, Warren County, Kentucky

Strader v. Graham
Start Year : 1850
Three African American slaves, George, Henry, and Reuben, were often allowed to travel with a man named Williams; the three men were musicians in Williams' band and they received musical training from Williams. The men belonged to Christopher Graham, from Harrodsburg, KY. In 1837, the band left Kentucky aboard the steamboat Pike (owned by Jacob Strader, James Gorman, and John Armstrong) and traveled into Ohio and Indiana. In 1841, George, Henry, and Reuben escaped to Canada. Graham sued Strader, Gorman, and Armstrong for the loss of his slaves. The prominent legal question became whether the three slaves had become free men by virtue of their travel into a free state. In 1851, the U. S. Supreme Court ruled that the status of slaves depended on the laws of the state; thus, the three men were still considered slaves according to Kentucky Law. The case would be used to argue the fate of other African Americans in prominent cases such as Dred Scott v. Sanford and Rachel v. Walker. For more see Jacob Strader, James Gorman, and John Armstrong, Plaintiffs in Error, v. Christopher Graham. Supreme Court of the United States, December Term 1850. 51 U.S. 82, 10 How. 82, 1850 WL 6936, 13 L.Ed. 337 [available full text at Justia.com].
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky / Ohio / Indiana / Canada

Sunday School Unions (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1861
In the early 1850s, several of the African American churches in Louisville, KY, joined together to form a singing school for children. The classes were alternated among the various churches on Sunday afternoons. The school was well received: an overwhelming number of parents and children attended the sessions. The school, led by W. H. Gibson, Sr., continued until the beginning of the Civil War in 1861. For more see History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, by W. H. Gibson, Sr.
Subjects: Religion & Church Work, Sunday School
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Tandy, Charlton H.
Birth Year : 1836
Death Year : 1919
Charlton Hunt Tandy, born in a house on Main Street in Lexington, KY, was the son of John L. (b.1805) and Susan Tandy (b.1815), both Kentucky natives. The family was listed as free in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census. John is listed as a whitewasher, he had purchased his freedom in 1833. His son, Charlton, born three years later, was named after Lexington's first Mayor, Charlton Hunt (the son of John W. Hunt, the first millionaire west of the Allegheny Mountains). Charlton Hunt Tandy was listed as one of the family's nine children in 1850, he was raised in Lexington, and as a young man, he and family members assisted escaped slaves across the Ohio River into Ohio. Charlton moved to Missouri in 1859, where he would become captain of the 13th Missouri Colored Volunteer Militia, Company B, known as Tandy's St. Louis Guard. After the war, he fought for equal access on public transportation in St. Louis, which allowed African Americans to ride inside the horse-drawn streetcars rather than riding on the outside by hanging onto the rails. In 1879, Tandy helped raise thousands of dollars to help former slave families who were moving to the West [Exodusters]; Tandy was president of the St. Louis Colored Relief Board. In 1880 Tandy testified before the Congressional Voorhees Committee about the exodus of African Americans from the South. He became a lawyer in 1886 by passing the Missouri Bar Exam and was permitted to practice law in both the district court and the U. S. Supreme Court. President Grant appointed Tandy to the St. Louis Custom House, making him the first African American to be employed there. Tandy was also a U.S. Marshall under President Harrison's administration, serving as special agent of the General Land Office and as a timber inspector. He served as vice president of the Missouri State Republican League and in 1894 was elected to a House seat by the Republicans of the Thirty-second Senatorial District, but he was not allowed to serve. Charlton Tandy was the husband of Anna E. Tandy, who was also born in Kentucky. A community center, a park, and a St. Louis Zoo train engine [of the Zooline Railroad] have been named in Tandy's honor. For more see The New Town Square, by R. Archibald; The St. Louis African American Community and the Exodusters, by B. M. Jack; Missouri Guardroots [.pdf]; news clippings about Tandy in the University of Missouri-St. Louis Western Historical Manuscript Collection; "A great exodus of Negroes," New York Times, 08/12/1880, p. 5; and "Lexington Negro," Lexington Leader, 08/01/1906, p. 5.

 See photo image and additional information at blackpast.org.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Freedom, Lawyers, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Legislators (Outside Kentucky), Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Railroad, Railway, Trains, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research, Exodusters [African Americans migrating West around Reconstruction Era], Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / St. Louis, Missouri

Taylor County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Taylor County, located in south-central Kentucky, was formed in 1848 from a portion of Green County, and is named for U.S. President Zachary Taylor. It is bordered by five counties. The county seat, Campbellsville, was established in 1817. The town was laid out by Andrew Campbell, a gristmill owner. The county population was 5,695 in 1850, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,887 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 303 slave owners
  • 1,466 Black slaves
  • 154 Mulatto slaves
  • 88 free Blacks
  • 60 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 287 slave owners
  • 1,305 Black slaves
  • 288 Mulatto slaves
  • 57 free Blacks
  • 72 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 1,673 Blacks
  • 190 Mulattoes
  • About 64 U.S. Colored Troops listed Taylor County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see Taylor County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Campbellsville-Taylor County, Kentucky Oral History Project (FA202) Manuscripts and Folklife Archives; and Campbellsville - Taylor County, Kentucky Oral History Project (FA 202), at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Taylor County, Kentucky

Taylor, Marshall W. (Boyd)
Birth Year : 1846
Death Year : 1887
Born in Lexington, KY, Marshall W. Boyd was educated by private teachers and at private schools. (He later changed his last name to Taylor.) He organized the first school for African Americans in Hardinsburg, KY, in 1866, and armed himself in an effort to keep the school open; the school was bombed on Christmas Day, December 25, 1867. The following year, Taylor was elected president of the Negro Educational Convention, which was held in Owensboro, KY. He was licensed to preach in 1869 and was also a lawyer with the Kirkland and Barr law firm in Louisville, KY. Taylor edited the Southwestern Christian Advocate. He is most remembered for compiling the early African American hymnal, Collection of Revival Hymns and Plantation Melodies (1882). He was also author of Handbook for Schools and The Negro in Methodism. According to his entry in Herringshaw's National Library of American Biography, volume 4, Taylor died September 11, 1887 in Louisville, KY. Taylor was the grandfather of jazz saxophonist Sam Rivers (1923-2011). For more see History of the Negro Race in America from 1619 to 1880, by G. W. Williams [available full view at Google Book Search]; Out of Sight: the Rise of African American Popular Music, 1889-1895, by L. Abbott and D. Seroff; and Forty Years in the Lap of Methodism: history of Lexington Conference of Methodist Episcopal Church, by W. H. Riley.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Lawyers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Hardinsburg, Breckinridge County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Taylor, Preston
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1931
Preston Taylor was born in Louisiana; his parents, Zed and Betty Taylor, were slaves who moved (or were brought) to Kentucky a year after he was born. In 1864 Preston Taylor enlisted in the army. After his service years, he went to Louisville, KY, where he was employed in the marble yards. He later became a pastor at the Christian Church in Mt. Sterling, KY. He was chosen as the General Evangelist of the United States by his denomination. Though African Americans had been excluded from Reconstruction efforts, Taylor was able to secure a contract to build sections of the Big Sandy Railway from Mt. Sterling to Richmond, Virginia. He also purchased property in New Castle, KY, where he established the Christian Bible College. Around 1884 Taylor moved to Nashville, TN, where he was one of the wealthiest and most influential men in the city. For more see Preston Taylor (1849-1931), by the Tennessee State Library; "Elder Preston Taylor, co-founder. First Treasurer, One Cent Savings Bank and Trust Company," The Tennessee Tribune, 04/22-28/2004, p. 2D; and "The Athens of the South: pen picture of the life of Rev. Preston Taylor," Freeman, 07/04/1896, p.1.

  See photo image of Preston Taylor at "Anniversary Edition: House Divided," a Dickinson College website.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Louisiana / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky / New Castle, Henry County, Kentucky / Nashville, Tennessee

Temple, Carter [Carr Hopkins]
Birth Year : 1842
Four of the first African American patrolmen in Indianapolis, IN, were William Whittaker, Benjamin Young, Sim Hart, and Carter Temple, according to an article in the Indianapolis Star newspaper. Carter Temple was born in Logan County, KY, around 1842, and may have been a slave prior to joining the Union Army in 1863. He came to Indianapolis in 1865 and became a patrolman in 1876. He had been a patrolman for more than 20 years when he drew his revolver after approaching a stranger one early morning in Mayor Thomas Taggart's front yard; the stranger was Mayor Taggart. Carter Temple was the husband of Martha Temple, b.1844 in North Carolina. The couple married in 1871, and the family of five lived at 182 Minerva Street in Indianapolis. Carter Temple, a Civil War veteran, was named Carr Hopkins when he enlisted in Gallatin, TN, on November 1, 1863, according to Civil War records. He served with the 14th U.S. Colored Infantry and was promoted to Corporal, April 30th, 1864. Carter Temple died between 1920 and 1930. Three other Indianapolis patrolmen from Kentucky were Edward Harris (b.1851), Frank Hurt (b.1859), and Johshua Spears (b.1858). Harris, from Louisville, KY, joined the force in 1874. Spears, from Bourbon County, KY, and Hurt had both joined the force in 1883. For more see "Colored patrolman dies of paralysis," Indianapolis Star, 12/18/1909, p.3; "Mayor Taggart finds a patrolman who wasn't sleeping," Fort Wayne Evening Post, 05/09/1896, p.3; and "Our Colored patrolmen," Freeman, 03/16/1889, p.5.
Subjects: Migration North, Military & Veterans, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Logan County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana / Bourbon County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Terrell, Alexander C.
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1922
Rev. A. C. Terrell was a leader within the Kansas District of the Nebraska Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME), he was presiding elder just prior to his death. Terrell was born in Ballard County, KY, and had attended Northwestern University. He was licensed to preach in 1876 and joined the Missouri Conference in 1879. He was consider an authority on the history, law, and doctrine of the AME Church. He was also a member and officer of the Knights of Tabor and Daughters of the Tabernacle of Twelve of Kansas and Nebraska. Terrell was the husband of Laura Graves, the couple married in 1869. For more see "The Grand Lodge," The Fair Play, 07/22/1898, p.1; and "Minister of the gospel 46 years - funeral Wednesday largely attended - was presiding elder," Afro-American Advocate, 04/21/1922, p.1.
Subjects: Migration West, Religion & Church Work, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky / Kansas / Missouri

Thomas, India P.
Birth Year : 1843
Death Year : 1899
India P. Thomas was born in Alabama, according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, and it is thought that she died in Louisville, KY, in the 1890s, according to author V. Alexandrov in his book, The Black Russian, p. 29. India Thomas was the second wife of Lewis Thomas; three sons were in the family in 1880 when they lived in Mississippi: Yancy, John, and the youngest, Frederick Thomas, the "Black Russian" referred to in V. Alexandrov's book. According to Alexandrov, there was also a daughter named Ophelia. The Thomas family owned more land than any other African Americans in Coahoma County, MS, until they were tricked and lost the land during a lengthy legal battle. In 1890, the family moved to Memphis, TN, and Lewis and India managed a boarding house. In October of 1890,after Lewis had gone to bed, one of the renters he had had a disagreement with, attacked him with an axe; a few hours later, Lewis died from the injuries. India remained in Memphis for at least another year; she is listed as India P. Thomas, colored, the widow of Louis, on p. 963 in vol. 30 of Dow's City Directory of Memphis, for 1892. According to Alexandrov, India came to Louisville in 1892 and was employed as a cook for a white jeweler; she is listed as a colored cook at 733 4th Street, on p. 1092 of Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville for 1893. Prior to her move to Kentucky, India's stepson Frederick Thomas had left Memphis. India spent the remainder of her life in Louisville. In the 1896 Louisville directory, she is listed as Indiana Thomas on p. 1154, and she is listed as India P. Thomas, colored, domestic, on p. 1102 in the 1899 directory. Her stepson Frederick Thomas would leave the United States and become a wealthy expatriate living in various European countries; Moscow; and Constantinople. He would on occasion claim Kentucky as his home, though there is no indication that he ever lived in Kentucky; Frederick Bruce Thomas was born in Coahoma County, Mississippi, the son of Lewis and Hannah Thomas, and in May of 1915, he became a Russian citizen [source: The Black Russian, by V. Alexandrov, pp. 43, 47, 112 & 113]. Frederick Thomas lived in Moscow around the same period that Emma E. Harris, an actress and singer, lived there. When Frederick Thomas opened the Maxim (theater) in Moscow in 1913, one of the acts he booked was Brooks and Duncan [Billy Brooks and George Duncan]. In 1918, Frederick Thomas was desperate to get his family out of Moscow, which had been taken over by the Bolshevik Regime. Leaving behind all of his wealth, Frederick Thomas and his family made their way to Constantinople. When he attempted to leave Constantinople, one of the persons who blocked the move was Kentucky native Charles E. Allen, the vice-consul of the consulate general's office in Constantinople. Frederick Bruce Thomas would never return to the United States; he lost his wealth a second time, went to prison for debt, and died in Constantinople on June 12, 1928. He is buried in an unmarked grave. His stepmother, India P. Thomas, died in Kentucky some time during or after 1899.
Subjects: Migration North, Mothers
Geographic Region: Alabama / Coahoma County, Mississippi / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Tipton, Nathan
Birth Year : 1846
Nathan Tipton had the distinction of being one of the few African American telegraph repairmen in Kentucky. Telegraph repairmen duties included keeping the lines in working order by making frequent inspections and all the necessary repairs. Nathan Tipton, his wife Susan and their two children, Clarence (1873-1927) and Julia lived in Louisville in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Nathan Tipton was born in Montgomery County, KY, and he may have also gone by the name Matthew, according to his military service record. He was 19 years old when he enlisted at Camp Nelson on September 13, 1864, for three years of service. Tipton served with Company E, 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry. The company was mustered out March 16, 1866. Tipton was listed as a farmhand in Montgomery County in the 1870 Census. By 1900, Susan Tipton was listed as a widow whose occupation was given as "laundress" in the census records.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Telephone Company Employees, Telephone Inventions, Telephones and Race
Geographic Region: Montgomery County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Todd County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Todd County, formed in 1819 from portions of Logan and Christian Counties, is bordered by three Kentucky counties and the Tennessee state line. The county is named for John Todd, a colonel who was killed during the Battle of Blue Licks. Elkton, the county seat, was incorporated in 1820 and is located on Elk Fork, which was a water source for herds of elk. Both the city and the fork are named for the elk. The 1820 county population was 575 [heads of households], and the population increased to 6,726 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 635 slave owners
  • 4,600 Black slaves
  • 211 Mulatto slaves
  • 69 free Blacks
  • 28 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 583 slave owners
  • 4,336 Black slaves
  • 506 Mulatto slaves
  • 38 free Blacks
  • 7 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 4,421 Blacks
  • 412 Mulattoes
  • About 292 U.S. Colored Troops listed Todd County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Todd County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Marriage Bond Books, Todd County Clerk; Kinchlow, Gina Lloyce (FA4), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; Lewis, Lisa Claire (FA 193), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; and Todd County, Kentucky, Family History by Turner Publishing Company.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Todd County, Kentucky

Trigg County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Trigg County, located in southwest Kentucky, is on the Tennessee state line and borders five Kentucky counties. Trigg County was created in 1820 from portions of Christian County and, to a lesser degree, Caldwell County. It is named for Stephen Trigg, a land commissioner and soldier who was killed during the Battle of Blue Licks. The county seat is Cadiz. The 1820 county population was 514 heads of households, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 7,603 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 502 slave owners
  • 2,435 Black slaves
  • 362 Mulatto slaves
  • 69 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 529 slave owners
  • 2,977 Black slaves
  • 473 Mulatto slaves
  • 25 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,373 Blacks
  • 386 Mulattoes
  • About 230 U.S. Colored Troops listed Trigg County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Trigg County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Slave Records of Stephen Trigg; Marriage Books (indexed), Trigg County Clerk; Trigg County African American Oral History Project (FA 196), Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; Oral History Interview with Bobby Allen, B. Allen and S. Fisk; and Y. M. Pitts, "I Desire to Give My Black Family Their Freedom," chapter three in Women Shaping the South, by A. Boswell and J. N. McArthur.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentucky

Trimble County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Trimble County is located in northern Kentucky, bordered by three counties and the Ohio River. The county was formed in 1837 from portions of Gallatin, Henry, and Oldham Counties. The county was named for Robert Trimble, a U.S. Supreme Court Justice who was born in Virginia and lived in Bourbon County, KY. There is only one Trimble County in the United States. The county seat is Bedford, established in 1816 and named for Bedford, VA, the home of Bedford, KY's first settler, Richard Ball. The Trimble County population in 1840 was 654 [heads of households], according to the the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,049 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 216 slave owners
  • 715 Black slaves
  • 226 Mulatto slaves
  • 27 free Blacks [most with the last name Scott]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [last names Moreland, 2 Penn, Penna]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 196 slave owners
  • 661 Black slaves
  • 175 Mulatto slaves
  • 4 free Blacks [last names Lynch, Mason, 2 Scott]
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 308 Blacks
  • 141 Mulattoes
  • About 22 U.S. Colored Troops listed Trimble County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see Trimble County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Marriage Books (Indexed), Trimble County Clerk; and Narrative of the Life and Adventures of Henry Bibb, an American Slave, by Henry Bibb.
See photo image of children in WPA Colored Nursery in Trimble County, at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky

Tucker, Hagar
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1892
Hagar Tucker, from Kentucky, was the first African American police officer in Fort Worth, TX. The police department had been formed in 1873. More than a century later, the Fort Worth Police Historical Association led the effort to replace Tucker's headstone in Trinity Cemetery. Tucker had been a slave owned by William B. Tucker, Sr. from Casey County, KY; he had moved his family and slaves to Fort Worth [then an army garrison] in 1852. They were among the earliest settlers of Tarrant County. William B. Tucker was elected sheriff in 1856, Office of District Clerk in 1858, and Justice of the Peace in 1862. Hagar Tucker was a free man in 1865, and he married Amy, also a former slave of William B. Tucker, Sr. Hagar Tucker became a landowner, registered to vote, and in 1873 was appointed a special policeman. When Hagar found other employment, there would not be another African American police officer in Fort Worth until the 1950s. In 2007, a Texas Historical Marker #12192 was placed at Hagar Tucker's grave site. For more on Hagar Tucker see B. R. Sanders, "Former slave has place in police history," Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 03/25/2007, Metro section, p. B1. For more on William B. Tucker, Sr. see Tarrant County, Tx Sheriff: over 150 years service, by Turner Publishing Company, Tarrant County (Tex.) Sheriff's Office.


Subjects: Early Settlers, Freedom, Migration West, Corrections and Police, 1st African American Families in Town
Geographic Region: Casey County, Kentucky / Fort Worth, Tarrant County, Texas

Union County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Union County, in western Kentucky, was formed in 1811 from a portion of Henderson County. It is bordered by three counties and the Ohio River. Morganfield, the county seat, was established in 1812 on land acquired from the heirs of Revolutionary War veteran Daniel Morgan. The 1820 Union County population was 383 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 9,686 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 484 slave owners
  • 1,915 Black slaves
  • 377 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks [5 with no last name, 5 Dickson, 1 Acliff, 2 Waller]
  • 4 free Mulattoes [last names Acliff, Henson, Kirkendall, and Roberts]

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 539 slave owners
  • 2,893 Black slaves
  • 180 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 2,001 Blacks
  • 462 Mulattoes
  • About 177 U.S. Colored Troops listed Union County, KY, as their birth location.

For more information, see Union County in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Slavery On the Edge of Freedom, by J. M. Crate (thesis); Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky education, by J. M. Trowbridge and J. Lemay; and Freedom on the Border, by C. Fosl and T. E. K'Meyer.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Union County, Kentucky

U.S. Census: Slave Schedules, Black or Mulatto, Colored
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1890
African American slaves were first enumerated in the U.S. Federal Census in 1850 in a separate census called Slave Schedules. The 1850 Census was also the first in which all members of a household were listed by name; prior to 1850, only the heads of households were listed by name. As for slaves listed in the 1850 Slave Schedules, the vast majority are not listed by name but rather are numbered by age, sex, and color [Black or Mulatto] from the oldest to the youngest, all under the name of the slave owner. Also listed were the reported fugitive and manumitted (freed) slaves and the deaf, blind, insane, and idiotic slaves. A second slave census was taken in 1860. Kentucky was one of the 18 states included in the 1850 Slave Schedules and one of the 17 states in the 1860 Slave Schedules. African American slaves had been freed by the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 or by the ratification of the 13th Amendment in 1865. Because Kentucky did not secede from the Union, Kentucky slaves were freed by the ratification of the 13th Amendment. In the 1870 and 1880 U.S. Federal Censuses, African Americans are included as Black or Mulatto. When the 1890 Census was taken, the term "Colored" was also used as a race descriptor for some African Americans, as well as for Chinese, Hawaiians, Japanese, Puerto Ricans, Swiss, Native Americans, and many others. As early as 1850, the term "Colored" had been used in the U.S. Federal Census and in the census of some individual states to describe free persons who were not White. Well beyond the year 1900, in the United States, the terms Black, Mulatto, and Colored were all used on birth, death, and military records, and on ship passenger lists. For more information about the race descriptors used in the early U.S. Census data, contact the U.S. Census Bureau; see Shades of Citizenship, by M. Nobles; Census and Identity, by D. I. Kertzer and D. Arel; and Encyclopedia of the U.S. Census, by M. J. Anderson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z], Race Categories
Geographic Region: Kentucky / United States

Veney, Anderson
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1894
Veney was born in Kentucky. When he was a child, the Veney family members were slaves who eventually escaped from Kentucky to Canada, led by Anderson's stepfather, Levi Veney. The family settled in Amherstburg, Upper Canada; the city of Amherstburg had been a major tobacco growing territory that attracted escaped slaves from Kentucky who had knowledge of raising tobacco. As an adult, Anderson Veney remained in Amherstburg, where he had been a barber, but not making much money in that trade, he became a ship steward. When his first wife died, he moved in with a woman named Mattie or Martha, and she took his last name. In 1892, while in Cleveland, OH, Anderson Veney began having severe headaches, was forgetful and had a difficult time sleeping. He became convinced that his wife was cheating on him, and a few months after he returned to Amherstburg, he killed her. In court, Anderson was defended by African Canadian lawyer Delos Rogest Davis of Amherstburg and Mahlon K. Cowan of Windsor. Veney's sanity was argued back and forth, and the final verdict was that he was sane when he killed Mattie and should therefore be hanged. In one version of the story, the federal cabinet reviewed the case, and rather than hang an insane man, it commuted Veney's sentence to life in prison; in less than a year he died of phthisis in the Kingston Penitentiary hospital. In another version, Veney was hanged in 1893. For more see Anderson Veney in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online [free, full-text on the Internet]; Smith: New Canaan Black Settlement, Ontario, Essex County at ancestrylibrary.com; and Disorder in the court: trials and sexual conflict at the turn of the century, by G. Robb and N. Erber.
Subjects: Barbers, Executions, Freedom, Migration North, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Amherstburg, Ontario, Canada

Vertrees, Peter
Birth Year : 1849
Death Year : 1926
Peter Vertrees was born in Edmonson County, KY, his mother Mary E. Skaggs, was white, and his father, Rev. Booker Harding was the mulatto son of Jacob Vertrees. Peter Vertrees was raised by his grandfather Jacob Vertrees and his wife Catherine. Peter Vertrees served with the Confederate Army in the 6th Kentucky Calvary during the Civil War; he was a servant to his uncle, J. L. Vertrees, an enlistee who was white and a physician. Peter Vertrees left Kentucky to live with his uncle Judge J. C. Vertrees in Tennessee. He would become one of the first students to attend Roger Williams University. He would become a teacher and a preacher, and a respected community leader in Sumner County, TN. In 1880, he was a 31 year old widower living in Gallatin, according to the U.S. Federal Census; his wife, Amanda L. Dowell, had died in 1872. He had next married Sarah Head and the couple had three sons. In 1901 he married Diora Wylie (b.1875 in TN), according to their Marriage Bond, and the couple had three children, according to the 1910 U.S. Federal Census. They would later have two more children. Peter Vertrees was principal of the South Gallatin School, and for 60 years he served as pastor of the First Baptist Church. He was actually pastor of more than one church, and was president of two benevolent societies that helped pay for medical assistance and burials. He opened schools for African Americans within the churches where he was pastor. He founded the East Fork Missionary Baptist Association with 28 churches in Tennessee. A historical maker honoring Peter Vertrees was placed at the corner of South Water and Bledsoe Streets in Sumner County, TN. For more see the Negro Baptist History, 1750-1930 by L. G. Jordan; and Peter Vertrees, by Dessislava Yankova at the rootsweb.ancestry.com website.


Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Migration South, Benevolent Societies
Geographic Region: Edmonson County, Kentucky / Gallatin, Sumner County, Tennessee

Vinegar, Alexander C. "Peter"
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1905
Alexander C. "Peter" Vinegar is believed to have been born free in Midway, KY. Peter came to Lexington, KY, after the Civil War and was made pastor of the Main Street Colored Baptist Church, where he remained for 20 years before leaving to preach in other locations. In later years he had no church but would preach every Sunday in the Lexington courthouse yard, in front of the Phoenix Hotel, or other parts of town. Huge crowds of both whites and blacks would gather to hear him speak. He also held revivals in surrounding counties. He was remembered for his sermons: "When Gabriel Blow Dat Ho'n," "Kill Old Speck," "Hold Dat Tiger," and "Down Where de Columbine Twineth, and de Whangdoodle Moaneth for Its Mate." Peter Vinegar is buried in the 7th Street Colored Cemetery No. 2 in Lexington. For more see P. B. Estes,"The Reverend Peter Vinegar, Southern Folklore Quarterly, vol. 23, issue 4, pp. 239-252.

See photo image of Alexander C. "Peter" Vinegar in Explore UK.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Ward, William H.
Birth Year : 1834
Death Year : 1918
Ward was the first African American in Louisville, KY, and Jefferson County to become a member of the Republican Committee. He was nominated to run for jailer in 1870 and ran for marshal of the city court in 1878; he was defeated both times. In 1890, Ward was the traveling companion of Louisville Mayor Charles D. Jacob on a trip around the world. William and his wife Sarah A. Ward were both from Virginia, and it was thought they had come to Louisville in 1855 as free persons. According to the 1910 U.S. Federal Census, the couple was living on Ninth Street with their daughter, Mrs. Susan A. Morris, her husband Alexander, and two boarders. William Ward was still employed as a janitor at Louisville City Hall, a job he would have for more than three decades. For more see "William H. Ward" in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and Weeden's History of the Colored People of Louisville by H. C. Weeden.
Subjects: Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Virginia / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Warner, Andrew Jackson
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1920
Born in Washington, KY, Andrew Warner was the son of Rueben Warner, a freeman, and Emily Warner, a slave. Andrew was also a slave, he escaped to Ripley, OH, at the age of 13 and enlisted in the Union Army as a drummer boy. He received an honorable discharge and later became a student at Wilberforce College [now Wilberforce University]. Warner had also studied law and was the leading attorney in the Bishop Hillery case [within the Kentucky Conference] in Hendersonville, KY. Warner became Bishop of the A. M. E. Zion Church in Philadelphia, PA, in 1908. He was a candidate for the U.S. Congress from the 1st District of Alabama in 1890, a delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention in St. Louis, MO, in 1896, and a nominee for Governor of Alabama in 1898. The Warner Temple A.M.E. Zion Church in Wilmington, NC, was named in his honor. For more see Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915Rev. Andrew J. Warner, D.D. in One Hundred Years of the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church... by J. W. Hood [full text available at UNC Documenting the American South website]; and Andrew Jackson Warner in History of the American Negro, North Carolina Edition (v.4) by A. B. Caldwell [available full view at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Lawyers, Military & Veterans, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Washington, Mason County, Kentucky / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Alabama / St. Louis, Missouri

Warren County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Warren County, in southern Kentucky and bordered by six counties, was formed in 1796 from a portion of Logan County. It is named for Joseph Warren, a Harvard graduate and major-general who was killed in the Battle at Bunker Hill during the American Revolutionary War. The seat of Warren County is Bowling Green, founded in 1798 and thought to have been named in honor of Bowling Green, Virginia, or for the game 'bowling on the green.' According to the Second Census of Kentucky, 1800, the total population was 4,686: 4,251 whites; 4 free coloreds, and 431 slaves. In 1830 there were two free African American slave owners. By 1860, the total population was 12,004, according to the U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 812 slave owners
  • 3,706 Black slaves
  • 611 Mulatto slaves
  • 92 free Blacks
  • 114 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 882 slave owners
  • 3,893 Black slaves
  • 1,068 Mulatto slaves
  • 99 free Blacks
  • 105 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 5,085 Blacks
  • 1,089 Mulattoes
  • About 172 U.S. Colored Troops listed Warren County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Warren County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; 1870 Warren County, Kentucky Black Census by M. B. Gorin; Barbara J. Chase (FA316) Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts & Folklife Archives; Mt. Moriah Cemetery by J. Jeffrey et. al.; Warren County, Kentucky Marriages (1866-1962): Blacks at Warren County Clerk Office; and African American Heritage in Bowling Green and Warren County, Kentucky (FA509) Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts & Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Warren County, Kentucky

Washington County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Washington County, located in central Kentucky where it is bordered by six counties, was the 10th county formed in Kentucky, in 1792. It was named for President George Washington. Many of the first settlers were veterans who came to the area to claim land grants awarded to them for service during the American Revolutionary War. The county seat, Springfield, was founded in 1793 and named for the many springs in the area. In 1800, the total population was 9,050: 7,611 whites, 17 free coloreds, and 1,422 slaves, according to the Second Census of Kentucky, 1800. In 1830 there were two free African American slave owners in Springfield. By 1860, the total population was 8,753, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 608 slave owners
  • 3,127 Black slaves
  • 337 Mulatto slaves
  • 48 free Blacks
  • 15 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 450 slave owners
  • 2,149 Black slaves
  • 674 Mulatto slaves
  • 32 free Blacks
  • 14 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,783 Blacks
  • 312 Mulattoes
  • About 25 U.S. Colored Troops listed Washington County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Washington County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; 1792 Tax List of Washington County, Kentucky; Marriage Bond Books, (1858-1942) at the Washington County Clerk's office; Marriages of Black Residents of Washington County, Kentucky Back Dated and Recorded, 1866-1872, by L. A. Anderson; I Shared the Dream, by G. D. Powers; and Washington County, Kentucky, St. Rose Cemetery, and other "tidbits", by D. F. Bertram.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Washington County, Kentucky

Washington, Isam
Birth Year : 1832
Death Year : 1903
Isam [or Isom or Isham] Washington was born in North Carolina and brought to Lovelaceville, KY, as a slave. He was a Civil War veteran who served with the 8th U.S. Colored Heavy Artillery, Company "L" from Paducah, KY; he was honorably discharged in 1866. He returned to Ballard County, where he later acquired 55 acres of farmland to produce tobacco. Washington later lost his land, then in 1900 moved his family to Massac County, Illinois, where he died in 1903. He had also been a minister. Isam Washington was the father of Isam Mack Washington, the grandfather of Roy L. Washington, Sr., and the great-grandfather of Chicago Mayor Harold Washington. For more see The Ancestry of Mayor Harold Washington (1922-1987) by C. G. Brasfield.
Subjects: Fathers, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Grandparents
Geographic Region: North Carolina / Lovelaceville, Ballard County, Kentucky / Massac County, Illinois / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Wayne County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Wayne County, located in south central Kentucky, is bordered by four counties and the Tennessee state line. It was formed in 1800 from portions of Pulaski and Cumberland Counties. Wayne County was named in honor of Anthony Wayne, a member of the Continental Army, and a veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. The seat of Wayne County is Monticello, established in 1800 and named for the Virginia home of Thomas Jefferson [Jefferson's Monticello]. The 1810 Wayne County population was 1,850 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 9,272 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 141 slave owners
  • 447 Black slaves
  • 131 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [Li Ewing, Judia Grals Ewing, and Jerry Lankford]
  • 7 free Mulattoes [last names Mills, Rotan, 1 Frazer, 1 Spradling]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 212 slave owners
  • 720 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Cowan, 1 Gibson, 1 Philips, 1 Wadkins]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 528 Blacks
  • 177 Mulattoes
  • About 55 U.S. Colored Troops listed Wayne County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Wayne County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; A Compilation of Materials Documenting the History of Negro Education in Monticello and Wayne County, Kentucky, by H. Ogle; Jesse Alexander Papers at the University of Minnesota; "Thomas J. Craft, Sr." in Distinguished African American Scientists of the 20th Century, by J. H. Kessler; and "Brent Woods" in Black Valor, by F. N. Schubert.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Wayne County, Kentucky

Wheeler, John W.
Birth Year : 1847
Death Year : 1912
Wheeler was born free in Lexington, KY. He moved to St. Louis in 1873 where he was a politician and the publisher of the St. Louis Palladium newspaper. A republican and follower of Booker T. Washington, he echoed Washington's message for African Americans to become more self-reliant. He also used his newspaper to speak out against discrimination toward African Americans, actively seeking to mobilize black votes for the Republican Party. For more see Greenwood Encyclopedia of African American Civil Rights, ed. by C. D. Lowery, J. F. Marszalek and T. A. Upchurch.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Voting Rights, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / St. Louis, Missouri

White, Solomon E.
Birth Year : 1841
Death Year : 1912
Solomon White was an artist, scenic painter, and fresco painter. He was born in April 1841 in Kentucky and was the husband of Mary J. White (b.1855 in OH). In 1860, Solomon White was a free person who lived in Cincinnati at the home of Penelope Cousins and Wiley Cousins who was a barber. Solomon would return to Kentucky where he and Mary had their first three children. By 1870, the family had moved to Memphis, TN, where Solomon was employed as a framer. The entire family was listed in the 1870 Census as Mulattoes, including the last two children who were born in Tennessee. By 1879, the family lived in Cincinnati at 276 John Street [source: Williams' Cincinnati Directory for 1878-9], and there were two more children. A year later, the family lived in Grand Rapids, MI, and Solomon was employed as an artist and fresco painter. They lived at 43 Curtiss Street from 1880-1885, according to the Grand Rapids City Directory. They then returned to Cincinnati, and Solomon White continued his work as an artist [source: Williams' Cincinnati Directory 1884-1885]. In 1886, the family moved to 267 W. Eighth Street [source: Williams' Cincinnati Directory 1886]. Solomon White continued as a scenic painter and a fresco painter; he is listed in Williams' Cincinnati Directory as late as 1895, and in the Cincinnati Business Directory section under Fresco Decorators in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory, 1898-99. In October of 1899, Solomon White painted the scenery for the play On the Suwanee River when the play came to Newark, OH. Solomon White had made drawings of the Suwanee River on a trip to Florida, and used the images in the scenery. In 1900, Solomon continued his work as an artist, and he and Mary shared their home on W. Eighth Street with their youngest two sons and Solomon's brother Jackson White, a butcher who was born in December 1861 in Kentucky [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Solomon E. White died February 5, 1912 in Cincinnati, Ohio according to the Ohio Death List. For more see "Auditorium Saturday," Newark Daily Advocate, 10/21/1898, p.6; and Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900 by M. S. Haverstock, et. al.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Memphis, Tennessee / Cincinnati, Ohio / Grand Rapids, Michigan

Whitley County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Whitley County, formed in 1818 from a portion of Knox County, is located in southeastern Kentucky, bordered by four counties and the Tennessee state line. The county was named for William Whitley, a veteran of the Indian Wars and the War of 1812. In the late 1700s, he built the country's first circular race track at his home in Whitley County. Noted differences were that the course was made of clay and the horses raced in a counter-clockwise direction [info]. The seat of Whitley County is Williamsburg, established in 1819 and also named for William Whitley. The 1820 county population was 371 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 7,579 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.


1850 Slave Schedule

  •   46 slave owners
  • 135 Black slaves
  •   66 Mulatto slaves
  •     6 free Blacks
  •   18 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  •   46 slave owners
  • 115 Black slaves
  •   42 Mulatto slaves
  •     8 free Blacks [most with last name Berry, 1 Bradshaw, 1 Eaton]
  •   19 free Mulattoes 

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 94 Blacks
  • 51 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Whitley County, KY, as their birth location.


For more see the Whitley County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Roy M. Chappell in the chapter "No Sir, I Will Not Sign" in Hidden History of Kentucky Soldiers, by B. Craig; The Abolitionist Legacy, by J. M. McPherson for information on the first Black students in 1885 at the American Missionary Association (AMA) School in Williamsburg, KY; and the "John G. Tye" entry in the History of Kentucky, v. 5, by W. E. Connelley and E. M. Coulter, for information on the role of the Tye slaves during the early pioneering days of developing Whitley County, KY.
 

 
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Whitley County, Kentucky

Williams, Charles
Birth Year : 1840
Charles Williams, born around 1840 in Kentucky, was a jockey in Detroit, MI, according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. He was the husband of Josephine Williams; the couple had three children.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Detroit, Michigan

Williams, Charley "Banjo Dick"
Birth Year : 1849
Born in Kentucky, Charley Williams moved to Arizona in 1871 as a cook and housekeeper for the L. A. Smith family, according to author Alton Hornsby in Black America: a state-by-state historical encyclopedia, v.1, p.41. Charley Williams was known as Banjo Dick, and in the 1880s, he had a mining company named the Banjo Dick Mine, located near Tucson, AZ. According to author Hornsby, the mine was thought to the be first African American owned and operated mining operation in Arizona. The mine lasted but a few years, then Charley Williams moved to Nogales, AZ, where he shined shoes and played the banjo for extra money. "His biggest engagement was that of playing at La Vennis Park, the exclusive rendezvous of the Tucson aristocrats." For more see In Steps of Esteban: Tucson's African American Heritage at the University of Arizona Library.

See photo image of Charley Williams at the University of Arizona website.
Subjects: Businesses, Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Migration West, Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Tucson, Arizona

Williams, Henry H.
Birth Year : 1790
Death Year : 1850
Williams was born near Lexington, KY. A violinist, he was also the first African American dance teacher in Louisville, KY. He formed a cotillion band in 1835 that included other free African Americans, slaves, and German immigrants. Williams is remembered for his composition "Maysville March," which had not been played for more than a century when the sheet music was discovered by Filson Historical Society librarian Pen Bogert. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and L. Blackford, "It's pure," Lexington Herald-Leader, 06/14/1998, City&Region section, p. B1.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Wilson, Daniel
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1917
Rev. Daniel Wilson was born in Barren County, KY and died in Kingfisher, OK. He was a Baptist minister and organized the first Colored Baptist church in Horse Cave, KY in 1866. Wilson had been a slave until 1864 when he joined the Union Army, and that same year he married Lydia Watkins. After receiving an Honorable Discharge, Wilson returned home and joined the white Baptist church in Horse Cave, KY, and later organized the Colored Baptist church where he was a deacon for seven years. Wilson was ordained in 1874 and was a pastor at churches in Horse Cave, Hicksville, and Seenoria. He was also a missionary of the Liberty Baptist Association of Kentucky. In 1888, Wilson moved to Kansas where he was pastor at several churches. He then moved to Lincoln, NE to become pastor of the J Street Baptist Church, and soon resigned and moved to Kingfisher, OK, where he organized and was pastor of the First Baptist Church until his death. Kingfisher was a two year old town in the Oklahoma Territory when Wilson arrived there in 1891. After two years, he estimated that his church had 300 members, and that there were 400 Colored home owners who were served by seven stores, three Colored attorneys, two Colored physicians, and The Oklahoma Constitution newspaper. In addition to being pastor of his church, Wilson also served as president of the Oklahoma Territorial Baptist Convention, and moderator of the Western District Association. He was a member of the school board and a trustee of the National Baptist Training School for Women in Washington, D.C. that was directed by Nannie Burroughs. Rev. Daniel Wilson is buried in the Kingfisher Cemetery. For more see "Rev. Daniel Wilson," Plaindealer, 06/01/1917, p.4; and "Oklahoma Territory" on p.236 in The Baptist Home Mission Monthly, v.15-16, 1893 [available at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky / Horse Cave, Hart County, Kentucky / Kansas / Nebraska / Kingfisher, Oklahoma

Women's Right to Vote in Kentucky
Start Year : 1838
End Year : 1902
In 1838, the Kentucky Legislature granted limited voting rights to unmarried women and widows who owned property, and was over 21 years old and lived in the school district. The women could vote on school board issues, on the selection of county school district trustees, and on school taxes. Few women were able to actually vote based on the criteria, and according to author J. D. Wright, Jr, the voting rights were revoked in 1902 because more African American women were going to the polls than white women. The trouble was said to have started in Lexington, KY, when an unpopular Colored man was to be named head of the Colored schools and there was an outpouring of African American women at the polls. Though the rights were revoked, the 1838 School Suffrage voting rights for women in Kentucky set a precedence that was followed by Kansas in 1861, Wyoming in 1869, England in 1870, New Zealand in 1877, and many other states in the U.S. For more see J. Reis, "Winning the right to vote," The Kentucky Post, 11/08/2004, Kentucky Life: History section, p. K4; Lexington, Heart of the Bluegrass, by J. D. Wright, Jr.; the article on black and white women voting in The Bourbon News, 02/11/1902, p. 4; and "School Suffrage in Kentucky - Boston Transcript," Friend's Intelligencer, 1902, v.59, p.221 [available at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Voting Rights, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Woodford County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Woodford County was the ninth and last Kentucky county that was organized by the Virginia Legislature. The county was created from Fayette County in 1788, and is surrounded by six counties. It was named for William Woodford, an American Revolutionary War general who died after being captured by the British. The seat of Woodford County is Versailles, established in 1792, and named for Versailles, France. In the First Census of Kentucky, 1790, there were 6,963 whites, 2,220 slaves, and 27 free persons. The total county population for the year 1800 was 6,624: 4,502 whites, 2,107 slaves, and 15 free coloreds, according to the Second Census of Kentucky. There were 13 African American slave owners in Woodford County in 1830. The 1860 county population was 5,391, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 808 slave owners
  • 5,767 Black slaves
  • 607 Mulatto slaves
  • 143 free Blacks
  • 22 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 704 slave owners
  • 4,681 Black slaves
  • 1,150 Mulatto slaves
  • 81 free Blacks
  • 33 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 3,337 Blacks
  • 450 Mulattoes
  • About 436 U.S. Colored Troops listed Woodford County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see the Woodford County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Woodford County, Ky. Colored Marriages by D. A. Wilson; Proclamation Orders by Governor E. P. Morrow; All I See Is What I Know by Z. Webb (video); Funeral Home Records, Mack Brown Funeral Home; and History of Woodford County, Kentucky by W. E. Railey.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Woodford County, Kentucky

Woods, Brent
Birth Year : 1850
Death Year : 1906
Woods, a former slave, was born in Pulaski County, KY. He later joined the Army and was assigned to Company B of the 9th all black U.S. Cavalry. He was one of the 17 troopers and 20 miners in pursuit of Apache raiders. With the death of the lieutenant and the miner's leader, Woods took charge and led the attack that forced the Apache to abandon their position. Woods was awarded the Medal of Honor. He was discharged for service in 1902 and returned to Pulaski County. Woods was very poor when he died; he was buried in a pauper's grave. For more see African American Recipients of the Medal of Honor by C. W. Hanna; and A. Mead, "Black hero given formal military burial," Lexington Herald Leader, 10/29/1984, Main News section, p.A1.
Subjects: Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Pulaski County, Kentucky

Young, Betty
Death Year : 1833
The free black population in Kentucky was, prior to the Civil War, a small percentage of the total number of African Americans living in the state. Their legal status was often challenged, their personal freedoms and civil rights tenuous. Their accomplishments are all the more notable because so many factors worked against them. Betty Young was a free black woman who lived in Lexington in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She and her husband, Thomas Young, had been slaves belonging to Nathaniel Wilson, but Thomas purchased his own and his wife's freedom sometime prior to 1806. Dr. Basil Duke, then a practicing physician in Lexington, administered the estate of Nathaniel Wilson and filed the manumissions. In 1826, Nathaniel Wilson's widow, Margaret, took oath that the Youngs had been free for many years and had paid her husband for their freedom in full. The proof of their freedom was formally recorded with the Fayette County Court in 1828 and was prompted by Betty Young's purchase of her son Jim's freedom from the estate of John Springle; Betty formally emancipated her son later that year. Betty Young was listed as the head of her household in Lexington in the 1810 and the 1820 censuses; her husband had probably died by 1810 since he was not listed as head of household. She was one of only 208 free African American citizens in Fayette County in 1810 (compared to 7,664 slaves in the county in the same year). The free African American population in Fayette County increased to only 248 persons by 1820; Betty Young was one of them. Betty managed to buy a house on High Street in 1829, a time when it was rare for free people of color to own property. Beside her son Jim, Betty Young had a daughter, Margaret Bogus, who may have lived with her. Margaret's freedom was not formally recorded until 1833, but the manumission record indicated that her mother had purchased her daughter's freedom at an earlier date. Betty Young succumbed to cholera in the summer of 1833; she was described as “Betty Young, free” in the list of cholera deaths published in the Kentucky Gazette on June 23. Betty Young's efforts to free her children meant freedom from servitude for them and, freedom for any children that her daughter bore after she was emancipated, extending her gift of freedom into future generations. For more information, see Fayette County Deed Books, 5:421, 3:387, 3:388, and 4:258 [available at the Fayette County Clerk's Office]; Lexington city tax records; Kentucky Gazette, June 23, 1833; and U.S. Census returns (1810, 1820, and 1830) [available on microfilm at UK Special Collections].
 

 

This entry was researched, written and submitted by

Nancy O’Malley, Assistant Director
William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology and
Office of State Archaeology
1020A Export Street
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506
Ph. 859-257-1944
FAX: 859-323-1968
 
Subjects: Freedom
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Young, David
Birth Year : 1836
Death Year : 1907
David Young was a Louisiana Senator for the 15th district that covered the Concordia and Avoyelles Parishes. Young was born a slave in Kentucky on February 4,1836. When he was a boy, he escaped to Ohio but was captured in 1850 and sold to an owner in Natchez, Mississippi. He gained his freedom and moved to Concordia, LA, where he was a property owner and a community leader. He was a civil rights activist who fought for equal access to public establishments such as saloons and theaters, and he fought for equal access to public transportation such as steamships. David Young was elected a House Member of the Louisiana Legislature in 1868; his parish, Concorida, was 92.8% Black. He was re-elected in 1870 and 1872. In 1874, he was elected to the Senate. In 1877 he was indicted for the embezzlement of the school fund for his parish. The case was dismissed and it was the end of David Young's political career. David Young was self-educated and owned interest in the Republican Journal and the Concordia Eagle. After his political career, David Young became a minister in New Orleans and was head of the Zion Traveller's Baptist Church at Adam and Commercial Streets. He was vice president of the Colored Baptist Convention. He was the husband of Nancy Young [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Hon. David Young" in the column "State House Sketches," Weekly Louisianian, 02/20/1875, p.2; "Baptist Churches" in the column "Church Directory," Weekly Pelican, 12/25/1886, p.4; Black Legislators in Louisiana During Reconstruction by C. Vincent; Crucible of Reconstruction by T. Tunnell; and "The Rev. David Young," The New York Times, 04/21/1907, p.9.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Migration South, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Ohio / Natchez, Mississippi / Condordia, Avoyelles, and New Orleans, Louisiana

 

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