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Hackett, Wilbur, Jr.
Birth Year : 1949
Wilbur Hackett, Jr. is a 1999 Hall of Fame inductee at Manual High School in Louisville, KY, where he was a linebacker and running back on defense. He was considered the best all around football player in the city; in 1966 Hackett was All-State, All-Southern, and Parade Magazine All-American. The 5' 9", 185 pound Hackett went on to become a three year starting linebacker at the University of Kentucky (UK). He was the first African American to start in any sport at UK and in 1969 was the first to be named a team captain. Hackett was also one of the first African American football players in the Southeastern Conference (SEC). He received death threats, and in a game at Ole Miss, armed guards were on hand to protect him and teammate and roommate, Houston Hogg, who was from Owensboro, KY. Hackett was influenced to attend UK by Nat Northington and, Greg Page who would die from a neck injury he received during practice. Cecil New, a white football player at UK, also died from a neck injury the same year as Page. Hackett left UK in 1970. For more see Wilbur Hackett, Jr, Inducted: 1999, at the Manual High School website; "Negro to captain Kentucky football," Washington Post, 08/30/1969, p. D5; "Recalling the death of racial segregation in Southern college football," The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, issue 21, (Autumn 1988), pp. 64-65; M. Story, "They were our Jackie Robinsons - Hackett recalls days as trailblazer at UK of 1960s, a story for every county," Lexington Herald-Leader, 01/28/2007, Sports section, p. C2; and L. Austin, "Courage to play," Kentucky Kernel, 10/04/2010.

See photo image and additional information about Wilbur Hackett, Jr. in article "Former Wildcat remains a football player at heart," page 47 in Kentucky Alumni, vol.81, no.1, Spring 2010.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Football
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Mississippi

Hale v. Commonwealth of Kentucky (case)
Start Year : 1938
Hale v. Commonwealth of Kentucky was a 1938 U.S. Supreme Court case on discrimination in jury selections and criminal trials. Joe Hale, an African American, had been convicted and sentenced to death in 1936 for the murder of a white man in Paducah, KY. No African Americans had been selected for the grand jury, nor in the past had there ever been an African American on a petit jury or grand jury in McCracken County, KY. After Hale's conviction and death sentence, the NAACP took the case to the Kentucky Court of Appeals and the judgment was confirmed. The NAACP next took the case to the U.S. Supreme Court with Charles H. Houston and Leon A. Ransom for the petitioner, and Mr. A. E. Funk for the Commonwealth of Kentucky. April 11, 1938, the U.S. Supreme Court decision was to overturn Joe Hale's conviction because his civil rights had been violated when the lower court excluded African Americans from the grand jury. For more see Hale v. Kentucky, 303 U.S. 613 (1938) (case summary online at FindLaw).
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Court Cases
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Hall, Al
Birth Year : 1894
Death Year : 1964
Hall, born in Jellico, KY, lived in Seattle, WA, beginning in 1899. He was a graduate of Broadway High School and was the first African American to play on the school's football team. Hall appeared to be less than 5 feet tall. He was a WWI veteran, stationed at Fort Hancock, Georgia in 1918. After the war, he was employed by the Buffalo Hosiery Company in Seattle, and was later a clerk in the King County Assessor's Office. [Jellico, Kentucky, was adjoined across the state line with Jellico, Tennessee. Joint jurisdiction over the town was held by Kentucky and Tennessee, but today is considered a Tennessee town.] This information about Al Hall comes from the University of Washington Libraries, Digital Collections.

See one of seveal photo images of Al Hall in the Washington Libraries, Digital Collections.
Subjects: Football, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Jellico, Whitley County, Kentucky / Jellico, Tennessee / Seattle, King County, Washington

Hall, Daniel
Born in Louisville, KY, Daniel Hall is the first African American vice president at the University of Louisville, he is the Vice President of External Affairs. Hall is also an attorney and served as Chief of Staff to U.S. Congressman Romano L. Mazzoli. Hall is the founder and served as the chair of the Louisville Public Radio Partnership Board of Directors. He has been a leader and active member of several organizations. He was the state's Golden Glove Champion for three years [boxing]. Daniel Hall is a graduate of Central High School in Louisville, Dartmouth College, Harvard Law School, and Southern Baptist Theological Seminary. For more see Speaker Biographies in the program bulletin, "Brown v. Board of Education Turns Fifty: But We Are Still Separate and Not Equal," held at Eastern Kentucky University, February 26, 2004; and "Daniel Hall" on p.194 in Who's Who in Black Louisville: the inaugural edition.

See photo image and additional information at the University of Louisville website "Biography of Daniel Hall."
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing, Education and Educators, Lawyers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hall, George Edgar
Birth Year : 1889
Death Year : 1931
Born in Greenville, KY, Hall was YMCA Secretary in Washington D. C. in 1918, according to his passport application. He was appointed Assistant District Attorney of New York County, NY, in 1929. Hall was the son of James Henderson Hall and Lizzie Elliot Hall. He was a 1921 graduate of Howard University with a Bachelors of Law. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1928-29; and George Edgar Hall entry in the catalogue of the Howard University Bulletin, vol.1, issue 1, June 1921, p.250 [available full view at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Lawyers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Greenville, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C. / New York

Hall, Henry E. [Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company]
Birth Year : 1876
Death Year : 1936
Henry E. Hall, a Kentucky native, and William H. Wright, a lawyer from Alabama, were the founders of Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company. Hall was born in Henderson, KY, the son of Burell and Millie Hall. In 1880, the family of eight lived on Audubon Street, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Henry Hall attended the local colored school and worked in a tobacco factory. He was a graduate of Hampton Institute [now Hampton University]. Hall would return to Henderson, where he was a school teacher during the school year and worked in a tobacco factory when school was not in session. In 1911, Hall founded the insurance company National Benevolent Union of Kentucky. He did not have a license to operate an insurance company, and was forced to sell the business, which was purchased by Atlanta Mutual, and Hall was hired as the state manager for Kentucky. He would later take on the duties of manager of the health and accident department of the Standard Life Insurance Company of Atlanta until the company was forced out of Kentucky in 1914. Shortly after the company's exit from the state, Hall and Wright formed the Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company, but the state of Kentucky would not license the company. Hall and Wright took their case to the Kentucky Court of Appeals and won. The Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company was officially launched July 12, 1915 at an office on 6th and Liberty Streets in Louisville, KY, with Hall, Wright, Rochelle Smith, and B. O. Wilkerson. The business prospered, and soon district offices were located in Lexington, Paducah, Bowling Green, and Hopkinsville. The main office was replaced by a three-story brick building at 422 S. 6th Street in Louisville. The business continued to prosper and a new six-story building was constructed at 604-12 W. Walnut Street in Louisville. In 1926, William H. Wright died and Henry Hall took over as sole president of Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company. The company expanded with offices in Indiana and Ohio. In 1930, the Arkansas branch was sold to Southwestern Insurance Company of Pine Bluff, Arkansas. The company weathered the depression years in the 1930s. Henry E. Hall died in 1936, and the company continued. It was the largest African American owned business in Kentucky. In 1992, the company merged with Atlanta Life and the Kentucky offices were closed. Henry E. Hall was the husband of Emma Hall; the couple had four daughters, according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. The family lived on Chestnut Street in Louisville in their home, which was worth $5,000. For a more complete history about the business see "The Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company, Louisville, Kentucky" on pp. 150-156 in An Economic Detour: a history of insurance in the lives of American Negroes, by M. S. Stuart; Encyclopedia of Louisville by J. E. Kleber; and C. G. Woodson, "Insurance business among Negroes," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 14, no. 2 (April 1929), pp. 202-206. See also the NKAA entry for Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company.
Subjects: Businesses, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Education and Educators, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County

Hall, Leula Wallace
Birth Year : 1939
Leula Wallace Hall is an educator, administrator, minister, former high school basketball coach, and former jazz singer. She was born in the coal camp town of Valles Creek [now Hartwell] in McDowell County, WV. She is the oldest child of the late Bonnie Goddard Wallace and Theodore Wallace Sr. The family moved from West Virginia to Cincinnati, OH, then on to Lexington, KY, where Leula Hall attended old Dunbar High School. She learned to sing in church, and was a professional jazz singer. Her stage name was Toni Wallace. She sang with the local group known as The House Rockers. She also sang with the Eugene Barr Trio, and she was an Ikette, singing with Ike and Tina Turner. She was one of the backup singers on the 1963 single release of Tina's Dilemma. Leula Hall came back to Lexington, KY, when her singing career ended. She went back to Dunbar High School and graduated in 1965, nine years after her classmates. She enrolled at Transylvania University and graduated with a B.A. in Sociology in 1973, and began teaching social studies at Lafayette High School. She was also the basketball coach for the girls' team. She coached the team a year before Title IX of the Education Amendment Act of 1972 went into effect in Lexington schools. Leula Hall had also coached a girls' community basketball team, the team members were her daughter and her daughter's friends. The team did not have a name. Opponents were teams such as the Transylvania women's team, the Sayre School team, and a girls team from Ashland, KY. Leula Hall had played basketball in Alabama when she stayed with her grandmother. In Lexington, she was a player/coach once; she dressed out with her community team during a game against Sayre School when foul trouble left her with only four players on the floor. In addition to coaching and teaching at Lafayette High School, Leula Hall continued her education and earned her master's degree from Eastern Kentucky University. In 1975, she moved with her husband to Detroit, MI, and earned her Ph.D. in educational sociology at Wayne State University. She earned a second doctorate in pastoral counseling. While in Detroit, Leula Hall was director of an after school leadership program for high school students in the Region One Student Resource Center, it was a federally funded program. All of her students graduated from high school. Hall was next a school community agent with the city school system, she was a liaison between the school and the community, and would become an assistant director, then a director of Area E (formerly Region 6) in 1984. The area included 42 schools with students from a wide range of cultural backgrounds. Hall's duties included fund raising and helping to convince the community to pass property taxes (millage elections) to pay for the schools. In 1991, Leula Hall became director of Adult Education in the Detroit City School System. She was the lead researcher, and later director, of the African Heritage Cultural Center's exhibit and display. The event drew up to 80,000 visitors. Leula Hall also established the Christ Church Christian Disciples Ministry at 18336 Woodward Avenue in Detroit, MI. In 2001, she retired, closed her church, and returned to Lexington. She has taught part-time at Kentucky State University. Leula Hall is the mother of three children, Ronald, Daryl, and Candyce. Her daughter Candyce Edwards was also a professional singer with the group "Al Hudson and One Way." The group had five top ten hits, and the biggest hit was the song Cutie Pie, which reached #4 on the R&B Charts in 1982. Information for this entry comes from the Leula Wallace interviews that are housed in the Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History at the University of Kentucky Libraries. The interviews are restricted. Leula Wallace Hall is the sister of Theodore C. Wallace, Jr. and Thomas C. Wallace. See also An analysis of the local school principals and local school-community relations committee members' perceptions of the influence of community-relations members in decision-making policies at the local school level in Region Five, Detroit Public Schools by Leula Wallace Clark; and "Praise revival for women starts tonight," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/07/1997, p.15.

 

Access InterviewRead about the Leula Wallace Hall oral history interviews at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.

See image and listen to recording of Tina's Dilemma.

See image and listen to recording of Cutie Pie.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work, Migration South
Geographic Region: [Valles Creek] Hartwell, McDowell County, West Virginia / Cincinnati, Ohio / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Detroit, Michigan

Hall, Lillian Childress
Birth Year : 1889
Death Year : 1958
Born in Louisville, KY, Lillian C. Hall became the first African American librarian in Indiana and, in 1915, the first admitted to the Indiana State Library School. She was the librarian at the Cherry Street Branch Library in Evansville (1915-1921), the Dunbar Branch Library in Indianapolis (1921-1927), and the Attucks Branch Library, beginning in 1927. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; and Who's Who in Library Service. A biographical directory of professional librarians of the United States and Canada, 3rd ed., edited by D. E. Cole.

*The following update was provided by Michele Fenton.

Lillian Childress Hall retired from Attucks in 1956. She passed away on April 23, 1958 in Indianapolis, Indiana. She is buried in Crown Hill Cemetery, also in Indianapolis. She was the mother of William H. Childress, Jr. (her son with her first husband, William Childress). William H. Childress, Jr. served in the Kentucky General Assembly. Sources: Indianapolis Star, April 25, 1958, p. 23 ("Mrs. Hall Succumbs; Ex-Attucks Librarian); Library Journal, v. 83, no. 12, p. 1895; Who's Who in Colored America (1950).
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration North
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Evansville and Indianapolis, Indiana

Halliburton, Cecil D.
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1956
Halliburton was born in Hickman, KY, the son of George T. and Mattie Halliburton, and he was the husband of Mary Jane Adams Halliburton. A social scientist and journalist, Cecil Halliburton received his A.B. degree from Lincoln University in 1923, attended graduate school at the New York School of Social Work in 1930, and earned an M A. from the University of Pittsburgh in 1933. He was a member of the social science department at St. Augustine's College from 1930-1950. He became President of Voorhees School and Junior College in 1950. He is the author of History of St. Augustine's College (1937) and served as editor and columnist with the Carolinian (NC) and the Philadelphia Tribune. Cecil Halliburton died in Nashville, TN, in 1956. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Sociologists & Social Scientists, Migration South
Geographic Region: Hickman, Fulton County, Kentucky / Nashville, Tennessee

Halliday, Thelma Dorothy Yancey
Birth Year : 1912
Death Year : 2005
Thelma Dorothy Yancey was one of the first African Americans in Kentucky to earn a library college degree. She was born in Great Falls, Montana on October 12, 1912 and moved to Lexington, KY after her father became ill. She attended Chandler School and Lincoln Institute in Kentucky. She later attended Kentucky Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University] and went to Hampton Institute [now Hampton University] where she received her Bachelor's in Library Science in 1938. She was one of the school's first library graduates from Kentucky [source: Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones, p.83]. Prior to receiving her library degree, she was an assistant librarian at Kentucky State Industrial College [Kentucky State University], and read a paper, "Margaret Mitchell's Gone With the Wind and the Negro," during the 1937 Annual KNEA Librarians' and Teacher-Librarians' Conference in Louisville, KY [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.8, no.1, p.21]. Thelma Yancey was employed as a librarian in Pine Bluffs, Alabama. She was later librarian at Dunbar High School up to 1955 or 1956. She married Neil Lilburn Halliday Sr. (formerly of Oklahoma City, Oklahoma) and had two children - Antoinette "Toni" and Neil Jr. Neil Halliday was a mail carrier in Lexington, KY. When her husband got a job with the US Postal Service in Washington, D.C., the family moved to D.C. Thelma D. Yancey Halliday was librarian at Anacostia High School and Cardoza High School in D.C. She was later employed by Howard University, where she was in the reference department under Maurice Thomas and head librarian Dr. Paul Reason. She later accepted a position setting up the library for the Small Business Development Center under Dr. Wilfred White, and the library became part of the Howard University School of Business. She received her Masters Degree in Library Science from Catholic University. She retired from Howard University, and remained an active member of the American Library Association after her retirement. She was a golden soror of Delta Sigma Theta. She was author of the annotated bibliography The Negro in Business and the title City Directories of Black Businesses: a list, and was editor of Against the Tide by Ann Heartwell Hunter, the book is a history of Kentucky and Kentucky State University. Thelma D. Yancey Halliday was the granddaughter of Jordan Carlisle Jackson Jr. and E. Belle Mitchell Jackson; the daughter of Charles H. Yancey and Minnie Carlisle Jackson Yancey; and the sister of Sadie Mae Yancey and Myrtle Yancey Mitchell. This entry was submitted by Toni H. Schooler, daughter of Thelma D. Yancey Halliday.
Subjects: Authors, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration North, Postal Service, Migration East
Geographic Region: Great Falls, Montana / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C.

Hamilton, Ed
Birth Year : 1947
Ed Hamilton, who was born in Ohio and grew up in Louisville, KY, has created a number of sculptures throughout the United States, including the Booker T. Washington Memorial at Hampton University, the Amistad Memorial in New Haven, Connecticut, and the Spirit of Freedom: African American Civil War Memorial in Washington D.C. A nationally recognized sculptor, he is the author of The Birth of an Artist: a journey of discovery. Hamilton, a graduate of Shawnee High School in Louisville, 1965, and the Louisville School of Art, 1969. He also attended the University of Louisville and Spalding College [now Spalding University]. He has received Honorary Doctor of Arts degrees from Western Kentucky University and the University of Louisville. For more see the Edward Hamilton website; and the Ed Hamilton interview [#209], "Connections with Renee Shaw," 02/03/2007, at KET (Kentucky Educational Television).

See photo image of Ed Hamilton at Great Black Kentuckians, a Kentucky Commission on Human Rights website.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Authors, Sculptors
Geographic Region: Ohio / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hamilton, James, Jr. "Joe"
Birth Year : 1948
Hamilton was born in Lexington, KY. He was an All-American high school basketball player at old Dunbar, coached by S. T. Roach. Hamilton was a 5 foot 10 inch guard who played college ball at Christian College of the Southwest, where he was a two-time Junior College All American. [Read more about the junior college in The Handbook of Texas Online.] At North Texas State [now University of North Texas] he was a two-time All-Missouri Valley Conference Player. Hamilton was also selected as an alternate on the 1968 U.S. Olympics Basketball Team. In 1970, he was drafted by the Texas Chaparrals, an ABA team. He was a member of the San Antonio Spurs, also an ABA team, during the 1973-74 season, before being traded to the Kentucky Colonels. He played for the Utah Stars 1975-76. For more see the James "Joe" Hamilton, Jr. entry in the Afro-American Encyclopedia; the Joe Hamilton entry at databaseBasketball.com; and the Texas Chaparrals at remembertheaba.com.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hamilton, Jeff
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1941
Jeff Hamilton, a slave, was sold to Texas Senator Sam Houston; he had been placed on the auction block in Huntsville, TX, in 1853. Jeff Hamilton was born on the Gibson Plantation in Kentucky, and the Gibsons had moved to Texas. Mr. Gibson was killed and his widow married James McKell, who had both gambling and drinking habits. McKell had sold Hamilton to pay a debt. Jeff Hamilton remained with the Houston family even after Sam Houston freed all of his slaves in 1862, becoming Sam Houston's personal servant. After Houston died, Hamilton was employed as a janitor at Baylor Female College [now the University of Mary Hardin-Baylor]. During his lifetime, Hamilton was recognized at historical events due to his close association with the historical figures he had met while serving as Houston's personal servant. After his death, Hamilton was honored with two historical markers, one at his grave in East Belton Cemetery and the other at Mary Hardin-Baylor campus. He was the author of My Master: the inside story of Sam Houston and His Time. For more see Jeff Hamilton, by J. C. Davis at The Handbook of Texas Online website.

See photo image with Jeff Hamilton at Walker County Treasures website
Subjects: Authors, Freedom, Migration West
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Texas

Hamilton, Robin and Ramey Hensley (siblings)
Robin and Ramey Hamilton were sister and brother, and both were educators from Mt. Sterling, KY. Robin Hamilton (1896-1975) was a long time school teacher in the Mt. Sterling colored schools. She also wrote the Colored Notes column in the Mt. Sterling Advocate [source: "Colored Notes (by Robin Hamilton)," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/08/1918, p.4]. During the early years of her teaching career, she served as secretary of the 1917 School Institute for Colored Teachers [source: Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/04/1917, p.8]. In 1921, she married Fountain Davis, a plasterer [source: 1930 U.S. Federal Census]. Robin Hamilton Davis continued teaching and was supervisor of domestic arts at the Montgomery County Training School [source: KNEA Journal, 1933, v.3, no.3, p.13]. She would later become  principal of the school, and in 1948 she represented the school as a member of the Educational Research Committee of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Montgomery County, Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974 by S. A. Harris, p.18; and KNEA Journal, 1948, v.20, no.1, p.18]. Robin Hamilton Davis died in Detroit, MI, January 15, 1975 [source: Social Security Death Index]. Her brother Ramey H. Hamilton (1900-1940) was the first principal of the DuBois School in Mt. Sterling, KY [source: Montgomery County, Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974 by S. A. Harris, p.17]. He was the principal until shortly before his death on October 22, 1940. He died at St. Joseph Hospital in Lexington, KY [source: Kentucky Death Certificate #23239]. Ramey H. Hamilton received his education at Lincoln Institute, he was there in 1918 when he completed his WWI Draft Registration Card [see also, "Mr. Ramey Hamilton..." in Colored Notes, Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/15/1918, p.4]. Ramey H. Hamilton would become a teacher at Lincoln Institute [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, p.60]. By 1930, he was married to Marietta Gibson Hamilton, they had a 2 year old daughter named Robin Frances Hamilton, who was born in Kentucky [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The family lived in Okmulgee, OK, where Ramey was a teacher in the public schools. When the DuBois School opened in Mt. Sterling, KY, in 1936, Ramey H. Hamilton was hired as the school principal. Both Robin and Ramey Hamilton were born in Mt. Sterling, KY, they were the children of Bertha Mack Hamilton and Benjamin G. Hamilton. The family lived in Harts in 1910 and in Smithville in 1920, both locations are in Montgomery County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Their father, Benjamin Hamilton (1876-1951), supported his family as a carpenter and a plumber who owned his own shop. He was an elections officer in 1904 [source: "Elections Officers," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/21/04, p.6]. See also African American Schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, KY. This entry was suggested by Charles Jones of Mt. Sterling, KY. 

For more on Benjamin Grant Hamilton see the rootsweb page by his grandson Freeman Grant Chambers.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Migration West
Geographic Region: Harts and Smithville, Mt. Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky / Okmulgee, Oklahoma / Detroit, Michigan

Hammons, James W.
Birth Year : 1927
Death Year : 2006
Dr. James W. Hammons was the first African American physician to practice medicine at Central Baptist Hospital, in Lexington, KY, and he was the first African American member of the Kentucky Medical Association. There were many firsts in the medical field for Dr. Hammons. He was also a school teacher in Hopkinsville, KY. He was vice-president of the Lexington Committee on Open Housing and he was a member of the Human Rights Commission. His educational career included West Virginia State where he played football and was injured, forcing him to return to Louisville. Though he was born Kentucky, Hammons' mother had moved back to Tennessee when his father died around 1932. He returned to Louisville a little later to live with his uncle, Dr. John M. Hammons. After graduating from high school, he left Louisville to attend college. When James W. Hammons returned to Louisville after his football injury at West Virginia State, he next attended and graduated in 1950 from Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] where he was manager of the football team. He also attended the University of Kentucky where he earned his master's degree in 1954; Hammons was the first African American admitted to the medical department [public health bacteriology]. Hammons also graduated from the Chicago School of Osteopathy in 1959 [now the Chicago College of Osteopathic Medicine at Midwestern University]. He returned to Lexington and had a private practice on East Third Street and also took on patients of Dr. Bush Hunter who had become ill. Dr. James W. Hammons treated patients of all races. He was the first osteopathic doctor in the country to belong to a medical association in 1969. Gaining membership had been a challenge that became a success with the assistance of many of his comrades in the Fayette County Medical Society. Dr. James W. Hammons was the nephew of Dr. John Matthew Hammons who was the director of the Vernereal Clinic and head of the first Birth Control Clinic for African American women in Louisville, KY. Dr. James W. Hammons' ancestors included both African American slaves and slave owners. For more listen to the James W. Hammons oral history interviews at the University of Kentucky Special Collections, Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History; see J. Ogawa, "Physician James Hammons dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/12/2006, p.B4; J. Warren, "One patient at a time - Lexington osteopath has broken barriers for years," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/10/2002, p.B1; and D. Burdette, "36-years later, doctor still makes house calls for one special patient," Lexington Herald-Leader, 04/03/1995, p.B1.

 

Access Interview Listen to the recording and read about the James W. Hammons oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.       

 

 
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Medical Field, Health Care, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hampton, Kym
Birth Year : 1962
Born in Louisville, KY, Kym Hampton graduated from Iroquois High School in 1980, where she was a basketball and track star. She played college ball at Arizona State University, scoring over 2,000 points and setting eight career records, graduating in 1984 with a degree in theatre. She was inducted into the Arizona State Hall of Fame in 1989. She is also ninth on the NCAA's all-time career rebounds list. Hampton played professional basketball outside the U.S. for 13 years, and during her final year with the Italian League in 1996, was the leading rebounder. The WNBA team, New York Liberty, signed Hampton during the Elite Draft in 1997; she was the first African American player from Kentucky in the WNBA. The New York Liberty team was runner-up in the finals against the Houston Comets in the 1997 and 1999 WNBA Championship games. Hampton retired from the league in 1999 after a knee injury, taking her career in other directions with modeling, acting, the music business, basketball camps, and public speaking. In 2005 she was inducted into the Dawahares'/Kentucky High School Athletic Association Hall of Fame. For more see J. Demling, "Hall of Famer Hampton finds there's a spotlight after basketball," Courier Journal, 03/16/2005.

See photo image of Kym Hampton at the Diamond and Company website.
Subjects: Basketball, Migration North, Migration West, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Arizona / Italy / New York

Hampton, Lionel L.
Birth Year : 1908
Death Year : 2002
Lionel Leo Hampton was born in Louisville, KY, to Gertrude Morgan and Charles Edward Hampton. The family moved to Alabama when Charles Hampton was killed fighting in World War I, and from Alabama they moved to Chicago. Lionel Hampton became a jazz musician, composer, and arranger; his big band was formed in 1940. By 1945, Lionel Hampton was the highest paid band leader, performing that same year at Carnegie Hall. Lionel Hampton provided music for five presidential inaugurations. He also founded two record labels and was the only jazz musician with a music school named after him - The Lionel Hampton School of Music at the University of Idaho. Lionel Hampton was married to Gladys Riddle. Lionel L. Hampton was the son of Gladys M. Morgan Hampton and Charles E. Hampton [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census and Hamp: an autobiography by L. Hampton]. For more see "Lionel Hampton in the Dictionary of Twentieth Century Culture, vol. 5: African American Culture, ed. by S. Adell; Hamp: an autobiography, by L. Hampton and J. Haskins; and "Lionel Hampton: Music was his fountain of youth," at Big Band Library.com.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hampton, Pete George
Birth Year : 1871
Death Year : 1916
Born in Bowling Green, KY, Pete G. Hampton was the first African American to be recorded playing a harmonica. According to his 1905 passport application, Hampton was also a variety actor, and he had an artificial right eye. He recorded as a banjo soloist and singer, the recordings were made in Britain and Germany between 1903-1911. He recorded, toured and lived in Europe with his wife, Laura Bradford Bowman. It is said that he recorded more than any other contemporary African American. In 1913 Hampton, his wife, and her father returned to the United States, where Hampton died three years later. For more see Who was the first blues harp player to record? by Pat Missin; the Laura Bowman entry in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography; and a more detailed biography and photo image see K. Mason, "Pete G. Hampton," The Amplifier Online, 04/02/2010. Listen to Pete Hampton performing "Dat Mouth Organ Coon", link from Vintage Harmonica 78s website.
Access Interview
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Europe

Hampton v. O'Rear (Montgomery County, KY)
Start Year : 1948
In 1944, Montgomery County resident L. E. Griggs left a charitable trust for the building of a hospital for African Americans as either an adjoined facility to the Mary Chiles Hospital or on the grounds of the hospital. When Mary Chiles Hospital refused to act as a trustee for the structure, and it seemed the trust would be discontinued, a lawsuit was filed asking that the trust be continued with new trustees and that the hospital be built at some other location. The court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs, and the defendants appealed. The Kentucky Court of Appeals ruled in favor of the defendants with Judge Simms dissenting. "...[I]t is clear that a mere substantial compliance with the conditions imposed would not serve the purposes for which the trust was created. That being true, the cy pres doctrine may not be applied; and, because the devisee duly disclaimed its rights under the conditions imposed, we have no alternative but to declare the purposes of the trust to have failed, and that neither the corpus of the estate nor the income therefrom may be used to establish a hospital for persons of Negro blood on any other property in the hospitalization area of Mt. Sterling." For more see Hampton et al. v. O'Rear et al. 309 Ky. 1; 215 S.W.2d 539; 1948 Ky.; and Cases on the Law of Trusts, by G. G. Bogert and D. H. Oaks. [Quotation from the opinion of Judge Van Sant.]
Subjects: Court Cases, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

Hancock County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hancock County was formed in 1829 from portions of Ohio, Breckinridge, and Daviess Counties. It is located on the north-western edge of Kentucky along the Ohio River and bordered by three counties. Hancock County was named for John Hancock, whose signature is the most flamboyant on the U.S. Declaration of Independence. There are nine other Hancock Counties in the U.S. The county seat of Hancock County, KY, is Hawesville, named in 1829 for Richard Hawes who donated the land for the town. Hawes was born in Virginia, he was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky, and also served as Governor of Kentucky. The 1830 population of Hancock County was 190 [heads of households] according to the U.S. Federal Census, and the population increased to 5,395 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 134 slave owners
  • 590 Black slaves
  • 32 Mulatto slaves
  • 12 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto [Elizabeth Shaw]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 205 slave owners
  • 677 Black slaves
  • 143 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 707 Blacks
  • 43 Mulattoes
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hancock County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hancock County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; A Social and Educational History of Hancock County, Kentucky by C. A. Clinton; and Hancock County, Kentucky, a Pictorial History by the Tawana Publishing Company.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hancock County, Kentucky

Handy, Elizabeth P.
Birth Year : 1876
Death Year : 1937
Elizabeth Virginia Price Handy was born in Henderson, KY, the daughter of Jim and Betty Price. She wrote poetry but was never published. She was the first wife of blues composer and musician William C. (W. C.) Handy (1873-1958), with whom she had six children: Lucille, William Jr., Katherine, Florence, Elizabeth, and Wyer. Elizabeth Handy died in New York City. Hours before her death, she had been taken by ambulance to the Knickerbocker Hospital on March 11, 1937; she was suffering from a brain hemorrhage. Because she was African American, she had to wait outside in the ambulance for 55 minutes, while her husband W. C. Handy, and her physician, Dr. Farrow R. Allen, tried to get her admitted. The admitting clerk had informed them that Negroes were not admitted to the private ward. W. C. Handy had to pay $63 before Elizabeth was admitted [the usual charge was $6 per day]. Elizabeth Handy died two hours after she was admitted to the hospital. The New York NAACP, led by Roy Wilkins, assistant secretary, requested that New York Mayor LaGuardia investigate the Knickerbocker Hospital policies concerning Negro patients. Walter Mezger, superintendent of the hospital, told the media that the hospital did not discriminate toward Colored patients; the discrimination that had taken place was that of the admitting clerk, a long time employee who had used bad judgment and had since been transferred from the hospital. For more see The Annals and Scandals of Henderson County, by M. Arnett; and "Hospital accused by Negro society," The New York Times, 03/27/1937, p.30.
Subjects: Migration North, Mothers, Poets, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / New York, New York

Hanley, Alvin C., Sr.
Birth Year : 1928
Death Year : 1987
Born in Lexington, KY, Alvin C. Hanley was a graduate of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University (KSU)] and Indiana University. He played football and basketball at the old Dunbar High School and was an All-American football player at Kentucky State, where he was inducted into the Sports Hall of Fame in 1975. The Los Angeles Rams [now the St. Louis Rams] drafted him in 1951. He was the first director of the University of Kentucky Minority and Disadvantaged Student Recruitment Program. For more see "KSU Special Student Recruiter, Alvin C. Hanley, Dies at age 59," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/16/87, Obituaries, p. D6.

See photo image of Alvin C. Hanley at Kentucky Digital Library.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Football
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Happy, Jesse
Immediately after the first race riot in Canada, a reaction to the attempted return of runaway slave Solomon Moseby to the United States, the Canadian government received a request in 1837 for the extradition of another Kentucky escaped slave, Jesse Happy. Happy had escaped four years earlier, and the horse that he had ridden away on had been left on the U.S. side of the border. Happy had written his former master, David Castleman of Fayette County, telling him where to find the horse. In the U.S., stealing, in this particular case horse-stealing, was considered a serious enough offense for Happy to be returned to Kentucky. But that was not so in Canada; the matter was forwarded to the Law Officers of the Crown in London, England: "Since slavery did not exist in Canada the crime of escape could not exist there and the use of the horse in Happy's case had been to effect escape and not for theft." Happy was not extradited to Kentucky and remained free in Canada. No other extradition requests for runaway slaves were made to Canada until after the Ashburton Treaty (1842) was settled between Britain and the U.S. For more see pp. 170-171 in The Blacks in Canada: a history, 2nd ed., by R. W. Winks; W. R. Riddle, "The Fugitive Slave in Upper Canada," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 5, issue 3 (July 1920), pp. 340-358; J. M. Leask, "Jesse Happy: a fugitive slave from Kentucky," Ontario History, vol. 54, issue 2 (1962), pp. 87-98; and J. H. Silverman, "Kentucky, Canada, and Extradition: the Jesse Happy case," The Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 54 (1980), pp. 50-60.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Riots and Protests Outside Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Canada / London, England, Europe

Harden, Katie V.
Born in Lexington, KY, Harden taught school in Kirksville, KY, and later in Lexington. She was an unmarried woman who had her own horse and vehicle. She purchased land on which she later built her house. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Kirksville, Madison County, Kentucky

Hardin, Boniface
Birth Year : 1933
Death Year : 2012
Born in Louisville, KY, Boniface Hardin grew up in Bardstown, KY, and Indianapolis, IN. He became a Benedictine monk in 1953. He established Martin College in 1977 [now Martin University], to educate low income minority adults. The school, which has existed for more than 30 years, started with just two students; today Martin University has about 1,600 students. The school is the only predominately Black university in Indiana. Hardin has also been an outspoken advocate for civil rights. In 2002, Hardin, who speaks 16 languages, was named International Citizen of the Year by the International Center of Indianapolis. For more see the 1983 Boniface Hardin interview in the People of Indianapolis collection at Indiana University Center for the Study of History and Memory; and B. Harris, "Award honors global vision - International Center to recognize founder and longtime leader of Martin University," The Indianapolis Star, 11/14/2002, City State; Biography section, p. B03.

See photo image of Rev. Boniface Hardin at the Find A Grave website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Migration North, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Hardin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hardin County, KY, created in 1792 from a portion of Nelson County, is located on the Ohio River and bordered by seven Kentucky counties. It was named for John Hardin from Virginia, who fought in the Revolutionary War and the Northwest Indian War. There are six states with a county named Hardin. The county seat of Hardin County, KY, is Elizabethtown, which was originally named Severn's Valley Settlement, named for early explorer John Severns. The name of the town was changed to Elizabethtown in 1797, named for Elizabeth Hynes; her husband, Andrew Hynes, had provided the land for the county buildings. The 1800 county population was 3,653, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,317 whites, 325 slaves, 11 free coloreds. The population increased to 12,660 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and not including the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 593 slave owners
  • 1,993 Black slaves
  • 615 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks [many with the last name Kelly]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 589 slave owners
  • 1,815 Black slaves
  • 818 Mulatto slaves
  • 21 free Blacks [many with the last name Kelly]
  • 13 free Mulattoes [Goodin, Moton, Sheckles, one Caloway, one Spurrier]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,653 Blacks
  • 607 Mulattoes
  • About 35 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hardin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hardin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Lincoln of Kentucky, by L. H. Harrison; Two Centuries in Elizabethtown and Hardin County, Kentucky, by D. E. McClure; and Kentucky Life #905, Emma Reno Connor Black History Gallery.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hardin County, Kentucky

Hardin, John A.
Birth Year : 1948
John A. Hardin is presently Assistant to the Provost for Diversity Enhancement at Western Kentucky University (WKU), where he has served in several capacities, including associate professor of history. He is author of numerous articles and has published two books: Fifty years of Segregation: Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1904-1954 and Onward and Upward: a Centennial History of Kentucky State University, 1886-1986. His primary research interests are 20th Century African American history, Kentucky history, and the history of higher education. For additional information contact Dr. John A. Hardin on the WKU Department of History.

See photo image and additional information about Dr. John A. Hardin at the Kentucky African American Encyclopedia website.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Historians
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Hardin, William Jefferson
Birth Year : 1830
Death Year : 1890
Born a free person in Russellville, KY, Hardin was a politician, speaker and barber. He won two elections to the Wyoming Territory Legislative Assembly, the first African American to do so. He also served two terms as mayor of both Park City, Utah, and Leadville, Colorado. Hardin was educated by Shakers in Kentucky, and he would become a teacher for free Colored children in Bowling Green, KY. He left Kentucky in 1852 to head out West and settled in Colorado Territory in the early 1860s. By 1882, he was serving his second term as a Republican legislator in the Wyoming Territory. Hardin was considered very wealthy, said to have assets worth $20,000. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, by R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston; William Jefferson Hardin at the BlackPast.org website; and "Honorable W. J. Hardin...," Weekly Louisianian, 02/04/1882, p.2.

  See photo image of William Jefferson Hardin at BlackPast.org.
Subjects: Barbers, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators (Outside Kentucky), Mayors
Geographic Region: Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky / Wyoming / Park City, Utah / Leadville, Colorado

Harding, Robert E., Jr.
Birth Year : 1927
Death Year : 2004
Robert E. Harding, Jr. graduated first in his class from Bate High School in Danville, where he was born and grew up. He earned his bachelor's degree in 1954 at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. Harding went on to become the second African American to graduate from the University of Kentucky College of Law. In 1958, he was an attorney with the National Labor Relations Board, transferring to the New Mexico office in 1968. Harding was a civil rights leader and an active NAACP member; he was president of the Albuquerque NAACP Branch. The Vincent E. Harding Public Interest Scholarship was established a few years prior to the 2005 Robert E. Harding, Jr. Endowed Professorship, both at the University of Kentucky Law School. [Vincent E. Harding was Robert and Iola Harding's son.] For more see A. Jester, "Distinguished black alumnus honored by UK law school," Lexington Herald-Leader, 10/27/05, p. B3.

See photo image and additional information about Robert E. Harding, Jr. at the University of Kentucky College of Law website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Lawyers, Migration West, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Albuquerque, New Mexico

Harlan County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Harlan County, located in southeastern Kentucky, is bordered by the state of Virginia and four Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1819 from a portion of Knox County, and named for Silas Harlan who died during the Battle of Blue Licks. The town of Harlan was incorporated in 1876, it is the county seat of Harlan County. The county population was 309 [heads of households] in 1820, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 5,367 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 29 slave owners
  • 71 Black slaves
  • 52 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last name Bailey]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names Smith and Sturgeon]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 0 slave owners
  • 0 Black slaves
  • 0 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Elizabeth Coffman]
  • 12 free Mulattoes [most with last name Bailey; other last names Beaty, Coffman, and Glasgow]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 67 Blacks
  • 33 Mulattoes
  • About 6 U.S. Colored Troops listed Harlan County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Harlan County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History Records of Harlan County, Kentucky People by A. W. Burns; Harlan County, Kentucky by E. Middleton; and Those Were the Days by J. Renfro, C. Warren, and T. Garland. See the photo image of Harlan Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.


Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky

Harlan, Robert J.
Birth Year : 1816
Death Year : 1897
Robert J. Harlan was born in Harrodsburg, KY, child of a slave mother and Judge James Harlan (father of John M. Harlan - Plessy v. Ferguson). He was the second American to own and race horses in England. He lost his wealth during the Civil War. Harlan spoke out for the ratification of the 15th Amendment. He was a member of the Ohio Legislature and worked with two others to gain the repeal of the Black laws. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, by R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston.

  See photo image and additional information on Robert J. Harlan at BlackPast.org.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Businesses, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky / England, Europe / Ohio

Harlem Race Track Employees from Kentucky
Start Year : 1894
End Year : 1904
Initially named the Harlem Jockey Club, the track was located in the Village of Harlem, Proviso Township, suburb of Chicago, IL. It was later known as the Harlem Race Track in Forest Park, located near 12th and Hannah Streets. Harlem was a community of 15 houses in 1866, and was incorporated as a village in 1884. The population in 1900 was 4,085. The horse race track operated 1894-1904; it was established by gamblers George Hankins and John Condon. One of the early African American residents of Proviso Township was William Robenson (b.1840 in KY), a hotel cook. By 1900, practically all of the African Americans from Kentucky, who lived in the Proviso Township, were employed at the Harlem Race Track. Below are some of their names and occupations.

Source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census

Cooks

  • Marvin Blair (b.1877)
  • John McGorman [or McGowan] (b.1876)
  • John Young (b.1858)
Grooms

  • Albert Bell (b.1875)
  • Alis Calarneys (b.1874)
  • Hy Carrington (b.1860)
  • Casper Cash (b.1867)
  • M. Dudley (b.1872)
  • John Griffen (b.1869)
  • William Hanson (b.1876)
  • C. Jackson (b.1878)
  • Milt Kennedy (b.1862)
  • Isaac Lewis (b.1867)
  • J. Madison (b.1878)
  • William Mason (b.1874)
  • John C. Smith (b.1875)
  • John Stepp (b.1873)
  • W. Wells (b.1881)
Jockeys
Stable Boys
  • E. Anderson (b.1882)
  • William Crow (b.1880)
  • George Green (b.1883)
  • Sam Kennedy (b.1880)
  • Steve Porter (b.1884)
  • S. Porter (b.1884)
Trainers

  • William Reid (b.1869)
  • Charles Gather (b.1858)
Horse racing was banned in Chicago in 1905, and the Harlem Race Track was used for auto racing.

For more about Harlem see the enty in Historical Encyclopedia of Illinois, v.1 by N. Bateman and P. Selby [available at Google Book Search]; and History of Cook County, Illinois, v.2 edited by W. A. Goodspeed and D. D. Healy [available at Google Book Search]. For more about the race track see "Horse Racing" in the Encyclopedia of Chicago [online]. See photo of men riding horses at Harlem Race Track at American Memory.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Village of Harlem, Proviso Township, Chicago, Illinois

Harmon, Martha
Birth Year : 1841
In 1911, Martha Harmon, a widow, held the distinction of being the oldest student in the public schools in the state of New York. The board of education awarded Harmon two gold medals, one for the accomplishments of her studies, and the second for her attendance record. She had been born a slave in Kentucky. She lived at 198 W. 134th Street with her widowed daughter Mary O. Watson (b.1863 in KY) and her grandson Arthur Harmon, and two lodgers, one of whom was Richard McPherson (1883-1994), aka Cecil Mack, a lyricist and music publisher from North Carolina. For four years Harmon had attended public night school no. 157 at 125th Street and Manhattan Avenue. The school was in session from October to April of each year. Harmon walked to school each day, never missed a class, and was late only once. She had moved from Kentucky to Dayton, OH, where she spent most of her adult life before moving to New York. For more see Martha Harmon in "Items of race interest," The Freeman, 05/06/1911, p.2; and "70 years old she wins two medals," Cleveland Gazette, 06/24/1911, p.1.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Dayton, Ohio / New York

Harper, Nathaniel R.
Birth Year : 1846
Death Year : 1921
One of the first two African Americans to practice law in the Louisville courts, Nathaniel R. Harper was the first African American judge in Kentucky. He established the Harper Law School in his office. Nathaniel R. Harper was born in Indiana, the son of Hezekiah and Susan Harper who was born in 1828 in Kentucky. The family lived in Centre Township in Indianapolis, IN, and according to the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, they were free and the family was supported by Hezekiah who was a blacksmith. Nathaniel was married to Maria [or Mariah] Harper, born 1851 in Pennsylvania. Kentucky Governor W. O. Bradley appointed Nathaniel Harper a member of the State Industrial Bureau. He was to investigate, organize, and encourage members of his race toward industrial ventures. Harper traveled the state assisting in the establishment of industrial societies. In 1872, Harper was co-founder of the newspaper Louisville Weekly Planet. Harper was owner of the Tallaboo Dramatic Company, and in 1912 the company was touring central Kentucky. For more see Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000 [electronic version available on UK campus and off campus via the proxy]; The Owl: The Newsletter for Employees of the University of Louisville, vol. 17, issue 1 (February 2002), p. 2; "Kentucky's Negro Lawyers," New York Times, 11/28/1871, p. 5; The Commercial history of the Southern States by Lipscomb and Johnston; and see the paragraph "Lawyer N. R. Harper's "Tallaboo"..., within the column "At Kentucky's Capital" in Freeman, 06/01/1912, p.4.

See photo image of Nathaniel R. Harper at the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights website.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Lawyers, Blacksmiths, Migration South, Judges, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Indiana / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Harriford, Robert L., Sr.
Birth Year : 1927
Death Year : 2009
Robert L. Harriford, Sr. was born in Nobob, KY, the son of Willie and Grace Harriford. In 1930, the family lived on Upper Glasglow and Thompkinsville Road in Union (Monroe County) KY. In 1969, Robert Harriford became the first African American appointed to the Paducah City School Board, holding the post for 13 years. Harriford was also the first African American to serve on the executive board of the Kentucky School Board Association. He was president of Harriford Reproductions, located in Paducah, for 15 years. For more see Kentucky Black Elected Officials Directory [1970], p. 6, col. B, published by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; Profiles of Contemporary Black Achievers of Kentucky, by J. B. Horton; and B. Bartleman, "Harriford eulogized for work with youth," The Paducah Sun, 07/07/2009, State & Regional section.

See photo image and additional information about Robert L. Harriford, Sr. at the Woodlawn Memorial Gardens & Mausoleum website.
Subjects: Businesses, First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Photographers, Photographs, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Nobob, Metcalfe County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Harris, Albert and Maria
Start Year : 1886
Like many enslaved couples in Kentucky, Albert and Maria Harris considered themselves to be husband and wife. They were separated and sold by their owner. At the end of slavery, they searched for each other for 37 years and on February 17, 1886, they were remarried in Saline County, MO. Maria was 66 years old, she had been living in Louisville, KY, and Albert was 71 years old, he had been living in Missouri. Sources: Missouri Marriage Records [p.253]; and "Albert Harris, aged 71,..." in the column "Doings of the Race" on p.1 of the Cleveland Gazette, 03/06/1886.
Subjects: Freedom
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Saline County, Missouri

Harris, Albert B.
Birth Year : 1925
Harris was the first African American gynecologist licensed in Kentucky; he was also the first to serve at the University of Louisville School of Medicine and on the State Council on Higher Education. In the 1970s, President Lyndon Johnson appointed him to investigate how the Hill-Burton hospitals in Louisville were being integrated. For more see A Legendary Vision: the history of Jewish Hospital, by B. Zingman and B. L. Anster.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Harris, Emma E. "The Mammy of Moscow"
Birth Year : 1875
Death Year : 1937
Harris, an actress and singer, told others that she was from Kentucky, but she gave Augusta, GA as her birth place on her 1901 U.S. Passport Application. She was to return to the U.S. in two years, but Harris lived much of her life in Moscow, Russia. She left the U.S. from Brooklyn, NY, where she had been a church choir director. She left with the "Louisiana Amazon Guards [or Gods]", a six-woman theater troupe, with a seventh woman as a reserve. The group toured Germany. Harris later became a member of the "Six Creole Belles" [which may have been the same group under a different name and management]; they toured Poland and Russia before disbanding, and all but two members returned to the U.S. in 1905 because of the revolutions taking place in Russia. Harris then formed the "Emma Harris Trio," a singing group that continued performing in various European cities. Years later, the trio broke up and Harris was stuck in Siberia, where she taught English for a living before returning to performing as a concert soloist in Russia. Harris had studied voice at the St. Petersburg Conservatory. She also served as a nurse in the Ukraine during the Civil War, worked with the American Relief Association, and later was a speaker for the International Red Aid. Harris remained in Moscow with her husband and manager, Ivanovitch Mizikin. She knew Stalin and was a friend of Maxim Gorky's. She spoke fluent Russian and gave speeches against the Scottsboro Boys case when she was over 60 years old. Harris was also an excellent cook of culturally diverse meals and liked to entertain; she had many connections for getting food during the period when food was rationed in Moscow. Harris returned to the U.S. in 1933 and died in Brooklyn in 1937. For more see "The Mammy of Moscow" in The Collected Works of Langston Hughes, vol. 9: Essays on Art, Race, Politics, and World Affairs, by L. Hughes, et al.; and R. E. Lotz, "The Louisiana Troupes in Europe," The Black Perspective in Music, vol. 11, issue 2 (Autumn 1938), pp. 133-142.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Actors, Actresses, Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Education and Educators, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Nurses, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Augusta, Georgia / Moscow, Russia / Brooklyn, New York City, New York

Harris, Everett G.
Birth Year : 1867
Death Year : 1936
Harris was sent to Louisville, KY, by the American Missionary Association to develop an African American church. He also established the Plymouth Settlement House, which included an employment bureau for African American women. He was also a member of the Commission on Interracial Cooperation. He was the husband of librarian Rachel Davis Harris. Everett Harris was born in Virginia. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Migration West, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Virginia / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Harris, H. C.
Birth Year : 1850
H. C. Harris was a former slave who was born in Kentucky and owned by Alexander Moore, a bookbinder in Lexington. Harris was stolen by Tatin Sites Harper and became one of the best jockeys in the state. Harris later rode for J. T. Moore, Williams and Owens, and T. F. Tracey. He was also a stable foreman for Tracey. In 1875, Harris went to New York to work for Frank Bennece until he was able to develop his own stable. Harris retired from the horse industry and moved to Washington, D. C. in 1881. By 1898, he was an attaché caring for the horses at the White House. For more see Leading the Race by J. M. Moore; and "Mrs. Harris surprised," Colored American, 06/25/1898, p.5
Subjects: Freedom, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / New York / Washington, D. C.

Harris, Kevin L.
Birth Year : 1975
Kevin Harris was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Margaret Jones and the late John L. Harris, both from Paris, KY. Kevin Harris is a jazz pianist who plays contemporary and traditional music. He has been featured on National Public Radio's Jazz with Eric in the Evening [WGBH Jazz and Blues streams] and was invited by the mayor of New Orleans to perform for the Alpha Phi Alpha Forum at the Mahalia Jackson Theater. Each year, the Kevin Harris Project trio performs throughout the United States. The trio includes Harris, Steve Langone, and Keala Kaumeheiwa. The ensemble has performed educational programs designed for grades K-12 to introduce various styles of improvised music and cultural awareness. Harris is also a music teacher, giving instruction in trumpet, piano, and jazz band at the Cambridge Friends School in Boston, Massachusetts; he also provides private music instruction. He has started five separate band programs throughout the Greater Boston area. Kevin Harris is a graduate of Bryan Station High School in Lexington, Morehead State University, and the New England Conservatory of Music. His first album, Patient Harvest, was released in 2002, his second, The Butterfly Chronicles, in 2007. For more information see The Kevin Harris Project, and J. Perry, "For jazz trio, a conversation in musical notes [online article version]," The Boston Globe, 04/17/2009, Scene & Heard section. View photographs and videos of performances at the Kevin Harris Project website. 


Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Boston, Massachusetts

Harris, Larnelle
Birth Year : 1950
Born in Danville, KY, Harris attended Western Kentucky University, where he studied classical music and theory. He has performed for a number of years and received many awards; in 1984, he and Sandi Patti won a Grammy Award for Best Gospel Performance by a duo or group for the song More Than Wonderful. He has had more than 12 number one hits and appeared in the special, More Than the Music... Live (2002), a tribute to Southern gospel music. For more see World Musicians, by C. Thompson. View image and listen to Larnell Harris - Desert of My Days on YouTube.

Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Harris, Lauretta
Harris was the first African American to be hired full-time in Lexington televised news broadcasting, and she was the first African American anchor. She was at Kentucky State University when she was hired by Buzz Riggins, the WKYT News Director [prior to 1975]. Harris later moved on to WAVE and WDRB in Louisville, KY, and then to Nashville, Tennessee. Information for this entry was gathered from Lauretta Harris and Buzz Riggins and forwarded by Ken Kurtz of WKYT (Channel 27).
Subjects: Television
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Harris, Rachel D.
Birth Year : 1869
Death Year : 1969
Harris was born in Louisville, KY. The first African American woman library department director in Kentucky, she was the children's librarian at the Louisville Western Colored Branch Library and later became the manager of the Eastern Colored Branch Library. Harris also assisted with the development of the Georgetown Colored Branch Library and the Lincoln Institute Library. She was a colleague of Thomas Fountain Blue; when he died in 1935, Harris became the new director of the Louisville Public Library Colored Department. She was the wife of Everett G. Harris. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Harris, William H., Jr.
Birth Year : 1903
William H. Harris, Jr. was born in Russellville, KY, the son of William and Hattie Harris. The family lived on West Bank Street in 1910, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and William Sr. was a minister at the Baptist Church. William Harris Jr. taught at Western Seminary in Kansas City and at Douglass High School in Webster Groves, MO, from 1928 to 1930. He served as director of the Community House in Moline, IL, 1930-1933, and was pastor at several churches in Missouri. He also served as director of foreign mission work in Missouri. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration West, Religion & Church Work, Social Workers
Geographic Region: Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky / Kansas City and Webster Groves, Missouri / Moline, Illinois

Harrison County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Harrison County, located in north-central Kentucky in the Bluegrass Region, was formed in 1793 from portions of Bourbon and Scott Counties. It was named for Benjamin Harrison [not to be confused with President Benjamin Harrison]. Harrison was born in Virginia and lived in Pennsylvania before coming to Kentucky. He was a veteran of Dunmore's War and the American Revolutionary War. After moving to Kentucky, Harrison helped write the Kentucky Constitution and was a Kentucky legislator. The first white settlers in Harrison County had come from Pennsylvania and settled near what would become Cynthiana, the county seat. Cynthiana, built on land donated by Benjamin Harrison, was established in 1793 and named for Harrison's daughters, Cynthia and Ana. The 1800 county population was 4,350, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 3,925 whites, 406 slaves, and 19 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Harrison County. The population increased to 10,491 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 665 slave owners
  • 2,701 Black slaves
  • 640 Mulatto slaves
  • 88 free Blacks
  • 59 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 620 slave owners
  • 2,398 Black slaves
  • 894 Mulatto slaves
  • 91 free Blacks
  • 58 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,636 Blacks
  • 735 Mulattoes
  • About 97 U.S. Colored Troops listed Harrison County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Harrison County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland, by J. B. Hudson; African American Marriage Index, Harrison County, Kentucky, by P. A. Naff; Cynthiana Since 1790, by V. Peddicord; and Cynthiana, by M. B. Kennerly.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Harrison County, Kentucky

Harrison, James Henry "Jimmy"
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1931
Harrison was born in Louisville, KY. He left Kentucky when a teen and later played semi-pro baseball before becoming a musician and a singer. A trombonist, he had his own trio in 1919 and played with a number of other bands: Charlie Johnson, Sam Wooding, the Kentucky Jazz Band (Detroit), and Billy Fowler, to name a few. Harrison died of stomach cancer at the age of 30. For more see Who's Who of Jazz: Storyville to Swing Street, by J. Chilton; and The Penguin Encyclopedia of Popular Music, ed. by D. Clarke.
Subjects: Baseball, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Harrison, Lisa
Birth Year : 1971
Born in Mount Washington, KY, Lisa Harrison was a 6'1" forward when she played high school basketball at Louisville Southern, where she scored more than 3,000 points. In 1989, she was named Miss Kentucky Basketball and Naismith Player of the Year. Harrison played college basketball at the University of Tennessee from 1989 to 1993; Tennessee won the 1991 NCAA Championship. She was a Naismith finalist her senior year when she averaged 14 points and 9 rebounds. Harrison's professional career began in 1996 when she played one year with the Columbus Quest and two years with the Portland Power, both teams part of the now defunct American Basketball League (ABL), which had its first season in 1996. Harrison was inducted into the Kentucky High School Athletics Association's Hall of Fame in 1998. She was picked up by the Phoenix Mercury in the 1999 WNBA draft and stayed with the team until 2003, then rejoined it in 2005. She played in 160 games, averaging 6.8 points and 4 rebounds. Harrison was inducted into the Kentucky Athletic Hall of Fame in 2001. In 2006, she was hired as an outreach coordinator at the University of Louisville Athletics Department. For more see J. Pitts, "High school basketball: Anderson, Harrison named Naismith players of year," USA Today, 03/23/1989; J. Quick, "Portland Power player profiles," The Oregonian (Portland, Oregon), 10/13/1996; and Mercury Re-Signs Lisa Harrison, 05/20/2005, a WNBA web page.

See photo image and additional information on Lisa Harrison at the University of Louisville website.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Mount Washington, Bullitt County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Harrison, Nathaniel "Nate"
Birth Year : 1819
Death Year : 1920
Nate Harrison was an African American man from Kentucky who was referred to as the first white man on Palomar Mountain. He was actually the first man who was not Native American to live on the mountain. There is a monument to Harrison near the spring where he built his cabin. It was thought that Harrison had been a slave brought to the West around 1848, and who had escaped from his owner and hidden in the mountains. He didn't talk much about his life in Kentucky. Nate knew all of the Palomar Mountain trails and had provided spring water to those on the trails. Others in the area knew of his existence, but Nate Harrison was not named in the U.S. Federal Census. When Nate got so feeble that he could not take care of himself, members of the African American community in San Diego took Nate from his mountain cabin and placed him in the San Diego County Home for the Aged. He died soon after being placed in the home and was buried in a pauper's field. For more see V. S. Bartlett, "Uncle Nate of Palomar" [available .pdf online at the Peter Brueggeman, Palomar Mountain History Resources website].

See photo image and additional information about Nate Harrison at the San Diego State University website.
Subjects: Early Settlers, Freedom, Migration West, 1st African American Families in Town
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Palomar Mountains, California

Harrison, Tom
Born a slave in Kentucky, Harrison escaped to Ohio around 1854 after his two brothers were sold downriver. Harrison ended up in London, Ontario, Canada, where he met and married his wife. After seeing a play with Edwin Booth playing the role of Richard III, the couple named their son Richard Booth Harrison (1864-1935); he became a famous actor playing in Negro shows, including Shuffle Along and Carmen Jones, and played the role of 'De Lawd' in the film Green Pastures. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; and The Papers of Winston Coleman.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Fathers, Freedom, Migration North, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Ohio / London, Ontario, Canada

Harrison-Pace, Yolantha
Yolantha Harrison-Pace, who lives in Danville, KY, is a performing arts specialist. For 30 years she has designed and facilitated academic programs in dance and the performing arts, most recently in the Danville/Boyle County area. She also conducts storytelling and poetry writing workshops, is the founder and facilitator of V.O.I.C.E. (Voices of Influence Creating Encouragement) and S.P.E.A.K.!!! (Stop, Please End Abuse to Kids!!!), and is the author of a book of poetry, Wing-Plucked Butterfly (Neshee Publication, 2004). Harrison-Pace has received a number of awards and honors, including the 2004 YOUnity Guild Humanitarian of the Year Award and the 2004 Urban Spectrum Poetry Book of the Year Award. For more see Yolantha Harrison-Pace on the Kentucky Educational Television website.

  See The Wells Are Dry by Yolantha Harrison-Pace aka Mama Haiti on YouTube
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Authors, Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Poets
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Hart County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hart County is located in south-central Kentucky in the Pennyroyal Region, surrounded by seven counties. Established in 1819 from portions of Hardin and Barren Counties, it is named for Nathaniel G. T. Hart, who was killed at the Battle of River Raisin. Munfordville is the county seat, named for Richard I. Munford, who was the first Kentucky Legislator from Hart County. Munfordville was called Big Buffalo Crossing until Munford gave 100 acres for the development of a town in 1816, and Munfordville became the county seat in 1819. The county population in 1820 was 584 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 8,953 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the numbers for slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 333 slave owners
  • 1,104 Black slaves
  • 196 Mulatto slaves
  • 29 free Blacks [many with the last names Owens and Woodson]
  • 4 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 339 slave owners
  • 957 Black slaves
  • 440 Mulatto slaves
  • 32 free Blacks [many with the last names Clark, Cowl, and Woodson]
  • 43 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Mills and Temerideth]

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 1,768 Blacks
  • 447 Mulattoes
  • About 28 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hart County, KY as their birth location.

For more see the Hart County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Hart County, Kentucky Pictorial History by the Tawana Publishing Co.; and Hart County, Kentucky History and Biographies  by L. Collins, et. al.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

Hart, Henry
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1915
Henry Hart was born in Frankfort, KY, the son of Frederick Hart, from Boone County, and Judith Brown, from Frankfort. Henry Hart moved to Cleveland, OH, when he was 14 years old and there learned to play the violin. He later lived in New Orleans, where he was employed as a violin player and where he met his wife, Sarah, a pianist. The couple moved to Evansville, IN, in 1867, where Henry Hart was employed as a barber and also performed as a musician. Hart formed the Alabama Minstrels in 1872; the group included Kentucky native Tom McIntosh. Hart's minstrels performed in blackface by using burnt cork. By 1885, the Hart Family was living in Indianapolis, performing as a family string orchestra. The Harts had five daughters: Estelle, Lillian [who died as an infant], Myrtle, Hazel, and Willie. Myrtle became a concert harpist and toured the United States, billed as the only colored harpist in the world. Hazel, also a musician, was a school principal in Indianapolis. She died in a bus accident in 1935; the Hazel Hart Hendricks School is named in her honor. For more see Henry Hart, a Wikipedia website; and "Henry Hart" in Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians, by E. Southern.

See photo image of Henry Hart from the Indianapolis News, 04/06/1901
Subjects: Barbers, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Hart, Jack
A slave of Nathaniel Hart and an early settler in Kentucky, Hart was present at Sycamore Shoals (in Tennessee) during the signing of the treaty for the purchase of "Kaintucke" from the Cherokees. He also accompanied Daniel Boone on the Wilderness Trail and was present during the building of Ft. Boonesborough. Hart loaned his rifle at the Battle of Blue Licks and the rifle was lost. On March 24, 2004, the Kentucky Senate adopted a resolution honoring Hart and authorizing the purchase of a flintlock rifle to replace the one that was lost in 1782. For more see SR 191.
Subjects: Early Settlers
Geographic Region: Sycamore Shoals, Tennessee / Fort Boonesborough, Madison County, Kentucky / Blue Licks, Nicholas County, Kentucky

Hart v. Fanny Ann
Start Year : 1825
End Year : 1827
In Montgomery County, KY, the 1803 will of William Hart granted freedom to his slaves when they turned 30 years old, along with all of their children, should they have any. The slaves freed by his will were Alsy, Lucy, Anna, Selina, and Turner. Lucy turned 30 in 1825 when her daughter Fanny Ann was 10 years old. William Hart's heir interpreted the will to mean that Lucy was free, but Fanny Ann would not be free until she turned 30. Fanny Ann filed suit in the Montgomery Circuit Court and was granted her freedom in accordance with the terms of William Hart's will. The Hart heir appealed the decision to the Court of Appeals of Kentucky where the lower court's judgment was affirmed with costs on October 22, 1827. The point of contingency in the case was the word "with" and whether it denoted connection to. The courts were asked to determine whether, when a slave is promised freedom, the slave's children also should be freed at the same time. For more see Hart v. Fanny Ann, Court of Appeals of Kentucky, 22 Ky. 49; 1827 Ky.; and "Hart v. Fanny Ann" in A Practical Treatise on the Law of Slavery, by J. D. Wheeler [full-text in Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Montgomery County, Kentucky

Harvey, Henry
Birth Year : 1820
Henry Harvey, born around 1820 in Kentucky, was an ornamental painter in Ironton and Springfield, OH, he was one of the early African American artist in Ohio. He was the husband of Rebecca Harvey (b.1827 in NC). The couple was probably free (not slaves) and are listed in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census as a Mulattoes. For more see the Henry Harvey entry in Artists in Ohio, 1787-1900 by M. S. Haverstock et. al.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Migration North
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Springfield and Ironton, Ohio

Harvey, Wardelle G., Sr.
Birth Year : 1926
Wardell G. Harvey, Sr. was born in Booneville, IN, and is a graduate of Tri-State Baptist College. He came to Kentucky in 1962 to pastor at the Harrison Street Baptist Church in Paducah. In 1968, Rev. Harvey became the first African American to be appointed to the Paducah City Commission. He was also the first African American on the Paducah Housing Board and was mayor pro tem. Rev. Harvey was a Civil Rights activist, developing the Non-Partisan League in Paducah to push for the desegregation of public accommodations. For more see "Nine Blacks on City Councils, One Prosecuting Attorney," Human Rights News, January-February 1969; and Not without struggle, by J. B. Horton.

 

Access Interview Read the transcript to the Rev. Wardelle Harvey oral history interview by Betty Brinson, 08/16/2000, at the Kentucky Historical Society, Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Kentucky African American Churches, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies
Geographic Region: Booneville, Indiana / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Haskin, Vera A. Harrison
Birth Year : 1919
Death Year : 2005
Vera Harrison [Haskin] was an officer over the unit of African American WACs at Fort Knox, KY, in 1945. She had been a member of the first WAACs Officer Cadet School at Ft. Des Moins, IA in 1942 and was a member of the advance group of WAACs at Fort Huachuca, AZ. She was executive officer of the old 33rd Post Headquarters Company. At Fort Knox, KY, Harrison was Company Commander, and in England and France, she was Commanding Officer of Company C, and Central Postal Director, Company C. In England, the WACs who had been at Fort Knox became a part of the 6888 Postal Unit, the only African American women's military unit to go overseas during WWII. Vera A. Harrison was born in 1919 in Sadieville, KY, the daughter of Anna M. and Bradley Harrison. In 1930, the family of six lived in Hamilton, OH, on Wallace Street [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Bradley Harrison supported his family as a laborer at a foundry. Vera Harrison enlisted at Fort Hayes on July 18, 1942, according to her enlistment record. She was a graduate of a four year college and was employed as a secretary. Photos and additional information on Vera Harrison Haskin are available at the National Association of Black Military Women website. For more see "WAC overseas postal unit does good job in handling mail," New York Amsterdam News, 05/05/1945, p.8A. For information on earlier WAC unit in Kentucky see Myrtle D. Anderson and Margaret E. B. Jones entries in the NKAA Database.

Vera Haskin at the National Association of Black Military Women website.
Subjects: Migration North, Military & Veterans, Women's Groups and Organizations, Women's Army Corps (WACs)
Geographic Region: Sadieville, Scott County, Kentucky / Hamilton, Ohio / Fort Knox, Bullitt, Hardin, & Meade Counties, Kentucky

Haskins, Clem S.
Birth Year : 1943
Clem Haskins was born in Campbellsville, KY. The 6'3" Haskins was the first African American student at Taylor County High School and led the school's basketball team to the state tournament. He attended college at Western Kentucky University, where he also played basketball and was named All-American three years running. His team went to the NCAA tournament in 1966. Haskins went on to play in the NBA; he was selected by the Chicago Bulls in the 1966 draft. At the end of his professional basketball career, he returned to Western Kentucky University in 1977 and became the school's first African American head basketball coach in 1980. In 1986 he became the head coach at the University of Minnesota, leaving the school in the wake of academic scandal in 1999. He is author of Clem Haskins: Breaking Barriers. Haskins is the brother of Merion Haskins and the husband of Yevette Haskins. For more see Western Kentucky University 1991 Hall of Fame Inductees; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1992-2006.

See photo image and additional information about Clem Haskins at ESPN website article by D. O'Neil, "Clem Haskins at home away from hoops on his Kentucky farm."


Access Interview Read about the Clem Haskins oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.
 
Subjects: Authors, Basketball
Geographic Region: Campbellsville, Taylor County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Minnesota

Haskins, Harriet Yevette Penick
Yevette Haskins, from Campbellsville, KY, attended Kentucky State University. In 1983, she became the first African American to be elected to the Warren County Board of Education (Bowling Green, KY). In 2004, she was appointed to the Board of Regents at Kentucky State University. Haskins was also chair of the African American Heritage Trail Task Force and a member of the Board of Directors of the Lake Cumberland Area Development District. She is the wife of Clem Haskins. Information provided by Kipley D. Carr; see also Yvette Haskins in the Kentucky government press release "Governor Ernie Fletcher announces appointments to the state university boards," 06/30/2004.

 

Access Interview Read the transcript and listen to the oral history interview of Yvette Haskins by Lynne Ferguson, 01/30/2006, at the Kentucky Historical Society.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Campbellsville, Taylor County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Haskins, Merion
Birth Year : 1955
Merion Haskins was born in Campbellsville, KY. The 6'4" forward played high school basketball at Taylor County High School; he ranks fifth among its all-time leading scorers with 1,761 points. Haskins played college ball for the University of Kentucky (UK) from 1973 to 1977, playing in a total of 86 games and scoring 134 points. Haskins and Larry Johnson were the second and third African American players recruited by UK's Coach Joe B. Hall; they were two of the earliest African American recruits to the UK basketball team. Haskins, a UK College of Agriculture graduate, did not play professional basketball; he was employed as a leaf procurement officer with Philip Morris USA. He is the brother of Clem Haskins. For more see Merion Haskins in  "Gumm, Cards back in groove with 74-50 romp at Knox," Central Kentucky News Journal, 03/01/2004; Merion Haskins on the Big Blue History website; and R. Weckman, "What a difference a generation makes" in the UK College of Agriculture's the magazine, Spring 2000.


Subjects: Agriculturalists, Produce, Basketball
Geographic Region: Campbellsville, Taylor County, Kentucky

Haskins, Ovan
Birth Year : 1895
Death Year : 1986
In 1948, Ovan Haskins purchased land on Newtown Pike in Lexington, KY, for the development of the city's first African American subdivision. The subdivision, approved in 1949, was financed with private capital. The construction of homes began in 1950, and the subdivision was located on a single street named Haskins Drive [a dead end street]. There were to be 26 homes; all but four of the 55'x95' lots had been sold by August 1950. Ovan Haskins was born in Lexington, KY; he was an insurance supervisor and manager and a real estate broker. As a member of the Blue Grass Athletic Club, he helped found the Lexington Hustlers baseball team. He also helped found the Second Street YMCA in Lexington and served with the Lexington Human Rights Commission. A picture of one of the newly constructed homes on Haskins Drive is on p. 74 in Lexington, Kentucky, by G. Smith. The Ovan Haskins Oral History interview is available at the UK Libraries' Special Collections as part of the Blacks in Lexington Oral History Project. For more see J. Hewlett, "Former developer Ovan Haskins dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, 07/23/1986, p. B11; "New subdivision for Negroes," Herald-Leader, 05/13/1951, p. 47; and the following articles from the Lexington Leader: "Haskins subdivision groundbreaking," 05/19/1950, p. 25; "Construction started in Haskins addition," 08/07/1950, p. 14; and "Negro subdivision off Newtown Pike begins," 08/22/1950, p. 13.

Access Interview Read about the Ovan Haskins oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.
 
Subjects: Baseball, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments, YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hatcher, E. Porter, Jr.
Birth Year : 1936
Hatcher was an insurance agent and real estate broker. He was elected to the Kentucky General Assembly, serving from 1978-1999, representing the 43rd District (Jefferson County). He is one of the few African Americans to garner consecutive re-elections. Hatcher resigned his seat in 1999 and pleaded guilty to insurance fraud. A special election was held and Hatcher was replaced by Louisville 12th Ward Alderman Paul Bather. For more information, contact the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission and see "Editorial: Hatcher's Resignation," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 12/05/1999.
Subjects: Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators, Kentucky, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hatcher, Emma
Hatcher came to Kentucky from Sonora, Mexico, as a young child. She had been known as Ogarita Honrodez, but her name was changed sometime after she was orphaned and raised by an African American woman in Louisville, KY. In 1887, as a teenager, she made her stage debut as a reader. Hatcher went on to appear in a number of plays, including her own play, Lizette. An article in the New York Age newspaper predicted that she would go far in her acting career, but her name soon disappeared from the records. For more see A History of African American Theatre, by E. Hill.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Orphans and Orphanages in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hatchett, Hilary R., Jr.
Birth Year : 1918
Death Year : 1985
Hilary Rice Hatchett was born in Lexington, KY. His mother had died by 1930, and his father, Hilary Sr., was raising his three sons and worked as a porter at a transfer station in Lexington. Hilary Jr., the oldest of the three boys, would go on to study at the Julliard School of Music [now The Julliard School], then was the director of the Negro soldier chorus, a concert band, and an opera theater during World War II in Sicily (1943). Hatchett earned his master's degree, for which he wrote his thesis, A Study of Current Attitudes Toward the Negro Spiritual with a Classification of 500 Spirituals Based on Their Religious Content, in 1946 at Ohio State University. Hatchett was next the superintendent of music for the Colored schools in Greenville, SC, 1946-1948, and acting chair of the Department of Fine Arts at Savannah State College [now Savannah State University] beginning in 1948. He co-authored the Savannah State College Hymn. Hilary R. Hatchett died July 5, 1985, and is buried in Long Island National Cemetery in New York, according to the U.S. Veterans Gravesites listing. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; and Savannah State College Hymn.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Migration South
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Greenville, South Carolina / Savannah, Georgia / Long Island, New York

Hathaway, Isaac S.
Birth Year : 1872
Death Year : 1967
Isaac S. Hathaway was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Robert Elijah Hathaway and Rachel Scott Hathaway. His father, Robert E. Hathaway, had been a slave of Garret Davis, a U.S. Senator from Bourbon County. Isaac S. Hathaway was a sculptor; the Booker T. Washington and Carver Washington half dollars were designed by Hathaway, the first African American to design a U.S. coin. He constructed a model for the Wayne suicide case in 1904 and made reproductions for the Smithsonian Institute of the Bath-Furnace meteorite that fell in Sharpsburg, KY, in 1904. He was the first African American to be shown in a movie newsreel working professionally. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; and Isaac Hathaway, a pioneer in sculptor! a website by The African American Registry. See also the NKAA entry for the Isaac Scott Hathaway Museum in Lexington, KY.

  See photo image of Isaac S. Hathaway within Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Sculptors, Movies and Films, Suicide
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hathaway, James S.
Birth Year : 1862
Death Year : 1930
James S. Hathaway was born in Mt. Sterling, KY, the son of Lewis and Ann Hathaway. He was the husband of Celia Hathaway. James Hathaway was a teacher in Kentucky schools. He organized and established The Standard Printing and Publishing Company in Lexington. He taught at Berea College for ten years, then later became the 3rd president of Kentucky State Institute for Negroes [now Kentucky State University] in 1902. Hathaway had also been president of the State Association of Colored Teachers [renamed Kentucky Negro Educational Association], 1889-1890. He was the principal of Richmond High School in Richmond, KY, when he died in 1930. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson; and Office of the President Records (Kentucky State University) in the the Kentucky Digital Library.


See photo image of James S. Hathaway at the New York Public Library Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Mt. Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Berea and Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Hathaway, John [Hathaway v Commonwealth]
Death Year : 1905
John Hathaway had 79 wins in 1889, he was remembered as a prominent jockey by newspapers around the country when he was hanged in Winchester, KY, for the shooting death of his girlfriend, Etta Thomas. The couple had lived together in Jackson, KY, prior to the day that Thomas left Hathaway and moved to Winchester. She lived at a brothel managed by Alice Bean. In January 1904, Hathaway went to Winchester to retrieve Thomas, and when she refused to return to Jackson with him, he shot her several times. Hathaway was convicted of murder and sentenced to death, but the case was appealed on the assignments of error and was heard by the Kentucky Appeals Court, where the judgment was affirmed. Hathaway was scheduled to hang on January 3, 1905, on an historic traveling scaffold. Hathaway's mother fell unconscious when he was hung and never recovered, she died a few days later. Though, there is a second article that says she died a few months later. John Hathaway was thought to be the first famous jockey to be hanged. For more see "Hathaway v Commonwealth," Kentucky Law Reporter, vol. 26 (July 1904/Jan. 1905), pp. 630-634 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; "Historic scaffold," Lexington Herald, 12/21/1904, p. 5; "She never recovered," Breathitt County News, 01/13/1905, p.1; "John Hathaway...," in the column "Interesting news notes" in the Cleveland Gazette, 01/07/1905, p.2; and "Mary Hathaway, an old colored lady,..." Breathitt County News, 05/05/1905, p.3.

 
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Jackson, Breathitt County, Kentucky / Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky

Hathaway, Quinella Watson
Birth Year : 1899
Death Year : 2000
Hathaway was born in Kentucky, the daughter of Thomas and Helen J. Watson. Her family moved to Indiana, Chicago, and then Maywood, IL, in 1907. She was the only African American student in both her elementary and high school graduating classes; the Watson Family was among the first African American families to live in Maywood. Hathaway was also one of the first African American students at the Art Institute of Chicago. Her husband, Walter Hathaway, was the first trustee in Maywood. Quinella W. Hathaway was the grandmother of Glenn "Doc" Rivers, former NBA basketball player and coach of the 2008 NBA champions, the Boston Celtics. For more see L. Roche, "Living legend hits 100," Maywood Herald, 06/16/1999, Local News section, p. 8; and the "Ruth L. Sampson" obituary in the Maywood Herald, 03/23/2005, news section, p. 69.
Subjects: Migration North, 1st African American Families in Town, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Maywood, Illinois

Hattie Winston African American Scripts and Screenplays Collection
Start Year : 1998
The Hattie Winston Collection contains scripts and screenplays written mostly by African American writers. Many are unpublished, collected over the course of Hattie Winston's career and donated to the University of Louisville (U of L). Winston is an actress and producer who established the collection in 1998 to support the work of Lundeanna Thomas and the African American Theatre Program at the University of Louisville. One of Winston's many television roles was that of nurse Margaret on Becker (1998-2004). The Hattie Winston collection is available at the U of L Libraries' Special Collections. See Hattie Winston Biography at the HistoryMakers website.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hawkins, William L.
Birth Year : 1895
Death Year : 1990
Hawkins was born on a farm near Lexington, KY, and reared by his maternal grandmother, Mary Scudder. As a young man, he was a trapper and horse trainer, but when his girlfriend became pregnant he was sent to live in Ohio. He began to paint when he was 80 years old, using materials that came from junk piles and throwaway material at construction sites in his artwork. Hawkins also collected photographs that he used in his work. One of his signature techniques was to paint a frame around his work that included his name and the place and date of his birth. For more see Souls Grown Deep: African American vernacular art of the South, vol. 1, by P. Arnett and W. Arnett.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Ohio

Hayden, Anderson "Andrew" and Anna David Hayden
Anderson Hayden (1852-1911) was a former slave who owned a blacksmith business and real estate in Cynthiana, KY. Fairly well-off, he lived in a white neighborhood. Hayden's first name is given as Anderson in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census. He was born in Bourbon County, KY, the son of Anderson Hayden and Cynthia Sherman, according to his death certificate. He was the husband of Anna David Hayden (1855-1948) who was born in Harrison County, KY, the daughter of Baldwin David and Hannah Stauff, according to her death certificate. Anderson Hayden was in an asylum in Lexington, KY when he died in 1911, and his wife Anna died in Harrison County, KY. For more see Evidences of Progress Among Colored People, by G. F. Richings.
Subjects: Businesses, Blacksmiths, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky / Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hayden, John Carleton
Birth Year : 1933
Born in Bowling Green, KY, John C. Hayden has been a clergyman, activist, educator, and historian. He is the son of Otis Roosevelt and Gladys Gatewood Hayden. He is a 1955 graduate of Wayne State University (BA); a 1962 graduate of the University of Detroit [at Mercy] (MA); a 1972 graduate of Howard University (PhD); and a 1991 graduate of the College of Emmanuel (MDiv). In the 1970s, he was an activist for African Americans and social issues. Hayden has taught at several schools, including as a history professor at Howard University and a lecturer at Montgomery College. He has written extensively on African American church history and is the author of Struggle, Strife, and Salvation, the Role of Blacks in the Episcopal Church and a co-author of Black American Heritage through United States Postage Stamps. For more see Who's Who in the World (2001); and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-2006.

See photo image and additional information about John Carleton Hayden at The Archives of the Episcopal Church website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Education and Educators, Historians, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Hayden, Lewis [Grant]
Birth Year : 1815
Death Year : 1889
Lewis Hayden was born into slavery in Lexington, KY; his name at birth was Lewis Grant. He escaped and left Kentucky with the help of abolitionists Calvin Fairbank and Delia Webster. On January 4, 1845, Webster received a sentence of two years hard labor for her part in the escape; she was pardoned on February 24, 1845. Also during February, Fairbank was sentenced to 15 years. Hayden, who had relocated to Canada, changed his name from Lewis Grant to Lewis Hayden. The Hayden family soon returned to the U.S. Lewis, an abolitionist, worked with his wife, Harriet, to challenge racial segregation on railroads in Massachusetts and provide for runaway slaves passing through Boston. Lewis also gained some degree of wealth and raised $650 to purchase his freedom and to help Fairbank get out of prison. Fairbank was pardoned on August 23, 1849. Lewis Hayden was elected to the Massachusetts Legislature in 1873, which was seven years after the state's first African American Legislators Charles Lewis Mitchell and Edward Garrison Walker. For more see Black Bostonians, by J. O. Horton and L. E. Horton; Dictionary of American Negro Biography, by R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston; and Delia Webster and the Underground Railroad, by R. P. Runyon.

See image of Lewis Hayden at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Freedom, Migration North, Legislators (Outside Kentucky), Railroad, Railway, Trains, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Canada / Boston, Massachusetts

Hayden, Shirley M.
Birth Year : 1960
Shirley M. Hayden was born in Lexington, KY, and grew up in Maddoxtown, KY, one of 13 children of the late Elmo and Joann Buckner Hayden. Shirley is the author of the 1995 novel, I Tell on Stephen Foster, and her most recent novel, The Women of Nelson, which emphasizes the treatment of the families, African American women and children, who accompanied the U.S. Colored soldiers to Camp Nelson, KY, during the Civil War. A screenplay is being written based on the book. Hayden is also a poet with many published works, including It's My Poetry and I'll Cry if I Want To. Hayden is a graduate of the University of Kentucky and has received writing residencies through the Kentucky Arts Council and the Kentucky Foundation for Women. She spends half her time in Kentucky and half in the hills of North Carolina. For more see M. Davis, "A footnote of history becomes a novel,"Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/05/2008, Health Family section, p. D1.
Subjects: Authors, Poets
Geographic Region: Lexington, Maddoxtown, Fayette County, Kentucky / North Carolina

Hayes, Charles Marion, Sr.
Birth Year : 1889
Death Year : 1970
Charles M. Hayes, Sr., from Springfield, KY, was a founder of the Gibraltar Health and Accident Insurance Company in Indianapolis, IN. He was the first president and actuary of the company. Hayes had worked in insurance in Kentucky; in 1917, he was superintendent of the Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company in Hopkinsville, KY [source: Hayes' WWI Draft Registration Card]. He had also served as Dean of West Kentucky Industrial College (now West Kentucky Community and Technical College). Hayes was a WWI veteran, having served with the 92nd Division in France as part of the A. E. F. (American Expeditionary Forces). He had been commissioned a 2nd Lieutenant at the first Officers Training School at Fort Des Moins, IA. After an honorable discharge from the service, Hayes and his wife moved to Cincinnati, OH, and Hayes was employed as an insurance superintendent [source: 1920 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1924, the couple had moved to Indianapolis, and Charles M. Hayes, Sr. was president of the Gibraltar Insurance Company when he sailed to France and Great Britain on business [source: Hayes' U.S. Passport Application, July 2, 1924]. By 1930, the Hayes family members were Charles M. Hayes, Sr., his wife, and son, and they lived on Capitol Avenue in Indianapolis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1940 until his retirement in 1957, Hayes was employed as an interviewer in the U.S. Employment Service and Indiana Employment Security Division. The service division was often accused of segregated and discriminatory hiring practices. Charles M. Hayes attempted to explain the agencies hiring procedures in the Indianapolis newspapers. Hayes was also a member of the NAACP Indianapolis Branch. He was a graduate of Lincoln University (PA) and did graduate work at Columbia University and Indiana University. He was the son of William T. Hayes, and the husband of Eunice M. Hayes (1894-1966) from Hopkinsville, KY. Eunice Hayes was a graduate of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] and had taught school in Hopkinsville. For more see "Charles M. Hayes, Sr.," Indianapolis Recorder, 08/29/1970, p.6; "Eunice M. Hayes," Indianapolis Recorder, 06/25/1966, p.3; "Charles M. Hayes" in W. A. Chambers' column titled "Some People" Say - - In Our Town," Indianapolis Recorder, 01/04/1958, p.2; C. M. Hayes, "Local hiring technique explained by USES aide," Indianapolis Recorder, 07/07/1945, pp.18 & 19 [photo image of Charles M. Hayes included in article]; and "Segregated U.S. Employment Office plans, generally denied by all officials," Indianapolis Recorder, 08/28/1943, pp.1 &3.
Subjects: Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Education and Educators, Employment Services, Migration North, Military & Veterans, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Geographic Region: Springfield, Nelson County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Hayes, Clifford
Birth Year : 1895
Death Year : 1957
Born in Glasgow, KY, Clifford Hayes was one of four sons. Hayes, who played the fiddle, joined the Earl McDonald Jug Band in Louisville, the city where jug bands originated. After a disagreement in 1919, Hayes formed his own band and played in a few sessions with Sarah Martin. Some of his recordings can still be found listed under Clifford Hayes and the Louisville Jug Bands. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber, and That Crazy Jug Band Sound. View image and listen to Clifford Hayes' Louisville Stompers - Frog Hop (1929) on YouTube.

Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky

Hayes, Edgar J.
Birth Year : 1904
Death Year : 1979
Edgar J. Hayes was born in Lexington, KY. A pianist who worked with many bands, he was known for his tinkling interpretations of the songs Star Dust and In the Mood. Hayes was a graduate of Wilberforce University. For more see Baker's Biographical Dictionary of Musicians, 9th ed., edited by L. Kuhn; and The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz, 2nd ed., edited by B. Kernfeld.


View Edgar J. Hayes photo image and notice "Alhambra Theatre's Orchestra Leader" in New York Public Library Digital Gallery.
View image and listen to In the Mood by Edgar Hayes 1938 - Hoppin'! on YouTube.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hayes, Edythe J.
Birth Year : 1933
Death Year : 1999
Edythe J. Hayes, born in Selma, AL, began teaching in the Lexington, KY, Carver Elementary School in 1953; she later became a principal and earned promotions to the rank of Deputy Superintendent of Fayette County Schools, the first African American at that post. She was also the first African American woman on the University of Kentucky Board of Trustees. Hayes retired in 1996. The Edith J. Hayes Middle School was completed in 2004. For more see the Lexington Herald-Leader articles, J. Hewlett, "Edythe Jones Hayes 1933-1999." 02/24/99, City&Region, p. B1, and L. Deffendall, "Fayette County breaks ground on Edythe J. Hayes Middle School," 03/25/03, City&Region section, p. B3.

 Access InterviewRead about the Edythe J. Hayes oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database. 
 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Selma, Alabama / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Heath, Andrew
Birth Year : 1832
Death Year : 1887
Andrew Heath was a slave born in Henderson County, KY. He had become an ordained minister in 1867 and was an assistant pastor. Heath became a free man, and after the death of Rev. Henry Adams, he was named pastor at Fifth Street Baptist Church in Louisville, KY. Heath was also a member of the first Baptist Convention held in Kentucky and served in several leadership capacities with the General Association. He is said to have baptized 1,500 persons. Heath was well respected among the Baptists; thousands of people paid their respects when he died in 1887. For more see the Andrew Heath entries in the Afro-American Encyclopedia; and in Men of Mark, by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner.

See photo image of Rev. Andrew Heath at the New York Public Library Digital Library.
Subjects: Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Helm, Carl "Kingfish"
Birth Year : 1926
Death Year : 2001
From Horse Cave, KY, Helm played guard for the Harlem Globetrotters (1948-1955). He received the Globetrotters' distinguished Legend Award. After his basketball career, Helm worked in maintenance and security at the Ashland Oil refinery in Catlettsburg. For more see "Ex-Horse Cave Standout Legendary Globetrotter 'Kingfish' Helped Harlem Conquer Lakers," Lexington Herald Leader, 02/20/2001.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Horse Cave, Hart County, Kentucky / Catlettsburg, Boyd County, Kentucky

Helm, Marlene
Birth Year : 1950
Marlene Helm was the first African American school superintendent in Kentucky, presiding over the Shelby County schools. (The exception is Jefferson County, where two African American superintendents each served three months.) Helm was acting superintendent in Fayette County, KY, in 2004. She had been the Secretary of the Education, Arts and Humanities Council under Governor Patton. For more see "Interim leader for schools is selected, Black woman is first ever to hold post in Kentucky," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/18/04, p. A1; and "Governor appoints two Cabinet Secretaries," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/11/99 p. B1.

See photo image and additional information about Marlene Helm at the UK Alumni Association website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Shelby County, Kentucky

Hemphill, Beatrice
Birth Year : 1898
Hemphill, whose father was from Owen County and whose mother was from Louisville, came to Hodgenville, KY, to direct and play the organ at the Baptist and Methodist churches. She composed a number of songs, anthems and solos, including He Never Will Leave Me Alone. For more see Who's Who in Colored America (1950).
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Owen County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Hodgenville, Larue County, Kentucky

Henderson, Angelo B.
Birth Year : 1962
Death Year : 2014
Angelo B. Henderson was born in Louisville, KY.  He is a 1985 graduate of the University of Kentucky School of Journalism. He received the 1995 Pulitzer Prize for distinguished feature writing for "Crime Story," which featured the lives of those affected by an attempted robbery and the death of the robber; Henderson was the deputy Detroit bureau chief at the Wall Street Journal. He has received a number of other awards, including the National Association of Black Journalists Award for outstanding coverage of the African American condition. He was inducted into the University of Kentucky Hall of Distinguished Alumni in 2005. The previous year, Henderson became the associate pastor at Hope United Methodist Church in Southfield, Michigan. He also became associate editor of Real Times LLC, the nation's largest African-American newspaper chain. Angelo B. Henderson died February of 2014. For more see Angelo Ink, Henderson's media consulting firm; Angelo Henderson in the History Makers website; and Who's Who Among African Americans, vols. 8-18.

See the video "Detroit 2020 Person of the week Angelo Henderson" on YouTube.

 
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Detroit and Southfield, Michigan

Henderson Colored Branch Library (Henderson County, KY)
Start Year : 1904
End Year : 1954
In 1904, Henderson Carnegie Public Library built the first library structure for African Americans in the United States. The library, a room built onto the back of the Eighth Street Colored School, held 100 books on the seven shelves constructed by J. B. Williams and H. J. Renn. The library was built without the permission of the Carnegie Corporation, resulting in the Henderson Public Library being put on the Carnegie default list. The branch was merged into the main library in 1954. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Colored Public Libraries in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky

Henderson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Henderson County, established in 1798 from a portion of Christian County, is located in western Kentucky, bordered by the Ohio River and four counties. It is named for Richard Henderson, a lawyer and judge from Virginia and founder of the Transylvania Company. The company purchased millions of acres of land (in Kentucky and Tennessee) from the Native Americans, which was in violation of the Royal Proclamation of 1763; therefore the sale was void. In compensation for their losses, the Virginia House of Delegates gave the Transylvania Company members 200,000 acres of land on the Ohio River (present day Henderson County, KY). The settlement of Red Banks would later become the county seat named Henderson. The 1800 county population was 1,468, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 1,076 whites, 390 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Henderson County. By 1860, the population was 8,495, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 677 slave owners
  • 3,988 Black slaves
  • 407 Mulatto slaves
  • 53 free Blacks [many with the last name Pointer]
  • 68 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Hamilton, Drew, Fisher, and Bradley]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 993 slave owners
  • 5,046 Black slaves
  • 726 Mulatto slaves
  • 38 free Blacks [many with the last names Painter and Fisher]
  • 37 free Mulattoes [many with the last names Painter, Fisher, and Piner]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 4,526 Blacks
  • 1,478 Mulattoes
  • About 168 U.S. Colored Soldiers listed Henderson County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Henderson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling [available at Google Book Search]; The Annals and Scandals of Henderson County, Kentucky, 1775-1995, by M. Arnett; and Henderson Kentucky Black Births of the City, 1896-1910, by the Henderson County Historical Society.
  See photo images of Colored School at Anthoston, Henderson County, KY, 1916, at Library of Congress.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky

Henderson, Dennis
Birth Year : 1896
Death Year : 1979
Henderson was born in Mississippi, the son of A. H. and Rosa A. Henderson, according to the 1910 U.S. Federal Census. Dennis Henderson was a graduate of Talladega College and received his law degree from Howard University. He was a partner of the Ray and Henderson Agency. In 1927 he married Edna E. Ridgley. Henderson, a Republican, was elected Representative of the 42nd District (Louisville) in 1948, the second African American elected to the Kentucky General Assembly. He served one term. For more information contact the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Mississippi / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Henderson, Edmonia
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1947
Born Jennie Katherine Edmonia Henderson, she became a blues singer and later an evangelist. She sang with Jelly Roll Morton, Tommy Ladnier, and Johnny Dobbs. By 1928 she was teaching and giving gospel concerts at the Griffith Conservatory of Music in Louisville. By 1932 she had married and become Reverend Edmonia Buckner. For more see Katherine B. Johnson at the University of Louisville University Archives and Records Center; and A Guide to the Blues. History, who's who, research sources, by A. Sonnier, Jr. 

See images and listen to Edmonia Henderson Jelly Roll Blues (1924) on YouTube.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Henderson, Erskine
Birth Year : 1864
Death Year : 1913
Erskine Henderson is the only jockey to win three derbies in one year: the Kentucky Derby, the Tennessee Derby, and the Coney Island (New York) Derby, all in 1885 aboard Joe Cotton. For more see p. 114 of SCLC: The Southern Leadership Conference National Magazine, vol. 23, issue 4 (Aug-Oct, 1994); and the "Erskine 'Babe' Henderson" entry on Africa-Americans in the Thoroughbred Industry website, by the Paris-Bourbon County Public Library.

*Additional information provided by Yvonne Giles, "The register wrote his name as "Earthshins Henison" with a death date of 25 Nov 1913, burial in Versailles, KY certificate # 30819."
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Henderson, Louis B.
Birth Year : 1904
Born in Maysville, KY, Henderson grew up in Springfield, Ohio. He was a chemical engineering graduate from Case Institute of Technology [now Case Western Reserve University]. He had been employed in West Virginia at the Weirton Steel Company in the metallurgical department and later moved to Stubenville, Ohio. Henderson was a life-long Mason and in 1952 was awarded 33rd Degree by the United Supreme Council. In 1955 he was Grand Master. For more see Chapter 16 of The History of Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Free and Accpeted Masons of the State of Ohio, 1849-1960 by C. H. Wesley.
Subjects: Engineers, Migration North, Migration East, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Maysville, Mason County, Kentucky / Weirton, West Virginia / Stubenville, Ohio

Henderson, Rosa "Rose"
Birth Year : 1896
Death Year : 1968
Born Rosa Deschamps in Henderson, KY, she left home to work in her uncle's carnival show and later joined Douglas "Slim" Henderson on the vaudeville circuit; they married in 1918. Rosa Henderson appeared in musical comedies in New York and England in the 1920s. A vaudeville blues singer, she made recordings from 1923 to 1932 under many different names. For more see Blues Who's Who, by S. Harris. View image and listen to He May Be Your Dog But He's Wearing My Collar by Rosa Henderson on YouTube.

Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / New York / England, Europe

Henry County Birth Records
Start Year : 1852
A compilation of the 1852 births in Henry County, KY, are located at the kykinfolk.com website, and includes the names of slaves, mulattoes, and Blacks. The registered births were recorded in the Henry County Clerks Office.
Subjects: Genealogy, History
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky

Henry County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Henry County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed from a portion of Shelby County in 1798. It is named for Patrick Henry, who was Governor of Virginia, a Revolutionary War patriot, and considered by some as a founding father of the U.S. The Henry County seat is New Castle, founded in 1798; the origin of the name is unknown. The county population was 3,258 in 1800, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 2,848 whites, 406 slaves, and 4 free coloreds. The population increased to 8,638 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 676 slave owners
  • 2,754 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 21 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 752 slave owners
  • 2,555 Black slaves
  • 750 Mulatto slaves
  • 26 free Blacks [most with last names Adams or Mastason]
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 2,121 Blacks
  • 295 Mulattoes
  • About 201 U.S. Colored Troops listed Henry County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Henry County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Henry County, Kentucky, by M. J. Drane; Henry County, Kentucky, 1798-1995, by the Henry County Historical Society; Henry County Public Library Oral History Collection, by the Henry County Public Library (Eminence, KY); and Who's Who Among African Americans of Henry County, by the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission and First Baptist Church (Eminence, KY).
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky

Henry, Ragan A.
Birth Year : 1934
Death Year : 2008
Henry was born in Sadieville, KY, the son of Augustus and Ruby Henry. He was an African American pioneer in radio and television station ownership. In 1993, the Regan Henry Group was responsible for 26 owned and leased radio stations. Henry published The National Leadership newspaper, then, in 1989, became president of Broadcast Enterprises National, Inc. He was a partner of the law firm Wolf, Black, Schorr, and Solis-Cohen. Henry spent much of his life in Philadelphia, PA. He earned an A.B. degree at Harvard College in 1956 and an L.L.B. from Harvard Law School in 1961. He was also a veteran of the U.S. Army. For more see The Negro Almanac, 4th-9th eds.; Who's Who in Entertainment; and J. A. Gambardello, "A Pioneering media mogul and lawyer," The Philadelphia Inquirer, 08/08/2008, Obituaries section, p.A01.
Subjects: Businesses, Lawyers, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Radio, Television
Geographic Region: Sadieville, Scott County, Kentucky / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Henryville (Nicholas County, KY)
Henryville has been referred to as a "Negro Settlement" and a "Shacky Village." The community probably existed prior to 1879 when Henryville and its residents were not included within the city limit boundaries of Carlisle for political and corporation reasons and so as not to taint the census count. In an 1898/99 State Board of Health report, Henryville was said to be on the north side of the county, along KY 32, between the community of Stoney Creek and the town of Carlisle. Nicholas County had been hit with an outbreak of yellow chicken pox, and there was to be a house-to-house inspection in order to vaccinate everyone, revaccinating if necessary. Guards were placed on the roads leading into the communities in order to contain the spread of the disease by travelers. In 1930, about 250 people lived in Henryville, which still had no running water. A brief description of the community is given on p. 27 of The GI Generation, by F. F. Mathias; see also the health report of B. W. Smock, Health Inspector, in the Biennial Report of the State Board of Health of Kentucky 1898/99, pp. 148-149 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; and Acts Passed at the...Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth of Kentucky volume II, 1880, p. 1098 [available full-text at Google Book Search]. Both Fishers Station and Henryville are discussed in the interviews completed for the Nicholas County Memorial Library Oral History Collection, 1976-1986.

See Henryville School submitted by L. D. Jackson at the rootsweb website.
Subjects: Communities
Geographic Region: Henryville, Nicholas County, Kentucky

Hensley, Peter Lee
Birth Year : 1858
Death Year : 1926
Peter L. Hensley was born in Mt. Sterling, KY, he had been a slave, the son of Howard and Margaret Magowan Hensley. He owned and bred trotters, owned a grocery store and restaurant when he was 19 years old, and later owned the Yellow Rose Farm in Montgomery County, KY. Two of his winning horses were Temple Bar (who won 24 out of 25 races) and Alcyo (who won 17 consecutive races). Peter Hensley was also president of the Montgomery County Colored Fair Association. Peter Hensley's family was owned by the Magowan Family during slavery. For more see Peter Hensley on p. 392 in The WPA Guide to Kentucky, by F. K. Simon; P. W. L. Jones, "The Greatest Negro harness horse owner," Crisis, Sept. 1937, pp.266, 284-285 [online with picture at Google Book Search]; and the following articles in The Mt. Sterling Advocate: "Alcyo and Temple Bar," 04/18/1906, p. 2, and "Home of Alcyo and Temple Bar," 05/09/1906, p. 3 [picture with article].

See picture of Peter L. Hensley in Crisis, Sept. 1937, p.266.
Subjects: Businesses, Colored Fairs & Black Expos, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

Henson, Josiah
Birth Year : 1789
Death Year : 1883
Josiah Henson was brought to the Riley Plantation in Owensboro, KY, as a slave, he escaped to Canada and returned many times to lead his family and others to freedom. He spoke at abolition meetings. Henson is believed to have been portrayed as the Uncle Tom character in Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. For more see The Life of Josiah Henson, by J. Henson; and American Biographies, by W. Preston.

See photo image of Josiah Henson at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Freedom, Migration North
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Canada

Herndon, James "Sweet Evening Breeze"
Birth Year : 1892
Death Year : 1983
James Herndon, also known as "Sweet Evening Breeze," "Sweets," or "Breeze," is considered by some to be the originator of the Lexington drag scene, dressing in women's clothes in the 1940s and 50s when cross-dressing in public was very rare. He was generally well liked in the Lexington community and would participate in random acts of kindness, like baking cakes for people or giving poorer families shoes. Originally from Scott County, Herndon moved to Lexington as a child and then was abandoned at Good Samaritan Hospital by his uncle after he suffered an eye injury. After growing up in the hospital, he worked as an orderly for over forty years. He went to church regularly and loved church music. He enjoyed playing the piano, dressing up in women's clothes and makeup, and entertaining at his house on Prall Street, which he shared with his uncle Andrew Smith in 1920, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The last years of his life were spent at Homestead Nursing Center, and he is buried at Lexington Cemetery. James Herndon will be discussed in the documentary The Last of the Pagan Babies, a work-in-progress by Jean Donohue. For more see the 6 articles from 1983-2009 in the Lexington Herald-Leader and the 2001 thesis Hidden histories, proud communities: multiple narratives in the queer geographies of Lexington, Kentucky, 1930-1999 by Jeffrey Alan Jones. This entry was submitted by Marcia Rapchak.

 

 
Subjects: Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Cross Dressing, Dress in Drag
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Herod, Henry Louis and Elizabeth Frances
The Herods, Henry (1875-1935) and Elizabeth (1881-1953), were Kentucky natives: Elizabeth was born in Millersburg, and Henry may have been born there, also. The couple was married in 1899 and shared their home with Henry's 15 year old nephew, all living on W. 13th Street in Indianapolis, IN, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. Henry was pastor of Second Christian Church, later known as Light of the World Christian Church; he was pastor for 37 years, 1898-1935. He is credited with increasing the membership and developing educational and cultural importance among the church members and advancing community projects. He was Superintendent of the Indianapolis Flanner House from 1925-1935. He was a political leader in Indianapolis and served as secretary of the Interracial Committee of the Council of Social Agencies. Henry was a member of the First Alumni Chapter of Kappa Alpha Nu [see p. 46 of A History of the Washington (DC) Alumni Chapter 1911-1949  (.pdf format)]. Henry was a graduate of the University of Indianapolis, Butler College, Department of Liberal Arts and Culture [now Butler University]. Elizabeth was also active in the community, serving as secretary of the Indiana Federation of Colored Women's Clubs and as president of the Indianapolis Federation of Colored Women's Clubs. She was also active with the Indianapolis YWCA and was a delegate to the national convention in 1924. For more see the Elizabeth Herod entry in "Kentucky Biographical Sketches" in Lifting as They Climb, by E. L. Davis; and "Indianapolis Y.W. representative to Buenos Aires here," The Indianapolis Star, 06/07/1924, p. 7. See Henry Herod in the Indiana Medical Journal, 1902, vol. 21, issue 1, p. 527 [available at Google Book Search]; and Indiana Blacks in the Twentieth Century, by E. L. Thornbrough and L. Ruegamer.
Subjects: Welfare (Social Services) Organizations, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Fraternal Organizations, Women's Groups and Organizations, YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association), Association of Colored Women's Clubs
Geographic Region: Millersburg, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Hester, Billy
Born in Louisville, KY, Billy Hester was a middleweight boxer who won the Kentucky middleweight championship title in 1954. The fight took place in Louisville, KY, where Hester defeated George Wilson in a 12 round decision. He also defeated Australian middleweight champion Billy McDonnell in 1957 in Sidney, Australia. Hester's professional boxing career began in 1954 and ended in 1971. In October of 1971, a ten round fight was scheduled between Hester and Clarence Geiggar in Las Vegas, NV. Referee Ferd Hernandez called the fight due to a "no contest" because the fighters had not fought to the best of their abilities. The boxers' purses were held until an investigation was completed by the Nevada Athletic Commission. Hester's overall record was 25 wins (2 KOs), 5 loses (1 KO), and 2 draws. For more see the Billy Hester entry in the Afro-American Encyclopedia; "Hester outpoints McDonnell," New York Times, 07/02/1957, p. 22; "Fight results" in The Lima News, 10/07/1971, p. 29; "Boxing" in Oakland Tribune, 10/07/1971, p. 89; and Billy Hester at boxrec.com.
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Heth, Joice
Death Year : 1836
Joice Heth was supposedly a 161 year old African American woman, billed by P. T. Barnum as having been the nurse of George Washington when he was a baby. When her popularity started to fade, Barnum circulated the rumor that she was not human but rather an automaton made from various materials. After Heth's death in 1836, Barnum arranged a public autopsy - 50 cents admission - which proved that Heth was no more than 80 years old. Heth was actually a disabled slave who supposedly was brought to Paris, KY, by Mr. John S. Boling and later purchased by R. W. Linsday, who exhibited her around several states, including Kentucky, before selling her to Barnum. For more see The Showman and the slave, by B. Reiss.

See the handbill with an image of Joice Heth and additional information at the "Joice Heth Archive website at cuny.edu.
Subjects: Hoaxes
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Hickman, Carol
In 1971, Carol Hickman was the first woman to take the examination to join the Jefferson County Police Department. She was one of two women to pass the test and join the officer training class. She would become the first woman and the first African American to head a county police district. She was over A District in eastern Jefferson County. Hickman was named captain in 1984. She served on the police force for 30 years; she had started with the department as a clerk typist when she was 19 years old. Carol Hickman retired in 1998. For more see "Black History Month: Carol Hickman, Police Captain," Louisville Courier-Journal, 02/06/2008, News section, p.1B. For earlier history see NKAA entry African American Police Women (Louisville, KY).
Subjects: Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hickman County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hickman County, established in 1821, is located in the far southwestern tip of Kentucky in the Jackson Purchase region. It is bordered on the west by the Mississippi River, on the southern tip by the state of Tennessee, and on all other sides by three Kentucky counties. Wolfe Island is separated from the county by the Mississippi River and borders the state of Missouri. The county was named for Paschal Hickman, who was killed during the Battle of River Raisin. The settlement of Iron Banks became Columbus, which was the first county seat; the town was renamed for explorer Christopher Columbus. In 1830 the county seat was moved to the town of Clinton. The 1830 population was 690 [heads of households], according to the U.S. Federal Census, and increased to 5,758 by the year 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 234 slave owners
  • 653 Black slaves
  • 188 Mulatto slaves
  • 16 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [James Cousins and Frank Waide]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 322 slave owners
  • 938 Black slaves
  • 314 Mulatto slaves
  • 18 free Blacks [many with the last name Cromwell]
  • 1 free Mulatto [Wesley James]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,286 Blacks
  • 327 Mulattoes
  • About 63 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hickman County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Hickman County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Hickman County History, by the Hickman County Historical Society; Hickman County, Kentucky, Slaves and Black Vital Statistics, 1852-1906, 1907 and 1948, by E. Jewell and S. L. P. Morrison; and Hickman County Public Library Oral History Collection, Hickman County Public Library (Clinton, KY).
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Hickman County, Kentucky

Hickman, Willianna Lewis and Daniel
Scott County, KY natives and former slaves, Daniel (1841-1917) and Willianna Hickman left Kentucky with their six children, part of the 140 Exodusters heading to Nicodemus, Kansas. In her narrative about the trip, Willianna Hickman tells of a measles outbreak and how the families followed the trails made by deer and buffalo because there were no roads. When they arrived at Nicodemus, she was shocked to see that families were living in dugouts. The Hickman family continued on to their homestead, 14 miles beyond Nicodemus, to Hill City. Minister Daniel Hickman organized the First Baptist Church, the Second Baptist Church, and the WaKeeney Baptist Association. He was elected the first county coroner. The Hickman family moved to Topeka in 1903. For more see the Willianna Hickman entry in We Are Your Sisters: Black Women in the Nineteenth Century, ed. by D. Sterling, pp. 375-376; and the Daniel Hickman entry in vol. 4 of African American National Biography, edited by H. L. Gates, Jr. and E. B. Higginbotham.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration West, Nicodemus, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Exodusters [African Americans migrating West around Reconstruction Era]
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky / Hill City and Nicodemus, Kansas

Hicks, Lucy L. [Tobias Lawson]
Birth Year : 1886
Death Year : 1954
Lucy Hicks said she was from Kentucky when she arrived in California around 1915. The six foot tall cook was also a madam; for 30 years she ran the only house of prostitution in Oxnard, California. She was also a philanthropist, giving generously to charity organizations such as the Boy Scouts and the Red Cross, as well as purchasing war bonds. As World War II was coming to an end in August 1945, an outbreak of venereal disease was said to have come from Hicks' establishment; Lucy and all of her employees had to be examined by the doctor. During Hicks' examination, it was discovered that Hicks was a biological male. Hicks had married twice, the second time in 1945, and was therefore charged with perjury, then jailed, tried, sentenced to prison, and kicked out of the city of Oxnard. Lucy Hicks' story was first published in a Pacific Coast newspaper, then updated and published in Time, after which Lucy Hicks was voted Time's Man of the Year. After the story ran, Hicks was wanted by the U.S. Army as a draft dodger. Lucy Hicks was born Tobias Lawson in Waddy, KY, and died in Los Angeles. Hicks was the child of Bill (b.1849 in KY) and Nancy Lawson (b.1851 in KY), and according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, the Lawsons worked for the George Waddy family. Nancy and Tobias, the youngest child, were still working for the Waddy family when the 1900 Census was taken. For a more complete history of Hicks' life see the Lucy Hicks Anderson entry at the BlackPast.org website; see "Sin & Souffle," Time, 11/05/1945, p. 24 [available online]; and Oxnard, 1941-2004, by J. W. Maulhardt [pictures of Lucy Hicks on p. 89].


Subjects: Businesses, Migration West, Cross Dressing, Dress in Drag
Geographic Region: Waddy, Shelby County, Kentucky / Oxnard and Los Angeles, California

Hicks, Madeline Maupin
Birth Year : 1948
Madeline Maupin Hicks was the first African American female to attend the University of Louisville School of Dentistry, she is a 1975 graduate. She earned her undergraduate degree in biology from Indiana University in 1970. Dr. Hicks teaches dentistry courses at the University of Louisville Dentistry School, she has also had a private dental practice. She is the daughter of Madeline Taylor Maupin and Milburn T. Maupin . For more see Not Without Struggle by J. B. Horton; and Dr. Madeline Hicks in Who's Who in Black Louisville, Inaugural Edition, p.112.

  See photo image of Dr. Madeline Maupin Hicks at the University of Louisville, School of Dentistry website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Dentists
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Higgins, Chester A., Jr.
Birth Year : 1946
Chester Higgins, Jr. was born in Lexington, KY, and grew up in New Brockton, AL. He is a graduate of Tuskegee Institute [now Tuskegee University]. A staff photographer with the New York Times, he also wrote The Black Woman, Drums of Life and a number of other books. He appeared in the documentary film, BrotherMen. His photographs have appeared in Look, Life, Time and numerous other publications. Higgins resides in New York, he is the son of Veridee Young Smith and award winning journalist Chester A. Higgins, Sr. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, and Current Biography (2002).

See photo image and additional information about Chester Higgins, Jr. at the Kentucky Educational Television, BrotherMen website.

See photo image and additional information about Chester Higgins at The HistoryMakers website. [Higgins was born in Lexington, KY according to the Kentucky Birth Index. Original data at the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives.]
Subjects: Authors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Photographers, Photographs, Migration South, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / New Brockton, Alabama / New York

Higgins, Chester A., Sr.
Birth Year : 1917
Death Year : 2000
Higgins was born in Chicago and raised in Lexington, KY. A World War II veteran, he attended Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], Louisville Municipal College for Negroes, and the University of Louisville. He served as a reporter, writer, and editor for a number of publications, including the Louisville Defender, the Pittsburgh Courier, the Detroit Courier, the NAACP magazine Crisis, and Jet. In 1967, the National Newspaper Publishers awarded Higgins first place in the feature news category. Higgins was also involved in a number of organizations, including serving as Executive Secretary of the Louisville National Negro Labor Council, and he was Special Assistant to Benjamin Hooks, the first African American to become the Federal Communications Commissioner. Higgins taught at Malcom X College in Chicago and at Michigan State University. He was the father of Chester Higgins, Jr. For more see L. Estrada, "Chester Higgins Sr., Jet magazine editor," Chicago Sun-times, 05/29/2000, News section, p. 47; and Kentucky HR168.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Migration South, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Geographic Region: Chicago, Illinois / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Higgins, Katheryn D.
Birth Year : 1958
Katheryn D. Higgins was the first African American and female engineer at the Louisville (KY) Water Company in 1983. The company was chartered by the Kentucky Legislature in 1854, and provides safe drinking water to Louisville Metro and parts of four surrounding counties. Higgins was born in Jefferson County, KY, and is the daughter of Elnora Tolliver Higgins and Frederick Higgins. She is a 1975 graduate of Sacred Heart Academy in Louisville, KY, and later served on the steering committee of the King Scholars Program that was established by Nick King and Carol Zurkuhlen King in 1999. The program provides financial aid to young women so that they may attend Sacred Heart. Higgins is a 1981 chemical engineer graduate of the University of Louisville (U of L), and later completed her finance degree at U of L. When she retired from the Louisville Water Company, she started her second career as a financial advisor with Morgan Stanley. For more see Katheryn D. Higgins in "Alumnae Profile" on page 6 of the HeartBeat: a publication for alumnae, parents and friends of Sacred Heart Academy, Spring 2004. This entry was submitted by Librarian Laura Hall, graduate of Sacred Heart and staff member of the UK Libraries.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Engineers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Higgins, Norman
Birth Year : 1941
Death Year : 2007
Norman Higgins, born in Lexington, KY, was a graduate of old Dunbar High School. He was employed at Southland Printing and Publishing, where he ran the printing press. Though he received many awards for his car racing, Higgins was also well-known as an exceptional drummer. He played all over Kentucky and the U.S. with greats such as Roland Kirk, Billy Preston, Sonny Stitt, and Kentucky native, Les McCann. Higgins was also part of the Lexington Jazz Project's original lineup. For more see J. Hewlett, "Norman Higgins jazz drummer dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, 01/05/2007, City/Region section, p. B4.


Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Automobile Races, Race-car Drivers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Higgs, Kenny Lee
Birth Year : 1955
Born in Owensboro, KY, Kenny L. Higgs is the brother of Mark Higgs. He is the all-time leading scorer for the Owensboro High School basketball team, having scored 1,833 points from 1971-1974. The 6'0" guard went on to play college ball at Louisiana State University (LSU), where he had over 500 total assists and is one of two players to hold the all-time high of 19 assists for a single college game [LSU vs Mississippi State, 1978]. Higgs was selected by the Cleveland Cavaliers in the third round of the 1978 NBA draft. He ended his career with the Denver Nuggets in 1982. He was a member of the 1981 Denver Nuggets playoff team, totaling over 400 assists that year. In 1999, Higgs was inducted into the Owensboro-Daviess County Tourist Commission's Hall of Fame. For more see Kenny Higgs, in The Official NBA Encyclopedia, ed. by J. Hubbard; and R. Greene, "Higgs still owns the courts," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 07/23/1999.

See photo image of Kenny Lee Higgs at the CavsHistory website.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Higgs, Mark
Birth Year : 1966
Born in Owensboro, KY, he is the brother of Kenny Higgs. Mark Higgs was an all-state halfback and the all-time leading rusher on the Owensboro High School football team. The 5'8" Higgs rushed for 6,781 yards and scored 75 touchdowns during his high school career. From 1984-1987 he played college football as a running back at the University of Kentucky, where he was the second leading tackler and rusher, carrying the ball 457 times. His jersey was retired in 1997. Higgs was selected by the Dallas Cowboys in the eighth round of the 1988 NFL draft. He played for a number of teams before ending his professional career with the Arizona Cardinals in 1995. In 1991 he was among the league's top ten in rushes and rushing yards and in 1992 was among the top ten in rushing touchdowns. For more see Owensboro High School yearbook, the Owensboroan, available at the Daviess County Public Library; Mark Higgs in Pro-Football-Reference.com; and "CORRECTED VERSION Owensboro sent several football players to the NFL," Owensboro Messenger, 09/21/2004.
Subjects: Football
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Hill, Carl M.
Hill was president of Kentucky State College, 1962-1975; he added four undergraduate departments, a gradate school, a special Black Collection to the library. Under his leadership, the school became Kentucky State University. Hill had the second longest tenure as president of Kentucky Sate University. The Carl M. Hill Student Center is named in his honor. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan.
Subjects: Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Hillman, Alice Louise
Birth Year : 1896
Death Year : 1986
Hillman was born in Tennessee, according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. She was a school teacher who began teaching when she was 15 years old. She taught in the Bourbon County, KY, schools for 21 years in addition to teaching in Fayette and Madison Counties, KY, and Columbia, TN. Hillman had also been active as a member of the Kentucky Association of Colored Women's Clubs, having served as president, vice president, and secretary-treasurer of the scholarship fund. She had also served as president of the Phillis Wheatley Charity Club, located in Paris, KY. Hillman's birth year is given as 1896 in the Social Security Death Index. She was the wife of grocery store owner Robert Hillman (1882-1967), who was born in KY. The couple lived on Mt. Sterling Road in Little Rock, KY. For more see J. Hewlett, "Teacher, civic leader Alice Hillman dies, Lexington Herald-Leader, Obituaries section, p. D11.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Women's Groups and Organizations, Association of Colored Women's Clubs
Geographic Region: Tennessee / Little Rock and Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Hillman, John W.
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1911
Hillman was born in Trigg County, KY, the son of Dan Hillman. After slavery ended, he moved to Covington and worked at several hotels as a waiter and steward, then later became custodian of the City Building of Covington, or, as author W. D. Johnson characterized it, Hillman was considered the first city official. Hillman was the husband of Ellen W. Hillman, born 1850 in Virginia. In 1880, the family lived on Pike Street in Covington, according to the U. S. Federal Census. In 1910, John was a janitor in a bank, and his son Fred was a filing clerk at the bank. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentucky / Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky

Hind, Richard
Hind experimented with plants and developed new farm crops; he was thought to be the first person to cultivate watermelons in Kentucky. Hinds Bend on the Kentucky River is named after him. Hind had been a slave at Boonesborough. For more see Kentucky's Black Heritage, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights.
Subjects: Agriculturalists, Produce, Freedom
Geographic Region: Boonesborough, Madison County, Kentucky

Hines, Carl R., Sr.
Birth Year : 1931
In 1977 he was the first African American state representative elected from the 43rd House District (Louisville, KY). He was re-elected in 1979 and continued to be re-elected until 1987. Hines was born in Louisville. For more see "Four blacks make up Kentucky's black representation in legislature," in 1982 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Sixth Report by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights, p. 17; Who's Who Among African Americans, 1988-2006; and contact the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hines-Martin, Vicki
In 1994, Vicki Hines-Martin was the first African American Ph.D. graduate from the University of Kentucky College of Nursing. She is the founder of the Kentucky Chapter of the National Black Nurses Association (KYANNA). She is a professor in the University of Louisville School of Nursing and the director of the Office of Disparities and Community Engagement. Hines-Martin earned her BSN and MAEd from Spalding University, and her MSN from the University of Cincinnati. See African American Caregivers and the Severely Mentally Ill (dissertation) by V. P. Hines-Martin; Nurses' Knowledge of Obesity and Nurses' Attitudes Toward Obese Persons (thesis) by V. P. Hines-Martin; and P. Hines-Martin and Alona H. Pack, "Teaching the fluid process of cultural competence at the graduate level : a constructionist approach," a chapter in Transforming Nursing Education: the culturally inclusive environment, by S. D. Bosher and M. D. Pharris.

See photo image of Vickie Hines-Martin at the U of L website.
Subjects: Nurses
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hinnant, Ollen B., II
Birth Year : 1931
Hinnant was born in Lexington, KY. In 1955 he was the first African American graduate of the University of Kentucky Law School, and in 1997 he was the first to be inducted into the school's Alumni Hall of Fame. He was the first African American lawyer for the State Farm Insurance firm in Montclair, NJ. Edmonds Street in Lexington, KY, is named for his grandfather, Rubin Edmonds. For more see M. Davis, "He's Proof that Kids Can Turn Out Fine," Lexington Herald-Leader, 09/23/2001.
Subjects: Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Lawyers, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hinton, Clarence David
Birth Year : 1916
Death Year : 2008
Clarence D. Hinton was born in Sharpsburg, KY, the son of Davis and Elsie Trumbo Hinton. The family lived on Back Street in 1920, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and later moved to Peoria, IL, where Hinton was an outstanding student and star athlete. He was a graduate of Northwestern University, where he also played football and was later inducted into the school's athletes' hall of fame. He was a member of the football team that won the 1936 Big Ten Conference Championship. Clarence Hinton would become a physician in otolaryngology (ears, nose, throat, head and neck surgery), he was clinical assistant at Howard University Medical School [now Howard University College of Medicine], 1945-1950, where he had received his M.D. in 1942. The Otolaryngology Clinic was relatively new to Howard University. Hinton would became a resident physician at Philadelphia General Hospital in 1950. He was later chair of the otolaryngology division at Howard University Hospital from 1963-1979, and chair of the otolaryngology department at Children's National Medical Center from 1978-1980. He was the first African American to chair the Washington D. C. Medical Society Otolaryngology Section. Hinton retired in 1990 but was still active in medicine at Howard University Hospital. Hinton was a WWII Army veteran, he had served as a medical doctor. He was the husband of ViCurtis Gray Hinton. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; and "Ear, nose, throat Doctor Clarence David Hinton, 91," The Washington Post, 10/04/2008, Metro section, p.B6. 
 
See photo image of Clarence D. Hinton at the Peoria County Home Page website.
Subjects: Football, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Sharpsburg, Bath County, Kentucky / Peoria, Illinois / Washington, D.C.

Hippodrome Theater, Frankfort, KY
Start Year : 1913
End Year : 1913
The Hippodrome Theater in Frankfort, KY, located on Washington Street, was the only colored theater in the city in 1913, according to an article in The Freeman, 06/21/1913, p1, by journalist Hardin Tolbert. The facility was described as "the new moving picture playhouse opposite the Odd Fellows' Hall." "The management will put on home talent vaudeville. Large crowds are in attendance nightly." The theater may have been a short lived investment; there is no listing for the Hippodrome or a colored theater in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky for 1914-1915-1916.
Subjects: Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Historic Pleasant Green Missionary Baptist Church (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1790
The Baptist Church was thought to have established the oldest African American congregation west of the Allegheny Mountains. The history dates back to 1790 when Rev. Peter Duerett founded the African Baptist Church in Lexington, KY. The name was changed to "Pleasant Green" in 1829. Today the church is located at 540 W. Maxwell Street in Lexington, Kentucky. For more contact the church at 859-254-7387.

See photo image of the Historic Pleasant Green Missionary Baptist Church at The Bluegrass and Beyond website.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hoard, J. H. [Hoardsville, Oklahoma]
Birth Year : 1862
Reverend Hoard was born in Hopkinsville, KY, and in 1899 moved to Okmulgee, OK, to become pastor of the First Baptist Church. Okmulgee is 30 miles from Tulsa. Hoard was the husband of Clara Locke Hoard, with whom he had 11 children. Rev. Hoard was also pastor of the Union Baptist Church in Grayson, Oklahoma. He farmed his land next to the Henryetta gas and oil fields. He was chair of the Educational Board of the Oklahoma Baptist Convention, a member and moderator of the Southwest Creek and Seminole District Association, and the Hoardsville postmaster. Hoard had come to Oklahoma during the period author M. C. Hill describes as the "Great Black March Westward" that began in 1890 and peaked in 1910. Most came from eight southern states, including Kentucky. This was also the period when small all-Negro communities were developed, and there was an attempt to make Oklahoma an all Negro state. Hoardsville is usually not mentioned as one of the better known all-Negro communities. Hundreds of Negroes were arriving in Oklahoma each day, looking for utopia but finding that there were ongoing clashes between Negroes, Native Americans, and Whites. For more see "Reverend J. H. Hoard" in Who's Who Among the Colored Baptists of the United States, by S. W. Bacote; and M. C. Hill, "The All Negro Communities of Oklahoma," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 31, issue 3 (July 1946), pp. 254-268.
Subjects: Communities, Migration West, Postal Service, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky / Okmulgee, Oklahoma

Hocker, George Melwood
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 1991
From Springfield, KY, Hocker became the first African American jailer in Kentucky, elected in Washington County in 1973. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; National Roster of Black Elected Officials, 1980, published by the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies, Inc.; and George Melwood Hocker, "In Kentucky," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/02/1991, Obituaries section, p. C13.
Subjects: Corrections and Police, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Springfield, Washington County, Kentucky

Hodge, W. J.
Birth Year : 1920
Death Year : 2000
W. J. Hodge was born in Texas and came to Louisville, KY, in 1957 to become pastor of the Fifth Street Baptist Church. In 1958 he was elected president of the Louisville Chapter of the NAACP and in 1962 was elected president of the Kentucky Conference of the NAACP. Hodge helped organize the 1964 March on Frankfort in support of the Kentucky Civil Rights Law. In 1977, Hodge became the first African American president of the Louisville Board of Alderman; he resigned from the board in 1982 to become president of Simmons Bible College. For more see "Mayor, 45 councilmen are black city officials," in 1978 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report, by the Commission on Human Rights, p. 20; Y. D. Coleman, "First Black Alderman president recently honored with a resolution," The Louisville Defender, 03/12/1992, p. 4; and T. Shannon, "W. J. Hodge," Courier-Journal, 12/28/2000, NEWS section, p. 01A.

See photo image and additional information about W. J. Hodge at "Geat Black Kentuckians," a Kentucky Commission on Human Rights website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Geographic Region: Texas / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hokins, Fred
Birth Year : 1863
Hokins was a horse trainer at a race track in Puerto Rico. He is one of the unknown number of African American horsemen who lived and worked outside the U.S. mainland. Born in Kentucky, Hokins lived in Hato Rey, Río Piedras Municipality, according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. [His last name may have been Hawkins.] [Río Piedras is a former municipality that is now part of San Juan.]
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration South
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Hato Rey, Rio Piedras [now San Juan], Puerto Rico

Holland, Beatrice "Tommie"
Birth Year : 1911
Death Year : 2003
Holland, born in Madison County, KY, and raised in Cleveland, OH, was the first African American teacher in Richmond, Indiana. She was the daughter of Florence and Henry Allen Laine. Holland was a graduate of Wilberforce University and Ball State University. She was a teacher in Columbia, SC in the 1940s, then she and her family moved to Richmond in 1950. In addition to teaching, Holland was head of the Wayne County Community Action Program and was the first African American woman to head the Indiana Civil Rights Commission (1973-1977). For more see "Richmond schools hired first Black teacher in 1960," Palladium-Item, 02/19/2008, Region section, p. 3A; and Tommie Beatrice Holland in "Obituaries," Columbus Dispatch, 01/17/2003, News section, p. 07C.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Civic Leaders, Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky / Cleveland, Ohio / Richmond, Indiana

Holland, George W.
Birth Year : 1874
Death Year : 1929
George W. Holland was born in Ruddles Mills, KY. He taught school in Kentucky, then in 1895 moved to Springfield, OH, where he was employed as a postal clerk. George W. Holland later became head of the postal division of Crowell Publishing Company. [The Crowell Publishing Company, located in Springfield, OH, was owned by Lexington, KY, native John Stephen Crowell (1850-1921). In 1934, the company merged to become Crowell-Collier Publishing Company.] In addition to being an employee at the publishing company, George W. Holland was also president of the Colored Men's Council and Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of 1924. Maude Holland was the wife of George W. Holland, and she was deceased when George W. Holland was injured in a car accident on September 15, 1929 and died five days later [source: State of Ohio, Certificate of Death File #56683]. He is buried in the Ferncliff Cemetery in Springfield, OH. For more about George Holland see Chapter 9 of The History of Prince Hall Grand Lodge in Ohio, by C. H. Wesley. For more about the Crowell-Collier Publishing Company see the company records, 1931-1955 at New York Public Library.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Migration North, Postal Service, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Ruddles Mills, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Springfield, Ohio

Holland, Gertrude I.
Birth Year : 1892
Holland was born in Richmond, KY. She was director of the extension division of Wilberforce University, 1929-1933, then became director of the school's home economics department in 1933 (serving in that capacity until 1940), and then the director of secondary education, beginning in 1947. She is author of the articles "The Underlying Principles Governing a Modern Curriculum in Home Economics" (1932), and "A study of Teacher Rating Devices" (1937). For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Wilberforce, Ohio

Holland, Helen Shelby
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1983
Holland was born in Hickman, KY; her family moved to South Bend, IN, in 1918. She graduated from Central High School in 1926, the same year that she was named Athlete of the Year. Holland was the first African American salesperson employed by a major department store in South Bend. She was the wife of Burnsy Holland. For more see the Helen Holland entry in The Black Women in the Middle West Project, by D. C. Hine, et al.; and the Helen Holland Collection at Northern Indiana Historical Society.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Migration North
Geographic Region: Hickman, Fulton County, Kentucky / South Bend, Indiana

Holland, James P.
Birth Year : 1934
Death Year : 1998
James Phillips Holland was the first African American from Kentucky to be named to West Point Military Academy. He was 19 years old when the nomination was made by Republican Senator John Sherman Cooper, with recommendation by Kentucky State College President R. B. Atwood. Born in Bowling Green, KY, Holland was valedictorian of his graduating class at State Street High School. He received his bachelor's degree from Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] in 1956 and his master's degree (1958) and PH. D. (1961) in endocrinology from Indiana University. He was a professor of Zoology at Indiana University, where his research explored how reproductive physiology is influenced by thyroid gland activity. The James P. Holland Memorial Lecture Series was established in 2000 at Indiana University; the school also offers the James P. Holland Fellowship in Biology. For more see "Senator names first Kentucky Negro to West Point," Jet, 03/25/1924, p.6 [article available full text at Google Book Search]; and Scientists in the Black Perspective, by H. A. Young and B. H. Young.

See photo image and additional information about James P. Holland on the Department of Biology website at Indiana University, Bloomington.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Zoologists
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Indiana

Holland, Mary Ford
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1999
Born in Trigg County, KY, Holland was the first African American student at Murray State University. She received her first teaching certificate from West Kentucky Industrial School [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College], where she graduated in 1935. She taught at the segregated, one room school in Lyon County, KY. Holland also attended Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] part-time, working toward a bachelor's degree; in 1955, at the age of 48, she transferred to Murray State University, where she was escorted by the police and the university president to her classes. She graduated in 1961. It would be a few years before she would teach at an integrated school. For more see the Kentucky Historical Marker Database: Desegregation of Murray State College (Marker Number 2191).
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentucky / Lyon County, Kentucky / Murray, Calloway County, Kentucky

Holmes, David S., Jr.
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 1994
Holmes was born in Covington, KY. He was elected to the Michigan House of Representatives, serving 1959-1974. In 1974 he was elected to the Michigan Senate and remained a senator until his death in 1994. He was the father of Michigan Senator Patricia A. Holmes. For more see African American Biographies: profiles of 558 current men and women, by W. L. Hawkins.
Subjects: Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Michigan

Hood, Robert E.
Birth Year : 1936
Death Year : 1994
Hood was born in Louisville, KY, the son of Blanche and George R. Hood. He was a graduate of Ohio Wesleyan University, where he was the first African American president of the student body. He was also a graduate of General Theological Seminary, the University of Chicago and the Oxford University. In 1984, he was an administrative assistant to Bishop Desmond Tutu: Hood was a historian in the areas of religion and race. He had been a professor at the General Theological Seminary, and prior to his death, was director of the Center for African American Studies at Adelphi University. Hood was also author of Must God Remain Greek?: Afro cultures and God-talk, Begrimed and Black: Christian traditions on Blacks and blackness, and several other books. For more see "Dr. Robert E. Hood, theologian, 58, dies," New York Times, 08/12/1994, p. A21; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1994-1997.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Migration North, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Long Island, New York

hooks, bell [Gloria Jean Watkins]
Birth Year : 1955
She was born Gloria Jean Watkins in Hopkinsville, KY, the daughter of Rosa Bell and Veodis Watkins, but goes by the name bell hooks, which she prefers to spell without capitalization. hooks is a professor, feminist, cultural critic, poet, and author of more than 30 books, including Ain't I a Woman, Breaking Bread, and four children's books that include Happy to be Nappy and Be Boy Buzz. She is considered one of the foremost African American intellectuals. hooks is a graduate of Crispus Attucks High School in Hopkinsville, Stanford University (B.A.), the University of Wisconsin at Madison (M.A.), and the University of Santa Cruz (Ph.D.). After almost 30 years of teaching in California, Connecticut, New York, and Ohio, in 2004 she returned to Kentucky to join the faculty at Berea College as a Distinguished Professor in Residence. For more see Feminist Writers, ed. by P. Kester-Shelton; The African American Almanac, 8th & 9th ed.; Current Biography: World Authors 1900-1995 (updated 1999) [available via Biography Reference Bank]; and bell hooks, feminist scholar, on Connections with Renee Shaw, video #416 [available online].
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Education and Educators, Migration North, Migration West, Poets, Children's Books and Music
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky / California / Connecticut / New York / Ohio / Berea, Madison County, Kentucky

Hooks, Julia Britton
Birth Year : 1852
Death Year : 1942
Julia B. Hooks was born in Frankfort, KY. A musician, social worker, educator, and juvenile court officer, she and her husband managed a juvenile detention home that was opened next to their house in Memphis. One of the wards killed her husband. Hooks went on to help found the Old Folks and Orphans Home. Julia Hooks was the daughter of Henry and Laura Marshall Britton. She was mother of photographers Henry and Robert Hooks, grandmother to Benjamin Hooks, and sister to Dr. Mary E. Britton. For more see Notable Black American Women, ed. by J. C. Smith; Julia Hooks entry in the Afro-American Encyclopaedia: Or, the Thoughts, Doings..., by James T. Haley, pp. 563-565 [from the UNC Library's Documenting the American South website]; and the Julia Britton Hooks entry by S. Lewis in The Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture [online version].

See photo image and additional information on Julia Hooks at the African American Registry website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Mothers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Corrections and Police, Social Workers, Migration South, Grandparents, Care of the Elderly
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Memphis, Tennessee

Hooper, Ernest Jackson [Oliver School (Winchester, KY)]
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1983
Ernest J. Hooper was a teacher and the sports coach for boys at Oliver School in Winchester, KY. Oliver, in operation from 1892-1956, was a segregated school for African American children. It became a four-year high school in 1928. During Hooper's brief tenure at the school, he established the beginning of champion sports teams for boys; under Hooper's direction, the teams were the 1923 Blue Grass League Champions in football and the 1923-24 Blue Grass League Champions in basketball. Photos of the boys' 1923 football team, the boys' 1922 basketball team, and the girls' 1922 basketball team, are available at the University of Kentucky Audio-Visual Archives, which also includes a typed list of the football and basketball players' names and their positions on the teams. The pictures, along with many others of later sports teams, can be found in Louis Stout's Shadows of the Past. Stout's book also includes the names of the members of the Blue Grass Coaches Association on p. 6. E. J. Hooper was from Philadelphia, PA, the son of Louisa Hooper [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census] and the grandson of Georgianna Jackson, according to the World War I registration card completed when Hooper was 18 years old. By 1923, Hooper was a teacher in Winchester, KY, and during the Business Session of the KNEA Conference, he gave the address "The Educational Content of an Industrial Subject" [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p. 11]. In the same issue of the publication, on p. 62, Hooper's home address is given as 127 W. Broadway Street in Winchester. In 1925, Hooper was mentioned in the KNEA Journal [April 22-25, p. 16] as the chair of the Manual Training Section. Also in 1925, the Oliver School basketball team was again champion of the Blue Grass League, when James Nance was the coach. Ernest J. Hooper left Kentucky and in 1928 was a shop teacher at Crispus Attucks High School in Indianapolis, IN [source: Industrial-arts Magazine, vol. 17 (1928), p. 149]. By 1930, Hooper was married and teaching in Peoria [source: U.S. Federal Census]. He was a graduate of Bradley Polytechnic Institute in Illinois [source: Crisis, August 1930, p. 264]. [Bradley Polytechnic Institute would become Bradley University.] Hooper died in October 1983 in Cincinnati, OH [source: Social Security Death Index]. See photo of Coach Hooper and the 1923 football team in the UK libguide titled African American Primary Resources in Special Collections.

See photo image of 1923 Oliver football team in UK libguide African American Primary Resources in Special Collections

See photo image in Explore UK of the girl's basketball team at Oliver School.

See photo image in Explore UK of the boy's basketball team at Oliver School.
 
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Football, Military & Veterans, Migration South
Geographic Region: Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana / Peoria, Illinois / Cincinnati, Ohio

Hope, Dennis D.
Birth Year : 1894
Death Year : 1929
Dennis D. Hope was a journalist and political activist in Topeka, Kansas; he served as the editor and publisher of the Sunday Sun. The newspaper was published on an irregular schedule. Dennis D. Hope also severd on the county central committee in Topeka. Before coming to Kansas, Hope had been a slave, he was born in Boyle County, KY, on November 22, 1849 [source: "Dennis D. Hope (cut)," Plaindealer (Topeka), 12/19/1902, p.5]. Gaining his freedom at the close of the Civil War, Hope attended a colored school in Boyle County for three years, attending three months of each year. He probably attended one of the four schools established by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, between 1866 and 1870. In 1870, Dennis and 14 year old Sarah Hope lived at the home of Willis and Matilda Rogers in Boyle County, KY [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census].  Dennis D. Hope later lived for a brief period in Indianapolis, IN, then returned to Kentucky, before moving on to Topeka, Kansas in 1878, where he worked as a laborer for the Santa Fe R. R. Co. He left the railroad company after five years and went to work as a janitor at the First National Bank. In 1902, he had been at the bank for 18 years. In 1894, Dennis D. Hope was selected as a delegate for the Republican State Convention, he represented the 35th district of Shawnee County [source: "Republican Convention," The Globe-Republican, 06/01/1894, p.7, column 3]. Hope was a prominent member of the African American community of Topeka and was a member of several social organizations, including Shawnee Lodge #1923, the Knights of Tabor, and he was treasurer of the District Grand Lodge Kansas #17. He was a member of the 5th Ward Roosevelt Republican Club. In 1894, Dennis D. Hope was appointed chairman of the county central committee, the appointment was made by Aaron P. Jetmore, candidate for county attorney, and the appointment was said to be one of honor for Hope who was a respected citizen and a representative of the Negro race; A. B. Jetmore, father of Aaron P. Jetmore, had been president of the Freedmen's Relief Association in Topeka, KS, and many of the newly arriving Negroes in 1882 had not forgotten his generosity [source: "Let reason govern," The Kansas Blackman, 06/15/1894, p.1]. Dennis Hope is listed as a laborer on p.104 of Sam Radges' Sixth Biennial Directory of the City of Topeka for 1882; he lived at 24 Quincy Street. By 1902, he owned his own home. Dennis D. Hope was the husband of Millie Hope (b.1855 in KY), the couple lived at 1314 Washington Avenue [source: Polk's Topeka (Kansas) City Directory, 1929-30, p.237]. Dennis D. Hope died in1929 and is buried in Mount Auburn Cemetery in Topeka, KS.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky / Topeka, Kansas

Hopkins County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Hopkins County, located in western Kentucky and surrounded by five counties, was created in 1806 from a portion of Henderson County. It was named for Samuel Hopkins, a lawyer, Kentucky Senator, and Revolutionary War veteran; several of the early settlers in the Hopkins County area were Revolutionary War veterans who had received land grants from Virginia. Madisonville, which became the county seat of Hopkins County in 1808, was named for James Madison, who later became the fourth President of the United States. During the early 1800s, there was also a community named Charleston in Hopkins County; it was named for a former slave and tavern owner named Free Charles. The Hopkins County population was 414 [heads of households] in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census, and it grew to 9,866 by 1860, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 555 slave owners
  • 1,815 Black slaves
  • 335 Mulatto slaves
  • 16 free Blacks [most with last name Herrin]
  • 34 free Mulattoes [most with last names Earle, Lewis, and Oakley]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 457 slave owners
  • 1,451 Black slaves
  • 557 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 20 freee Mulattoes [many with last names Baker and Fisher]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,458 Blacks
  • 340 Mulattoes
  • About 83 U.S. Colored Troops listed Hopkins County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • Charleston, Hopkins County, Kentucky: 41 African Americans, many with last name Metcalf; and 16 Mulattoes with the last names Bishop, Morris, Paravel, and one Smouthers. Total population 1,575. According to the title Kentucky Place Names, by R. N. Rennick, (p. 56), there was a post office in Charleston from 1855-1909 and a coal loading station that was on the Illinois Central Railroad line.
For more see the Hopkins County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; Non-White Marriage Index 1866-1914, by the Hopkins County Genealogical Society (KY); NAACP Administrative File, Part 20, White resistance and reprisals, 1956-1965; and History of Hopkins County, by M. K. Gordon.
Subjects: Communities, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Kentucky Land Grants
Geographic Region: Hopkins County, Kentucky

Hopkins, Nadine
Birth Year : 1972
Hopkins, from Owenton, KY, was named homecoming queen at Northern Kentucky University in her senior year, 1994, her nomination sponsored by the Black Women's Organization. She was the first African American homecoming queen at the university. For more see "NKU homecoming queen's coronation makes history," The Kentucky Post, 02/14/1994, p. 6K.
Subjects: Homecoming Queens, Pageants, Contests, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Owenton, Owen County, Kentucky

Hopkins, Telma
Birth Year : 1948
Telma Hopkins was born in Louisville, KY. She was a session singer in Detroit, mostly with the Motown label, before she became a member of the group Tony Orlando and Dawn (Michael Anthony Orlando Cassivitis, Joyce Vincent and Telma Hopkins). Their 1970 single "Knock Three Times" sold a million copies the first month after it was released, but their biggest hit was "Tie a Yellow Ribbon," in 1973. The group had a television program from 1974-1976 before their break-up in 1977. Telma Hopkins went on to have a successful career as a sitcom actress in television shows such as "Gimme a Break" and "Family Matters" plus guest appearances on other shows. She was the character Daisy in the television mini-series "Roots: the Next Generation." For more see Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines, vol. 25, Sept. 1999 - Aug. 2000; TV Guide, vol. 51, issue 46 (November 15-21, 2003), p. 15; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1989-2006. View Telma Hopkins in Half & Half - No More Tears.wmv on YouTube.


Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Television
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hopkinsville Black Hoppers (baseball)
Start Year : 1940
The Hopkinsville Black Hoppers baseball team was formed in 1940 by 33 year old G. E. McCray, the owner, who lived at 1709 McKee Street in Hopkinsville. Samuel Dorsey Collier was vice president and general manager. July 1940, the team traveled to Tennessee and was defeated by the Gallatin colored baseball team, 12-4. Billy Wilis, the catcher had a home run. The team still existed in 1945 when they were scheduled to play the Evansville Black Sox. For more see "Black Hoppers want ball games," The Chicago Defender, 06/08/1940, p.22; "Black Hoppers are beaten at Gallatin," Kentucky New Era, 07/29/1940, p.4; "Black on Black," The Chicago Defender, 09/08/1945
Subjects: Baseball
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Hopkinsville College of the Bible (Hopkinsville, KY)
Start Year : 1883
The school was founded in 1883 during a meeting of the First District Baptist Association at the Green Valley Baptist Church in response to the need for a training center in the area for more African American teachers and preachers. The school was initially called Male and Female College, then reopened as Southwestern Kentucky Institute before becoming Hopkinsville College of the Bible. The school remains open today. For more information see the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000 and contact the Hopkinsville College of the Bible.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Hopkinsville Colored Library (Christian County, KY)
Start Year : 1936
In 1895, there was a colored library club in Hopkinsville, KY. According an article in the Earlington Bee newspaper, New York banker, J. C. Latham made a handsome donation to the club ["Our colored citizens," 03/28/1895, p.4]. Latham was a native of Hopkinsville. In 1936, the colored library was housed in the Church of the Good Shepherd on Second and Campbell Streets in Hopkinsville. The library had 1,000 volumes. The city commission donated 150 bushels of coal so that the library could remain open during the winter months. The library committee members were Rosa M. Hopson, Ora L. Brewer, and Dolly R. Brown. For more see "Colored library to be helped by city," Kentucky New Era, 10/24/1936, p.6].
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Colored Public Libraries in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Hopkinsville Male and Female College
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1915
P. T. Frazer was the principal of the school until it closed some time around 1915 due to a lawsuit between Frazer and the school trustees. The school, owned by Baptist associations, had six teachers. Located on five acres of land, it was an elementary and high school that could house up to 50 boarders. When the school closed, there was an 11th grade high school available to Colored students in Hopkinsville, KY, that was supported by the city. For more see p.277 of Negro Education, by T. J. Jones [available online at Google Book Search]; and Annual catalogue of the Hopkinsville M. & F. College, Hopkinsville, Kentucky. For the school's continuation see the entry Hopkinsville College of the Bible. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Horn, Bobby Joe "Bob Nighthawk Terry"
Birth Year : 1936
Death Year : 1977
Horn was born in Franklin, KY. His on-the-air name was Bob 'Nighthawk' Terry. Horn was a prominent disc jockey of Black radio in Washington, D.C. at stations WOL-AM, 1965-1971, and WHUR-FM, 1971-1975. He had attended the New York School of Announcing and Speech then worked as an on-air personality, producer, host, program director, and manager at a number of radio stations before coming to D.C. He was voted Best Air Personality of the Year, WOL-AM, 1966-1970. Horn left radio to form his own entertainment company and in 1977, he disappeared. In the 2007 movie, Talk to Me, Cedric the Entertainer plays the role of Bob 'Nighthawk' Terry. For more see The Washington Post articles, T. S. Robinson and C. Schauble, "Disc jockey was officials suspect victim of murder," 03/15/1978, Metro section, p. C1; "Missing persons: 5 unsolved cases," 10/23/1983, First Section, p. A16; and F. Ahrens, "A century's strongest signals," 12/28/1999, Style section, p. C1. See also Hit Men: Power Brokers and Fast Money Inside the Music Business, by F. Dannen; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-2000.
Subjects: Businesses, Migration North, Radio, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Franklin, Simpson County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C.

Horton, John Benjamin
Birth Year : 1904
Death Year : 1997
Born in Georgia, Colonel J. B. Horton came to Kentucky in 1940 to become an advertising salesman with the Louisville Defender newspaper, then advanced to advertising director. Horton left the newspaper in 1954 and founded J. Benjamin Horton & Assoc., Inc., Advertising and Public Relations Consultants. He also published three magazines: Louisville Buyers Guide, News Digest, and Kentucky Negro Journal. He also published books: Not Without Struggle, Profiles of Contemporary Black Achievers in Kentucky, and Old War Horse of Kentucky. For more see Horton's biography, Flights from Doom.
Subjects: Authors, Businesses, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North
Geographic Region: Georgia / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hospitals and Nurse Training Schools for Negroes in KY, 1921-22
The names of the hospitals and nurse training schools for Negroes in Kentucky are listed on p. 371 of the 1921-22 Negro Year Book [available at Google Book Search]. Three facilities were listed in the 1916 Negro Year Book [available at Google Book Search], and that number had increased to six by 1921. [The Concord Colored Hospital was in operation in Hopkinsville, KY, in 1904 during a smallpox epidemic in the city. See "Fifty more cases ready to release," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/10/1904, p. 2. The article is available online at Kentucky Digital Library.]

  • Anderson Sanitarium in Somerset, KY. The facility, a tuberculosis treatment clinic, was owned by James S. Anderson, a doctor of herbal medicine. The three story structure was referred to as Unity Hill Sanitarium. For more see the NKAA entry for James S. Anderson.
  • King's Daughters Hospital in Shelbyville, KY.
  • Citizen's National Hospital in Louisville, KY. The two story brick building, which was located on Green Street, was built by the faculty of the Louisville National Medical College. For more see the NKAA entries for Citizen's Auxiliary Hospital and Louisville National Medical College.
  • Red Cross Sanitarium in Louisville, KY. For more information see the Red Cross Hospital entry in NKAA.
  • Colored Annex Mercy Memorial Hospital in Paris, KY. The hospital's name was actually Massie Hospital; it was located on Massie Avenue in Paris, KY.
  • Booker T. Washington Hospital in Middlesboro, KY.

Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Tuberculosis: Care and Deaths
Geographic Region: Somerset, Pulaski County, Kentucky / Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Middlesboro, Bell County, Kentucky

House, Tracy
Birth Year : 1965
House was born in Mayfield, KY. In May of 2003, he became the first African American police chief in the city of Clinton, KY, coming to the job with 11 years experience, having been a member of the Mayfield Police Department since 1992. His background includes detective training and service as a police officer; he's also certified in handwriting analysis. He is a member of the International Association of Chiefs of Police and a member of the Kentucky Chiefs of Police Association. House is executive secretary for the Purchase Area Sexual Assault Center Board of Directors. He is also a Kentucky Colonel and a member of the Prince Hall Mason Wilson Son Lodge #167 in Clinton. For more see The Hickman County Gazette, front page articles: "New Clinton city police chief and patrolman hired," 05/29/2003, and "New police chief talks about plans for Clinton Police Department," 06/03/2003; and Kentucky Law Enforcement News, vol. 2, issue 3 (Sept. 2003), p. 49 [available online as issue #7 August 2003].
Subjects: Corrections and Police, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Mayfield, Graves County, Kentucky / Clinton, Hickman County, Kentucky

Houston, Allan W., Jr.
Birth Year : 1971
Houston was born in Louisville, KY. He was one of the best shooting guards in the National Basketball Association and one of the highest paid players. The 6'6" Houston led his Louisville Ballard High School team to a state championship in 1988 while also becoming an honor student. Houston played his college ball at the University of Tennessee, averaging 21.9 points per game to become the school's all-time leading scorer. He graduated with a B.A. in African American Studies in 1994. Drafted 11th by the Detroit Pistons in the first round of the 1993 NBA draft, Houston ended his career with the New York Knicks, retiring in October 2005. He is the son of Wade Houston. For more see Current Biography (2003) and Allan Houston, an nba.com website.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Tennessee / Detroit / New York

Houston, Allan W., Sr.
Birth Year : 1944
Known as Wade Houston, he was one of the first African American basketball players at the University of Louisville. He graduated in 1966 and was inducted into the Louisville Athletic Hall of Fame in 1999. Head coach of the Louisville Male High School men's basketball team in 1975, Houston compiled a 90-12 record while guiding the team to a state championship. He returned to the University of Louisville in 1976 to become the first African American assistant men's basketball coach. In 1989 he became head coach at the University of Tennessee, the first African American head coach in the Southeastern Conference. Houston compiled a 65-90 record over the five years at Tennessee. Houston, born in Alcoa, TN, is the husband of Alice Kean Houston, and the father of Allan Houston. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, vols. 7-17; and Wade and Alice Kean Houston in Who's Who of Black Louisville, Inaugural Edition, pp.80-81.
Subjects: Basketball, Fathers, Migration North
Geographic Region: Alcoa, Tennessee / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Knoxville, Tennessee

Houston, Walter Scott, Sr.
Birth Year : 1888
Death Year : 1927
Walter S. Houston, Sr. was a prosperous businessman in Cincinnati, OH. Born near Owensboro, KY, he was the son of Robert and Maggie Houston. He was the husband of Grace Harding Houston, also from Owensboro, KY; she died a few years after the couple married. Houston's second wife was Anna Mae Lee, a public school teacher in Cincinnati. Walter S. Houston, Sr. owned property, a cigar booth, a grocery store near the corner of Wayne and Wyoming Streets, and an undertaking business that he managed with his wife and his son, Walter S. Houston, Jr. The Houston and Son Funeral homes were located at 2813 Gilbert Avenue and later at 108 N. Wayne Avenue, according to William's Cincinnati (Ohio) City Directory for the years 1948 and 1951. Walter S. Houston, Sr. was a member of the United Brothers of Friendship (U.B.F.). For more information see Cincinnati's Colored Citizens, by W. P. Dabney.
Subjects: Businesses, Migration North, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Howard, James
Birth Year : 1942
James Howard was born in Sturgis, KY. When he was 13 years old, he and other students attempted to integrate the all-white Sturgis High School, which was only blocks from his home. African American students were being bussed 11 miles away to Dunbar, an African American school in Morganfield, KY. The student's campaign was picked up by the international media when protesters blocked the streets, burned a cross, and harassed Blacks in the community. The following year a judicial order forced the school to integrate. For more view the James Howard interview in the Kentucky Historical Society, Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky, Oral History Project; and number 109 James Howard biography and video at KET Living the Story.


Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Sturgis and Morganfield, Union County, Kentucky

Howard, John Dalphin
Birth Year : 1869
Howard was born in Shelbyville, KY, the son of John and Delia Belle Board Howard. He was the editor and publisher of the National Domestic Magazine (1896-1898) and in 1912 founded the Indianapolis Ledger, which was published into the 1920s. He also wrote a crime adventure serial published in the Freeman (Indianapolis) newspaper. Howard was married to Anna Marie Everett from Mount Sterling, KY. For more see Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North
Geographic Region: Shelbyville, Shelby County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Howard School / Normal Institute / Chandler Normal School / Webster Hall (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1923
At the end of the Civil War, the first schools for Negro children in Lexington, KY, were located in the churches: First Baptist Church, Pleasant Green Baptist Church, Main Street Baptist Church, Asbury CME Church, and Christian Church. Howard School opened in 1866 with an enrollment of 500 students and three Negro teachers. The school classes were held in the building called Ladies Hall, located on Church Street in Lexington, KY. It was a free school for the children who could not afford the tuition of a private school. The facility had been purchased from the money that was accumulated after a year of fund raising by Negro women in Lexington, KY. Howard School was named after Freedmen's Bureau director O. O. Howard. The school was supported by the Freedmen's Bureau, the American Missionary Association (AMA), and the Lexington Negro Public School Fund. AMA took over the school in 1866 and added six white teachers from the North. Two years later, the enrollment had increased to 900 students, and $540 was received from the public school fund to pay the teachers' wages. In 1870, the Freedmen's Bureau assisted in the funding for a new building located on Corral Street. Several other Negro schools were consolidated into Howard School, and it became the largest school in the region for Negro students. By 1874, the name of the school had changed to Normal Institute, and again public funding was used for a portion of the teachers' wages. A year later, AMA ceased supporting the school and the city of Lexington operated the facility as a public school. At some point prior to 1888, the school was closed. AMA had the building repaired and reopened the school, and added industrial classes. Soon the enrollment exceeded the capacity of the building. Mrs. Phebe Chandler, a philanthropist from the North, donated funding for the purchase of land away from the city, and for the construction of a new school building. The new school was named Chandler Normal School, it opened in 1890 on four acres of land on Georgetown Road. Webster Hall, a home for teachers and the principal was built around 1914, it was designed by African American architect Vertner W. Tandy Sr. The Chandler Normal School closed in 1923, but the building remained and an auditorium was added in 1960. Webster Hall was used as a parsonage for the National Temple of the House of God, at 548 Georgetown Street. In 1980, both the Chandler Normal School and Webster Hall were placed on the National Register of Historic Places [#80001509]. The property around Chandler Normal School and Webster Hall was used for the building of Lincoln Terrace Housing Projects. For more see "Normal Institute, Lexington, Kentucky" on pages 43-44 in History of the American Missionary Association by the American Missionary Association [available at Google Books]; A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas; and "Lexington: Chandler Normal School Building - Webster Hall" in Black Heritage Sites, by N. C. Curtis. See also entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. See Miss Apple: letters of a Maine Teacher in Kentucky, by E. W. Cunningham, for information about the white teachers from Maine who taught at the Chandler Normal School.

See photo image of Webster Hall c.1920 at the kentuckyexplorer.com website.



See photo image of Chandler Normal School c.1900, Lexington, KY, at the Amistad Research Center American Missionary Association website at the Louisiana Digital Library.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentuckky

Howard, Theodore R. M.
Birth Year : 1908
Death Year : 1977
Howard, born in Murray, KY, was a graduate of the College of Medical Evangelists [now Loma Linda University] in Los Angeles, CA. He was medical director of the Riverside Sanitarium in California (1937-1939), then left to become surgeon-in-chief at Taborian Hospital in Mound Bayou, MS, (1942-1947), which would become the largest hospital in the state for African Americans. He was also founder and chairman of the United Order of Friendship of America in Bayou. In 1947 he became surgeon-in-chief and chief medical examiner of the Friendship Clinic in Bayou. Dr. Howard was an outspoken civil rights advocate in Mississippi. He delivered the eulogy at Medgar Evers' funeral. Howard left Mississippi in 1956 to become medical director of Fuller Products Co. in Chicago, and he was also named president of the National Medical Association. His decision to come north was made exactly one year after the death of Emmett Till; Howard had been lecturing throughout Mississippi about the killing, and his life had been threatened. The White Citizens Council had place a $1,000 hit on Howard, who had become quite wealthy with hundreds of acres of farmland and an entire block of homes. Howard felt that he did not know whom to trust anymore, white or black. His clinic was sold to members of the United Order of Friendship, and Dr. Howard broke all ties with the Democratic Party. Dr. Howard was the son of Arthur Howard (b.1890 in TN) and Mary Chandler Howard (b.1892 in KY). In 1910, both parents worked as laborers in a tobacco factory, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Their second son, Willie Mason Howard, died of pneumonia in 1914, he was 15 months old according to his death certificate. By 1920, Mary had married Maurice Palmer (b.1888 in TN) and they had two children. Maurice Palmer was a laborer in a tobacco factory, and the family, including Theodore Howard, lived in Pool Town in Murray, KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; D. Wright, "His life in danger, medic quits Dixie to fire salvos from North," Jet, vol. X, issue 16 (1956), pp. 12-15; Blacks in Science and Medicine, by V. O. Sammons; Medgar Evers, by J. Brown; and Black Maverick by D. T. Beito and L. R. Beito. Listen to the tribute to Dr. T. R. M. Howard, by Jacque Day at WKMS at Murray State University.
Access Interview
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Migration West, Migration South, Fraternal Organizations, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Murray, Calloway County, Kentucky / Los Angeles, California / Mound Bayou, Mississippi / Chicago, Illinois

Howard University Club of Kentucky (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1907
In the early 1900s, there were several Howard University Clubs in the United States made up of Howard University alumni. In 1907, the Howard University Club of Kentucky was located in Louisville, KY, and on the 1st of January, the group celebrated Emancipation Day at the home of Mrs. Rachel D. Harris and Rev. Everett G. Harris. Albert S. White, president of the club, was the toastmaster. The event was also attended by Mrs. and Mr. James L. Diggs, president of State University [later Simmons University, Kentucky]; Mrs. Bertha P. Whedbee and Dr. Ellis D. Whedbee; Lawyer, W. H. Wright; Mrs. Fanny R. Givens and James E. Givens; William H. Perry, Sr.; Mrs. Willis O'Hara; D. L. Lawson; and Miss Hazel Richardson. For more see "The Howard University Club of Kentucky..." Freeman, 01/19/1907, p. 1.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Fraternal Organizations, Emancipation Day / Juneteenth Celebrations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Howe, Charles H.
Birth Year : 1892
Howe was born in Maysville, KY, the son of Scott and Renie Howe. The family of seven lived on West Fourth Street in 1900, according to the U.S. Federal Census. For 29 years Charles Howe was the highest ranking Mason in Kentucky, serving as Rt. Em. Grand Commander of the Knights Templar, Most Excellent High Priest of the Royal Arch Masons, and Most Worshipful Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of Kentucky. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Maysville, Mason County, Kentucky

Howell-Young, Joyce
Birth Year : 1934
The Louisville physician was appointed to the city's board of education in 1971, the first African American woman to serve on the board. She led in the integration of the patients' rooms in the Louisville St. Joseph Hospital in the 1960s. Dr. Howell-Young is president of the Falls City Medical Society. She is agraduate of Fisk University, where she earned a B.A. in Zoology, and Woman's Medical College of Pennsylvania. She completed her intern training at Miami Valley Hospital in Dayton, OH. Dr. Young-Howell had a private practice in Louisville, 1961-1967. She has had a number of posts including that of medical director of the Park DuValle Neighborhood Health Center, 1974-1976. She is a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. and many other organizations. Dr. Howell-Young was born in Cincinnati, OH, the daughter of Lloyd M.  Howell and Addie Belle Foster Howell. For more see "36 city officials include mayor, police court judge," in Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials [1972], by the Commission on Human Rights, p. 17; "Doctor says interns don't make living wage," Jet, 03/29/1962, p.27 [available online]; Who's Who Among African Americans, 1996-2009; and Joyce Howell-Young, M.D. in Who's Who in Black Louisville, Inaugural Edition, p.112.
Subjects: First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Medical Field, Health Care, Migration South, Women's Groups and Organizations, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Cincninati, Ohio / Louisville, Jefferson, Kentucky

Hubbard, Philip A.
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1902
Rev. Phillip A. Hubbard was a slave born in Kentucky, the son of Philip and Rosanna Hubbard. He was chairman of the first Republican convention held in Boone County, MO. Hubbard had served with the Union Army during the Civil War. He was licensed to preach in 1872 and was admitted to the AME Church Missouri Conference in 1873. He had several nicknames, such as "Silver Dollar Hubbard" and "The Dollar Money King," due to his success in collecting the per capital tax of the church while serving as the presiding elder of the Colorado Springs District of the A. M. E. Church. His remarkable ability with finances led to his being named the financial secretary of the AME Church. He also served as pastor at several churches and in 1901 was a delegate to the Ecumenical Conference in Europe. Rev. Hubbard set sail for England in August of 1901 and his wife joined him in September. While they were in England, Rev. Hubbard became ill and the couple returned to the U.S. Rev. Hubbard died in Washington, D.C. in January of 1902. His body was taken by train to Macon, MO where he was buried. For more see Rev. Philip H. Hubbard on p.583 in The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright; "May be Bishop Hubbard in 1900," Colored American, 11/12/1898, p.8; "Rev. Hubbard a delegate. He goes to England to represent the great A. M. E. Church," Colored American, 04/07/1900, p.14; and "The Late Dr. Philip Hubbard," Freeman, 02/01/1902, p.4.

See photo image of Rev. Phillip A. Hubbard on p.119 in Centennial Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church by R. R. Wright.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Migration West, Religion & Church Work

Hubbard, Theodore C.
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1904
Theodore C. Hubbard was the first African American to enlist at Camp Lincoln with the Illinois National Guard; he was an orderly under Edgar P. Tobey, captain of Battery D. Hubbard joined the Union Army in 1861, the only African American soldier at the camp until the formation of the 9th Battalion of Chicago in 1893. The battalion would later become the 8th Illinois, the first Negro regiment sent to Cuba during the Spanish-American War. At the time of his enlistment, Theodore C. Hubbard was a fugitive slave who was born in Kentucky. After the war, he served as the official messenger of the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Chicago from 1887-1904. He was the husband of Amanda Hubbard. In 1900, the family of four lived on 30th Street in Chicago, sharing their home with four boarders, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Hubbard was a commander of the John Brown Post No. 60 G.A.R., colonel of the commander in chief's staff of the G.A.R., and a member of the 19th Illinois Veteran's Club. For more see Theodore C. Hubbard in "Telegraphic Brevities," Grand Rapids Tribune, 04/27/1904, p. 2; and Illinois Writer's Project, "Camp Lincoln," Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society, vol. 34, issue 3 (Sept. 1941), pp. 281-302.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Huddleston, Anna L.
Huddleston was born in Louisville, KY. She taught elementary school for 19 years with the Louisville Public Schools and then was a junior high school art teacher and consultant for 20 years. She was also president of the Kentucky Art Education Association and the first African American to receive the Milner Award. For more see 2002 Governor's Award in the Arts; and Black Kentucky Artists: an exhibition of work by black artists living in Kentucky (1979).
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hudson, J. Blaine, III
Birth Year : 1949
Death Year : 2013
Born in Louisville, KY, J. Blaine Hudson, III was an activist for social change and a historian with an extensive knowledge of the history of African Americans in Kentucky. He is the former chair of the Pan-African Studies Department at the University of Louisville and was the appointed Chair of the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission. In 2005, Hudson was named Dean of Arts and Sciences at the University of Louisville, one of the first African Americans to be named dean at a predominately white college in Kentucky. Hudson authored a number of academic articles and was a contributing author, and he was the sole author of Fugitive Slaves and the Underground Railroad in the Kentucky Borderland and other books. Hudson earned his B.A. and M.A. at the University of Louisville and his doctorate in higher education administration at the University of Kentucky. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1992-2007; Hudson recommended to lead College of Arts and Sciences, a University of Louisville website; Directory of American Scholars, 10th ed., vol. 5: Psychology, Sociology, & Education; Blaine Hudson interview and biography, at KET Living the Story; and "J. Blaine Hudson, ex-U of L dean, dies," Louisville Courier-Journal, 01/06/2013, p.A001.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Education and Educators, Historians, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hudson, James E.
Birth Year : 1887
Death Year : 1964
James E. Hudson was an elevator operator at the Kentucky Capitol. In 1922, he was thought to be the first African American to address the Kentucky General Assembly. An evolution bill was being debated, and Hudson's Bible had been borrowed to argue a point. The Bible was worn, and Representative George C. Waggoner from Scott County led the collection effort to buy Hudson a new Bible and a Bible dictionary. His remarks to the Kentucky General Assembly were in response to receiving his new Bible and dictionary. Hudson also owned a restaurant that he managed during the week. In 1930, Hudson, his wife Callie and her son Joseph, lived on East Third Street in Frankfort, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Most of this information comes from "Bible Presentation," a website by the Legislative Research Commission; and United We Stand: Encouraging Diversity in Kentucky's Leaders (.pdf), by Kentucky.gov. See also "Volunteer Chaplain," The Bismarck Tribune, 02/02/1928, front page.

See photo image from the Kentucky Historical Society of James E. Hudson at the Bible Presentation website by the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission.
Subjects: Businesses, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Hueston, William C., Sr.
Birth Year : 1880
Death Year : 1961
Hueston was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Bettie H. Treacy; his family later moved to Kansas City, Kansas. He was a graduate of the University of Kansas and an active community leader in Kansas City. He also lived part-time in Gary, Indiana. He served as president of the National Negro Baseball League, beginning in 1927, after Rube Foster was committed to the Kankakee Asylum in Illinois. In Gary, Indiana, Hueston served as magistrate judge and helped establish the African American-owned Central State Bank. He was appointed by President Hoover to the National Memorial Commission for the building of the National Museum of African American History and Culture that was to have been built in 1929. He left Indiana in 1930 for Washington, D.C. to become Assistant Solicitor with the U.S. Post Office. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; The Josh Gibson Foundation website; Take up the Black Man's Burden: Kansas City's African American Communities, 1865-1939, by C. E. Coulter; M. Strimbu, "Library exhibit depicts Gary's rich, varied history," Post-Tribune, 07/24/1997, Gary Neighbors section, p. NB4; and "William C. Hueston, 81, Government Attorney," Washington Post, 11/27/1961, City Life section.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Baseball, Civic Leaders, Lawyers, Migration North, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Postal Service, Judges, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Kansas City, Kansas / Gary, Indiana / Kankakee, Illinois / Washington, D.C.

Hughes, Brenda Lee Garner
Birth Year : 1947
Death Year : 1986

This entry was written and submitted by Dr. Sallie Powell, University of Kentucky.

Brenda Lee Garner Hughes was the first African American woman to officiate the Kentucky High School Athletic Association's "Sweet Sixteen" Girls' State Basketball Tournament. Born in Lexington, Kentucky, she was the only daughter of Mathew and Alice Garner. She graduated from Dunbar High School. As a divorced mother of Monique and Lucy Lee, Brenda worked for the U. S. Post Office and as a seasonal employee for the Lexington Division of Parks and Recreation where she learned to officiate basketball. She became the first woman to officiate the Lexington Senior Dirt Bowl basketball tournament. In 1995, she was posthumously inducted into the Dawahares Kentucky High School Athletic Association Sports Hall of Fame.

For more see:

Powell, Sallie L., "'It Is Hard To Be What You Have Had Seen': Brenda Hughes and The Black and White of the Zebra Shirt—Race and Gender in Kentucky High School Basketball," Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, Special Edition, Volume 109, No. 3 & 4, Summer and Autumn 2011, pp. 433-465.

See photo image of Brenda Hughes in UKnowledge.

Subjects: Basketball, Postal Service, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hughes, Green Percy
Birth Year : 1881
Death Year : 1930
Hughes was born seven miles outside of Paris, KY, the son of William Henry Hughes, from Vermont, and Delphia Finch Hughes, from Indiana. Green P. Hughes was the husband of Sue B. Hughes, born 1887 in KY, and the family of six lived on Walnut Street in Louisville, KY in 1920, according to the U.S. Federal Census. In 1921, Green Hughes founded and organized the successful business, Domestic Life and Accident Insurance Co., in Louisville, serving as its president. He had retired from the insurance business when he committed suicide August 7, 1930, according to his death certificate, and is buried in Louisville. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927.
Subjects: Businesses, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Suicide
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hughes, Harriet
Birth Year : 1844
Death Year : 1901
Harriet Hughes was the wife of Thomas Hughes and the mother of 17 children. In 1870, the family lived in Flat Rock (Bo.Co.), KY, and later moved to Carlisle, KY. Harriet was a mail carrier for the route between Carlisle and Jackstown, KY, near the Bourbon County line. She was one of the first African American women mail carriers in Kentucky and the United States. She held the highest ranked government job among all other African American women in Carlisle and was well respected. There was a large attendance at her funeral: 63 carriages were in the procession to the cemetery. For more see "A Remarkable Colored Woman," The Bourbon News, 05/03/1901, p. 2.
Subjects: Postal Service
Geographic Region: Flat Rock, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Carlisle and Jackstown, Nicholas County, Kentucky

Hughes, James Nathaniel
Birth Year : 1871
Death Year : 1934
Hughes was born in Charlestown, Indiana. He was the father of Langston Hughes and the son of Emily Cushenberry and James H. Hughes. James H. was a former slave whose mother was a slave; her father was Silas Cushenberry, a Jewish slave trader from Clark County, KY. James H. Hughes' father was also a slave. He was the son of Sam Clay, a distiller from Henry County, KY. It is not known exactly when the Hughes family left Kentucky, where their four oldest children were born, but it is believed the family left prior to the Civil War. Their son, James Nathaniel Hughes, lived in Louisville for a brief period, where he passed the postal civil service exam but was not hired by the post office. He eventually moved on to Oklahoma, where he married Carrie Langston in the late 1890s. After their first child died in 1900 and Langston Hughes was born in 1902, James left his family. He settled in Mexico, never to return to the United States; he remarried, practiced law, and was a land owner. For more about the Hughes Family see Langston: My Cousin, by the Hughes Family Interest, Inc.; F. Berry, Langston Hughes, pp. 1-2; Langston Hughes of Kansas, by M. Scott [excerpt from Kansas History, vol. 3, issue 1 (Spring 1980), pp. 3-25]; The big sea: an autobiography, by L. Hughes; and The Life of Langston Hughes, vol. I: 1902-1941, by A. Rampersad. Additional information for this entry was provided by Marjol Collet, Director of the Langston Hughes Family Museum in Gary, Indiana.
Subjects: Fathers, Lawyers, Mothers, Postal Service, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Charlestown, Indiana / Clark County, Kentucky / Henry County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Oklahoma / Mexico

Hughes, Robert Henry
Birth Year : 1861
Death Year : 1935
Robert H. Hughes was a wealthy African American who lived in Lexington, KY. With his death, the Lincoln Institute was saved from harder financial times: when Hughes died he left the school $10,000. He also left $100,000 in a trust fund for scholarships, half for white persons and half for colored persons. Robert Henry Hughes was the son of Ellen Davis, a former slave, and the wealthy horseman, John T. Hughes, who was white. Robert H. Hughes spent much of his life in Buffalo, NY, returning to Lexington after the death of his father in 1924. He lived at 340 East Third Street, where present day Smith & Smith Funeral Home is located. He is buried in the Calvary Cemetery in Lexington. Robert Henry Hughes' first name has often been mistakenly written as William or James. For more see Kentucky's Black Heritage, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; and information on the Henry Hughes Educational Fund in the Fouse Family Papers in the Kentucky Digital Library. Hughes' death date and additional information on the cemetery and funeral home provided by Yvonne Giles - "The Cemetery Lady."

 

Access Interview The orall history interview with Charles F. Call, Jr. provides more information on Robert Hughes. The recording is available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database. 
 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Inheritance
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hughes, Sammy T.
Birth Year : 1910
Death Year : 1981
Born in Louisville, KY, Sammy T. Hughes was a second baseman in the Negro Leagues, touted as "the best of the best." He began his career with the Louisville White Sox in 1930. He was voted a Negro League All-Star more than any other second baseman. During his career, he hit .300 while averaging nine home runs per year. For more see The Ballplayers. Baseball's ultimate biographical reference, ed. by M. Shatzkin; Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines, vol. 26 (Sept. 2000 - Aug. 2001); and Cool Papas and Double Duties, by W. F. McNeil.

See photo image and additional information about Sammy T. Hughes at Negro League Baseball Players Association website.
Subjects: Baseball
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Humes, Helen
Birth Year : 1913
Death Year : 1981
Born in Louisville, KY, Humes made her first recording in 1927 in St. Louis. She then moved to New York and worked with the Vernon Andrades Orchestra. She replaced Billie Holiday in the Count Basie Band, recorded tunes for film and television, and appeared in the film Simply Heaven [Langston Hughes]. Humes moved to California in the 1940s and when her career slowed in the 1960s, returned to Kentucky. Humes' career picked up in the 1970s. For more see Kentucky Women, by E. K. Potter; and Contemporary Musicians, vol. 19, by S. A. McConnel.

Access InterviewListen to the Helen Humes Oral History (includes transcript) at the University of Louisville Libraries.


View Helen Humes with Dizzy Gillespie c.1947 on YouTube.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Migration North, Migration West, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Television, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / St. Louis, Missouri / New York / California

Hummons, Henry L., Sr.
Birth Year : 1873
Death Year : 1956
Henry Lytle Hummons was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Mary Ellen and Thomas Hummons. He graduated from the Indianapolis Medical School in 1902 and opened his practice the following year. He founded and was a clinical physician at the Tuberculosis Clinic, Flanner House, in Indianapolis from 1919-1931. It was the first free tuberculosis clinic in the city. Hummons also founded the Senate Avenue Y.M.C.A. in Indianapolis. He was among the first African American professionals to buy homes on California Street in Indianapolis in the 1920s. The area was excavated by the Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI) Archaeology Field School. For more see H. L. (Henry Lytle) Hummons Papers at the Indiana Historical Society; Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; and IUPUI Archaeology Field School.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Tuberculosis: Care and Deaths
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Hunn, Vanessa L.
Birth Year : 1958
Vanessa Hunn, a native of Lexington, KY, is the daughter of Demosthenes and Verline Hunn. A social worker for more than 20 years, in 2006 Vanessa Hunn became the first African American to earn a Ph. D. from the University of Kentucky College of Social Work; she was also the first to be admitted to the social work doctoral program at UK. Also in 2006, Hunn was the only recipient chosen nationwide to receive the Postdoctoral Fellowship in Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Research from the Council on Social Work Education. The fellowship is for doctoral students preparing for leadership positions in mental health and substance abuse fields. Hunn's research examines "Depression, Self-Efficacy, Income, and Child Outcomes in African American Welfare Recipients." She is also the recipient of the Lyman T. Johnson Torch of Excellence Award and is a member of the Omicron Delta Kappa National Leadership Honor Society and Alpha Delta Mu National Social Work Honor Society. In fall 2007, she became an Assistant Professor of Social Work at the University of Southern Indiana. In addition to her Ph. D. in social work, Hunn earned both her bachelor's and master's from the University of Kentucky, where she also taught in the social work program. Vanessa L. Hunn is presently an assistant professor of Social Work at Northern Kentucky University.

See photo image and additional information about Dr. Vanessa L. Hunn at the Northern Kentucky University website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Welfare (Social Services) Organizations, Migration North, Social Workers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Evansville, Indiana / Highland Heights, Kentucky

Hunter, Bush A. [Hunter Foundation (Lexington, KY)]
Start Year : 1894
End Year : 1983
Dr. Bush Hunter was born in Lexington, KY, the son of Mary B. and Dr. John E. Hunter, Sr. Bush Hunter was a graduate of Hampton Institute [now Hampton University], Oberlin College, and Howard Medical School [now Howard University College of Medicine], where he specialized in internal medicine. He started his medical practice in Lexington in 1926, sharing an office with his father on Upper Street. He later practiced at the Public Health Clinic on Upper and Mechanic Streets in Lexington. Bush Hunter retired from medicine in 1976. He was the first African American member of the Fayette County Medical Society [now the Lexington Medical Society], founded in 1799. He was named Kentucky's Outstanding General Practitioner of the Year and also named Kentucky's Selective Service Father of the Year in 1965, after serving as a medical adviser for the Selective Service System. In addition to his medical practice, Bush Hunter was a tenor singer and piano player. He was a World War I veteran of the U.S. Army. The Hunter Foundation for Health Care was a non-profit organization named to honor the 113 years of medical service in Lexington provided by Drs. John and Bush Hunter. The organization, founded in the early 1970s, was later renamed Healthcare of the Bluegrass. For more information see J. Hewlett, "Physician Bush Hunter dies at 89," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/02/1983, p. B1. See also the Hunter Foundation for Health Care records, accession number 1997MS244, in Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries.

 

Access Interview Read about the Bush Hunter oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Military & Veterans, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hunter, Charles "Charlie"
Birth Year : 1946
Born in Glasgow, KY, Hunter played basketball at Ralph Bunche High School in Glasgow, where he was the all-time leading scorer. Hunter was the first African American basketball player recruited by the University of Louisville, but he opted to play at Oklahoma City University. During his college career, Hunter scored 1,319 points and pulled down 584 rebounds; the team went to the NCAA Tournament four consecutive years. Hunter and his high school teammate Jerry Lee Wells were the first two African American basketball players at Oklahoma City University. Hunter was inducted into the school's Hall of Fame in 1997. In 1966, Hunter was chosen by the Boston Celtics in the sixth round of the NBA draft, but his career was cut short due to an ankle injury. He returned to Kentucky and is presently the academic advisor of the Western Kentucky University branch in Glasgow, KY. For more see Shadows of the Past, by L. Stout; M. Evans "OCU Women State's Surprise Team 7-0, Broncos Off to Best Start Since 1982-83 Season," Daily Oklahoman, 12/01/1997; and N. Haney "Spirit of '66 alive and well; Glory Road' brings back memories for local duo," Daily News (Bowling Green, KY), 01/16/2006.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky

Hunter, John E. [Hunter Foundation (Lexington, KY)]
Birth Year : 1859
Death Year : 1956
John E. Hunter, from Virginia, was the first African American surgeon at Lexington, KY's St. Joseph Hospital. He also helped found Lexington's Paul Laurence Dunbar High School. Hunter was a graduate of Western Reserve [now Case Western Reserve]. He and Dr. Perry D. Robinson had a practice together. Hunter retired in 1952, after practicing medicine for 63 years; he died in Dayton, OH, in 1956. John Edward Hunter was the father of Bush A. Hunter. The Hunter Foundation for Health Care was a non-profit organization named to honor the 113 years of medical service in Lexington provided by John and Bush Hunter. The organization, founded in the early 1970s, was later renamed Healthcare of the Bluegrass. For more see Kentucky Encyclopedia (2000); and "John E. Hunter" in the Lexington Herald, 11/16/1956, p. 1. See also the Hunter Foundation for Health Care records in Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries.

See photo image of Dr. John E. Hunter and an image of his home in The Negro in Medicine by J. A. Kenney, online at New York Public Library Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration West, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Virginia / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Hunter, Lawrence Vester [Noxubee Industrial School, Mississippi]
Start Year : 1891
End Year : 1958
Hunter was born in Bowling Green, KY. He was principal of Noxubee Industrial School in McLeod, Mississippi. The school was founded in 1898 by his father, Samuel J. Hunter (1865-1918) from Arkansas, and after his death, L. V. Hunter took over management of the school. The school produced a monthly publication titled Hunter's Horn. There are photos of the school at the University of Mississippi Libraries. L. V. Hunter's mother was Minnie Esther Lane Hunter (1869-1942) from Macon, MS. L. V. Hunter was a graduate of Fisk University, and he was a WWI veteran. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; and Sadye H. Wier: her life and work by S. H. Wier and G. R. Lewis. [Sadye Hunter Wier was a sister to Lawrence Vester Hunter.]
Subjects: Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Migration South
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / McLeod, Mississippi

Hunter, Leo Simon
Birth Year : 1911
Death Year : 1997
Leo S. Hunter, born in Louisville, KY, was a graduate of the University of Louisville. In 1999, two years after his death, Hunter was inducted into the Barbering Hall of Fame located in Canal Winchester, Ohio; he was nominated by Kay Jetton, a barbering instructor at West Kentucky Community and Technical College. Hunter was the first inductee from Kentucky and the fourth African American. In 1941, Hunter had been asked by Moneta J. Sleet, Sr. to start a barbering program at West Kentucky State Vocational School [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College]; Sleet was the school's business manager. Hunter had started to learn barbering when he was 11 years old. He designed the program at West Kentucky State and trained his first class of students, but left the school to serve in the Army during WWII, and the barbering program was dropped. He returned in the 1950s and re-established the barbering program, and he owned a barber shop. For more see J. Blythe, "Kentucky barbering teacher named to hall of fame," The Paducah Sun,10/06/1999.
Subjects: Barbers, Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Hunter, William H.
Birth Year : 1882
Death Year : 1938
William H. Hunter was a shoe maker and an industrial arts teacher from South Carolina. He is credited as the person who introduced shoe making as an industrial arts subject in the Negro public schools in Louisville, KY [source: "K. N. E. A. Kullings," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1939, v.9, no.2-2, p.28].  Hunter learned his trade at Tuskegee Institute [now Tuskegee University] and is listed as a former student on p.28 in the 1910 title Industrial Work of Tuskegee Graduates and Former Students During the Year 1910 by M. N. Work, Division of Research and Records, Tuskegee Institute, Ala.  According to the publication, Hunter had been at his trade for 7 years and was earning $15 per week. In 1917, Hunter was a shoe maker at the Boston Shoe Company in Louisville, and he lived at 1920 W. Madison [source: Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville for 1917, p.727]. In 1930, Hunter was a teacher at Jackson Street Junior High School [source: Caron's Louisville City Directory for 1930, p.1024]. William H. Hunter died November 28, 1938 in Louisville, KY [source: Kentucky Death Certificate #27559]. He was the husband of Willie Hunter (b.1882 in GA).
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration East, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: South Carolina / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hurd, Babe
Death Year : 1928
Hurd won the Kentucky Derby in 1882 aboard Apollo. He was also a noted steeplechase rider. Hurd was born in Texas, died at the Longridge Farm in Bourbon County, and was buried in Chicago. He had lived in Chicago in 1892 according to his voter registration information, he was working at the Garfield Park Race Track. His death certificate has that Hurd was 48 years old when he died, which would mean that he was born in 1880, though that is highly unlikely given that he won the the Kentucky Derby in 1882. For more see "Famous jockey dies in Ky," The New York Amsterdam News, 12/19/1928, p.9.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Texas / Bourbon County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Husbands, Harvey
Husbands was a photographer in Louisville, KY. He is listed in the 1884 city directory as a porter at the J. H. Doerr studio, located at 435 11th Street. He is also listed in the 1886 city directory as the photographer of his own studio at 267 West Jefferson Street. In 1887 his studio was located at 706 Hancock Street. Husbands is mentioned on p. 703 in J. C. Anderson, "Photography," The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber.
Subjects: Photographers, Photographs
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Hutchinson, Jerome, Sr.
Birth Year : 1926
Death Year : 2007
Born in Louisville, KY, Reverend Hutchinson was the first African American to chair the Louisville-Jefferson County Planning Commission in 1979. He became a member of the commission in 1976. He was a graduate of Central High School and attended Louisville Municipal College. He was owner of Jerome Hutchinson and Associates, a marketing and real estate business. He also owned and was chairman of the television station WYCS-TV, the first African American-owned television station in Kentucky. Hutchinson had also been an associate minister at the Emmanuel Baptist Church in Louisville. He was the father of Seretha Tinsley and Jerome Hutchinson, Jr. For more see P. Burba, "Businessman Jerome Hutchinson, Sr. dies," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 07/27/2007, News section, p. 6B.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Television, Realtors, Real Estate Brokers, Real Estate Investments
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

 

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