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Abbington v Board of Education of Louisville (KY)
Start Year : 1940
When the Louisville Board of Education denied the petition for equal pay for African American teachers, a suit was filed by the NAACP on behalf of Vallateen Virginia Dudley Abbington. The case of Abbington v. Board of Education of Louisville was filed on December 5, 1940, in the Federal District Court. Abbington (1907-2003), a native of Indiana, was a school teacher in Louisville at the time. She was one of the African American teachers who received 15% less salary than white teachers. The case, brought by the NAACP, was argued by Thurgood Marshall. The School Board agreed that if Abbington would drop her lawsuit, the discrimination in salaries would cease. The lawsuit was withdrawn, and a retroactive clause in the suit gave African American teachers back pay. The equalization of teacher salaries was a campaign by the NAACP that began in 1936. Abbington v Board of Education of Louisville was the third case for the NAACP, the first such case in Kentucky. Abbington left Louisville and moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where she is remembered as a social worker, civic leader, and civil rights leader. Vallateen Dudley (1907-2003)was born in Indianapolis, IN, the daughter of George (b. in KY) and Annie L. Dudley. For more see Papers of the NAACP, Part 3, The Campaign for Educational Equality: Legal Department and Central Office Records, 1913-1950 / Series B, 1940-1950 / Reel 8; see "Kentucky Cases" in The Negro Handbook 1946-1947, edited by F. Murray; "Alumna, 96, remembered as strong-willed activist," Exemplar (Eastern Michigan University), Winter 2004, Special Annual Report Issue; and "Vallateen Abbington, social worker, civic leader," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10/19/2003, Metro section, p. D15.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Social Workers, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Court Cases
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Abercrumbie, P. Eric
Born in Falmouth, KY, Abercrumbie developed the Black Man Think Tank and is the national president of the John D. O'Bryant Think Tank for Black Professionals in Higher Education on Predominantly White Campuses (JDOTT). A professor at the University of Cincinnati (UC), his focus academically and professionally is black males in America. Abercrumbie is also Director of Ethnic Programs and Services at UC. He was voted one of the Outstanding Community Leaders of the World by the U. S. Jaycees. For more see African American Biographies: profiles of 558 current men and women, by W. L. Hawkins.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Migration North
Geographic Region: Falmouth, Pendleton County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Abernathy, Ronald L.
Birth Year : 1950
Abernathy was born in Louisville, KY, to Ben W. and Juanita Abernathy. He is a graduate of Morehead State University (BA) and Louisiana State University (MA). Abernathy was a teacher at Shawnee High School in Louisville when he received the Teacher of the Year Award and was second in the state for Kentucky High School Coach of the Year, both in 1976. From 1972-1976, he was head basketball coach at the school. He left Kentucky to become an assistant basketball coach at LSU, 1976-1989, the first African American basketball coach hired full-time at the school. For more see Dale Brown's Memoirs from LSU Basketball, by D. Brown; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1980-2006.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Migration South
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Adair County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Adair County, named for General John Adair, is located near the Tennessee border in south-central Kentucky. The county was developed in 1801 from a portion of Green County, KY. General John Adair was born in South Carolina and came to Kentucky in 1786. He was a U.S. Senator in 1805, served as a Kentucky Legislator, and was the Governor of Kentucky 1820-1824. He was a U.S. Representative 1831-1833. Once Adair County was established, there were 800 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census. In 1830, there was one African American slave owner in the county. There were 8,000 people counted in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from the 1850-1870 census records.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 486 slave owners
  • 1,886 Black slaves
  • 239 Mulatto slaves
  • 108 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulattoes
With the country moving closer to the beginning of the Civil War, there were still about 8,000 people in Adair County, according to the 1860 U.S. Federal Census (minus the slaves). The number of slaves and slave owners had decreased, as had the number of free Blacks. The number of persons listed as Mulatto had increased.

1860 Slave Schedule
  • 341 slave owners
  • 1,342 Black slaves
  • 260 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 40 free Mulattoes
Five years after the Civil War and the freeing of Kentucky slaves with the ratification of the 13th Amendment, the numbers had not drastically changed when the 1870 U.S. Federal Census was completed:
  • 1,783 Blacks (including Parker Hiram Jackman)
  • 32 Mulattoes
  • About 35 U.S. Colored Troops of the Civil War had reported that they were born in Adair County, KY.
For more see "Adair County" and "John Adair" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; Historical Sketches of Kentucky, by L. Collins [available at Google Books]; and Notes on Adair County, Kentucky, by J. A. Steele and M. C. Watson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Adair County, Kentucky

Adam (Boone slave)
Start Year : 1773
Adam was one of the slaves who came to Kentucky in 1773 with Daniel Boone, his brother, Squire, and their families. Adam was with the group of men who were sent out for provisions. The men were attacked by Indians, and Adam survived by hiding out on a creek bank. He returned to tell of the killings, including that of Boone's son, James. For more see A History of Blacks in Kentucky from Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891, by M. B. Lucas.
Subjects: Early Settlers
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Adam (slave of Justice G. Robertson)
Start Year : 1862
In the fall of 1862, during the Civil War, Colonel William L. Utley of the 22nd Wisconsin Volunteers was in Kentucky when a small Negro boy named Adam sought refuge in his camp. Adam was a runaway slave about 15 or 16 years old; he was small for his size and has been described as a crippled dwarf. Around his neck was welded a collar with eight inch spikes. The collar was removed, and Adam was cared for and employed in the camp. He had been there but a short time when his owner, former Chief Justice George Robertson (1790-1874), arrived to claim Adam as his property. Robertson was well known throughout Kentucky: he practiced law in Lexington and had been a Kentucky Representative, an Associate Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, and a law professor at Transylvania University in Lexington. He would become a justice of the Court of Appeals in 1864. In spite of his prominence in Kentucky, when Justice Robertson arrived to claim Adam, Colonel Utley cited the article of war that would allow Adam to leave with Robertson on his own; however, Adam could not be forced to leave with Robertson, who left the camp empty handed. Both Utley and Robertson appealed to President Lincoln to help resolve the matter, but the President did not take either side and refused to get involved with the dispute. Justice Robertson proclaimed that an injustice had taken place, and he gave public speeches and wrote letters to newspapers stating his case. Colonel Utley was sent word that he would never leave Kentucky with Robertson's slave. As the 22nd Wisconsin Volunteers were marching through Louisville, KY, Colonel Utley warned the citizens that he intended to take Adam and all other refugees in their company, and if the townspeople attempted to attack them as they had other regiments with refugees, then the 22nd Wisconsin would follow orders to shoot to kill and the town would be burned to the ground. The 22nd Wisconsin marched through Louisville with loaded weapons and bayonets. Adam and another escaped slave were at the head of the line. There were no attacks from the townspeople. Colonel Utley, from Racine, Wisconsin, took Adam to Wisconsin, where he settled in Waukesha as a free person. The collar he had worn into Utley's camp was put on display in the Racine post office. Justice Robertson filed a civil suit in Kentucky against Utley for Adam's value, $908.06. The Kentucky newspapers carried story after story about the bold theft of Justice Robertson's slave. Prior to the settlement of the matter, and in an unrelated march, Utley was taken prisoner in Spring Hill, TN, by Confederates, and the matter of the stolen slave was all but forgotten. After the war and after all slaves had been freed, Justice Robertson still wanted to be paid for the value of his slave, $908.06, plus costs of $26.40. Robertson's lawsuit was brought to the Circuit Court of Wisconsin in 1868, and Utley was ordered to pay Robertson the total sum. In turn, Utley filed a claim with the United States Congress for reimbursement, and in 1873, the Senate voted in favor of the reimbursement and passed it on to the House for approval. Colonel Utley was reimbursed in full. For more see "Claim for the value of a Kentucky slave," Daily Evening Bulletin, 02/20/1873, issue 116, Col. B; and "Colonel William [F.] Utley and Adam the African American Slave," by Kevin Dier-Zimmel [online at ancestry.com community website].
Subjects: Freedom, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Racine and Waukesha, Wisconsin

Adams, Charles "Cane"
Adams was a musician who invented the 'walking cane flute,' a flute combined with a walking cane. He recorded with the Kentucky Jug Band/Phillip's Louisville Jug Band in Chicago in 1930. Adams' playing may also be heard on the recording Clifford Hayes & the Louisville Jug Bands, Volume 4. For more see Charles 'Cane' Adams in The Unsung Musicians of Early Jazz and Blues [.pdf], by R. Schneider.
Subjects: Inventors, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Adams, Florence V. "Frankie"
Birth Year : 1902
Death Year : 1979
Florence Adams, born in Danville, KY, was a professor at the Atlanta University School of Social Work, the first social work program accredited for African Americans. Adams was a professor at the school from 1931-1964. She had attended 1st-8th grade at Bate School, and was a high school and college graduate of Knoxville College. Her work with the YWCA started while she was  in Knoxville. With the encouragement of her friend, Frances Williams, Frankie Adams completed her master's degree at the New York School of Social Work in 1927 [source: Black Women Oral History Project, "Interview with Frankie Adams," April 20 and 28, 1977, pp.101-121]. From New York, Adams moved to Chicago to become an industrial secretary at the YWCA. She left Chicago in1931 to join the Atlanta School of Social Work. In 2000, the Atlanta University School of Social Work was renamed the Whitney M. Young, Jr. School of Social Work. Florence Adams and Whitney Young, Jr. were social work comrades and Kentucky natives. They co-authored Some Pioneers in Social Work: brief sketches; student work book (1957). Adams also influenced community organization and group work on the national level. She was author of Women in Industry (1929), Soulcraft: Sketches on Negro-White Relations Designed to Encourage Friendship, (1944) and The Reflections of Florence Victoria Adams, a history of the Atlanta University School of Social Work (published posthumously in 1981). She also wrote many articles and was editor of Black and White Magazine. The Frankie V. Adams Collection is in the Atlanta University Center Archives. Florence "Frankie" Adams is buried in the Hilldale Cemetery in Danville, KY. She was the daughter of James and Minnie Trumbo Adams, the youngest of their eight children. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950 and In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., edited by M. M. Spradling.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Social Workers, Migration South, YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Atlanta, Georgia

Adams, Henry
Birth Year : 1802
Death Year : 1873
Henry Adams was a Baptist leader in Louisville, KY, where he established the first African American Church. He also set up a school for African American children; the school survived while other schools established for African Americans by white ministers were being destroyed. Rev. Adams was born in Franklin County, KY. He was the father of John Quincy "J. Q." Adams. For more see Life Behind a Veil, by G. C. Wright; "Rev. Henry Adams" on pp.196-197 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky from Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891, by M. B. Lucas.

See photo image of Rev. Henry Adams in the Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, at the NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Fathers, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Franklin County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Adams, Herbert L.
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 1996
In 1973, Adams, a plumber, was the first African American elected to office in Lancaster and Garrard County, KY. He was the son of George W. and Mary A. Cunningham Adams. Herbert Adams was a veteran of WWII. For more see "Mayor, 45 councilmen are black city officials," in the 1978 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report, by the Commission on Human Rights, pp. 14-15; and "Herbert L. Adams" in Kentucky Obituaries, Danville Advocate-Messenger, 13 May 1996 through 31 December 1996 [online .pdf].
Subjects: First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Plumbers
Geographic Region: Lancaster, Garrard County, Kentucky

Adams, John Quincy "J.Q."
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1922
John Quincy Adams was born in Louisville, KY. In 1879, Adams established the Bulletin as a weekly newspaper in Louisville. He served as president of the American Press Association (the African American press organization). In 1886, he left Louisville to join the staff of the Western Appeal in St. Paul, Minnesota, assuming ownership of the newspaper within a few months. Adam's career also included his position as Engrossing Clerk of the Arkansas Senate. He was also a school teacher in both Kentucky and Arkansas. He was a civil rights activist and served as an officer in the National Afro-American Council. Adams was a graduate of Oberlin College. He was a charter member of the Gopher Lodge No.105, Improved Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World. He was the son of Henry Adams and Margaret P. Corbin Adams. J. Q. Adams died September 3, 1922, after being struck by an automobile while waiting to board a street car. He was the husband of Ella B. Smith, and they had four children. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, by R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston; D. V. Taylor, "John Quincy Adams: St. Paul editor and Black leader," Minnesota History, vol.43, issue 8 (Winter, 1973), pp.282-296; and for a history of J. Q. Adams career see, "Crowds throng to Adam's rites fill Pilgrim Baptist Church to capacity Elks conduct services," The Appeal, 09/16/1922, p.1.

See photo image and additional information on John Quincy Adams at African American Registry website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Saint Paul, Minnesota / Arkansas

Adams, John Tyler "J.T."
Birth Year : 1911
J. T. Adams was born in Morganfield, KY. His father taught him to play guitar when he was 11 years old. Adams later moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he played at parties and local clubs. He recorded with Mr. Shirley Griffith on the Bluesville label in 1951. Some of his songs were "A" Jump, Bright Street Jump, Indiana Avenue Blues, and Naptown Boogie. For more see Blues Who's Who, by S. Harris.
Subjects: Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Morganfield, Union County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Adams, Mary and Maria [Dutrieuille]
Mary and Maria Adams were sisters from Kentucky. In 1875 Maria moved to Fort Abraham Lincoln in Dakota Territory to join Mary, who worked for the family of Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Custer. Mary was a cook and Maria was hired as a maid. They were later joined by their younger sister Karlene and their cousin Nancy Mucks, both from Kentucky. There is an ongoing debate as to whether Mary or Maria (or neither) was in camp with Custer the day before the Battle of Little Big Horn, and if she overheard Custer being given verbal orders by General Terry, instructing him to use his own judgment and do what he thought best should he strike the Indian trail. In 1878, in Bismarck of Dakota Territory, a notarized statement was taken from Mary as to what she had overheard at the camp, opening the door to speculation that Custer had not disobeyed orders. Other sources say that it was actually Maria who was in the camp. Though, letters written by Custer named Mary as his cook in the camp, while Lieutenant Charles L. Gurley reported that Mary was at the house and opened the door when he brought the news of the death of Lieutenant-Colonel Custer and his men. In 1873, Mary had come from Elizabethtown, KY, to the Dakota Territory with Custer and his regiment (part of the 7th Cavalry). Custer and the regiment had been ordered to Kentucky after the Battle of Washita in 1871. After about a year and a half, they moved on to Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory. Mary Adams accompanied Custer, as his cook, when he was on military expositions away from the fort. After Custer's death at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876, Mary and Maria Adams left Fort Abraham Lincoln. They moved to Montana where Mary died in 1879, she was born in 1849. According to author J. S. Manion, Mary and Maria were probably born in Lexington, KY. In 1880, Maria was working as a laundress when she met and married John Lambert "Duke" Dutrieuille, a barber in Benton who owned his own shop. Duke died in 1911, and Maria moved with their two children, Frank and Marie, to Great Falls, Montana. Maria Adams Dutrieuille died in 1939, she was born around 1852, according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. For more on the Dutrieuille family in Montana see Small Collection 1584 at the Montana Historical Society Research Center, and in the Photo Archives are pictures of Duke and Maria Dutrieuille (Collection PAc 80-23). See also the online article about the Dutrieuilles at the bottom of the Montana History Wiki; and "Club Woman: Marie Dutrieuille Ellis," pp.126-128, in chapter 7 by P. Riley in African American Women Confront the West, 1600-2000 edited by Q. Taylor and S. A. W. Moore. For more on the debate as to whether Mary Adams was in camp with Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Custer just prior to the Battle of Little Big Horn, see Custer Legends by L. A. Frost; Archaeology, History, and Custer's Last Battle: the Little Big Horn reexamined by R. A. Fox, Jr.; Custer and the Little Big Horn: a psychobiographical inquiry by C. K. Hofling; and General Terry's Last Statement to Custer: new evidence on the Mary Adams affidavit by J. S. Manion.
Subjects: Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Elizabethtown, Hardin County, Kentucky / Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota Territory / Fort Benton and Great Falls, Montana

Adams, William T.
Birth Year : 1912
Death Year : 1974
When the second African American firehouse in Louisville, KY, opened in 1937, Adams was among the first group of firemen. In 1939 he was promoted to lieutenant, and in 1941 he became a captain. Adams would become the first African American put in charge of a predominantly white company in Louisville. He was named assistant chief in 1967. For more see B. M. Tyler, "William T. Adams (1912-1974): African-American firefighter, Louisville, Kentucky," Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 73, issue 3, pp. 284-293. See photo image of William T. Adams on p.46 in African-American Life in Louisville by B. M. Tyler [at Google Books]

Subjects: Firefighters
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Adamstown (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1870
End Year : 1949
The community was placed at the bottom of a hill on what was the edge of Lexington, KY, in the 1870s. By 1880 there were 65 African American families in the community. Adamstown was on Adams Street, located near what is today Euclid Avenue. The neighborhood was removed in preparation for the building of the University of Kentucky's (UK) Memorial Coliseum in 1949-1950. Quoted in an Atlanta newspaper, UK Coach Adolph Rupp remembered seeing the community when he first arrived on campus in 1930; he counted 55 homes. For more see J. Kellogg, "The Formation of Black Residential Areas in Lexington, Kentucky, 1865-1887," The Journal of Southern History, vol. 48, issue 1 (Feb. 1982), pp. 21-52; D. Kindred, "Memories of the old master revived," The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution, 04/02/1985, Sports section, p. C4; and reference to Adamstown removal in B. L. Mastin, "Home is where the art is[:] Mason, 71, uses skills creatively at his house," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/04/1995, Lifestyle section, p. 10.
Subjects: Communities
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

The African American Ball (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1994
The 1st Annual African American Ball was presented as a charity event in January 1994 and has since been held every year. It is the largest African American ball in the state; more than 6,000 guests have attended the affair over the years. The ball is a black tie event with art, entertainment, fashion, and music all in one night. Proceeds benefit the African American Forum Endowment Fund of the Blue Grass Community Foundation. For more see the African American Forum, Inc. and the Lexington Herald-Leader's annual article about the ball.
Subjects: Balls, Promenades, Socials
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Blacksmiths in Kentucky
Start Year : 1880
A discussion of the number of African American blacksmiths in the U.S. can be found in the Negroes in the United States (1904), by W. E. B. DuBois, pp. 63-64 [available full-text at Google Book Search]. DuBois noted that there were 10,988 African American blacksmiths in 1890; the numbers had decreased to 10,100 by the year 1900. The total was moving toward that of 1880 when the U.S. Federal Census listed 8,130 African American blacksmiths, of which 642 had been born in Kentucky and 521 lived in Kentucky.
Subjects: Blacksmiths
Geographic Region: Kentucky

The African American Borah Family
Start Year : 1810
In 1810, the Borah Family moved from Pennsylvania to Butler County, KY, led by the great great grandfather of Idaho Senator William Edgar Borah (1865-1940) and his eight sons. The family slaves, who also carried the last name Borah, were the ancestors of African American musician Harry Edison. Edison's great grandmother, Mariah Borah (born between 1810 and 1812, died 1876), was born in Ohio County, KY. Her mother's last name was Rogers. Mariah may have been the slave of Jacob Borah. She was later owned by George M. Borah in Butler County. Mariah had several children with Jesse Barnes [or Brookins or Brokins], a freeman from Maryland who had settled in Butler County prior to the end of slavery. It is believed that Jesse was at one time enslaved and migrated to Kentucky with the Barnes Family and then later freed. All of Jesse and Mariah's children carried the last name Borah because their mother was enslaved and carried the last name Borah, and the same applied to the children. Two of their daughters were Ellen and Julia Borah, one of whom was the mother of McDonald Porter. Their son, Larkin Borah, was the father of Katherine Meryl Borah Edison, who was the mother of Harry Edison. All information about the African American Borah family was submitted by Denyce Peyton. For more about the Borah family from Pennsylvania, see "Wisconsin at Washington," The Oshkosh Northwestern, 04/04/1936, p. 18: and Borah, by M. C. McKenna.
Subjects: Genealogy, History, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Pennsylvania / Butler County and Ohio County, Kentucky

African American Boxers in Kentucky, Photographs
Start Year : 1945
End Year : 1950
Within the John C. Wyatt Lexington Herald-Leader Collection are photographs of many competing African American boxers who participated in the Herald-Leader (Lexington, KY) Golden Gloves tournaments, including Pierre Jackson and other Kentucky State University boxers. The photographs are of the late 1940s-1950 tournaments. There are 460 images of Golden Gloves series from 1948-1950 and around 100 other Golden Gloves-related photos through the 1950s. Many of these images are of African American boxers. Contact Special Collections at (859) 257-8611 for an appointment to view the collection, for copies of the photographs and copyright information, or to learn more about the photographic collection.

 

  See 1950 Lexington Herald Leader Golden Gloves Tourney Champions, in UKnowledge, photo from the John C. Wyatt Lexington Herald-Leader photographs.

 

  See 1950 Lexington Herald Leader Novice Golden Gloves Tourney Champions, in UKnowledge, photo from the John C. Wyatt Lexington Herald-Leader photographs.
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing, Photographers, Photographs
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Business District (Danville, KY)
Located on Second Street, between Main and Walnut Streets in Danville, KY, the African American business district thrived for over 100 years. The area was razed by Urban Renewal in 1973. A Kentucky Historical Marker notes how valued the district was to the African American community of Danville and nearby areas. For more see the Kentucky Historical Marker Database #1958.
Subjects: Businesses
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

African American Cemeteries Online - Kentucky
Subjects: Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Communities in Warren County, KY
Sunnyside, Freeport, and Oakland were three African American communities in Warren County, KY, developed after the Civil War. In 2001, the city of Oakland was awarded a grant from the African American Heritage Commission to complete the study of the community Sunnyside. The resulting report, Writ Upon the Landscape: an architectural survey of the Sunnyside Community, reveals that the African American section of Sunnyside grew to the point that it merged with the white section of Sunnyside. There are presently 53 buildings and the Loving Union CME Church and its cemetery. The community also had a one room schoolhouse with grades 1-8 that was torn down in 1948. Sunnyside is located 5 miles southwest of Freeport, an African American community that had a two-room schoolhouse, Woodland School. One room held grades 1-3 and the other grades 4-8; the school was closed after integration, and the building was used as a restaurant and for social entertainment. The Mt. Zion Baptist Church, established in 1870, is still in use. The communities of Freeport and Oakland were separated by a railroad track, with Freeport on the north side. Mrs. Virgie M. Edwards was a teacher at the School in 1916; she was a member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. The names of other Oakland teachers are listed in the KNEA Journal from 1916-1935 [available online]. For more see Transpark: a collapse of dreams, by the City of Oakland, Kentucky; and the following articles from the News section of the Daily News - J. Dooley, "Oakland gets grant to fund study - work will cover history, heritage of Sunnyside," 07/26/2001; A. Carmichael, "Historic Oakland mill being dismantled - lumber will be used by famed Nashville-based builder," 08/30,2003; A. Harvey, "Black History: woman remembers Freeport's heyday," 02/22/2004; A. Carmichael, "A lifetime of teaching - Warren County woman has passion for education," 08/01/2005; and J. Niesse, "Freeport endangered by transpark project," Letter section, 04/25/2001.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Sunnyside, Freeport, Oakland, Warren County, Kentucky

African American Families and Heritage in Garrard County [oral histories]
Start Year : 2010
The following was taken from the description at the "Pass the Word" website. "Oral History interviews about the historical presence, accomplishments and contributions of African American families in Garrard County. Interviewees include current and former residents of the county. Communities discussed are Lancaster, Bryantsville, White Oak, Herrington Lake, Davistown, Boones Creek, Flatwoods, Pain Lick and Buckey/Scotts Fork."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky

African American Family History Resources (Fayette County, KY)
Website of the Kentucky Comprehensive Genealogy Database Project.
Subjects: Genealogy, History
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Farmers Oral History Project (Kentucky)
Start Year : 1991
End Year : 1992
The following information comes from the description in the SPOKE Database. "This project contains interviews concerning the experiences of African American farmers and their families in Kentucky. Topics include sharecropping, tobacco, cattle, women's roles on the farm, farm techniques, dairy farming, tenant farming, education, segregation."

 

Access Interview Read about the African American farmers oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records are in the SPOKE Database.

 

*For more information on African American farmers in Kentucky see "Upside down from the word go": Kentucky's black farmers speak out on the issue of land loss (thesis) by W. J. Wright.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Felony/Voter Disenfranchisement
The Kentucky Constitution, section 145, bars a person with a felony conviction from voting for the rest of the individual's life whether the full sentence has been completed or not. In reference to African Americans, Kentucky has the highest disenfranchisement rate in the nation. A request to have voting rights restored begins with the individual submitting an application to the Kentucky Governor requesting an executive pardon for reinstatement of voting rights. It is the Governor's decision as to whether the voting rights are restored or not. For more see J. Shugarts, "Felons' disenfranchisement mostly a matter of geography," Republican-American, 01/25/2009," Local News section, p. 1A; "African Americans and the Criminal Justice System" on pp. 20-21 in The State of African Americans in Kentucky, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights [available online .pdf]; and Felony Disenfranchisement in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, a report of the League of Women Voters of Kentucky [available online .pdf]. See also Determinants of College Students' Opinions Towards Felon Voting Rights: an exploratory study (dissertation) by B. C. Dawson Edwards. 
Subjects: Voting Rights, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Heritage Center, Inc. (Franklin, KY)
Start Year : 1994
The African American Heritage Center, Inc. is located at 500 Jefferson Street, and the mail address is P. O. Box 353, Franklin, KY 42135. See the African American Heritage Center website for the history of the facility, photos, and additional contact information.

Subjects: Genealogy, History
Geographic Region: Franklin, Simpson County, Kentucky

"African American Heritage Guide: history, art & entertainment," Lexington, KY
Start Year : 2010
The African American Heritage Guide was published by the Isaac Scott Hathaway Museum, Inc. in Lexington, KY, and funded in part by the Lexington Convention and Visitors Bureau. Included are 14 historic districts that may be viewed on a walking or driving tour. The majority of the districts are profiled in the publication, along with a map on the center pages. The latter pages contain horse racing history, including brief biographies of trainers and jockeys, cemetery entries, rural community entries, and information on public art and public events. The booklet also provides a very informative overview of the individuals who owned the homes and businesses featured in the publication. The African American Heritage Guide is available at the Isaac Scott Hathaway Museum. See also M. Davis, "Booklet full of black history - Heritage Guide painstakingly researched," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/11/2010, City/Region section, p. A3. Copies of the African American Heritage Guide are available at the University of Kentucky Libraries.

Additional information provided by Yvonne Giles:


Subjects: Communities, Genealogy, History, Historians, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Heritage in Bowling Green and Warren County, Kentucky (FA 509) [oral histories]
Start Year : 1997
End Year : 2000
The following information comes from the bibliographic record for African American Heritage in Bowling Green and Warren County, Kentucky (FA 509): "This collection contains tape recorded interviews conducted by Maxine Ray and Theresa Lee. The interviews deal with the heritage of African Americans in Bowling Green and Warren County. This project was sponsored by a grant from the Kentucky Oral History Commission." The collection has 3 boxes, 56 items, consisting of cassette tapes, donor forms and index. All items are available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

African American Heritage in Southern Hart County, Kentucky [oral histories]
Start Year : 2002
End Year : 2004
The following information comes from the description at the "Pass the Words" website. "Oral History collection consisting of interviews with African American residents of southern Hart County, predominately Horse Cave. Interviews covered topics of early African American settlements in the area as well as the dynamics of segregation and integration within the county. Also interviews about residents' experiences in the Civil Rights Movement. Original collection held at Kentucky Historical Society. Access copies available at KHS. Authorization must by granted by KHS se or publish by any means the archival material to which KHS holds copyright."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

African American Heritage of Simpson County Oral History Project 
Start Year : 1997
Subjects from the "Pass the Word" database record for the African American Heritage of Simpson County Oral History Project. "Discrimination, Farmers, Farming, Gospel music, Integration, Ku Klux Klan (1915-), Race relations, School integration, Schools, Segregation, Slavery, Slaves, Teachers"

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.

Discrimination, Farmers, Farming, Gospel music, Integration, Ku Klux Klan (1915-), Race relations, School integration, Schools, Segregation, Slavery, Slaves, Teachers - See more at: http://passtheword.ky.gov/collection/african-american-heritage-simpson-county-oral-history-project#sthash.tZpZKnzB.dpuf

Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

The African American Herndons from Simpson County, KY
Start Year : 1852
The following information was submitted by Gayla Coates, Archives Librarian at the Simpson County Kentucky Archives. Melford, Solomon, Bob, and Amy were the slaves of James Herndon in Simpson County, KY. In 1852, they were all to be freed when James Herndon's will was probated. The will stipulated that the slaves were to be freed if they agreed to go live in Liberia, Africa; otherwise, they were to remain in bondage to a member of James Herndon's family. Robert Herndon (b. 1814) and Melford D. Herndon (b. 1819) sailed to Liberia in 1854 aboard the ship Sophia Walker. Solomon Herndon (b. 1811) left aboard the ship Elvira Owen in 1856. In Monrovia, Liberia, Melford Herndon attended the Day's Hope mission school where he learned to read and write. He became a missionary among the Bassa people. During the American Civil War, his salary for his missionary work was discontinued. Melford returned to the U.S. and was able to secure assistance for the mission in Liberia. He also brought two of his sons to Liberia. While in the U.S., he was ordained a minister at the First African Baptist Church in Philadelphia. Herndon also collected $2,000 to build a school and meeting house for the Bassa people. He returned to Liberia in 1865 and continued his work without a salary. In 1869, Melford Herndon left his brother in charge of the school in Liberia and again returned to the U.S. for additional fund-raising and to locate his other four children. In 1873, Melford Herndon was back in Herndonville, Liberia. He would again return to the U.S., bringing with him ten Africans who would become students at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. When he returned to Liberia, he brought along his sister, Mrs. Julia Lewis, from Kentucky. They sailed on the ship Liberia, which was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Colonization Society. For more see G. Coates, "Melford D. Herndon: Freed Slave and Missionary to Liberia," Jailhouse Journal, vol. 18, issue 2 (04/2009), p. 22. [The Simpson County Historical Society is housed in the old jail, thus the name of its journal.]
Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom, Liberia, Liberian Presidents & Diplomats, Religion & Church Work, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky / Monrovia and Herndonville, Liberia, Africa

African American History at UK Libraries' Special Collections
The University of Kentucky Special Collections includes items pertaining to the history of African Americans in Kentucky, the collections are available in the King Library Building. See the Special Collections web page for additional information on borrowing, hours, and staff contact information. See also the research guide, African American Primary Resources in Special Collections.

Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: University of Kentucky, Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Jockeys in Lexington, KY, 1893
Start Year : 1893
The following names of African American jockeys comes from the title Directory of African Americans in Lexington, KY, 1893 by D. Y. Wilkinson.

  • Albert Boyer at 16 Ellerslie Avenue
  • Thomas Britton at E. Short Street
  • Clarence Clark at 81 Thomas Street
  • Ansal Conn at 411 Market Street
  • Charles Graham at 112 Corral Street
  • John Porter at 83 Thomas Street

Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Librarians, Kentucky
Kentucky was the first state in the South to have trained African American librarians and was also the first to have a library training program for African American librarians (1912-1931) [located at the Louisville Western Colored Branch Library]. The highest number of African American librarians employed in Kentucky was recorded in 1980, estimated at 161. The lowest estimate was 4, in the year 2000. For more see the Bureau of the Census 2000 EEO Data Files; 1980 EEO Data Files at the Kentucky State Data Center; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Library Directors
Go to African American Library Directors in the USA
Geographic Region: United States

African American Library Employees, WPA, NYA, & Kentucky, 1940
Start Year : 1940
Though Louisville, KY, had been a leader in the training of Negro librarians beginning in 1912, by 1940 those efforts had come to an end. The training program at the Louisville Western Branch Library ended in 1931. Also gone were the 1932 library training program started by Eliza Atkins [Gleason] at the Louisville Municipal College and the 1936 state training agency housed at the Municipal College for the training of Negro library employees [source: Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones, pp. 94-95]. The continuation of the Western Branch library training program at Hampton Institute Library School ended in 1939 [now Hampton University]. The Atlanta University library school would open in 1941 [now Clark Atlanta University]. In 1940 President Franklin D. Roosevelt was reelected, the country was still experiencing the Great Depression with record unemployment, and in Europe, it was the second year of what would become known as World War II. Employment was hard to come by, including library jobs, though Louisville was still the one location in Kentucky that offered the most employment opportunities for Negro librarians and library employees, which included teens and young adult library assistants who were hired via the National Youth Administration (NYA). Some of the adult librarians and library assistants were hired via the Work Projects Administration. Changes had taken place with the federal programs by 1940; the NYA, a New Deal program created during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term, was no longer a part of the WPA; it moved to the Federal Security Agency with the passage of the Reorganization Act of 1939. Also in 1939, the Works Progress Administration was renamed the Work Projects Administration; both were referred to as the WPA. The WPA was a New Deal agency (a federal assistance program) that employed mostly men for public works projects. The WPA Library projects mostly hired women. The library projects were sponsored by the public library commissions or boards of education in the participating states. There was a qualified workforce in Kentucky: the Negro librarians were some of the most educated women in the state and the race. Below are the names, education levels, and additional information about African Americans in and from Kentucky who were employed as librarians and library assistants in 1940; WPA and NYA workers are indicated. - - [sources: 1940 U.S. Federal Census; Wilson Bulletin for Librarians, April 1938; and Library Extension Under the WPA, by E. B. Stanford]. [See also NKAA entries for the National Youth Administration (Kentucky), Colored Libraries, and African American Schools].

 

NYA=National Youth Administration

WPA=Work Projects Administration

 

Anna Allen (b. 1924), daughter of Booker Z. and Viola Allen / completed 8th grade / Lancaster, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Anne Anderson (b. 1907), wife of Charles W. Anderson, Jr. / completed 4th year of college / Frankfort, KY / Librarian, Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]

Alice Baker (b. 1924), daughter of Lone and Nellie Baker / completed 9th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Beulah Bolan (b. 1891), widow / completed 2nd year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public school

Gwendolyn Blakley (b. 1918), daughter of William and Martha Blakley / completed 3rd year of college / Chicago, IL (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, reading project

Lorella Bradford (b. 1917), grandniece of Charles Batts / completed 3rd year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, college

Jesse M. Brashear (b. 1922), daughter of John W. and Fanny Brashear / completed 9th grade / Hardin County, KY / Library Assistant, school

Frances Bush (b. 1909), daughter of Brize and Nettie Bush / completed 1st year of college / Cincinnati, OH (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public library

Sallie Churchville (b. 1904), single / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Minnie Cooper (b. 1884), widow / completed 3rd year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, public library

James Cowherd (b. 1916), son of Lee and Stella Cowherd / completed 12th grade / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, NYA Literary Project

Bessie Crenshaw (b. 1920), daughter of Samuel and Bessie Crenshaw / completed 1st year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Anna Dell (b. 1896), divorced / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public school

Julius Dickerson (b. 1909), divorced / completed 3rd year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA, public library

Thelma Dunlap (b. 1923), daughter of Johnie Ross / completed 11th grade / Paducah, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Gertrude Durett (b. 1911), single / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, Toy Library

Clara Frank (b. 1902), single / completed 10th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA

Sophia Freeman (b. 1898), widow / completed 12 grade / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, high school

Thelma P. Froman (b. 1923), daughter of John Des and Minnie Froman / completed 11th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Wyetta Gilmore (b. 1906), married / completed 4th year of college / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public library

Vivian Glass (b. 1904), divorced / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, public library

Lillian C. Hall (b. 1891), wife of John Wesley Hall / completed 4th year of college / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, Attucks High School

Willa Hall (b. 1918), daughter of Bessie and Gabie Hall / completed 1st year of college / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, NYA Project

Margaret Hampton (b. 1916), single / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Rachel D. Harris (b. 1869), widow / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Beatrice Hatchett (b. 1921), daughter of Elisha Hatchett / completed 12th grade / Henderson, KY / Library Assistant, school work program

Hattie Hays(b. 1886), widow / completed 12th grade / Fulton County, KY / Librarian, school project

Robert Jackson (b. 1911), husband of Naomi Jackson / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA Recreation Center

Marjorie Johnson (b. 1906), married / completed 6th year of college / Paducah, KY / Librarian, school

Mary Jones (b. 1919), single / completed 10th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA Library

Cordelia Knight (b. 1920), daughter of Patrick and Emma Knight / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, Municipal College Library

Naomi Lattimore (b. 1904), wife of John A. C. Lattimore / completed 5th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Illinois) / Librarian, public and college libraries

Hariett Lawson (b. 1907), single / completed 4th year of college / Gary, Indiana (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public school

Evelyn Lewis (b. 1914), single / completed 1st year of college / Chicago, IL (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, WPA Project

Pearl Lewis (b. 1890), widowed / completed 8th grade / Letcher County, KY / Librarian, WPA Office

Charlotte Lytte (b. 1913), single / completed 12th grade / Springfield, OH (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public college

Eva Mallory (b. 1901), wife of Robert A. Mallory / completed 1st year of college / Minneapolis, MN (born in Kentucky) / Librarian

Esther Maray (b. 1920), daughter of Caroline Maray / completed 12th grade / Cleveland, OH (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, NYA

Charles Marrs (b. 1917), son of Charles and Julia Marrs / completed 12th grade / Chicago, IL (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public library

Ruth McCoy (b. 1916), single / completed 4th year of college / New Orleans, LA (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, university

Elnora McIntyre Muir (b. 1886), married / completed 5th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Tennessee) / Library Assistant, public library

Mamie Melton (b. 1897), widowed / completed 8th grade / Washington, PA (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, neighborhood house

Carolyn E. Mundy (b. 1908), wife of John Mundy / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Tennessee) / Librarian, public school

Mary Myall (b. 1907), single / completed 4th year of college / Xenia, OH (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, university library

Hugh Osborne, Jr. (b. 1919), married / completed 4th year of college / Paducah, KY (born in Alabama) / Librarian, judge's office

Hugh Osbourne (b. 1919), single / completed 7th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Alabama) / Law Librarian, Court of Appeals

Alice Parker (b. 1912), married / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA

Noverta Peoples (b. 1922), daughter of John B. and Leana N. Peoples / completed 11th grade / Paducah, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Lizzie Pierce (b. 1882), wife of B. L. Pierce / completed 11th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Pruline Pigeon (b. 1910), wife of Barbee Pigeon / completed 8th grade / Indianapolis, IN / Librarian, WPA

Lizzie S. Price (b. 1878), wife of Henry M. Price / completed 2nd year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, free public library

Elmarie Robinson (b. 1911), single / completed 11th grade / Covington, KY / Librarian, public school

Rose Sellers (b. 1921), daughter of Oliver P. and Mary Sellers / completed 1st year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Georgia Shipley (b. 1921), daughter of Lovie and Jerry Shipley / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, library project

Gertrude Silves (b. 1902), widow / completed 3rd grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, Ribhi (sp) Library

Bessie R. Stone (b. 1917), married / completed 5th year of college / Frankfort, KY / Library Assistant, Kentucky State College for Negroes [now Kentucky State University]

Lee Ella Watkins (b. 1918), daughter of Virginia Watkins / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Bruce Weaver (b. 1917), single / completed 2nd year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Indiana) / Library Assistant, school library

Garnett Witherspoon (b. 1911), wife of James Witherspoon / completed 2nd year of college / Paducah, KY (born in Illinois) / Librarian, college

Thelma Yancey (b. 1914), single / completed 4th year of college / Lexington, KY (born in Montana) / Librarian, college

Hortense H. Young (b. 1904), wife of Coleman Milton Young II / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Texas) / Librarian, Municipal College Library

Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration North, Women's Groups and Organizations, Works Progress Administration (WPA) / Work Projects Adminstration (WPA), National Youth Administration (NYA)
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Miners and Migrants: the Eastern Kentucky Social Club
By T. E. Wagner and P. J. Obermiller - African American coal miners in Eastern Kentucky. For more see African American miners and migrants: the Eastern Kentucky Social Club is available at the University of Kentucky Libraries.
Subjects: Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills
Geographic Region: Kentucky (Eastern Kentucky)

African American Musicians and Singers, Berea College Digital Collection [online]
Start Year : 1939
The Berea College Digital Collection, Sound Archives includes online sound recordings of artists such as the "Six Bits of Rhythm Jug Band," "Barnyard Boys String Band of Jefferson County," "Bluegrass Quartet of Richmond," and others. There is a range of music genres: gospel, hymns, folk, bluegrass, and more. To browse the selections, search using the terms African American and music, or search by name, geographic location, and song title.  Contact the Berea College Library for assistance or additional information.

 

Access Interview Listen to Steam Boat Bill; Railroad Bill by Etta Baker on guitar, recorded at the Berea College Celebration of Traditional Music 10-28-83.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Berea, Madison County, Kentucky

African American Oral History Collection, University of Louisville Digital Archives [online]
Access InterviewThe African American collection is the first oral history collection the University of Louisville Digital Archives made available online. It covers the history of African Americans in Louisville, KY. The selections consist of audio recordings with full transcripts. See more about the collection for additional information.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Performer at Louisville (Colored) Sängerfest
Start Year : 1881
Sängerfest (or singer's festival) is a German cultural festival, first held in the United States in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1849. [Also spelled as Säengerfest.] In 1866 a festival was held in Louisville, KY; the New York Times reported it was to be the largest festival ever in the U.S. In 1881 there was a festival held at the Grand Opera House in Louisville, and included Amelia Tilghman, an African American singer, teacher, journalist, poet, and composer. Tilghman had a leading role, she was the prima donna soprano of the Sängerfest. There was objection from some Colored citizens of Louisville because the German term "Säengerfest" had been used by newspapers to name their 1881 Grand Union musical festival. The committee members of the 1881 Louisville Colored Säengerfest were William H. Gibson, president; H. C. Weeden, secretary, and N. R. Hapen, musical director. Hundreds of singers were expected to perform. For more see The Encyclopedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, and general information, volume VI, by H. Chisholm (1910) [available online via Google Book Search]; "The Louisville Sangerfest," New York Times, 07/20/1866, p. 5; Amelia Tilghman in Piano Music by Black women composers, by H. Walker-Hill; The Music of Black Americans: a history, by E. Southern; "Louisville Saengerfest," People's Advocate, 01/29/1881, p.1; and "Louisville item. The Saengerfest," People's Advocate, 05/14/1881, p.2.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Physicians in Kentucky
Start Year : 1800
End Year : 1920
The names of more than 100 African American physicians in and from Kentucky are listed in the 2011 edition of the Biographical Dictionary of American Physicians of African Ancestry, 1800-1920, by G. R. Beckford. Regarding Kentucky, the physicians were either born here, attended the Louisville National Medical College or practiced medicine in one of the 32 Kentucky cities listed in the geographical index. Listed within the dictionary are persons such as Dr. Charles William Bibb (1884-1959), from Allensville, KY, who graduated from Meharry Medical School [now Meharry Medical College] and was a gynecologist and staff surgeon at Chicago Hospital. Bibb had a medical practice in Allensville before he moved to Chicago, where he had a medical practice for almost 45 years [source: "Dr. Charles W. Bibb," Jet, 10/29/1959, p. 16]. Also included in the dictionary is Dr. Simon James Watkins (1861-1948), from Courtland, AL, an 1891 Meharry Medical School graduate who was the first African American physician in Covington, KY,; he practiced medicine in Covington from 1891-1946 and was a dentist, physician, and surgeon [source: T. H. H. Harris, " Watkins, Simon J." on p. 940 in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, by Tenkotte and Claypool]. One other physician listed in the dictionary is Dr. Mary Irene Browne, born in 1886 in Washington, D.C., a 1910 graduate of Meharry Medical School who practiced medicine in Williamsburg and Kensee, KY. While in Kentucky, Dr. Browne lived in Depot with her sister, Jane Alice Browne Bond, who was a school teacher and the wife of James M. Bond [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census].
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Allensville, Todd County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Courtland, Alabama / Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C. / Williamsburg, Kensee, and Depot, Whitley County, Kentucky

African American Police Women (Lexington, KY)
The first three African American police women with the Lexington, KY, police force were Susan Garr, who started in 1949, replacing Augusta Strong, who had joined that same year but didn't stay on the force very long; and Susan Layton Tabb, who joined after both Garr and Strong in 1949 and served until 1977. Information from the Lexington History Museum - Public Safety exhibit.
See photo image of police woman Susan Garr.
Subjects: Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Police Women (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1922
Mrs. Fanny R. Givens and Patsy Sloan, both African Americans, were two of the four women police officers hired by the Louisville Police Department in 1930. The other two hires were Pearl Boston and Agnes L. Castle, both of whom were white. The local newspaper reported the four women to be the first hired on the Louisville police force, which was incorrect. Alice Dunlap had been hired in 1921, and in 1922, Bertha P. Whedbee was the first African American woman hired. When the new administration came into office at City Hall in 1938, Givens, Sloan, Boston, and Castle were relieved of their duties. For more see the Louisville Division of Police by M. O. Childress, Sr.; and The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan. See photo image of Fanny R. Givens at Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. Great Lakes Region website.

Subjects: Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Schools - Catlettsburg Colored Common School District (Boyd County, KY)
Start Year : 1873
End Year : 1944
The Catlettsburg Colored Common School District was established by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873. The district included the area beginning at the Ohio River at the mouth of Horse Branch. There was a poll tax on every male 18 years old or older within the district, and widows with children were also taxed. The tax was not to exceed $2. Students attending the school had to live in the specified district and be at least 5 years old and not over 25 years old. In 1887, the school term was five months. An African American minister, the Reverend John R. Cox of the AME Church, was the first truant officer in Catlettsburg. Cox was a former slave born in Catlettsburg in 1852. The school district existed for 38 years before an act was established in 1912 to repeal the act that had established the Colored Common School District in Catlettsburg. Four Colored families were counted in Catlettsburg in the 1910 U.S. Federal Census, most of whom did not have children. The number of children had more than doubled by 1920; Miss Agnes H. Lockwood was the school teacher in 1923; and in 1925, there was a school census of 20 school age children for the one colored school that had one teacher [sources: U.S. Federal Census; Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.66;and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.69]. The Colored school district in Cattletsburg may have been discontinued, but the colored school of Catlettsburg operated as part of the Ashland Colored school system. In the 1937 Polk's Catlettsburg City Directory, Daisy Keeton is listed as principal of the Catlettsburg Colored School at 170 E. Panola Hill. The school was still listed in the directory as late as 1944. For more see "Chapter 653" in the 1873 Acts Passed at the...session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth, pp. 193-194 [full-text available at Google Book Search]; and Common School Laws of Kentucky: 1922, by the Kentucky Department of Education. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Catlettsburg, Boyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools - Colored Superintendents at Kentucky Public Schools, 1925
Start Year : 1925
Below are the names of the colored superintendents listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory for the school year July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1926. The publication is one of the earliest school directories for the state. For the county schools, the superintendents were white and each one served all (black and white) schools in a given county system. In 1925, there were a few colored superintendents hired by the city and independent graded school systems for the colored schools. See also the NKAA entries for African American Schools.

Colored Superintendents in Kentucky 1925
SUPERINTENDENTS CITY SCHOOLS
P. More Hopkinsville
R. D. Roman Earlington
T. C. B. Williams Franklin
G. T. Halliburton Hickman
- Lebanon
Silas E. Dean Murray
J. A. Hays Princeton
J. W. Roberts Shelbyville
   
SUPERINTENDENTS INDEPENDENT GRADED SCHOOLS
B. B. Smith Lynch Mines
J. Neil Burnside Whitesburg

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky: Hopkinsville, Christian County / Earlington, Hopkins County / Franklin, Simpson County / Hickman, Fulton County / Lebanon, Marion County / Murray, Calloway County / Princeton, Caldwell County / Shelbyville, Shelby County / Lynch Mines, Harlan Co

African American Schools - Kentucky, 1866
Start Year : 1866
In 1866, there was a new law for the benefit of the Negroes and Mulattoes of the Commonwealth; all taxes from these persons were set aside in a separate fund, one half to support Negro and Mulatto paupers, and one half for the education of the children. There were 13 schools counted in December of 1866, they were included in the publication of the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864 [see below]. The schools had been under-counted; a large majority of the colored schools had not been reported to the Commissioner of Common Schools, because the schools were not part of the Common School system, and the commissioners had procrastinated in establishing common schools for colored children. As stated in the annual report, there were 41,804 colored children between the ages of six and twenty in Kentucky, and 9,995 of those children lived in one of the 12 counties reported as having a colored school. The Colored Fund held $5,656.01 (as of March 1867), one half of which went to the colored schools and one half was used to care for paupers. It was expected that the following year, there would be a more accurate count of the colored schools.

  • Bracken County - 1 school
  • Clinton County - 1 school
  • Estill County - 1 school
  • Fayette County - 1 school
  • Greenup County - 1 school
  • Harrison County - 1 school
  • Hopkins County - 1 school
  • Jefferson County - 2 schools
  • Laurel County - 1 school
  • Logan County - 1 school
  • Madison County - 1 school
  • Mercer County - 1 school
For more information see "Chapter 636" on pp.231-232, and "Colored Schools" on pp.22-23 of the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. See NKAA Database entries African American Schools.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools - Kentucky, 1886
Start Year : 1886
The Colored School System covered about 112 of the 120 counties. Many of the colored schools were actually school sessions being held for three to five months in colored churches. There was not sufficient revenue from the property taxes of African Americans to afford but a few new school buildings. School superintendents filed reports that included information about the condition of the facilities, enrollment and student attendance, and the qualifications of teachers. A driving force behind the development and continuation of a colored school was the community. It was not uncommon for schools to be opened, moved, or discontinued without the knowledge of the school superintendent. There were superintendents who did not submit a separate report about the colored schools, or there may be a statement about the colored schools in the annual report for the white schools. The following list comes from the "Colored Schools. A digest of the Epistolary Reports of County Superintendents," found within the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887. The total number of schools/districts was not available for every county. See also the NKAA Dabatase entries African American Schools.

  • Adair County
  • Barren County
  • Bath County - 8 districts with 1 school each
  • Boone County
  • Bourbon County - 24 schools
  • Boyd County - 2 districts
  • Boyle County
  • Breathitt County - 2 districts
  • Breckinridge County
  • Bullitt County - 7 districts
  • Butler County - 7 schools
  • Calloway County - 8 districts
  • Carroll County - more than 3 districts
  • Casey County - 5 schools
  • Christian County
  • Clark County - 11 schools
  • Clay County - 4 districts
  • Crittenden County
  • Cumberland County - 8 districts
  • Daviess County - 4 schools
  • Edmonson County - 4 schools
  • Fayette County
  • Fleming County - 6 districts, school held in churches
  • Franklin County
  • Fulton County - 11 districts, 1 school in a church
  • Grant County - 4 districts
  • Graves County - 16 districts
  • Green County - 17 districts
  • Harlan County
  • Hardin County
  • Harrison County
  • Hart County - 10 districts
  • Hopkins County - 18 districts
  • Jessamine County
  • Larue County
  • Laurel County
  • Lawrence County - 2 schools
  • Lee County - 2 schools, 1 in a church
  • Lewis County - 1 school in a church in Vanceburg
  • Lincoln County - 16 districts
  • Logan County - 21 teachers, many schools taught in church buildings
  • Lyon County - 11 districts
  • Madison County - 27 districts
  • Magoffin County - 1 school
  • Mason County
  • Marshall County - 3 districts
  • McCracken County - no school houses, 3 or 4 schools doing good
  • McLean County - 5 districts, most schools held in church buildings
  • Meade County
  • Menifee County - 1 school
  • Mercer County
  • Metcalfe County - 7 districts
  • Monroe County - 5 schools
  • Montgomery County
  • Muhlenberg County - the schools are at a stand-still
  • Ohio County - 11 districts, 11 schools
  • Oldham County
  • Owen County
  • Pendleton County - 3 districts
  • Powell County - 3 schools
  • Pulaski County - 6 schools
  • Robertson County - 2 schools
  • Rockcastle County - 2 schools, one in Brodhead
  • Scott County - 1 school, school held in rented building
  • Shelby County - 13 districts
  • Simpson County - 10 districts
  • Spencer County
  • Taylor County
  • Trigg County - 3 districts
  • Union County - 9 districts, 6 with schools
  • Warren County
  • Washington County
  • Wayne County
  • Wolfe - 1 district
  • Woodford County

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools - Moonlight Schools, Kentucky
Start Year : 1911
End Year : 1920
The Moonlight Schools were night schools for adults; the sessions were held within school houses in rural communities. The first moonlight school sessions were held in 1911 in Rowan County, KY. The idea and execution of night school for adults was the brainchild of Cora Wilson Stewart, an experienced education leader who crusaded against illiteracy [More information and her biography can be found at Guide to Cora Wilson Stewart Papers, 1900-1940 in the Kentucky Digital Library]. Moonlight Schools were soon opened throughout the United States in county areas and within cities. There were at least 15 Colored Moonlight Schools in Kentucky by 1915, with the best schools located in Maysville, Winchester, Mount Sterling, and Paris; Mercer County held a Moonlight School in every colored school district [source: p. 49 in Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. See also the 1919 Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, a collection of booklets within the Cora Wilson Stewart Papers, 1900-1940, Box 65. The booklets include the locations of some of the Colored Moonlight Schools and the names of the teachers. The collection is held at the University of Kentucky Special Collections. See also NKAA entries for African American Schools.

  • Allen County (in Scottsville at Zion School)
  • Barren County (Union Hill)
  • Clark County (Winchester)
  • Daviess County (in Owensboro at Western Colored School, teacher A. O. Guthrie, 12 students)
  • Green County (three schools: in Ote, teacher Mrs. Fannie Hoskins; in Gresham, teacher Miss Lilliows Thurman; in Whitewood, teacher Mrs. Sallie B. Graves)
  • Hopkinsville (Christian County)
  • LaRue County (in Buffalo, KY, teacher Bessie Ford, 12 students)
  • Maysville (Mason County)
  • Mercer County
  • Monroe County
  • Mt. Sterling (Montgomery County)
  • Paris (Bourbon County)
  • Simpson County (in Franklin, teachers Gertrude Mahin, Iola Ryons, and Bessie Lawrence, 68 students enrolled)
  • Campbellsville (in Taylor County, teacher Mrs. G. E. Philpott) [source: "Mrs. G. E. Philpott...," Freeman, 02/13/1915, p. 3].

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools: African American Education in South Central Kentucky, 1920–1960 - Oral History Collection by Joseph Carl Ruff (FA166)
Start Year : 1993
The following information is taken from the descriptive inventory. "This project, “African American Education in South Central Kentucky, 1920 – 1960”, was conducted by Joseph Carl Ruff, and includes 26 interviews with African Americans who were students, teachers and/or administrators in segregated schools in south central Kentucky. Their first-hand accounts provide a unique perspective on the evolution of the education of African Americans in the region. Each interview reflects the determination of a people to overcome the obstacles created by a flawed doctrine, ‘separate but equal’, to achieve success, and for many of the interviewees, to become community leaders as teachers and school administrators. This project was funded by a grant from the Kentucky Oral History Commission." The collection is available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: South Central, Kentucky

African American Schools and Students in Kentucky (Photographs), Kentucky Digital Library
Start Year : 1901
Photographs of "Colored" and "Negro" schools and students are available online within the Kentucky Digital Library - Images section. Student body photographs include Bracktown 1901, Briar Hill 1901, and Burdine 1921. For more see the Kentucky Digital Library - Images. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Bracktown and Briar Hill, Fayette County, Kentucky / Burdine (Jenkins), Letcher County, Kentucky

African American Schools and Students Photographs, KDLA Electronic Records Archives
End Year : 1900
Below are links to some of the pictures of students and colored schools in Kentucky, found online within the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives. The pictures were taken in the 1880s-1890s. Contact KDLA for additional information about the photographs and the schools.


Colored District No. 3, 8


Colored District No. 2, 80


Colored District No. 1, 79 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools and Teachers in Kentucky, 1929
Start Year : 1929
In 1929, Harvey C. Russell, Sr. found that the higher education institutions in Kentucky were at a low state of teacher preparation for the state's colored high schools. The findings are included in Russell's thesis The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools of Kentucky, for a Master of Arts in Education at the University of Cincinnati. In his thesis, Russell focused on public high schools, but noted that there were 61 colored high schools of all types in Kentucky: 36 city controlled, 23 county controlled, and 2 state controlled. There were 204 teachers. The number of colored high schools had more than doubled over a 10 year period and student enrollment had increased by 170 percent. There were 31 four year approved high schools within 28 counties and all but three had less than 100 students. The Rosenwald Fund had provided for 10 libraries. Among the public high schools, 56% of the teachers were college graduates and "the state has drawn heavily upon educational institutions in other states." [quote from Chapter VI, p.68, item 7.] Below are the names of the higher education institutions with graduates who were teachers at the colored high schools in Kentucky during the 1928-29 school term, as listed in Table XI, pp.46-46a, in The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools in Kentucky by Harvey C. Russell, Sr.

Training institutions in Kentucky attended by colored teachers (26%):

Training institutions in other states attended by colored teachers (74%):

Tennessee
  • Fisk University
  • Lane College
  • Knoxville College
  • Tennessee State College
Ohio
  • Wilberforce University
  • Ohio State University
  • Ohio University
  • Miami University
Washington, D.C.
  • Howard University
Indiana
  • Indiana University
  • Terre Haute Teacher College
Illinois
  • University of Chicago
  • Northwestern University
  • Illinois State Normal
  • University of Illinois
  • Chicago Business College
Georgia
  • Atlanta University
  • Clark University
  • Morris Brown University
Pennsylvania
  • Lincoln University
  • Cheney Normal
Virginia
  • Hampton Institute
Alabama
  • Tuskegee Institute
Oklahoma
  • Langston University
Michigan
  • Ypsilanti Normal
New York
  • Columbia University
  • Pratt Institute
Florida
  • Florida State College
Massachusetts
  • Smith College
Nebraska
  • University of Nebraska
North Carolina
  • John C. Smith University

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, Freedmen Schools - Kentucky, 1866-1870
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1870
The establishment (and support) of schools by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands from 1866-1870 was the first major, statewide effort to provide education for African Americans in Kentucky. There were more than 200 freedmen schools in Kentucky, including American Missionary Association Schools that were supported by the Bureau. The support was extended to schools that held classes in churches and rented buildings. In areas where the schools were not welcomed, the buildings were destroyed and/or the teachers were run out of town. In most of the cities where the schools were established, they were the first schools for African Americans. There were day schools, night schools, and Sabbath schools for both children and adults. Prior to the arrival of the Bureau, there were about 35 colored schools with 58 colored teachers in Kentucky. The students paid a subscription fee. For those schools supported by the Bureau, the majority of the school teachers were white women, some from northern states and associated with the American Missionary Association. The history of the overall effort, successes and failures, and the names of cities where schools were located, are all included in the Semi-annual Report on Schools for Freedmen: numbers 1-10, January 1866-July 1870, by J. W. Alvord. The title is available full-text online at Google Books. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. See also The Race to Educate: African American resistance to educational segregation in Kentucky, 1865-1910 (dissertation) by T. L. Bradley.
 
Freedmen Schools in Kentucky

  • Bourbon County - Millersburg - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Paris - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School built by Mr. Clay.
  • Boyd County - Ashland - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Boyle County - Danville - Freedmen School; American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Parksville - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Shelby City - Freedmen School
  • Bracken County - Augusta - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Bullitt County - Shepherdsville - Freedmen School. Teacher threatened; Noble School burnt down; schools held in two churches, churches were burnt down.
  • Breckinridge County - Cloverport - Freedmen School; - Hardinsburg - Freedmen School
  • Caldwell County - Princeton - Freedmen School
  • Christian County - Hopkinsville - Freedmen School
  • Clark County - Winchester - Freedmen School
  • Cumberland County - Burkesville - Freedmen School built by white citizens.
  • Daviess County - Owensboro - Freedmen School (brick)
  • Fayette County - Lexington - Freedmen School; Sabbath School established by the Episcopal Church; High School; - Stickaway - Freedmen School
  • Franklin County - Frankfort - School built with $600 contribution from the Episcopal Church & school under supervision of the Bishop.
  • Fulton County - Hickman - Freedmen School
  • Gallatin County - Warsaw - Freedmen School
  • Garrard County - Lancaster - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Graves County - Mayfield - Freedmen School. Freedmen beaten and whipped, teacher run out of town.
  • Harrison County - Cynthiana - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School
  • Hart County - Munfordville - Freedmen School; - Woodsonville - Freedmen School
  • Henderson County - Henderson - Freedmen School, school teachers threatened and run out of town.
  • Hickman County - Columbus - Freedmen School held in rented school house.
  • Jefferson County - Louisville - Teacher training school, school teacher insulted by police officer; Ely Normal School; - Portland - Freedmen School
  • Jessamine County - Camp Nelson - Ariel Academy (purchased by the Bureau for $1,520); - Keene - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Kenton County - Covington - Freedmen School; there were also several schools held in churches; American Missionary Association Schools supported by the Bureau.
  • Lincoln County - Crab Orchard - Freedmen School. School teacher mobbed and run out of town.
  • Logan County - Auburn - School plans were scrapped due to mob.
  • McCracken County - Paducah - Runkle Institute [named for Benjamin P. Runkle, Superintendent of Education in Kentucky]
  • Madison County - Berea - Freedmen School; Berea College provided instruction to freemen; - Kingston - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Richmond - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School.
  • Mason County - Maysville - Freedmen School; American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Mayslick - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; - Washington - Freedmen School
  • Marion County - Lebanon - Freedmen School
  • Meade County - Bradenburg - Freedmen School, school was burnt down, another building rented and school continued; - Haysville - Freedmen School. School was burnt down.
  • Monroe County - Tompkinsville - Freedmen School. School was burnt down.
  • Montgomery County - Mt. Sterling - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School.
  • Nelson County - Bardstown - Freedmen School; - Bloomfield - Freedmen School; - Springfield - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Nicholas County - Carlisle - Freedmen School
  • Oldham County - LaGrange - Freedmen School; - Peewee Valley - Freedman School
  • Pendleton County - Falmouth - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Pulaski County - Somerset - Freedmen School. School teacher run out of town.
  • Shelby County - Shelbyville - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau; Freedmen School. Teacher assaulted by the county judge and run out of town.
  • Scott County - Georgetown - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau.
  • Simpson County - Franklin - Freedmen School. Teacher mobbed, had to be saved by U.S. Troops.
  • Todd County - Hadensville - Freedmen School; - Trenton - Freedmen School
  • Warren County - Bowling Green - Freedmen School. Teacher run out of town.
  • Woodford County - Versailles - Freedmen School; - Midway - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Chaplain - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Hopkins Farm - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Sills Farm - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Smith's Mill - Freedmen School
  • ? County - Turnerville - Freedmen School
  • Cairo, Illinois - Freedmen School. The school burnt down, it had been attend by studens who were members of the large number of former slaves from Kentucky who had escaped to Cairo.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, High Schools - Eastern Kentucky, 1948
Start Year : 1948
In 1948, William T. Gilbert completed his thesis, The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky, for a Master of Arts degree at Indiana University. A Kentucky school law mandated that all school districts provide 12 grades of segregated school for both races. For many of the eastern counties with few colored students (who lived in scattered locations throughout the county), the law presented a challenge. There were 16 approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky from 1918-1940, and two of the schools had been dropped: enrollment was too small at Manchester, and the Vicco school was consolidated with the Hazard school system. The high school classes ranged in size from six students in Pineville to 288 students in Lynch. There were 46 high school teachers, all college graduates. Below is a list of the high school names from p. 25 of Gilbert's thesis, and below that, from p. 90, a list of the institutions from which the high school teachers graduated.

Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools:

  • Lincoln [not Liberty]
Middlesboro
  • Roland-Hayes
Pineville
  • B. T. Washington
Ashland
  • Palmer-Dunbar
Wheelwright
  • Benham
Benham
  • Rosenwald
Harlan
  • Lynch
Lynch
  • Rosenwald
Barbourville
  • London
London
  • Dunham
Jenkins
  • Fee
Maysville
  • Liberty
Hazard
  • Perry Cline
Pikeville
  • Somerset
Somerset



Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools: Institutions from which the High School Teachers Graduated:

  • Kentucky State

25
  • Tennessee State

4
  • Knoxville College

3
  • Wilberforce University

3
  • Clark University

2
  • Tuskegee Institute

2
  • Fisk University

1
  • Hampton Institute

1
  • West Virginia State

1
  • Ohio State

1
  • Atlanta University

1
  • University of Cincinnati

1
  • Louisville Municipal

1

Subjects: Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Eastern Kentucky

African American Schools in Adair County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Adair County, KY; Kittie Miller was the teacher in Columbia [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There continued to be colored schools according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 30th, 1886 and June 30th, 1887, pp.68 & 123. There are references to the schools in William G. Aaron's thesis History of Education in Adair County, Kentucky. By 1895, there were 13 colored schools, 5 in log buildings, and 8 in frame buildings [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.194-197]. The average attendance was more than 300 students taught by 13 teachers 1895-96, and 14 teachers 1896-97. In 1912, the Columbia Colored School was taught by Parker Jackman; he had been teaching since shortly after the end of the Civil War and was one of the first African American teachers in Adair County and Russell County. There were as many as 14 colored schools in Adair County, but the number decreased to 10 by 1933 [Aaron, p.112]. In 1917, bids were accepted for the building of a colored school in Kelleyville [source: "Notice," Adair County News, 07/25/1917, p.4]. In 1920, bids were accepted for the building of the Elroy Colored School in District G, Division 2 [source: "To Contractors," Adair County News, 01/28/1920, p.4]. In 1921, the colored teachers earned between $65-$75 per month, and in 1931, they earned between $44-$56 per month [Aaron, p.86]. Attendance ranged from 384 students in 1901 to 161 students in 1931 [Aaron, p.89]. The Columbia County High School for colored students opened in 1925; the school was funded by the County Board of Education and cost $3,800 [Aaron, p.107]. There was also the Rosenwald School built on Taylor Street and named Jackman High in honor of Parker Jackman. There were 10 high school students for the 1931-32 term. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Adair County were R. L. Dowery, Arena Duvall, Mares Grider, Sottie Harris, Pabla Hughes, Viven Johnson, Bessie Lasley, Mollie Lasley, Stephen Samuel, Nina Mae Vaughan, Ida White, Paralee White, and Ora Lee Willis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Integration of the schools in Adair County occured in 1956 after parents of Negro studens filed a lawsuit via the NAACP (James A. Crumlin, Sr.), [sources: "Court orders Adair Board to end segregation, Leader, 12/01/1955; and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.41].

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Columbia School
  • Jackman High School
  • Kelleyville School
  • Elroy School
  • Knifley #2 School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]
  • Montpelier School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]
  • Pellyton #2 School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]

  See photo image of Columbia School c.1926 on p.73 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1923 by The Kentucky Heritage Council.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Adair County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Allen County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1962
As early as 1874, there were five colored school districts in Allen County, KY, and two of them had schools that were in operation when the common school report was published in 1876 [source: Legislative Document No. 2: Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of the State of Kentucky for the fiscal years ending Oct. 10, 1874, and October 10, 1875, pp. 173-172]. Jesse M. Hudson was a school teacher in Scottsville, KY, (according to the list on p. 30 of the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916). There were at least five colored school teachers in Allen County, KY, in 1919, when the County Illiteracy Agent, Elizabeth Baker, secured their pledge for a Moonlight School [source: Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, Allen County, KY]. The colored Moonlight School was held at the Zion School in Scottsville. There was also a county colored school in Maynard, it was a Rosenwald School built next to the Caney Fork Baptist Church around 1922. The school was closed in 1933 when the Allen County colored schools were merged with the colored city school in Scottsville. A photo of the Maynard School and additional history is available at the Flickr site by Kenny Browning. The teachers mentioned at the Flickr site are Garnett Holder, Jessie Hudson, Clara Whitney, Sarah Hughes, and Nintha Shipley Ponds. Other Scottsville school teachers mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal are Miss Lottie M. Hughes, Miss Lucy V. Lee, and Mrs. Chlora B. Whitney (all in the April 18-21, 1923 issue). The Negro teachers in Allen County listed in the 1940 U.S. Federal Census were Nintha Ponds, principal of the Maynard School, and Geannie P. Smith at the Scottsville School. The Scottsville Independent schools were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Zion School
  • Maynard School
  • Moonlight School
  • Scottsville School 

See a photo of the Maynard Colored School, a Flickr site by Kenny Browning.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Anderson County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
There were colored schools in Anderson County, KY prior to the year 1900 and the exact date of the first colored school is not known. In 1880, 21 year old John Trunt(sp) was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as a school teacher who lived in the East District of Lawrenceburg, but there is no indication as to where the school was located. Trunt(sp) was a boarder with the John Penny family. {Trunt may not be the correct spelling of the last name, it is difficult to read the handwriting of the census taker}. There were still colored schools in Anderson County in 1895, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...for the two years beginning July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, there were five districts, each with one school that was taught five months per year. Three of the school buildings were frame structures, and the other two schools were taught in churches or other buildings. The colored schools were under the county system. There were six teachers and an average of 113 students attending school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were still five districts with five schools and six teachers [source: Biennial Report...beginning July 1, 1899 and ending June 30,1901]. One of the schools was taught more than five months. In 1901, there were four school buildings, one made of log and three frame structures, and the fifth school was taught in a church, or rented building, or in the teacher's home. The average attendance was 169 students for the school year 1899-1900, and the teachers earned an average of $46.61 per month. There was an average attendance of 135 students from 1900-1901, and the teachers earned an average of $41.55 per month. For both years, the Negro teachers earned more than the white teachers. There was one student from Anderson County who graduated from the State Normal School for Colored Persons for the scholastic year 1900 and 1901 [now Kentucky State University]. In 1916, there were two teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916: Mary W. Coleman [known as Mrs. Wally], p.26; and J. C. Diggs, p.27. By 1926, Raymond I. Pleasant had replaced J. C. Diggs and the Lawrenceburg Colored School was located in the Grove, it was Pleasant's first teaching job and he would become principal of the school. His wife, Catherine Utterback Pleasant taught at the Georgetown School in Anderson County, the school was in the African American community of Georgetown located off Lock Road in the area known today as the Georgetown School Road. Catherine and Raymond Pleasant are listed in the History and Families, Anderson County, Kentucky, by Turner Publishing, p.139. By 1935, William Coleman was a teacher and would become principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, v.6, no.1, p.52]. Prior to his arrival, Raymond I. Pleasant and Mary Coleman had added an unaccredited 2 year high school to the Lawrenceburg Colored School and there were 3 students [sources: Turner Pub., p.136; and KNEA Journal, Feb. 1931, v.1, no.3, p.11, and v.2, no.1, p.24]. William and Mary Coleman continued the unaccredited high school department, though in 1936, the school was still referred to as a city elementary school [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1936, p.40]. Mrs. Lorelia C. Spencer was a teacher at the school in 1938 and she was principal of the high school department [source: KNEA Journal, v.9, no.1-2, p.52, and v.9, no.3, p.14]. According to historian Gary Brown, it was also in 1938 when the Lawrenceburg Colored School in the Grove burnt down and the new school was built on Lincoln Street. W. M. Thomas was a teacher at the school, and he left in 1939 to become principal of the Knob City High School in Russellville, KY [source: KNEA Journal, Jan.-Feb 1940, v.10, no.2, p.34]. L. L. Owens was principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School in 1940 [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1940, v.11, no.1, p.32]. Mrs. C. B. Daily was principal in 1945 [source: KNEA Journal, April-May 1945, v.16, no.2-3, p.29]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Anderson County were William Coleman, Catherine Pleasant, and L. L. Owens [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, William M. Coleman was principal of the junior high grades of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, March 1949, p.19]. The Anderson County colored schools were consolidated around 1950 and students from the county were bused to the Lawrenceburg Colored School on Lincoln Street. William M. Coleman would again be named principal of the school. There was never an accredited high school for Negro children in Anderson County and the unaccredited high school department at the Lawrenceburg Colored School were dropped in 1945. According to Lawrenceburg resident Ethel Thurman and historian Gary Brown, Anderson County paid for Negro high school students in Lawrenceburg to be bused to Lincoln Institute in Shelby County and to Simmons High School in Versailles, and there were a few students bused to the old Dunbar High School in Lexington. The Anderson County Schools began to integrate in 1963 when Negro high school students were given the option of attending the white high school in Lawrenceburg, or Lincoln Institute, or the high school in Versailles. According to historian Gary Brown, the following year, all other grades were integrated, and Robert Bird was the Superintendent of Schools. For this entry, assistance with geographic locations and names, the names of teachers, and school integration information were also provided by Jane Jones and Cathy L. Green.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Georgetown School
  • Lawrenceburg School (burnt in 1938)
  • Lawrenceburg School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ballard County, KY
Start Year : 1888
End Year : 1962
In 1888, there were eight colored schools in Ballard County, KY, according to author William H. Baldree in his thesis, History of Education in Ballard County, p. 41. The schools were said to be in poor condition. In 1916, R. H. Johnson of Wickliffe was a school teacher in Ballard County [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1923, the teachers were Miss. Pauline Herron of La Center, Mrs. Iola Carruthers of Barlow, Miss Ophelia M. Durrell in La Center, and Miss Sault Reeves of Wickliffe [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.55, 57, 62, & 72]. Mrs. Early Lee Harris, Mrs. Callie Tounley, and Mr. Dave Williams were the school teachers at Kevil in 1927 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 20-23, 1927, pp.47, 61, & 63]. Author Baldree got a more favorable report about the colored schools in 1931 when he interviewed County Superintendent V. W. Wallis. There were six frame school buildings and seven teachers for the 137 children attending the schools [p. 60]. The schools were supported by the state and the Julius Rosenwald Fund. There were no colored high schools in Ballard County in 1931; 12 students were attending high school in another county. The following year, there was a high school, Ballard County High, and Loretta Spencer was hired as the principal. Shortly after Spencer arrived at the school, the building was burnt down. Spencer successfully campaigned for funding to build a new school, and she received assistance from the Slater Fund and from the Parent-Teachers Association. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ballard County were Modena Crice and Tallie Townley [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Ballard Memorial High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Wickliffe School
  • Barlow School
  • La Center School
  • Kevil School
  • Ballard County High
  • Central School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Bandana School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Bethel School
  • Lovelaceville School
  • Robinsontown School

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Barbourville and Knox County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
As early as 1895, there were 6 colored schools in Knox County, KY, and the schools were in session for 5 months of each year with one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.479-483]. The average attendance was 195 for 1895-96, and 141 for 1896-97. The Barbourville Colored School was taught by Zuetta Minor in 1907 and by Prof. Edward Kirtley in 1908 [source: "Colored School," Mountain Advocate, 12/25/1908, p. 1]. The seven colored schools in Knox County, KY, included the new brick school building in Barbourville, and there were plans to combine two of the school districts [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1905-1907, pp. 135-137]. In 1910, the Barbourville School, considered a county school, had 35 students on the first day of classes; Mary Dee Robinson was the teacher [source: "Colored School Opens," Mountain Advocate, 07/15/1910, p. 3]. The Bertha Colored School held its commencement in January of 1910. Miss Laura Gibson had been the school teacher for two years [source: "Commencement: Colored School of Bertha," Mountain Advocate, 01/14/1910, p. 3]. Gibson lived in Emanuel [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p. 59]. The Barbourville schools had been overseen by a white school board until 1921, when the Board of Council of the City of Barbourville ordained that the white school have a white board of education, and the colored school have a colored board of education [source: "Ordinance," Mountain Advocate, 09/16/1921, p. 4]. In 1940, R. H. Thompson was principal of the Rosenwald High School in Barbourville [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, October-November 1940, p. 32]. The Negro teachers in Knox County in 1940 were Benjamin F. Brown, Grace Etter, Laura Gibson, and Horace J. Neal [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Miss Laura Gibson retired from teaching at Barbourville Independent in 1942 [source: "Honor to whom honor is due," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, November-December 1942, p. 7]. The Barbourville Independent Schools were first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.438.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Barbourville Independent School
  • Barbourville School
  • Bertha School
  • Emanuel School
  • Rosenwald High School
  • Rosenwald Elementary School

  See photo image of teacher and basketball students at Rosenwald Elementary School in 1950 on p. 94 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Knox County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Barren County, KY
Start Year : 1875
End Year : 1957
According to Richard Alsup Palmore's thesis, History of Education of Barren County, Kentucky, p. 109, "In the early history of Negro schools in Barren County it was difficult to maintain the schools. There were no school buildings and practically no funds with which to provide buildings. Salaries for teachers were extremely low and there were no qualified teachers." Palmore got his information from the 1875 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, by R. H. Collins. The school teachers in 1880 were Vina Woods and Hardy O. Jones in Glasgow; and Samuel Nuckols in Roseville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In spite of the poor condition of the schools, there continued to be colored schools in Barren County; they are mentioned in the 1886 superintendent's report. The schools were still in poor condition in 1891; most of the schools were held in churches [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, vol. 2, by Lucas and Wright, p. 108]. From 1892-1918, there were more than 20 colored schools in Barren County, with a high of 27 schools from 1892-1894, and a low of 18 schools in 1918 [Palmore, pp. 110-111]. In 1911, there was also a Colored Moonlight School at Union Hill [see the NKAA entry for Moonlight Schools]. Glasgow Colored School was considered the best colored school in the county; there was a graded school and instruction in high school subjects along with instruction in home economics and manual training [Palmore, p. 116]. A male principal oversaw four female teachers. The Glasgow Colored School had the only high school for Negroes in Barren County. Another school mentioned in Palmore's thesis, on p. 117, is The Ratliff Industrial Institute, an independent secondary school that was supported and managed by the Colored people of Glasgow. The school was established in 1926 and closed around 1931. The Negro teachers in Barren County in 1940 were Clara Anderson, Margaret Anderson, Queva Barlow, Irene I. Brents, Artanzie Britt, Susie Lee Curry, Green V. Curry, Clara C. Farmer, George Mitchell, Mary Lucy Murrell, Richard Sewell, Willa Southers, Luska Twyman, and John Moss Wood [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, were the Caverna Independent Schools, 1957-58, listed on p.615. Below is a list of colored schools in Barren County that includes those schools listed by Sandi Gorin on the Kentucky African Americans Griots website and the schools listed on p. 212 of the Barren County Heritage: a pictorial history of Barren County, Kentucky, compiled by the South Central Kentucky Historical and Genealogical Society, Inc. and edited by C. E. Goode and W. L. Gardner, Jr. For more information about the colored schools, students and teachers of Barren County, see Barren County African-American Schools by Sandi Gorin at the Kentucky African Americans Griots website; the Ralph Bunch Community Center Oral History Project (FA455) at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives: there are ten interviews with African Americans who attended the segregated Ralph Bunche School in Glasgow, Kentucky; and the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.211-215.

  • Moonlight School
  • Glasgow School
  • Ratliff Industrial Institute
  • Bakers School
  • Boyds Creek School
  • Georgetown School
  • Rocky Hill School
  • Hiseville District
  • Jacksonville District
  • Shady Glen District
  • Harlow's Chapel District
  • Walton Academy District
  • Pleasant Oak Ridge District
  • Horse Well (Little Kettle) District
  • Cave City District
  • Glasgow Junction District
  • Gum Springs (Slash) District
  • Buck Creek District
  • Lucas District
  • Statenfield (Buck) District
  • Chestnut Ridge District
  • Poplar Grove (Black Hill) District
  • Paynesville District
  • Pleasant Union District
  • Oak Grove District
  • Boyd's Creek District
  • Queen's Chapel (White's Chapel) District
  • Bristletown District
  • Duke District
  • Beckton District
  • Henrytown District
  • Temple Hill District
  • Baptist Normal School
  • Park City School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Ralph Bunch School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Horse Cave Elementary and High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.419]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bath County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Bath County, KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census, Elijah Grigsby was the teacher in Owingsville and Walace Smith was the teacher in Sharpsburg. By 1886, there were eight colored schools in Bath County, KY [source: NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886], and in 1897, there were ten schools, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, pp.216-219. All were rural elementary schools under the county school system. The schools were in session for nine months, and there were nine frame school houses and one made of logs. There were 11 school teachers, two of whom were female, and the Owingsville school teacher was M. C. Lasswell. In 1897, the average monthly salary for the female teachers was $32.91, and the wages of the male teachers was an average of $31.84 per month. The average attendance was 152 students in 1897, and four students graduated (from 8th grade). The number of colored schools had declined by 1925, there were six schools with seven teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and the numbers had declined again by the 1936-37 school term when there were four teachers, and there were three teachers during the 1940-41 term. The names of teachers at the Owingsville School can be found in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal for the years 1925-1941. The Negro teachers in Bath County in 1940 were Carrie L. Clemons, Alice Dotson, Everrett Jones, and Anna M. Jones [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following information comes from the Bath County News-Outlook newspaper. The newspaper copies and the research were provided by the Bath County Memorial Library in Owingsville, KY. -- In 1953, there were 32 students enrolled in the Owingsville Colored School, and 75 students at the Bethel and Sharpsburg colored schools [article: "1500 are enrolled in county schools," 09/10/1953, p.1]. Mrs. Nannie M. Powell was the teacher at the Owingsville Colored School as early as 1953, and Mrs. Carie Lee Clemmons and Mrs. Mary F. Williams were the teachers at Sharpsburg Colored School [article: "Owingsville School," 09/03/1953]. Beginning in 1958, Mrs. Clemmons and Frank C. LaPrelle were the teachers at the Sharpsburg Colored School [articles: "Teachers placed," 04/30/1958; "Bath County schools to open Monday, August 29," 08/25/1960; and "County schools start Sept. 7, teacher list is announced," 07/26/1962]. In 1954, it was recommended that contractual arrangements be made for Negro high school students to attend the Negro high schools in adjacent counties or Lincoln Institute in Shelby County [article: "Negro schools," 02/18/1954]. The Owingsville Colored School on Harrisburg Street was the last one-room school house in Bath County, the school had students in grades 1-8 [article: photo caption "One big family," 01/12/1961], the school building was sold to George Harris for $1,555 in 1963 [article: photo caption "'Little Red Schoolhouse' auctioned to high bidder," 10/24/1963]. The Sharpsburg Colored School property was on the south side of Montgomery Street in Sharpsburg, and was to be sold at public auction after the Owingsville Colored School was sold [article: "5 Surplus schools go under auction hammer," 10/10/1963]. -- There was never a high school for Negro students in Bath County. The schools in Bath County were integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Owingsville School
  • Sharpsburg School
  • Bethel School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bath County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bell County, KY
Start Year : 1892
End Year : 1956
According to journalist C. J. Harte, the first colored school in Middlesboro, KY, was established in 1892 and continued until 1907 [source: Harte, C. J., "Coming home, Lincoln School 100th Anniversary," The Middlesboro Daily News, 2008, front page]. The school was known as Middlesboro Colored School, and it is mentioned in the 1901 superintendent's report [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1899-June 1901]. The Colored School was replaced by the newly erected Lincoln School in 1907. The Lincoln school continued until 1964 when the Middlesboro school systems were integrated. Long before integration, in 1921, the Middlesboro public schools system expansion made provisions for a new school for the Negroes [source: History of Bell County Kentucky by H. H. Fuson]. While in Pineville, John Moore led in the lawsuit against the city, demanding that the city provide for the education of all colored children. The case of City of Pineville et. al. v. John Moore et. al. was decided in the Court of Appeals of Kentucky in February of 1921. In 1925, there were 7 colored schools in the Bell County; 4 teachers in the Middlesboro colored elementary school and 2 in the high school; 2 teachers in the Pineville colored elementary school and 1 in the high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67-69]. Almost 15 years later, according to author H. H. Fuson, during the 1939-40 school term, there were three colored schools in Bell County, KY. One of the schools was Straight Creek Colored School and the school building was still standing in 1985 [source: "Classifieds Work, Tract No.II," The Daily News, 07/04/1985, p.4]. Straight Creek and the Pineville Independent Schools were the first schools in Bell County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.420]. In 1939, the Pineville Colored School had grades 1-12 with four teachers, 110 students, and Alvantus Gibson was principal. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Bell County were Thelma Baughan, Earl Baughan, Maxine Baughan, Odessa Baughan, Mattie Belle Bryant, Oneil Bernas, John M. Burnside, Maud Colman, Alvantus Gibson, Hattie Hazely, M. C. McKenney, Evelyn Miller, Kayla Miller, Helen Michael, Frank Smith, Leddis Smith, and Nina Thompson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1948, there were six high school students in the Roland-Hayes School in Pineville [source: William T. Gilbert's thesis titled The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky]. According to Gilbert, the school for high school students in Middlesboro was named Lincoln [misnamed as Liberty in source], and the one in Pineville was named Roland-Hayes. The teachers at the Pineville school and the Middlesboro school are mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Lincoln School (Middlesboro, 1907-1964)
  • Middlesboro School (1892-1907)
  • Pineville School
  • Roland-Hayes School (Pineville)
  • Straight Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boone County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
There was at least one school in Boone County in 1880; Melisse Clore was the teacher in Florence, KY according to the U.S. Federal Census. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature passed an act for the benefit of the colored schools in Petersburg, KY, granting that lots 172 and 173 be used for schools for the colored children. The lots had belonged to Samuel Yowell, who died without any heirs in 1872 and the property was taken over by the state. Petersburg is an unincorporated community in Boone County, KY. It is not known if a school house was ever built on the lots. In 1883, the African Americans in Florence, KY, had a picnic benefit for their school [source: Boone County Recorder, 05/30/1883]. In 1894, the Hopewell Baptist Church in Beaverlick was also used as a school [source: Mr. Robert Lett, "Hopewell Baptist Church," former website at the Boone County Public Library]. By 1886, there were 9 colored schools in Boone County with an average attendance of a little over 100 students taught by 8 teachers 1895-96, and 9 teachers 1896-97 [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.222-226]. In 1891, the school superintendent had complained that the schools were poorly financed and there were no school buildings amongst the three districts and the school sessions were held in churches [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, v.2 by G. C. Wright, p.108]. In 1895, there were nine districts and the schools were still being held in church buildings. In 1911, the average salary for the teachers was $42.31 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911, p.48]. Blanche Robinson was a teacher in Boone County in 1935, and Wallace Strader was the principal of Boone County High School, located in Burlington, KY, in 1937 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal - October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.21 and January-February, 1937, pp.14 & 16]. In 1954, there were 11 students in the Burlington Colored School, and there were two students attending Lincoln Institute, their tuition was paid by the school board ["Walton-Verona parents vote integration now," Louisville Courier Journal 07/09/1954 - online at nkyviews.com]. There was also a colored school in Idlewild. Most of the schools in Boone County were listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.420.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Boone County High School
  • Burlington School
  • Idlewild School
  • Hopewell Baptist Church School
  • Florence School
  • Beaver Lick School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Walton School

See photo image of colored school near Idlewild at the Northern Kentucky Views website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boone County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boyd County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the earliest schools for African Americans in Boyd County was the American Missionary Association School, which was supported by the U. S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The school was established between 1866-1870. The Catlettsburg Colored Common School District was established by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873 [source: Common School Laws of Kentucky: 1922 by the Kentucky Department of Education]. The colored school in Ashland was established in 1874. According to W. B. Jackson in his thesis, the colored school districts were established in 1874; there were no school houses, yet school classes were held for two months at an unspecified location in Catlettsburg and in Ashland [source: The History of Education in Boyd County, by W. B. Jackson, pp. 56-60 & 128-133]. The following comes from W. B. Jackson's thesis: In 1877, there were 99 students in the two colored schools with an average attendance of 100%. There were two male teachers who earned $18.63 per month. The school records for the Ashland colored school start with the year 1881 when the school classes were held in the Methodist Church on Central Avenue. The school was supported by donations from the African American community. The teacher's salary had increased to $20-$25 per month. There were three African American trustees who were appointed by the County Commissioner of Education. Both the Catlettsburg and Ashland colored schools operated independently until about 1894 when the schools came under the City Board of Education. William Reynolds was the school principal at Ashland, and there was one teacher. The school classes were held in a rented building at the corner of Fourteenth Street and Winchester Avenue. A school building was later built at Nineteenth Street and Greenup Avenue. In 1903, a new brick building, Booker T. Washington School, was constructed in Ashland at Seventh Street and Central Avenue, with J. J. Rogers as principal. The teacher was Effie Carter, who was joined by a second teacher. The Booker T. Washington School and the Catlettsburg School had grades 1-8. The two school districts were merged in 1912 when the Acts of 1912 by the Kentucky Legislature established the act to repeal the act that had established the Colored Common School District in Catlettsburg. The district was dissolved, but the school continued. In 1922, Principal Rogers, at Booker T. Washington School, was replaced by C. B. Nuchols, who had been a teacher at the Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes. Nuchols added an industrial department to the Booker T. Washington School, along with a two year high school. In order to accommodate the new courses, two additional rooms were added to the Booker T. Washington School in 1923, and two more teachers were hired. The first high school graduation was held in 1925. Catlettsburg students in the 8th grade could go on to high school at Ashland at a cost of $30 per semester. In 1927, a teacher/football coach/voice teacher was hired at the Booker T. Washington School. In 1931, the two year high school became a four year high school, one of the 16 approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky [see NKAA entry High Schools, Eastern Kentucky, 1948]. There were 179 students at the Booker T. Washington School in 1932, and 28 of the students were in high school. The school staff members were C. B. Nuchols, principal; J. H. Cooper, teacher and coach; Emma B. Horton, teacher; Georgia B. Richmond, teacher; R. W. Ross, teacher; and Sue M. Thomas, teacher and home economics instructor. In 1932, a modern school building was constructed in Catlettsburg on the east side of the city. There were 18 students the first year. Mrs. Daisy Keeton was the teacher, and she was succeeded by Willa Lee Preston. [See also the NKAA entry Catlettsburg Colored Common School District.] The Negro teachers in Boyd County in 1940 were Decora Asher, John D. Cooper, Helen L. Daniels, Robert W. Ross, Sue Thomas, and Alice Thomas [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421, were Ashland Independent Schools at Bayless, Crabbe, Means, Wylie, Ashland Sr. High, and Holy Family. The Boyd County schools were fully integrated in 1962.

  • American Missionary School supported by the Bureau
  • Catlettsburg School
  • Methodist Church School
  • Ashland School
  • Booker T. Washington School
     

     See photo image of Booker T. Washington school and additional information on p. 104 in Images of America: Ashland, by J. Powers and T. Baldridge.


     See Kentucky Historical Marker for Ashland Booker T. Washington School, a Waymarking.com website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boyle County, KY
Start Year : 1837
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least four colored schools in Boyle County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. According to William F. Russell's thesis, The History of Education of Boyle County, pp. 217-221, Willis Russell taught the first colored school in Danville, located in a frame house on Green Street (around 1837); a second school on Green Street was taught by Gib Doram. There were also schools taught at the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Baptist Churches. There was also a private school that cost $2.00 per month. The colored schools in Boyle County were counted in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In 1881, John W. Bate came to Danville and took over teaching at what had been the Danville Freedmen School [source: Russell thesis, pp. 218 & 228]. The school house was described as a "barn-like frame structure" that was replaced by a brick school building in 1912. The school was under the county school system until 1892 when it was placed under the newly established city school system; all other colored schools remained under the county system. During the 1920s, the Danville Colored School had over 400 students in grades 1-12 taught by 12 teachers, four of whom taught the high school classes [source: Russell thesis, pp. 219-221]. High school students were bused to the school from Lancaster and Stanford, KY. In the county school system, from 1880-1881, there were seven colored schools reported by the county commissioner of schools [source: Russell thesis, pp. 208-210, & 227]. Four of the teachers were Martha Tadlock, Robert Turner, Lizzie Green, and James Hughes [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. The schools had one room with one teacher. More county schools opened after 1881 and there were 12 in 1895, with 11 schools taught for five months and 1 school taught for more than five months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.236-239]. One school was held in a log building and the others were held in frame buildings. There were 15 teachers 1895-96, and 16 teachers 1896-97. The highest average attendance for the two year period was 633 sudents in 1895. In 1900, the highest average attendance for all schools in Boyle County was 1,009 students [source: Russell thesis]. By 1925, the high school had been renamed Bate High School, it was a Class 1 school, and J. W. Bate was the principal and one of the four high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.39 & 69]. By 1928 many of the elementary schools had been discontinued and there were only six in the county and one in Danville. Another school that had been established in 1885, for colored deaf children, was within the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb, located in Danville [see NKAA entry Early Schools for Negro Deaf and Blind Children]. The colored school for the deaf was actually a department, it opened on February 2, 1885, with eight pupils, Morris T. Long as teacher and supervisor, and his wife, Nannie R. Long was the matron [source: Russell thesis, pp. 149-155]. In 1929, the instructors were Mrs. Mary Fosdick and A. D. Martin. Between 1885 and 1929, there were never more than 16 students in the *colored department. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Boyle County were Margaret Andrews, Lucill Bennifield, Lillian Caldwill, Sophia Craig, Lala M. Dele, Gerogia Dannaher, Malinda Doneghy, Horase Epperson, John Fisher, Florence Ingram, Maggie E. Jones, Susie Lich, Ella M. Marshall, Eliza Mitchell, Elizabeth Parr, Jesse Raach, Sanford Raach, Frances Richardson, Zula Sanders, Gertrude Sledd, Sara Sutka, and Earnest Wofford [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421, were Danville High School and The Kentucky School for the Deaf. The Danville schools were fully integrated in 1964.

  • Danville Freedmen School
  • Bate School
  • Danville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Parksville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Shelby City Freedmen School
  • Danville School #1 on Green Street (Willis Russell)
  • Danville School #2 on Green Street
  • Methodist Church School
  • Presbyterian Church School
  • Baptist Church School
  • Stony Point School
  • Wilsonville School
  • Perryville School
  • Zion Hill School
  • Atoka School
  • Junction City School
  • Colored Department of the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb

*See the Biennial Reports of the Kentucky Institute for Deaf Mutes, 1887-1903 for more information about the Colored Department.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Deaf and Hearing Impaired, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bracken County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866, there was one colored school in Bracken County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. This was probably the American Missionary Association School in Augusta that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1880, Zebedee Frazier was a school teacher in Brooksville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1912-13 school term, there were 73 Colored children enrolled in school in Bracken County [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p.110]. Mrs. Nettie H. Grant was the school teacher at the Augusta School in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.60]. High school students were bused to the high school in Maysville, KY, and their tuition was paid by the Augusta Board of Education. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Bracken County was Anna L. Hinton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Two schools in Bracken County were noted as integrated in the Kenucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421: Bracken County High and Germantown School.

  • American Missionary Association School in Augusta, supported by the Bureau
  • Augusta School
  • Brooksville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bracken County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Breathitt County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
In 1886, there were two colored schools in Breathitt County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1907, there was one colored school with 100 children, the school was located in Jackson [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. According to McClure's Magazine, October 1922, v.54, no.8, p.17, the Breathitt County inter-racial committee secured three acres of land and built a school for the Negroes of Jackson. During the 1930-31 school term, the colored school had an enrollment of 27 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.51]. There is also mention of the colored school in Jackson on pp.6-7 in the report titled "Education - Jackson City Schools," a WPA document written sometime around the 1938-39 school term [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Breathitt County Education]. The school was a two classroom room frame building that was in bad condition, the school building was old, it was located on the west slope side of Yo Hill. One room was sometimes used as a gymnasium and was fitted for basketball. There were also two small dressing rooms and a small room that had been used as a kitchen, workshop, library and store room. The school had grades 1-8 taught by Mrs. Katheryn Gatewood. Outside the school was a playground of hard packed red clay about 50 x 50 feet. There were also two outside toilets, one for the boys and one for the girls. In a 1940 letter from the Breathitt County Board of Education, written to the Kentucky Writer's Project, it was reported that that there were 49 Negro children in the city and 7 in the county [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Breathitt County Education, Letter from Marie R. Turner, County Superintendent, Breathitt County Board of Education, pp.1-2]. The county school system did not have a colored school, but rather paid tuition to the city school board for the county students who attended the Jackson colored school. According to the title Breathitt County by S. D. Bowling, p.54, the elementary Rosenwald School in Jackson was located on Hurst Lane. The Rosenwald School probably replaced the former school because there continued to be only one colored school in Jackson. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Breathitt County was Katheryn Gatewood [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Breathitt County. The Breathitt County Schools are noted as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.402.

  • Colored School
  • Jackson School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Breathitt County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Breckinridge County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least two Freemen Schools in Breckinridge County, one in Cloverport and one in Hardinsburg [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1867, a Colored School in Breckinridge County was burned on December 24 [source: Index to Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the United States, 1871, p.49]. In 1880, Stark Bradford was the school teacher in Hardinsburg; W. H. Talbot was the teacher in Bewleyville; and Ada Willis was the teacher in Stephensport [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1895-97, there were 14 colored schools in Breckinridge County and all were in session for 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.248-252]. The average attendance was 339 students for both school terms, and they were taught by 16 teachers. By 1907 there were eleven colored schools reported by the school superintendent, Joel H. Pile [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, p.99]. Included in the list below are the county schools that existed in 1909 and 1910 [source: "County Board of Education," The Breckinridge News, 01/27/1909, p.3; and "Governor Willson...," The Breckinridge News, 03/02/1910, p.5]. The Class 3 colored high school was located in Hardinsburg in 1925, W. C. Jackson was principal, and the school had 1 teacher and 10 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-26, p.40]. In 1933, Breckinridge County student Nora A. Poole came in 10th place at the spelling contest directed by G. H. Brown of Louisville during the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Conference [source: "Fifth General Session," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1933, vol.4, issue 1, pp.8-9]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Breckinridge County were Hazel Beard in Hardinsburg, and Chester Luney, Jens E. Miller, and Orlie Scoth in Irvington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as "integrated and white" in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.422, were Breckinridge County High School and Irvington School.

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Stephensport School
  • Bewleyville School
  • Cloverport School
  • Cloverport Freedmen School
  • Colored Graded School (city)
  • Colored Normal School
  • Garfield School
  • Gleandeane School
  • Hardinsburg Freedmen School
  • Hardinsburg School
  • Irvington School
  • McQuady School
  • Robards School

Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Breckinridge County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bullitt County, KY
Start Year : 1827
End Year : 1956
According to author Daniel Buxton*, in his article, "African American Education in Bullitt County," schools for African Americans were attempted as early as 1827. Other early schools in Bullitt County were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, from 1866-1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools - Kentucky]. The schools were not welcomed; the teacher at the Shepherdsville Freedmen School was threatened, the Noble School was burnt down in 1867, and the schools held in churches resulted in the churches being burnt down. In spite of the resistance that was encountered, there were still colored schools in Bullitt County, with eight schools in 1880 [source: Ockerman, p. 127], and the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction noted seven colored districts in the county. In 1890, the industrial school, Eckstein Norton University, opened in Cane Springs. The school was founded by William J. Simmons and Charles H. Parrish, Sr. both of whom would become president of the school. Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N Railroad) gave $3,000 toward the development of the school, and in return the school was named for Eckstein Norton, a banker and president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad [source: The History of Education in Bullitt County, by H. N. Ockerman, pp. 76-96]. The school was situated along the Bardstown Branch of the L&N Railroad on 75 acres of land that had been purchased from Austin Speed. L&N Railroad built a station [Lotus, KY] just for the students and school personnel. There were seven buildings on the campus: the main building, a brick structure, and six frame buildings that were used as dormitories, a printing office, a laundry, and a blacksmith shop. There was a primary department, grades 1-5; a training department, grades 6-8; a normal and preparatory department, grades 9-12; and the college department, which offered a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Bachelor of Sciences degree. In 1911, Eckstein Norton University merged with Lincoln Institute, and the Eckstein Norton campus was closed in 1912. The school had awarded 189 bachelor's degrees. During the 12 years that Eckstein Norton existed, there were still seven colored public schools in Bullitt County, including the Copera Hollow School mentioned in the article by Daniel Buxton. After the closing of Eckstein Norton, the Bullitt County Board of Education established a contract with Lincoln Institute for the education of high school students. According to Buxton, the number of county public colored schools was six by 1905, reduced to four schools by 1910. According to Ockerman [p. 127], three colored school districts were eliminated in 1913. Another school opened around 1922: Central Christian Institute, owned by the Christian Woman's Board of Missions of the Disciples of Christ United Missionary Society; that school closed in 1927. It had been one of the five schools in Bullitt County for African Americans, along with Shepherdsville Colored School, Lebanon Junction Colored School, Mt. Washington Colored School, and Bowman Valley Colored School, which opened around 1916. All of the public colored schools were taught by African American women teachers; in 1908 their average monthly salary was $26.14 [source: Ockerman, p. 115]. Many of the county public schools were consolidated beginning in 1922, and in 1932 Bowman Valley Colored School became the only school for African American children. The school building was located between Shepherdsville and Bardstown Junction. In 1940, Henry Owens was listed as the Negro school teacher in Bullitt County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1947, the teachers were Miss Maggie Owens and Miss Mattie Owens [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, (March-April, 1947), p. 27]. The schools of Bullitt County began to integrate in 1956 with Lebanon Junction, Mount Washington, St. Aloysius, and St. Benedict [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.422.

  • Shepherdsville Freedmen School [teacher threatened]
  • Noble School supported by the Bureau [burnt down in 1867]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [church was burnt down]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [2nd church burnt down]
  • Colored School Districts (8)
  • Eckstein Norton University (1890-1912)
  • Copera Hollow School
  • Shepherdsville School
  • Lebanon Junction School
  • Mt. Washington School
  • Bowman Valley School
  • Central Christian Institute (c.1922-1927)

   See the photo images of schools and students at the Bullitt County History website.

*Note: The article "African American Education in Bullitt County" by Daniel Buxton is a well researched article that includes the names of teachers at the various schools, photo images, and a list of references, all available online at the Bullitt County History website.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bullitt County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Butler County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1886, there were seven colored schools in Butler County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1896, Ulysses S. Porter was a school teacher in one of the schools [source: Fascinating story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan, p.441]. W. M. Johnson was the school teacher in Morgantown in 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1925, there were three colored schools in Butler County, each with one teacher, and there was a total of 94 students at the three schools. [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67-69]. All of the colored schools were elementary schools under the county school board, and in 1927, a fourth school was opened [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.63]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Butler County. In 1929, Ada M. Porter was the teacher at the Morgantown Colored School, and in 1937, she was the principal of the school [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 17-20, 1929, p.52, and October-November 1937, p.55]. In 1940, Ada Porter was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as the only Negro teacher in Butler County. All of the Butler County schools are listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, pp.844-845.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Morgantown School
  • Sugar Grove School

See photo image of students and school in Sugar Grove, KY at the Old Family Photo Album website by Wm. R. Jones.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Butler County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Caldwell County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1962
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a freedmen school in Princeton, KY [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen School]. There are several photo images of colored schools in Caldwell County, taken during the 1880s-1890s. The images are within the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives, and includes the schools in Chapel Hill, Freedonia, Princeton, and Walnut Grove. Ella O'Hara was the school teacher at the Princeton Colored School in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 13 colored schools in Caldwell County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.262-266]. There were 16 teachers and an average attendance of more than 650 students. The teachers' average monthly wages were $42.24 for 1895-96, and $34.72 for 1896-97. The colored school in Princeton was one of the few in Kentucky to have a Colored superintendent in 1925 [see NKAA entry Colored Superintendents]. During the school term, there were four colored schools in the county, with five teachers and 547 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67 & 69]. There were also four elementary schools in Princeton, and Princeton High School, all with a total of 264 students. The high school was later named Dotson High School. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Randall Acton, William Cridder, Henry Crow, Willie Crutchfield, Lula Mae Grinter, Lula Hampton, Annie Scott King, and Joanita McNary, all at Princeton; and Ollie Barber at Freedonia. The St. Paul School in Princeton is listed in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63 as the first school in Caldwell County to become integrated. The public high schools started to integrate in 1963 [source: Patricia George interview in the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society website].

  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Freedmen School supported by the Bureau
  • Princeton School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives] / later Dotson School
  • Chapel Hill School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School (1926-1948, image at westernkyhistory.org website]
  • Walnut Grove School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Dotson School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.845]

See photo image of Caldwell County colored school and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
See 2nd photo image of Chapel Hill School and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Caldwell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Calloway County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
In 1886, there were eight colored school districts in Calloway County, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky,school year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.125. In 1895, there were 6 colored schools and in 1896, there were 7 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.267-271]. The schools were in session 5 months of each year. Two of the schools were held in log buildings and the remainder were held in frame structures. The average attendance was 169 students taught by 7 teachers 1895-96, and 195 students taught by 8 teachers 1896-97. The colored schools are also mentioned in Waylan F. Rayburn's thesis History of Education in Calloway County, Kentucky. On p.49 of Rayburn's thesis, there is a breakdown by year, 1892-1917, the value of the school houses and grounds, and the furniture and apparatuses. In 1925, there were three colored schools in the county and one in the city, each school had one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. The Negro teachers in 1940 were Ruth Keys, Ione Finsley, Madge Green, Elizabeth King, Jessee McGeehee Jr., Sarah Sleet, and Fanny Willis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1941, there were two colored schools in the county, still with one teacher at each school, and in Murray, there was a graded school and a high school [source Rayburn, p.60]. In 1946, the three colored schools are identified as Buffalo Graded School, Murray Graded School, and Douglass High School [source: "Schools in Calloway County (Graded and High Schools)" a one page unpublished document in the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Calloway County Education]. During the 1956-57 school term, the Almo High School and the Murray High Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.422-423].

  • Colored schools (8)
  • Buffalo School
  • Murray School
  • Douglass School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Calloway County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Campbell County, KY
Start Year : 1873
End Year : 1955
Within Mary Lee Caldwell's thesis, History of Education of Campbell County, KY, p.44, it was stated that all African Americans in Campbell County lived in Newport, which was not entirely true. African Americans also lived in Ft. Thomas, Alexandria, and Dayton. The African American children from these communities attended the colored school in Newport. The school was established around 1873 and Elizabeth Hudson was the teacher [source: History of the Public Schools of Newport, Kentucky by James L. Cobb]. The school was located in a cottage near Saratoga Street and Washington Avenue. In 1880, the colored teachers in Campbell County were Emma Dyonne in Highland; and Annie Henderson, Lulu Henderson, and Minnie Mosby in Newport [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Campell County was one of the few counties to not have any data for the colored schools in the commmon school report statistics within the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.272-275. There continued to be very little or no statistical data in each of the biennial reports for the colored schools into the early 1900s, though there was one or more colored schools in Campbell County, KY in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1916, the teachers were Emma J. Blanton, W. S. Blanton, A. J. Cox, and L. A. Ellis [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25-27 & 39]. In 1936 the school was placed under the independent graded districts [source: Caldwell, p.45], by which time the school had been moved to Southgate Street, and the school was named Southgate Colored School. In 1941, there were 131 students taught by four teachers for grades 2-8, and first grade was taught at Corinthian Baptist Church in Newport. There was also a three-year high school from 1901- 1920, and it was taught by one teacher. After 1920, the Newport Board of Education provided the high school students with transportation and tuition to William Grant Colored High School in Covington, KY. The Southgate School was closed in 1955 when the Campbell County Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.206.

  • Newport School
  • Highland School
  • Southgate School
  • Corinthian Baptist Church School
  • Southgate High School (1901-1920)

See photo image of the Southgate school [near bottom of page] at Nothern Kentucky Views website.

See photo image of students and additional information about Southgate School at rootsweb. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Campbell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carlisle County, KY
Start Year : 1899
End Year : 1962
In 1899, there were three colored school districts in Carlisle County, KY, and one was located in Bardwell [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1, 1899-June 30, 1901]. The teachers earned an average of $33 per month in 1900, and there were 66 students attending the three schools in 1901. There were still three colored elementary schools in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. There continued to be three colored schools for several decades until the Negro population in Carlisle County began to decrease, and in 1955, there was one colored school with 15 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.206]. There was not a high school for Negro students in Carlisle County. In 1961, Mrs. Harriett W. Crawford was the teacher at the Negro school in Bardwell, the school had grades 1-8 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.846]. The following school year, the Bardwell schools and the Carlisle County High School were integrated [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.107]. See photo image of Bardwell Colored School on p.5 of The Carlisle Weekly, 09/02/2003.

  • Colored Schools (3)
  • Bardwell School 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carlisle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carroll County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
When R. W. Bevarly was completing his master's thesis in 1936, articles about the colored schools of Carroll County in 1879 were located in the Carrollton Democrat newspaper; the colored school at Liberty Station was attended by children in the day and by adults at night; in Carrollton, Maggie Woods was the teacher [source: History of Education in Carroll County by R. W. Bevarly, p.66]. There were three schools in 1880, the teachers were Ady Pack in Ghent, and Maggie Woods in Carrollton and Prestonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1881 there were 226 students in the four colored schools [source: Bevarly, p.50]. In 1882 there were 268 students in the schools located in Carrollton, Ghent, Above Ghent, and Liberty Station [source: Bevarly, p.51]. There were five colored school districts in 1885: No.1 Carrollton, No.2. Ghent, No.3 Lynan Craigs, No.4 Sanders, and No.5 Worthville [source: Bevarly, p.30]. All of the schools were under the county school board with the largest colored school in Carrollton and James K. Polk was the teacher. Polk was a graduate of Gaines High School in Cincinnati, OH [source: Bevarly, p.66]. He taught at the colored school for one year and was replaced by J. E. Jackson, and in 1889 Jackson was replaced by Fred W. Burch, also a graduate of Gaines High School. There continued to be five colored schools in Carroll County until 1900 when there was six, and by 1933, there were two [source: Bevarly, p.94]. Dunbar Colored School, in Carrollton, was a brick building and was under the city school board, Bessie Whitacker was the teacher and had a monthly salary of $69, while her husband Dudley Whitacker had a salary of $75 for teaching at the Ghent Colored School that was held in a rented building that was in poor condition [source: Bevarly, p.94]. After WWII, a new colored school building was constructed in Ghent and it served as the county school for all African American children. There was never a colored high school in Carroll County, and the city and the county provided transportation for high school students attending Lincoln Institute [source: A History of Carroll County, Kentucky: containing facts before and after 1754 by M. A. Gentry, p.53]. The school systems of Carroll County began to integrate in the 1960s, starting with the first grade students [source: "Schools due to integrate at Carrollton," Louisville Courier-Journal, 04/22/1961]. The schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, were the Carrollton Elementary and High School on p.846.

  • Carrollton School
  • Prestonville School
  • Dunbar School
  • Ghent School
  • Above Gent School
  • Lynan Craigs School
  • Sanders School
  • Worthville School
  • Liberty Station School

See photo image of Dunbar Colored School, Hawkins and Ninth Street, at the Carrollton Schools website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carroll County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carter County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1956
For many decades there was only one colored school in Carter County, KY, beginning as early as 1874 when the Grayson colored school was mentioned in volume 1 of History of Kentucky by L. Collins and R. Collins. In 1886, the colored school was included in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.166. There was not a school building; the school was held in a church and had an average attendance of 20 students. The school still existed in 1891 and was still held in a church, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, four scholastic years ended June 30, 1891, p.166 [online at Google Books]. In 1906, there were two colored schools, and by 1908, the two colored school districts (two schools) had been consolidated [source: History of Education in Carter County by D. W. Qualls pp.65 & 85]. Between 1890 and 1930, the student enrollment fluctuated from a high of 35 to a low of 16 [source: History of Education in Carter County, pp.94-95]. The school teacher did not have a college education, but was state certified for the years 1916-1919. The students were in grades 1-7; there was not a colored high school in Carter County. W. R. Calloway was the teacher at the Grayson Colored School until 1922 [source: "Grayson," The Bourbon News, 07/21/1922, p.7]. With the continued decrease in the number of colored school children, Qualls stated in his thesis that there would soon be no need for a colored school in Carter Count; however, there continued to be one colored school listed for Carter County in the Kentucky Public School Directory from 1925-1949. The first school to be listed as "integrated & white" was the Prichard School in Grayson [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.424]. The Gregoryville School is listed in the 1961-62 directory as a Negro school on Rt. 1 in Grahn.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Grayson School
  • Gregoryville School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.847]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grayson, Carter County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Casey County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1958
In 1880 there were four colored school districts in Casey County, KY, with two schools and 190 students on the enrollment list [source: History of Education in Casey County, Kentucky, Lloyd Bryant Cox, p.111]. In 1885, there were five colored schools [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1896, pp.295-298]. The average attendance was 80 students 1895-96, and 113 students 1896-97. In 1890, there were still five colored schools, each with one teacher, and there were 94 students on the enrollment list. There were six schools during the 1901 and 1902 school terms [source: Cox, p.112]. By 1914, there were two schools, one in Liberty and one in Indian Creek, and by 1931, there was an average attendance of 23 students for both schools [source: Cox, p.113-114]. High school students from Casey County went to the colored high school in Stanford, KY. In 1936, there was one colored school in the county [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1936-37, p.41]. Beginning in 1957, there were no colored schools listed for Casey County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.620.  The following year, the Liberty Independent Schools were first to be listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.996].

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Liberty School
  • Indian Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Casey County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Christian County, KY
Start Year : 1845
End Year : 1952
Between 1845 and 1856, 40 school districts were sketched in Christian County, KY, by Enoch A. Brown, the County School Commissioner (who was white), according to Claybron W. Merriweather's, "Hopkinsville Colored Schools," pp. 293-295 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham. After the Civil War, the number of districts were increased from 40 to 84 by G. A. Champlin, the new commissioner. Between 1866-1870, there was a Freedmen School in Hopkinsville [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. By 1881 there were 41 colored school districts with 23 schools, most of which were log buildings in poor condition. The Booker T. Washington Colored School was located on 2nd Street in Hopkinsville. In 1884, G. A. Champlin wrote "The Colored Schools," an essay that appeared on p. 252 in Counties of Christian and Trigg, Kentucky. According to Champlin, the first colored common schools in 1875 were located within five school districts, and there were 500 school-age children counted in the colored school census. The schools were a result of the Kentucky Colored School Law, which provided the bare minimum of school funding from taxes and fines collected from colored people. Similar information about the colored schools during the year 1876 was included in Charles J. Petrie's thesis, The History of Education in Christian County, pp.93-98. According to Petrie, the County Commissioner's report showed that there were only two teachers in the colored schools, and prior to 1881, most of the colored schools were not free and the best schools were located in Hopkinsville. The Booker T. Washington School was constructed in 1882, a two story frame structure, and in 1930 a third story was added [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County, Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, p.11]. By 1889, there were 55 teachers at the colored schools, the male teachers earned an average of $44.76 and the female teachers earned an average of $35.70 [Petrie, p.96]. The leaders of the Christian County Colored Teachers Association in 1891 were Ephraim Poston, president; T. C. Woosley, vice president; Miss Augusta Brewer, secretary; T. S. Gaines, assistant secretary; and P. A. Hamby, treasurer [Petrie, p.98]. In 1899 there were 54 colored school districts [source: Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/23/1899, p. 5], one of which was Crofton Colored School with teacher George Robinson [source: "Crime of Cain," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/31/1899, p. 1]. In 1890, A. H. Payne was principal of the Colored school in Hopkinsville and there were six teachers [Petrie, pp.135]. The school was considered the best colored school in the county, it operated within the common school system with a nine month term and with a Colored school board. In 1908, the school was placed under the white school board and supported by Negro property taxes [Petrie, p.122]. The school held grades 1-8 in a two-story building on E. Second Street. In 1912, the school was moved back under the county system and two years of high school were added. The trustees were Edward M. Glass, Frank Boyd, and Ned Turner. Julien Colored School was also a county school [source: Dr. Stanley Dean," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 04/17/1906, p. 8]. Teacher Nina Anglin was removed from the Lafayette Colored School in 1906, and she filed suit against the superintendent and the trustees [source: "Circuit court," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 10/25/1906, p. 1]. The Clarksville Colored School was one of three schools to receive an improved chemical fire extinguisher in 1910 [source: "Here and there," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/30/1910, p. 4]. The number of school districts had increased from 52 in 1890, to 54 in 1900, to 75 in 1910 [Petrie, p.132]. There was an average attendance of 2,034 students in 1909 [Petrie, p.134]. Attucks High School was built in 1916 at First and Vine Streets and the school had the first four-year high school for Negroes in Hopkinsville [Petrie, p.183]. The early principals were L. A. Posey, J. W. Bell, P. Moore, and B. E. Perkins [Kentucky Education Collection (KEC), Series 1, pp.11-12]. The county school system contracted with the city school board for students to attend Attucks High School [KEC, Series 1, p.9]. In 1939, the Attucks High School had 227 students, 11 teachers, and 35 students graduated [Petrie, p.188]. The Male & Female College in Hopkinsville, KY, opened in 1883 [now Hopkinsville College of the Bible]. In 1896 there were 70 colored teachers in the county schools [source: "Colored institute this week," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/18/1896, p. 1]. During the 1911 election of colored trustees, Peter Postell and Lucian Dade were re-elected, and George Leavell became the newly elected trustee [source: "The Colored election," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 05/09/1911, p. 8]. In 1909, a colored graded school and high school were opened in Pembroke, and the school served as a training school for teachers up to 1924 [Petrie, p.122]. In 1914, the legality of the staff election for the Pembroke Colored School was called into question, and the finding was in favor of the school [source: 2nd paragraph of "Railroad case begun," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/06/1914, p. 1]. In 1924, the Pembroke School was moved back to the county administration and the school's two-year high school course continued until 1929. The high school was re-established in 1936 and operated under the independent graded school system with one or two teachers and 20-25 students. At the end of 1911, the colored school house near Sinking Fork was burned by an incendiary [source: "Suspicious fire," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/07/1911, p. 8]. In 1912, Ephraim Poston had almost completed the school census of colored children and found that there were 1,396 students, which was 188 more students than had been incorrectly counted the previous year, all of which meant that the schools would receive about $800 more from the state [sources: "Colored school census," 05/11/1912, p. 5, and "1411 Colored children," 05/18/1912, p. 4, both articles in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian]. It was expressed in Petrie's thesis that the school census for colored children may have been "padded" [p.132]. The Zion Colored School was destroyed by fire in 1916, the fire started by a stranger in town who went by the name of Katherine Denton. She was badly burned and later died from her injuries [source: "Woman died Thursday," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/02/1916, p. 1]. In 1928, there were five male teachers and 51 female teachers in the colored schools, and in 1937, the average attendance was 1,055 students [Petrie, pp.178 &180]. The names of other colored schools in Christian County, KY, can be found on pp. 292-293 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham, who was also editor of the Hopkinsville Kentuckian newspaper. There is also a list of the schools and the names of the head teacher/principal during the 1938-39 school term, all on p.23 of Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County. In 1940, there were at least 90 Negro teachers in the schools of Christian County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The names of the schools, including those that held classes in churches, are listed below. A later school, the Fort Campbell Dependent School, was the first school in Christian County to be listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory (1952-53, p.418) as having both white and colored students, though the term "integrated" was not used. The second school to be listed with students of both races was in the 1954-55 directory, the SS. Peter and Paul School, a parochial school in Hopkinsville [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1954-55, p.563]. Both schools are listed as integrated in the 1956-57 directory. All of the schools in Christian County are listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, pp.101-102.

  • Attucks High School
  • Banneker School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.848]
  • Barkers Mill School
  • Beech Grove School
  • Booker T. Washington School
  • Blue Springs School [photo image, p. 12, Rosenwald Schools]
  • Brent Shop School
  • Canton Heights School
  • Carver School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.848]
  • Caskey School
  • Cedar Bluff School
  • Center Point School
  • Chopped Hickory School
  • Clarksville School
  • Crofton School
  • Dyers Chapel School
  • Durretts Avenue School
  • Elmo School
  • Edgefield School
  • Fairview School
  • Forks of Road School
  • Foston's Chapel School
  • Gainesville School
  • Garrettsburg School
  • Gee School
  • Gracey School
  • Hensleytown School
  • Herndon School
  • Hopkinsville Freedmen School
  • Hopkinsville School
  • Julien School
  • Kelly School
  • Kentucky Trade Institute Automotive Mechanics for Colored Men [source: "Announcing the opening of the Kentucky Trade...," Kentucky New Era, 08/24/1949, p.10]
  • Lafayette School
  • Male & Female College
  • Massies Chapel School
  • Moonlight School
  • McClain's Chapel School
  • Mt. Herman School
  • Mt. Vernon School
  • New Zion School
  • Oak Grove School
  • Pee Dee School
  • Pleasant Green School
  • Pleasant Grove School
  • Pleasant Hill School
  • Pembroke School
  • Reeves Chapel School
  • Salem School
  • Sinking Fork School
  • Spring Hill School
  • Walnut Grove School
  • West Union School
  • White Oak Grove School
  • Zion Hope School

See image of Attucks High School on postcard at University of Kentucky Special Collections.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clark County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
According to the personal interviews conducted by Fred Allen Engle for his 1928 education thesis, there were some slaves who received an education in Clark County, KY. The slaves were taught by their owners, Judge Charles Stephen French, Mrs. Telitha Clay, Laura Bramlett, Mrs. Josephine Peterson Rogers and Mr. Samuel Rogers, and Philip B. Winn [source: The History of Education of Clark County (thesis) by F. A. Engle, pp. 28-29]. Engle also notes that, in 1866, at the first colored school in Clark County, (located in Winchester), classes were held in a rented building; it was the only colored school in the county for a few years. The teacher was Mrs. Amanda Faulkner [source: Engle, p. 43]. In 1869, the Freedman's Bureau provided funding for a new school building that was constructed on a lot at the corner of Broadway and Wall Streets; the land was secured from money raised by the African American community. The school was built by Kirkpatrick Brothers, a plumbing business [source: Engle,p. 43], and by the time the building was completed, the school teacher, Mrs. Amanda Faulkner, had died of tuberculosis and was replaced by John C. Hubbard. The new school was referred to as a Freedmen School [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The school term was four months and was extended to nine months, and there would later be three African American trustees who oversaw the school: J. T. Taul, Dan Baker, and M. M. Bell [source: Engle, p. 117]. Other city schools included a log school building at the corner of Maple and Washington Streets and a third colored school at No.24 Second Street [source: Engle, pp. 43-44]. In addition to Mrs. Amanda Faulkner and John C. Hubbard, the first colored teachers in Winchester were George Cary, Miss Delilah Culbertson, Miss Malinda Smith, Miss Sue Henry, and James S. Hathaway. School teacher George Cary had replaced John C. Hubbard; Cary was from Canada and was remembered for his brilliance and for greatly increasing the enrollment and attendance at the Freemen School. A disagreement of some sort arose between George Cary and members of the African American community, resulting in the construction of the Washington Street Colored School with Miss Delilah Culbertson as the teacher. Culbertson was later replaced by Miss Melinda Smith, who was replaced by Miss Sue Henry in 1877. George Cary left the Freedman School in 1882 and was replaced by James S. Hathaway and Miss Sue Henry. During this period, colored schools were begun in the county; one of the first was located at Howard's Creek around 1870, a log building later replaced by a frame building [source: Engle, p. 29]. The following quotation comes from the 1884 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p. 28: "Some of the districts depend on their churches as school-rooms. Immediate wants: School-houses and smaller districts." The report contains a discrepancy as to the number of school-aged children in Clark County [source: 1884 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Colored. Table II. p. XXVII]: 967 children between the ages of six and 20 were reported to the auditors by the assessors for 1885; 1,628 children reported to the superintendent for 1885; there was a difference of 661 children. "Schools were taught in every colored district except one; there the house was not completed in time for school. Teachers were comparatively well-qualified. A majority were educated at Berea College, in the adjoining county." -- [source: Engle, p. 22]. In 1886, 11 colored schools were located in Clark County, KY, according the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The schools were supported by taxes, subscription fees, and donations [source: Engle, p. 30]. Additional information about the Freedmen School and the names of the teachers and principals can be found on p. 45 of The History of Education of Clark County (thesis), by F. A. Engle. In 1893, there were 15 colored school districts in the county with an average attendance of 575 students, and half the schools were still being taught in churches and other buildings. In the 1880s there was a disagreement: the African American community spoke out about the condition of the city colored schools, which resulted in all of the colored school buildings being closed. According to author F. A Engle (p. 118), in response to the closing of the schools, the African American community opened a new school in an old laundry building at the corner of Washington and Oliver Streets, and Mrs. G. S. Benton, a teacher and Berea College graduate, opened a school in her home on Third Street. Mrs. Benton had been the school principal at the Freedmen School. The interim schools continued until a bond issue was successfully voted into action by the city for a new colored school building on Oliver Street. The Oliver Street Colored School opened in 1892 and closed in 1969. The first principal, Mrs. G. S. Benton, was replaced the following year by J. H. Mingo, a graduate of the Chandler School in Lexington. The teachers were Miss C. N. Willis, Miss Flora Z. Barbee, Miss Willie Woodford, Mrs. Nettie David and Mrs. Julia A. Benton. In 1894, Principal Mingo was replaced by James H. Garvin. Within the Oliver Street School, the students were taught music, cooking, sewing, shoe making, brick laying, and business and literary courses [source: "The Colored School," Winchester News, 10/12/1908, p. 3]. Both Prof. Garvin and his wife, Lillie B. Garvin, were school teachers. Prof. Garvin was principal at the school for 24 years, retiring in 1918 [source: "Education," The Crisis, March 1918, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 215]. Stanley R. "Fess" Williams was a teacher at the school around 1917-18 [source: WWI Draft Regisration Card, 1917-18]. The Oliver Street Colored School contained grades 1-12. Early pictures of the Oliver Street Colored School are on pp. 123-124 of The History of Education of Clark County (thesis), by F. A. Engle. Another school, the Clark County Moonlight Colored School, was first held in 1915; considered one of the four best Moonlight Schools for Negroes in Kentucky, it had an enrollment of 203 students [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. The colored school in Indian Fields was taught by Maggie Kidd in 1919 [source: Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, Fanny Curry - Clark County Agent, 07/01/1919]. In 1924, there was a Rosenwald School in Jouett's Creek; a photograph of the school can be seen on p. 13 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [online .pdf]. In 1928 the Freedmen School building was still standing; it was used as a manual training shop for the city colored school [source: Engle, p. 29]. A picture of the school building is on p. 125 of The History of Education of Clark County(thesis), by F. A. Engle. The Negro teachers in Clark County in 1940 were Howard Allen, Howard Buckner, Juanita Callery, James Callery, Julia Colerane, Elizabethe B. Curry, Jennie Didlick, Lula Diggs, Minnie Downey, Lettie P. Green, Mildred E. Henderson, Lillian Holmes, Katherine K. January, Eshter Laine, Mary Miller, Chalmer Owens, Missouri Quisenberry, Letilla Rannels, James Ray, Mary Robinson, Charles F. Sloan, Fannie Sloan, Vivian Taylor, and Marie Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Oliver Street High School was closed in 1956, and in 1957 the Clark County high schools began to integrate. The remainder of the Oliver Street School continued until 1969.

  • Slaves educated by owners
  • Colored School (1866)
  • Winchester Freedmen School (Broadway and Wall Streets)
  • Maple & Washington Street School
  • Second Street School
  • Howard's Creek School
  • Colored Schools (1884)
  • Washington & Oliver Street School
  • Mrs. G. S. Benton's School
  • Indian Fields School
  • Moonlight School
  • Oliver Street School 
  • Jouett's Creek School (photo image, p. 13, Rosenwald)

 

  See photo images of Oliver High School athletic teams in Winchester, KY, in Explore UK - Images.

 

  See photo images of Negro school in Winchester, KY, in Explore UK - Images

 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clark County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clay County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
In 1886, there were four colored school districts in Clay County, KY [see African American Schools, 1886]. There were five colored schools in 1897; two of the school houses were made of log and three were frame buildings [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.308-311]. There was one teacher at each school, a little more than 200 total students were enrolled in the schools, and about half attended school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were six colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-June 1901, p.198]. In 1923, Mrs. Mattie A. Clarke was the school teacher at the Manchester Colored School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. By 1925, the number of colored schools had been reduced to three schools with five teachers and 129 students, and two years later, there was only the one colored school in Manchester with two teachers and 74 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67, and 1927-1928, p.63]. By 1932, there were three teachers. In 1940, one of the Negro teachers was Margaret Drake [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Unlike many counties, the number of Negro children enrolled in the colored school did not continue to decline in Clay County. During the 1955-56 school term, there were 123 students and four teachers. In 1961, the school had grades 1-8, still with four teachers, and the head teacher/principal was William Croley [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.849]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Clay County, KY. The Clay County High School was integrated during the 1962-63 school term, and the Manchester elementary schools started to integrate during the 1964-65 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, pp.109-108, and 1964-65, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (6)
  • Manchester School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clay County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clinton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
There was one colored school in Clinton County, KY in 1866, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. Between 1895 and 1897, there were two colored schools in Clinton County, one school was constructed of logs and the other was a frame building [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.312-316]. There was one teacher at each school and the schools were in session for five months. During the 1896-97 school term there was an average attendance of 52 students. During the 1925-1926 school term, there was one school with one teacher and 10 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. The school continued with one teacher and around nine students into the 1950s. There was no high school for Negro children in Clinton County, KY. During the 1956-57 school term the Clinton County Schools were listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, though the colored school was listed until the 1957-58 school term. The Albany Independent School also was integrated during the 1957-58 school year.

  • Colored Schools (2)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clinton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Crittenden County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
In 1880, 20 year old Belle Clark, and James Johnson were school teachers in Marion, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1890, Lollie Bingham was the school teacher at the Marion Colored School. There were two school districts, and Simpson Colored School was led by Adella Pippin. In 1894, there were eight colored school districts in Crittenden County, Ky; there had been nine districts, but no.9 was merged into no.6. A new school district had been added in southwest Marion in 1894. The school house was to be built on the farm of A. H. Cardin; he had donated the land and was to pay half the cost of constructing a school building. The trustees were Sam Parmer, John Hatcher, and William Braddock. In 1895, the Marion Colored School had 166 students, 33 more than the previous year. By 1933, there were two colored schools in Crittenden County, according to John S. Brown in his thesis titled History of Education of Crittenden County, Kentucky, p.58. The school in Marion was under the city school system, and there was a school in the county. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Cirttenden County included Verna Cofield and Laura Mitchell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The colored school in the county continued until the 1946-47 school term when there were only five students enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.634]. The schools in the city of Marion began to integrate during the 1956-57 school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.425]. For more see "The Marion Colored School...," Crittenden Press, 05/09/1895, p.3; "For the school year ending June 30, 1894," Crittenden Press, 03/01/1894, p.3; "The colored school opened Monday," Crittenden Press, 09/11/1890, p.1; "Marion had two colored school districts." Crittenden Press, 09/18/1890, p.1; and "A colored school district...," Crittenden Press, 01/11/1894, p.3.

  • Cardin School
  • Marion School
  • Colored Schools No.1-9
  • Simpson School
  • Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.850]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marion, Crittenden County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Cumberland County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1959
Record of the first colored school in Cumberland County was for the school built by white citizens in Burkesville, KY, between 1866-1870. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1870, Mag Taylor was the school teacher [see NKAA entry Migration from Canada to Kentucky]. Taylor was from Canada and lived with the Owsley family in Burkesville [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were six colored school districts in Cumberland County [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. One of the schools was located in Marrowbone, today within the Marrowbone Historic District. Other colored schools were located in Bakerton, Beech Grove, Burkesville, Clay Lick Bottom, Coe, and Lawson's Bottom [source: History of Cumberland County by J. W. Wells]. John E. Burbridge (1867-1914), from Adair County, was the school teacher at the Burkesville Colored School for several years, until his death in 1914 [sources: "Last week we wrote a notice of the death of John Burbridge..." The Adair County News, 06/03/1914, p.1; and Kentucky Death Certificate, File No. 12587]. In 1923, the school teachers were J. M. and Kate Alexander at Burkesville; Miss Stella Baker at Waterview; Mrs. Flora V. Allen at Leslie; Thomas E. Cox at Black Ferry; Mrs. Eliza Ellington at Marrowbone; Mr. W. J. Lawson and Miss Susie Lee Scott at Bakerton [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.49, 50, 55, 57, 66, & 74]. The number of colored schools would decrease to where there was only the one in Burkesville. There was not a high school for Negro children in Cumberland County. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Cumberland County included Thomas Campbell and Eliza Ellington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Cumberland County Schools began to integrate during the 1959-60 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.784], and the Cumberland County High School was noted as integrated the following school year. John W. Burbridge was principal of the Burkesville Negro School, grades 1-8, and both the school and the principal are listed in the Kentucky School Directory up to the 1966-67 school term.

  • Burkesville Freedmen School
  • Burkesville School
  • Marrowbone School
  • Bakerton School
  • Beech Grove School
  • Clay Lick Bottom School
  • Coe School
  • Lawson's Bottom School
  • Waterview School
  • Leslie School
  • Black Ferry School

See photo image of Marrowbone Colored School by Bill Macintire, a Picasa web album.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Cumberland County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Daviess County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866-1870, there was a Freedmen School in Owensboro, KY, the building was made of brick [see NKAA entry for African American Freedmen Schools]. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. In 1868, the Negro Educational Convention was held in Owensboro and Marshall W. Taylor was named president of the organization [see NKAA entry for Negro Educational Convention]. Brothers, Charlie Jackson and William Jackson were teachers in the colored schools in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There were four colored schools in Daviess County in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. One of the schools was located in Owensboro as early as 1883 when Edward Claybrook and others successfully sued the City of Owensboro to desegregate the use of the public school funds [see NKAA entry Claybrook v Owensboro]. Though there were only four schools, there were at least 19 colored school districts. In 1885, school had been held for the entire school term in District 19, but no report of the school had been forwarded to the Superintendent of Public Instruction; therefore, no school funds were provided from the treasury to pay the teacher. The teacher's salary was paid by four members of the community: Park Haynes, Robert Wilson, J. W. Montgomery, and Washington French [source: volume 2 of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1885, Chapter 1090, pp.623-624]. The men were reimbursed the $40.30 by an act passed by the Kentucky General Assembly on May 4, 1886. During the school years 1899-1900, and 1900-1901, there were still 19 colored school districts, and the number of colored schools had increased to 14, and the schools were in session less than five months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1,1889-June 30, 1901]. The average attendance was between 336 and 441 students. The Negro teachers earned an average salary of $29.00 per month. There was one student from Daviess County who graduated from the State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University]. In 1916, there were at least 28 colored school teachers in Owensboro, including Samuel L. Barker, Birdie Bohler, Lula Coleman, Madeline Elliot, A. O. Guthrie, S. R. Guthrie, Virginia Herald, L. O. Hathaway, Ethel Helm, A. M. Lee, Bertha Lee, Rida McMicken, Edith Moorman, Myrtle Moorman, Hattie Richardson, Robinson, Lula Valentine, M. J. Wheatley, R. F. White, Theresa Wilhite, and Leona Willingham [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.24-39]. In 1919, there were 12 students enrolled in the Moonlight Colored School held at the Western School house in Owensboro and A. O. Guthrie was the teacher [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1925, there were 10 colored schools in Daviess County, and there were 12 elementary teachers and 5 high school teachers in the Owensboro colored schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. Mrs. Ella H. Jackson and Miss Sadie Jackson were the school teachers at the Whitesville Colored School in 1924; Mrs. Ella H. Jackson was the teacher in 1925 and 1928; and Miss R. G. Stone was the teacher 1926 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.54; April 22-25, 1925, p.63; April 21-24, 1926, p.58; and April 18-21, 1928, p.44]. Mrs. Edna Ford Howard was the teacher at the Maceo Colored School as early as 1916; along with Ella M. Hawes in 1923; Mrs. J. Francis Wilson, 1923-1924; Miss Arbella McCreary in 1925; and a host of other teachers up through 1938 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.30; April 18-21, 1923, p.61, p.63, & p.80; April 23-26, 1924, p.67; April 22-25, 1925, p.67; April 18-21, 1928, p.44; and March-April, 1938, p.4]. Mrs. Ana G. Johnson was the teacher at the Utica Colored School in 1924, and Mrs. Elizabeth Brannon, Miss Theodore Jackson, and Miss Evie Tinsley in 1925, and Miss Alma May in 1927 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.54; April 22-25, 1925, p.51, p.64; p.79; and April 20-23, 1927, p.53]. Samuel L. Barker was the principal of Western High School in 1934, and he had also been a teacher and principal at Dunbar School. In 1940, two Sisters of Charity of Nazareth opened the Catholic Colored High School at the corner of 5th and Plum Streets in Owensboro [source: The Roman Catholic Diocese of Owensboro, Kentucky by Turner Pub.], and the school also had elementary grades. The Negro teachers in Daviess Countyin 1940 were Inez Agnew, Lanetta M. Baker, Camille Berkley, Mary Lucille Burns, Vitula Clement, Mattie F. Coffey, Marilyn Crowe, Sedalia Crowe, Emma V. Earl, Emma Edwards, Mary Lee Fisher, Jessie T. Gatewood, Viola Gordon, Lee Oma Hathaway, Martina Hicks, Jessie Howard, Rosina Hunt, Rida V. McMickans, Taylor T. Murray, Joe Perkins, Sue Pape, William Robinson, Elsie M. Robinson, Christine R. Smith, James E. Thruston, Merle L. Thruston, Edward R. Tinsley, and E. Wilder [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The St. Mary of the Woods School in Daviess County is listed on p.208 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56 as having both white and colored students, though the term integration is not used. The first listing of integrated schools in Daviess County is on pp.425-426 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57: Masonville School, St. Mary of the Woods School, both in Daviess County, and Owensboro High School, and Owensboro Technical High School.

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Dunbar School
  • Western School
  • Western High School
  • Whitesville School
  • Maceo School
  • Utica School
  • Catholic High School (Blessed Sacrament)
  • Carver School, Daviess County [source: Kentucky Public Directory, 1938-39, p.39]
  • Colored Consolidated, Daviess County [source: Kentucky Public Directory, 1937-38, p.49]
  • Moonlight School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Daviess County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Earlington, KY (Hopkins County)
Start Year : 1891
End Year : 1964
Earlington Colored School was open as early as 1891; it was mentioned in a special report, "Masons Made - Mass Meetings - Visitors." Freeman, 02/28/1891, p.6. The school reopened for the year in September of 1892 [source: "School opens," Bee, 09/08/1892, p.6]. In 1894, A. R. Bailey was principal and J. E. Todd was his assistant [source: Bee, 03/22/1894, p.3]. The Colored school was located in District 7, there were 158 students enrolled with an attendance of 126, and the school was in session for nine months. In 1895, C. W. Merriweather was the assistant principal of the school. J. W. Bell was the principal in 1911 [source: "Prof. J. W. Bell...," Bee, 07/18/1911, p.5]. He was still the principal in 1920 when there were 14 students in Earlington High School (grades 9 and 10), according to author H. Ardis Simons' thesis, The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky. From 1923 to 1941, the principals were Edward Dean, W. E. Strader, T. W. Austin, R. R. Buckner, Theodore Daly, W. B. Edwards, Austin Edwards, and S. S. Morris. The school still existed in the late 1940s and is mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.  As early as 1938, the school was named  J. W. Million [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-1938, p.46]; the elementary school had 5 teachers and the high school had 4 teachers. The J. W. Million School was listed as a Negro school in the Kentucky School Directory right up to the last issue of the publication that indicated race [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65, p.105.], and all other schools in Hopkins County, except the Earlington Elementary school for whites, are listed as integrated. See also NKAA Database entry African American Schools in Madisonville and Hopkins County, KY.

  • Earlington Colored School
  • J. W. Million School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Earlington, Hopkins County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Edmonson County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1963
As early as 1886, there were four colored schools in Edmonson County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1899-1901, there were five colored school districts in Edmonson County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899 - June 1901, and the Negro teachers earned an average monthly salary of $24.49 for the school year 1899-1900, and $21.69 for the school year 1900-1901. The average attendance at the colored schools during the 1906-1907 school term was 61 students [source: Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907]. There were still 4 colored elementary schools in Edmonson County in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. Mrs. Zemmie Bransford was the school teacher at the Mammoth Cave Colored School in 1924 and was joined by Mrs. Alice C. Garvin in 1925 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.70; and April 22-25, 1925, p.58 and p.84]. Mr. M. W. Bransford was a teacher at the school in 1927 [April 20-23, 1927, p.38]. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Edmonson County was William S. Coleman [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The last colored school in Edmonson County was Icy Sink in Smiths Grove, the teacher was Mrs. Mattie P. Starks, and there were 17 students [source: Kentucky School Directory,1962-63, p.112]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Edmonson County, the county board of education paid to have the students transported to High Street High School in Bowling Green, KY. The Edmonson County schools integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.105].

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Mammoth Cave School
  • Icy Sink School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Edmonson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Elliott County, KY
There is not a record of a colored school or Negro students in Elliott County, KY [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory; Kentucky School Directory; Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. It is unclear if the children attended school with the white children, or attended the colored schools in a nearby county, or there were other arrangements. In the 1870 U.S. Federal Census, there were seven Collins children between the ages of 5 and 17, and two Howard children ages 10 and 7, all in Elliott County. In 1880, there was one African American child of school age; in 1900 there were five Leadenham children of school age; and in 1920 there were four children of school age.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Elliott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Estill County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
There was one colored school in Estill County, KY, for the year 1866, as reported in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. There was still one elementary colored school in Irvine during the 1905-07 school terms, with an average of 13-15 students, and the Negro teachers earned an average of $24.30 per month for 1906-07, and an average of $24.00 per month for 1905-06 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905-June 1907]. Mr. L. R. Diggs and Mrs. Nora Park were teachers at the colored school in 1924 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.49 & p.70]. In 1925, there were 25 students in the colored school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.69]. The school enrolled students from the county and the city, and there was one teacher. Mrs. Nancy Covington was the teacher in 1935 [source: KNEA Journal, v.6, no.1, p.52]. There were years when less than 10 children were enrolled in the school. During the 1955-56 school term, there were four students, and during the 1956-57 term, the Irvine Independent Schools integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.209; and 1956-57, p.426].

  • Irvin School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Estill County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Fleming County, KY
Start Year : 1884
End Year : 1956
As early as 1884, there were colored schools in Fleming County, KY, when the Kentucky General Assembly passed an act to support the schools with fines and forfeitures from the courts [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, v.1, Chapter 356, pp.652-653]. In 1886 there were six colored school districts in Fleming County, the schools were held in churches [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. During the 1909-10 school term, there were 241 students in the colored schools, grades 1-8 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in Kentucky, 1909-1911, Part I, p.14]. The average monthly salaries for the Negro teachers during the 1911-12 school term was $67 for the male teachers, which was the highest salary in the county, and $39.91 for the female teachers, which was the lowest salary in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, p.47], and there were at least 6 colored schools [p.56], and the colored high school was located in Flemingsburg, it was rated as a 2nd class high school [p.330]. In 1923, the six Fleming County teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, were Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Adams in Flemingsburg [p.49], Miss Bertha Brown in Flemingsburg [p.52], Mr. Abel N. Hewitt in Shurburne [p.62]; Mrs. Alma Iles in Flemingsburg [p.63]; and Mr. E. L. Moore in Flemingsburg [p.69]. In 1925, there were three colored elementary schools and one high school, with a total of seven teachers, two of whom taught in the high school, all in the rural area of Fleming County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. Three of the teachers were listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925: Mrs. Romania Flournoy in Nepton [p.58]; Mr. E. L. Moore in Flemingsburg [p.70]; and Miss Emma L. Walker in Flemingsburg [p.80]. In 1936, there were two colored elementary schools, one in Nepton and one in Flemingsburg, both listed on p.39 in A Study of School Attendance Areas in Fleming County, Kentucky by the Department of Education , Frankfort, KY, 11/01/1936 [within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 15]. The Nepton School had one teacher and the Flemingsburg School had three teachers. The colored high school was closed by 1936 and the students attended the colored high school in Maysville, KY [A Study, pp.24-25]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Fleming County were Lucy Herrington, Blossom Lee Martin, and Wardell White [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1955, there were still two colored schools in Fleming County with 57 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.210]. The Fleming County High School was integrated in 1956 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.427], and the city schools began to integrate in 1959 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1959-60, p.786]. After the schools integrated, there was a a court case that went before the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1964 to determine the rightful owners of the property where a colored school had been located, for more see "Fleming County Board of Education et. al., Appellants, v. Martha V. Anna Hall, Widow, et. al, Appellees."

  • Colored Schools (6)
  • Shurburne School
  • Nepton School
  • Flemingsburg School
  • Flemingsburg High School (closed in 1936)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Fleming County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Floyd County, KY
End Year : 1956
The first school for African Americans in Floyd County was taught in a church, though the year is not given in Chalmer H. Frazier's thesis. There would later be a colored grade school in Wheelwright. There were 3 colored elementary schools in Floyd County in 1925, with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The following year, there were 4 colored schools and 4 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.81]. The Palmer-Dunbar Colored High School, in Wheelwright, was organized in 1936; the school was named in part for Palmer Hall, the school superintendent. By 1939, the high school offered four years of study. W. T. Gilbert was principal, and there were three teachers, one of whom was Mrs. Mannie N. Wilson. There were 41 students in the high school [source: The History of Education of Floyd County, Kentucky (thesis), by Chalmer Haynes Frazier]. In 1940, there were 5 Negro teachers in Wheelwright according to the U.S. Federal Census: Gera Kaywood, Lillie Beele Daw, Gladys Edwards, Sarah Moran, and Mary A. Reed. In 1956, two schools in Floyd County were listed as "white & integrated," Betsy Lane and Wheelwright [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.427-428]. 

  • Church School
  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Wheelwright School
  • Palmer-Dunbar School

 

   See 1946 photo image of children playing at the Wheelwright Colored School, Kentucky Digital Library.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Floyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Frankfort and Franklin County, KY
Start Year : 1820
End Year : 1956
According to author Marion B. Lucas, there was a day school for Black children in Frankfort, KY as early as 1820, a grammar school was established in 1859, and there were five schools in Franklin County prior to 1900 [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, pp.141, 144, & 266]. That total may include the Freedmen School in Frankfort that was constructed between 1866 and 1870, and supervised by the Bishop of the Episcopal Church [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1871, Mattie E. Anderson opened the Frankfort Female High School, using her own money. The school trained students to become teachers. In 1880 the teachers at the colored schools were Martha Dillon, Lizzie Hocker, Mittie Johnson, Sarah Smith, and Reuben Washington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. A colored high school was located on Clinton Street in the 1880s, and in 1907, the Board of Education had an addition built onto the school for the teaching of domestic science: cooking, sewing, and general housekeeping. The school principal was W. H. Mayo and the teachers were Winnie A. Scott, Margaret E. Gray, Bianca Parker, Sadie M. Kirby, Katie Smith, Virginia M. Madison, Julia M. Spencer, Lettye A. Williams, Martha E. Williams, Charity A. Boyd, and Annie L. Fairs. In 1887, State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University] opened to train teachers. In 1892, George Halleck was over the colored night school in Frankfort [source: "Public school teachers," Frankfort Roundabout, 07/08/1892, p.4]. In 1895, there were 8 colored schools in Franklin County with one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1896, pp.361-365]. The average attendance was 262 students for the 1895-96 session, and 224 students for the 1896-97 session. In 1925, there were 2 colored elementary schools in the county, and the colored schools in Frankfort had 9 teachers in the elementary grades and 5 high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67 & 69]. By 1940, Franklin County had one of the highest number of Negro educators in the state of Kentucky: Ludye Anderson, Walter Anderson, David Bradford, Stenson Broadus, Louella Bush, Henry A. Keene, Mack Carmichael, Nancy Carter, H. E. Cheaney, Hubert B. Crouch, Virginia Falls, Aneta Fields, Ben D. Fruch, Howard Jason, Anne J. Heartwell, Yvonne Jackson, William Jones, Ralph Lee, J. J. Mark, Arletter McGoodwin, Manson Melton, Malcolm Perkins, Alexis Richards, Harold Smith, Robert Whiter, Bettie H. White, Violet Wilson, and Charlotte Wilson, all at Kentucky State College for Negroes [now Kentucky State University]; Lawrence Hitcher at Kentucky State Model School; Samara Hurd, Sue Tyler, and John Tyler, all at the Feeble-Minded Institute; and A. Elinton Bishop, Etta Blanton, W. S. Blanton, Katie H. Brown, Ota Case, Laura F. Chase, Mary Collins, Murray Conda, Dorothy Gay, Grace Grevious, Abaline Hays, James W. Henry, Mary C. Holmes, Clarence S. Johnson, Dorothy Jones, Asberry Jones, Lucy Jones, Annie Scott King, Emma E. Lindsay, Grace Morton, LaBlanche Nelly, Mary Peay, Florence Roberts, Marie Robertson, Ethel Robertson, Eugene Raines, Patty L. Simpson, Bessie R. Stone, Leota Thomas, Lula Ward, Cornelin Warren, Mary O. Warren, Roberta H. Wilson, and Arnold Wright, all educators in Frankfort and Franklin County [source: U.S. Federal Census].  For more see "Improvement of Colored School," The Frankfort Roundabout, 01/12/1907, p.3; "The commencement of the High School for girls..." The Frankfort Roundabout, 07/04/1891, p.6; and "Colored School," The Frankfort Roundabout, 06/22/1907, p.4. In 1948, the Kentucky Training Home was first listed as having "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1948-49, p.683]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.428, were Bridgeport, Elkhorn, Frankfort High, Kentucky Training Home, and Good Shepherd. 

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Clinton Street High School (1882-1928 - Replaced by Mayo Underwood School)
  • County Schools No.1-5
  • Day School
  • Female High School
  • Frankfort School
  • Frankfort School [Freedmen School under Bishop of Episcopal Church]
  • Frankfort Night School
  • Mayo Underwood School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University]
  • Kentucky State Model School
  • State Feeble-Minded Institute (Colored Division)

See photocopy image of Frankfort School on p.13 in Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].

See photo image of Clinton Street School [1880s-1890s] in the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Fulton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1958
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a colored school in Hickman, KY, the school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. In 1880, the teachers  in Fulton County were James Chochran at Johnsons, and Nannie Johnston at Hickman [source: U. S. Federal Census]. In 1887, Steve L. Brooks founded the Brook's Chapel School. He was the school teacher, as well as the pastor of Brook's Chapel. The school was burned by Night Riders in the 1920's, and afterward, classes were held in the chapel. Today Brooks Chapel Baptist Church is located at 230 Brooks Chapel Road in Fulton, KY. A picture of the Brook's Chapel School and the students, taken in 1888, is on p.13 in Fulton by E. R. Jones. There were other African American schools and teachers in Fulton County, they are listed below [source: "Fulton County School Census 1898," The Hickman Courier, 05/27/1898, p.3]. In 1890, the Kentucky General Assembly authorized the payment of $127.28 to teacher Mrs. Daisy E. Harvey. The Fulton County Superintendent had refused to pay Harvey her salary because she had missed the teachers' civil government exam due to an illness in her family. Harvey was a teacher in Colored common school district number six in Fulton County. For more see Chapter 64, pp.110-11 of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1890]. In 1895, there were 8 colored schools in Fulton County, KY [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.366-370]. The average attendance was 245 students in 1895-96 taught by 11 teachers, and 251 students in 1896-97 taught by 10 teachers. From 1899 to 1901 the average attendance at the Fulton County Colored Schools was 261 to 271 students, and the teachers earned an average monthly salary between $33.81 and $36.12 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1899-June 1901, pp.63, 426 & 454]. There were three teachers that taught in the districts that held classes for at least five months. The Colored common school graduates for July 1897- July 1900 were Aida Williner, William Thompson, Mary Plumer, Beatrice Nichols, Roy Atwood b.1883 (brother to Rufus Atwood), Ora McCutchen, Alvin Barksdale b.1884, D. H. Anderson, Ernest Henry Nichols, Lou Anna Lauderdale b.1886, Blanche Lee Atwood b.1885 (sister to Rufus Atwood), Pinky Lee Alexander, Nannie Milner, Disune Smith, and Lillian Metta Wright. Beginning In 1910, the Fulton Colored School was the only location in Kentucky that served as a Traveling Library Station for African Americans [source: see p.6 of the Bulletin, vol.1 by the Kentucky Library Extension Division at Google Book Search; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones]. In 1911, J. L. Northington was the custodian of the collection. The first high school for African Americans, built in 1905, was the result of fund raising by D. H. Anderson. The high school was located in Hickman [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.61]. Hickman School was one of the few in Kentucky to have an African American superintendent in 1925, his name was G. T. Halliburton, he was the father of Cecil D. Halliburton [see the NKAA entry for Colored School Superintendents]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Fulton County were Hattie Beltra, Mary Compton, J. D. Compton, Annie Gale, A. W. Green, Bessie A. Green, Elizabeth Moore, Lydia Moore, Plumer Nichols, Allie D. Wilson, Blanche Iralda Wilson, T. Essa Williams, and Ada Yates, all in Hickman; Ledora Kove, Ruth Jones, and Angie Tucker, all in Fulton; and James N. Milliner, Lauis Uplham, and Beatrice Uplham, all in Fulton County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school to be listed as integrated was Fulton High School on p.1000 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59.

  • Johnsons School
  • Hickman School
  • Brooks Chapel School
  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Alexander District
  • Bowden District
  • Cayce District
  • Fulton District
  • Sassafras Ridge District
  • Sharp or Maddox District
  • Upshaw or Lynch District
  • Phillips School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • Riverview School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • Milton School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]

  See photo image of Elder Steven Lee Brooks on p.13 in Fulton by E. R. Jones.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Gallatin County, KY
Start Year : 1869
End Year : 1957
In 1869 there were two colored schools in Warsaw, KY, and one of the schools was established by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools in Kentucky]. There was a school in the Parkridge community and according to author Anderson Bell Moore, the school was a log building "erected by free[d] slaves and southern sympathizers." [source: History of Education in Gallatin County Kentucky by A. B. Moore, p.49]. The teacher was Rev. J. P. Maxwell who taught at the Warsaw school for two winters [source: The Sons of Allen by H. Talbert, p.97] The other school was first located upstairs in the Methodist Church, the school did not have a name, and the teacher, Mr. Sim Craig, was a Yale University graduate who taught the students Latin and geometry [source: Moore, p.52]. The tuition was $3 per month. There would later be a colored school building in Warsaw. In 1880, the teachers at the Warsaw Schools were William T. Brassfield and Jennie Smith, and the teachers at Sparta School were Julia Colman and Gertrude Harris [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1892, there were four Negro districts with three teachers at two schools [source: Moore, p.51]; 1895-97 there were 4 colored schools, each with one teacher, and an average attendance between 135 and 158 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.371-374]; and in 1900 the average attendance was 68 students [source: Moore, p.52]. In 1908, there were two colored schools with one teacher at each school [source: Moore, pp.62 & 63]. In 1935, the Parkridge and Warsaw Schools were consolidated into one school in Warsaw and transportation was provided for the students [source: Moore, p.71]. Annetta Warren was the Negro school teacher in 1940, according to the U.S. Federal Census. There was not a colored high school in Gallatin County. The first school to be listed as integrated in Gallatin County, was the Gallatin County High School and Elementary School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.624].

  • Parkridge School
  • Methodist Church School
  • Warsaw Schools (2)
  • Sparta School
  • Colored Schools (4)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Gallatin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Garrard County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
According to author Richard D. Sears, there was a freemen's school in Garrard County, KY in 1869, conducted by Berea student Angus Burleigh. This may be the same school that was established between 1866 and 1870; an American Missionary Association School in Lancaster [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, Joseph Chavis was a school teacher in Brandy Springs; and Samuel Logan was the teacher at Bryantsville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 14 colored schools in Garrard County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.376-379].  The average attendance was 431 and there were 15 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 426 students and 16 teachers during the 1896-97 school term. The teachers' average monthly wages were $45.28 for males and $46.00 for females, during 1895-96; and $37.40 for males and $30.50 for females during 1896-97. In 1898, L. A. Leavell was removed as head of the Lancaster Colored School, and replaced by R. W. Fletcher who was assisted by Miss Willie B. Lackey. In 1900, James A. White was principal of the Lancaster Colored School and the teachers were Miss Mary V. Richey and Miss Willie B. Lackey. The school year closing exercises were held at the courthouse and E. M. Embry gave the address for the graduation held for five students who completed the common school course. E. M. Embry was an African American lawyer in Richmond, KY, and editor of the Rambler newspaper. In 1906, H. E. Murrell was the teacher at the Lancaster Colored School. The school building had burned years ago and the school was held in a location that limited the number of students. The new school was located on Totten Avenue. In 1912, there were 152 students enrolled in the Lancaster Colored School. The principal was J. H. Burns and the teachers were Dora Beverly of Alabama and Isabel Overstreet of Lancaster. In 1923, the teacher at the Marcellus School was Mr. George Gaines [source: "K. N. E. A. Enrollment, 1923," Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.59]. Prior to 1924, students who wanted to go to high school had to pay the tuition to attend at Bate High School in Danville or some other city, so parents petitioned the school board for a colored high school [source: Tommie Merritt oral history interview, #810H72, History of Garrard County Schools, at Eastern Kentucky University Oral History Collection]. In 1925, there was a colored high school in Lancaster; J. P. Griffey was the principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. It was a Class 3 high school with one teacher and 9 girl students. Lancaster High School, later known as Mason High School (1950), opened in 1939 in Duncantown, and there were two teachers for the 56 students and the school was within the Lancaster Independent School System [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.501]; Mrs. Tommie F. Merritt was a teacher at the school and served as principal from 1944 until the Garrard County schools were integrated in 1964. The Negro teachers in Garrard County in 1940 were Henry Kincaid, Susie Letcher, Lilly B.Mason, Cabel Merritt, Charles Payne, Carl M. Peters, Virginia Peters, and William Smith [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Closing of Colored School," Central Record, 05/11/1906, p.1; "Colored School closes," Central Record, 04/26/1912, p.1; "The Colored School," Central Record, 03/01/1900, p.1; "Change in Colored School," Central Record, 01/07/1898, p.1; see p.65 in Garrard County by R. M. Fox; A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91;

  • Freemen School
  • Lancaster American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Boone's Creek School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Brandy Springs School
  • Bryantsville School
  • Davistown School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Flatwoods School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Lancaster School
  • Lowell School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Marcellus School
  • Mason School
  • Scott's Fork School in Buckeye [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • White Oak [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]


See the 1938 photo image of the Lancaster Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky: Lancaster

African American Schools in Grant County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Grant County, KY; the teacher was Peter Farwell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The date of the first Negro school report in Grant County is said to be 1881 according to Samuel Elmore King's 1934 thesis titled A History of Education in Grant County, Kentucky, p.61. There was one school and one school district located in Dry Ridge [source: King, p.65]. There was a school census of 100 Negro children. One of the colored schools was located in Williamstown in 1891, the teacher was Miss Grace Lewis [source: "The Williamstown Colored School," Williamstown Courier, 01/19/1891, last page]. By 1892, there were five colored schools and two were taught in school houses [source: King, p.62]. In 1895, there were four school districts [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky , pp.380-383]. All of the schools were held in frame buildings. There was an average attendance of 84 students 1895-96, and 74 students 1896-97. There was 1 teacher at each school. The number of school districts was reduced to three by 1905, and a County Institute for Colored Teachers was held in Grant County in 1907-1908 [source: King, p.64]. There would be only the one colored school in Dry Ridge by 1934, and Zadah Thompson was the teacher [source: King, p.89]. The Dry Ridge Consolidated Colored School was restored as a project of the Northern Kentucky African-American Task Force and the building opened in June of 2011 as the Grant County Black History Museum [source: N. Jameson, "White woman's passion leads to black history museum," Associated Baptist Press, 06/20/2011]. The museum was burned down by an unknown arsonist in October 2012 [source: "Arson destroys Black History Museum in Grant County," kypost.com, 10/15/2012]. The first school to be listed as integrated in Grant County schools was the Williamstown Independent School in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.428.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Dry Ridge School
  • Williamstown School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grant County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Graves County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1956
Prior to the end of slavery, there were no colored schools in Graves County, KY, according to the thesis of Hubert H. Mills, The History of Education of Graves County, p.64, and there were very few slave owners who taught their slaves reading, writing, and arithmetic. An early school was attempted by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870, the freedmen were beaten and whipped, and the teacher was run out of town [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The first colored schools and capita for Negro students came in 1875, followed by the first school report in 1879 [source: Mills, p.65-66]. There were 12 county school districts with 11 schools that were in session for two months with an average of 276 students who attend the schools on a regular basis. There were 7 log school buildings, 3 frame, and 1 box, with 10 male teachers and 2 female teachers. The male teachers' salaries were $18.68 per month and the female teachers earned $15.67 per month. In 1880, the teachers were Mary Boone, Sandy H. Slayam, and Andrew Carman [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1922, both the male and female teachers were earning $81.90 per month, and in 1937, they were earning $85.51 per month [source: Mills, p.79]. The highest number of colored schools in Graves County was 20 in 1905; 18 frame buildings and two log buildings [source: Mills, p.67]. In the city of Mayfield, in 1908, two elementary schools were established for Negro children, one in east Mayfield and one in southwest Mayfield. In 1917, the two schools were merged and a high school was added [source: Mills, p.147]. A new school had been constructed in 1917, in preparation for the school merger; the building was a two-story brick structure with 12 rooms and located on eight acres of land in southeast Mayfield. The school was named Dunbar Colored School. The building cost $35,000 of which $1,600 was contributed by the Rosenwald Fund. In 1927, a gymnasium and auditorium were constructed in a separate building and was financed by a $40,000 bond issue voted on by the people of Mayfield. In 1928, Dunbar Colored School had an enrollment of 89% of the elementary school-age, Negro, children in the city of Mayfield.  This was one of the highest enrollment percentages of African American elementary students in the state of Kentucky. The students were taught by five teachers, all of whom met the requirement of two years of normal school training and two years of teaching experience. There were 86 students in the high school in 1928, and four graduated. From 1917-1928, there were 31 total graduates from Dunbar Colored High School, and half of the graduates had gone on to college [source: Mills, p.146]. The high school students were taught by four teachers, one of whom was the principal, and all met the requirement of a college degree and two years of teaching experience. The grade school teachers earned an average salary of $70 per month; high school teachers earned $85 per month; and the principal earned $125 per month [source: Mills, pp.145-146]. There were 12 colored schools in the county in 1928, and nine of the schools had male teachers and three with female teachers. The school term was seven months. The newest county school building had been constructed 1926 in Water Valley and the Rosenwald Fund contributed $400 toward the cost of construction. Hickory Colored School was built in 1925. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Graves County were Christine Crawford, Asbury Dawson, Artice England, Henry T. Frazell, Mary Anna Frizzell, George Hale, Jesse K. Killebrew, Salene Murphy, Ruby Sapp, Henry H. Schofield, Brady M. Schofield, Fredrick E. Stiger, Ocala Taylor, Bonnie Taylor, Inez C. Utterback, Myra Williams, and Verna Word [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Mayfield High School for whites was the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429]. 

  • Colored Schools (20)
  • Dunbar School
  • Hickory School
  • Mayfield Schools (2)
  • Water Valley School
  • Pleasant Hill School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.856]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Graves County

African American Schools in Grayson County, KY
Start Year : 1877
End Year : 1956
In 1940, the available records indicated that the first colored school in Grayson County, KY, was located in Leitchfield, according to the thesis of E. E. McMullin, History of Education in Grayson County, p.79. There is mention of the school on p.293 in Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky. History of Kentucky, published in 1877. There were never more than three colored schools in Grayson County. There was never a colored high school in Grayson County. In 1901, there were two colored schools [source: McMullin, p.54]. During the 1895-97 school terms, there were four schools, each with one teacher, and three of the schools were taught for five months: the average attendance was 102 students the first year, and 86 students the second year [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.390-393]. In 1908, there were three colored schools, one each in Leitchfield, Grayson Springs, and Caneyville [source: McMullin, p.126]. By 1940, there was only the one colored school in Leitchfield which had been under the county until 1934 [source: McMullin, p.79]. There were 18 students and the teacher was Miss Annie Clements [source: McMullin, p.79] and, in 1945 she was Mrs. Annie C. Johnson and still the Leitchfield Colored School teacher [source: KNEA Journal, v.16, April-May 1945, no.2-3, p.29]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429, were the Leitchfield Independent Grade and High Schools.

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Leitchfield School
  • Grayson Springs School
  • Caneyville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grayson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Green County, KY
Start Year : 1812
End Year : 1956
In 1812, there was a slave school in Greensburg, KY, operated by a slave named Joe, the school was forced to close [see NKAA entry for Slave School in Greensburg, KY]. In 1880, the teachers were Henry Hazell and Unice White [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1893, Green County, KY had 14 colored school districts with 14 schools, 9 made of logs and 5 that were frame, and 270 regular students who were taught by 13 Negro teachers, according to the thesis of Thomas Franklin Hamilton, The History of Education in Green County, pp.55-58. There had been as many as 17, one room, one teacher, colored schools in Green County [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. The first colored teachers institute was held n 1885 with 15 teachers in attendance [source: Hamilton, pp.97 & 101]. By 1893, the Negro teachers had more college credit hours and more teaching experience, and they were paid a higher monthly salary than white teachers in Green County [source: Hamilton, pp.58 &76-77]. In 1919, there were three Colored Moonlight Schools, one each held in the colored schools in Ote, Gresham, and Whitewood [see NKAA entry for African American Moonlight Schools]. There would continue to be 14-15 colored schools until the Negro population in Green County started to decline, and in 1942 there nine colored schools, grades 1-8 [source: Hamilton, p.98]. The school teachers were Florida M. Blackburn, Anna D. Calhoun, Extell F. Curry, Mrs. Extell F. Curry, Lettie J. Curry, Mrs. Ulyses Golder, Ada J. Groves, Fannie M. Curry Ivery, and Lana William [source: Hamilton, p.100]. With the decline in the number of colored schools, the students who had been attending school in Hazel Ridge were transported to the school in Summersville, and the students at Liletown were transported to a colored school in Metcalfe County. There was never a colored high school in Green County; there were contracts with colored high schools in surrounding counties for the instruction of Negro students from Green County [source: Hamilton, p.98-99]. Transporting and boarding students in homes in nearby counties was a hardship and costly, and few Negro students from Green County attended high school. In response, the Green County Board of Education formed an agreement with the Campbellsville Board of Education for the teaching of Negro high school students in Campbellsville. Transportation was provided to and from the school, and in 1941-42, there were 22 high school students in Green County, and 25 students the following school year. The Negro teachers in Green County in 1940 included Lettie Curry and A. Golder [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Green County schools started to integrated in 1955 with the Greensburg High School for whites [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429].

  • Slave School by Joe
  • Hazel Ridge School
  • Summersville School
  • Liletown School
  • Ote School
  • Gresham School
  • Whitewood School
  • Greensburg School
  • Pleasant Run School
  • Pleasant Hill School
  • Owen's Ridge School
  • Mt. Moriah School
  • Meadow Creek School
  • Little Pitman School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Cidar Top School
  • Moonlight Schools (3)
  • Summersville School #2 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.857]

 

See photo image of Greensburg Colored School and historical maker at the flickr site by The Feedman.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Greenup County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the earliest known colored schools in Greenup County, KY, was in session in 1866, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1866]. The first colored school districts in Greenup County were established in 1874, per capita funding for the students came about in 1875, and in 1876 the city of Greenup had 1 school district with 73 students, and in Fulton there were 2 school districts with 54 students, all according to The History of Education in Greenup County, Kentucky by Benjamin F. Kidwell, pp.45 & 62-63. The school teachers were hired from up north, and were consider unprepared for teaching in the colored schools. By 1891, there was a school in Wurtland, and the two school districts in Fulton no longer existed. During the 1895-1897 school terms, there were two colored schools in Greenup County with one teacher at each school, and the schools had an average attendance of 37-38 students, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.400-403. The Wurtland School was merged into the Greenup School in 1911 [source: Kidwell, pp.158-160]. The Greenup and Wurtland colored schools had had an all time high of 51 students in 1891, and by 1928, when there was only the Greenup Colored School, there were 27 students. The decrease in students was said to be due to Negro families leaving the area for work in the mines in Ohio and West Virginia. The Greenup Colored School was referred to as School Number A, and during the 1928-29 school term, there was one teacher and 57 students [source: Kidwell, p.159]. In 1930, Martin W. Nelson was the school janitor [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1936, Sallie Churchill was the school teacher in the Greenup Colored School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.43]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Greenup County.  Greenup High School for whites was first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Greenup County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hancock County, KY
Start Year : 1887
End Year : 1956
In 1887, there was "a bill for the benefit of Hawesville colored school in Hancock county."--[source: Journal of the House of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1887, p.1210]. In 1895, Hancock County had four colored districts with one school in each district and one teacher at each school, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.404-407. Two of the schools were made of log and two were frame buildings. The schools were taught for five months, and there were a total of 101 students 1895-96, and 133 students 1896-97. In 1918, the charter for one of the Hawesville colored schools was repealed; the colored schools were consolidated [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1918, p.406]. By 1925, there were two colored elementary schools [source:Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. Mrs. Mary B. Perkins was a teacher in 1928, she lived in Lewisport, and Mrs. Carrie J. Poole was the teacher in Hawesville [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, pp.51 & 52]. In 1930, there were 42 students regularly attending the two colored schools in Hancock County, and two high school students were attending school elsewhere [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.64]. In 1940 the Negro teacher in Hancock County was Mary B. Perkins [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1944, there were 34 children enrolled in the one colored school in Lewisport, and there were 13 high school students attending school elsewhere [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1944-1945, p.359]. During the 1956 school term, the Hawesville and Lewisport Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.430].

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Hawesville School
  • Lewisport School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hancock County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hardin County, KY
Start Year : 1867
End Year : 1956
The first colored school in Hardin County, KY, is thought to have been located in Elizabethtown in 1867, according to the thesis of Hubert W. Comer, History of Education in Hardin County, p.74-75. The school term was three months and there was an average attendance of 45 students. The teachers' average monthly salary in 1893 was $26, and by 1908, the average salary was $37. The first school may or may not be the same school that existed in 1869, referred to as the African School of Elizabethtown by author Lottie Offett Robinson in The Bond-Washington Story, on p.28. The African School was a subscription school and members of the African American community had purchased a lot to build a school house at the corner of Lincoln and Kennedy Avenue. Another school mentioned in Robinson's book, was run by Reverend George W. Bowling (b.1849 in VA), classes were held in a two room cabin on Dixie Avenue [source: Robinson, p.28]. Another school, District A School, came under the county jurisdiction, but was located in town [source: Robinson, p.36]. In the county area, there were 11 colored schools in 1880, and that would increase to an all time high of 15 schools with 17 teachers in 1893 [source: Comer, p.76]. The number of county schools had decreased by 1908 to 10 schools with 11 teachers. The average attendance was about 50% of the overall colored school student census. Two of the county colored schools were located in Glendale [source: Robinson, p.57]. There was also the West Point Colored Independent School, grades 1-8. In 1933, the county teachers' average monthly salary was $82.30, and in 1935, there were four teachers with an average salary of $85.36 [source: Comer, p.114-115]. The only colored high school in Hardin County was located in Elizabethtown, it was named East Side High School [source: Robinson, p.40]. The school opened in 1921 with a two year curriculum, and became a four year high school in 1926 [source: Comer, p.115]. There were four teachers and 31 students. Two years later, the high school was renamed Bond-Washington High School in honor of James M. Bond and Booker T. Washington [source: Robinson, p.40]. The high school was attended by African American students within the entire Hardin County area, and those in LaRue County who paid tuition, and those from Ft. Knox whose tuition was paid by the military. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Hardin County were Ethel R. Lomax, Mary L. Martin, Sadie M. Rend, John B. Robinson, Mary S. Smith, and Bessie Thompson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Ft. Knox Reservation School (private), later listed as the Ft. Knox Dependent School, was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1948-49, p.685. The Ft. Knox Dependent School was also among the first four schools in Hardin County to be listed as integrated in 1956, the other three were Elizabethtown High School, Elizabethtown Catholic High School, and the West Point Independent Schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.430.  Also, the Glendale School, Sonora School, and Vine Grove School were listed as "white & integrated." See also Educating rural African Americans in pre-brown decision America: one-room school education in Hardin county, Kentucky 1941-1954 by E. J. Hill

  • Colored County Schools (15)
  • African School
  • Reverend Bowling's School
  • District A School
  • Glendale Schools (2)
  • East Side High School
  • Bond-Washington High School
  • West Point Independent School

See photo image of West Point Colored School on p.20 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 (.pdf).

See photo image of dilapidated West Point Colored Independent School at the flickr site by Steph M. Clark.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hardin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Harlan County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1890, there were two colored schools in Harlan County, KY, with 70 students, according to the thesis of Lottie McCoy, History of Education in Harlan County, Kentucky, p.118. In the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Harlan County is included in the list of counties that had a colored school [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1918-1919, there were only three Negro teachers in the county school system, and in Camp No.3, the coal mine superintendent had set aside an old building to be used as a school for the 12 Negro children [source: see the section "Negro Schools," pp.357-358 in the M. B. Ellis article, "Children of the Kentucky coal fields," The American Child, v.1, May 1919-February 1920]. In Lynch, there was a colored school held in temporary quarters and classes were conducted by two teachers. The colored school in Benham was held in an old church with an average attendance of 65 students, though there were 135 Negro children of school age. During the 1918-1919 school term, there were six children in the 8th grade at the Benham Colored School. Plans were discussed for a $6,000 brick school house to be built with a playground. In 1919, Rosenwald funds were available and a colored school was built in Harlan that had a class B high school, there were four teachers and 240 students [source: McCoy, p.118]. In 1923 a school was built by the U. S. Coal and Coke Company and leased to the Lynch Colored Common Graded School District [source: R. Creech, "Historical marker honors Lynch Colored School," Harlan Daily Enterprise, 2003]. The Lynch Colored School had 567 students, 13 teachers, and the school had a four year high school with a class B rating [source: McCoy, p.118]. The high school was attended by students from both Lynch and Benham. The school was considered the best colored school in southeastern Kentucky, and many of the teachers were graduates of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. The Lynch mines schools system was one of the few to have a colored school superintendent, B. B. Smith [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Other colored schools in Harlan County were located in Closplint, Verda, Shields, Louellen, Kildav, Coxton, Tway, Liggett, Benham, Yancey, Black Mountain [source: McCoy, p.118]. All of the colored schools were under Lela Virginia Becker, the first colored school supervisor in Harlan County. The Benham, Harlan, and Lynch high schools were among the approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky between 1918-1940, and Lynch Colored High School had the highest number of students [see NKAA entry African American High Schools, Eastern Kentucky, 1948]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Harlan County were Vivian Baker, William Boyant, Georgia Bradshaw, Vivian Breedlove, Edward E. Brewer, Julius Burrell, Helen Carroll, Ben Caise, John V. Coleman, Alma Dallas, Judith Davis, T. Leory Davis, Lydia Gray, S. Henry Hagnes, Mary P. Houston, Mary L. Jackson, Lillian King, Alberta Leavis, L. C. McCrery, Ruth Mathews, Lorene McClinnick, Lovey Mitchell, Franklin Moore, Hannah Moore, Alice Parsons, Joseph Perry, Ercell Powell, Addie G. Reed, Johnnie M. Riggins, Sanford Scott, Mary Sheabe, Edythe Spencer, Henrietta Sweat, Geneva Tapp, Virginia Tichenor, Johnnie B. Ware, Mary J. Williams, Clara Woolfork, Johnnie Wood, William M. Wood, Jessie Howard, and Jennie B. Hall [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Harlan County Area Vocational School was the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 859.

  • Harlan School
  • Lynch School
  • Closplint School
  • Verda School
  • Shields School
  • Louellen School
  • Kildav School
  • Coxton School
  • Tway School
  • Liggett School
  • Benham School
  • Yancey School
  • Black Mountain School
  • Evarts School  [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • West Main (Lynch) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.860]
  • Camp Number 1 School (Lynch) [source: Steve Andriga Oral History recording #1986OH275 at UK Libraries Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History]
  • Camp Number 3 School (Lynch)

 

  See photo image of Harlan (Colored) Negro School, in Explore UK.

   See 2nd photo of Harlan Negro School, in Explore UK.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky.

African American Schools in Harrison County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
According to the 1866 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, there was a colored school in Harrison County in 1866. It may have been one of the two schools in Cynthiana that were funded by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. A history of the colored schools was found in the Harrison County Historical Society files and reprinted in the Harrison Heritage News, with editing by William A. Penn. The original author is unknown. According to the article, it was thought that the first colored school in Harrison County opened in 1868 and was the beginning of formal education for African Americans in the county. The school was located on the "Commons" near the river [source: History of Education in Harrison County, by Mrs. H. E. Young, p.115]. According to the article in the Harrison Heritage News, a second school was located on Water Street. In 1870, a colored school was constructed in Cynthiana by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, and in December of 1869, there was an American Missionary Society (AMS) school [source: Tenth Semi-annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1870, by J. W. Alvord]. A teacher at the American Missionary Society School in Cythiana was C. C. Vaughn, from Virginia. Vaughn was at the school for two years and left in 1870 to continue his education at Berea College [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.104-105]. The schools were independently managed, and it was after 1875 that the colored schools came under the Harrison County Board of Education [source: History of Education in Harrison County, pp.32-33]. In 1880, the school teachers were Laura Brown in Leesburg; Janie Harding, Ella Asberry, and Frank Howard in Cynthiana [source: U.S Federal Census]. In 1885, there were nine colored school districts with eight schools. The teachers were from Xenia, OH. In 1892, there were 11 colored school districts with 11 common schools, and the school terms lasted for 3 months (2 schools), 4 months (2 schools), 5 months (5 schools), and more than 5 months (2 schools) [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1892, p.357-361]. Three of the school buildings were made of log, seven were frame structures, and 1 was made of brick. There were 1,165 school age children, of which 602 were enrolled in the colored common schools and they were taught by 13 teachers. In 1890, there was an all time high of 14 teachers in the colored elementary schools [source: History of Education in Harrison County, p.70]. In 1893, a new colored school was opened, bringing the total number of schools to 12; ten of the schools were taught for 5 months, and two were taught for more than 5 months. All but one of the schools was located in the county. Beginning in 1895, the colored schools were in session for nine months [source: History of Education in Harrison County, p.121]. By 1908, there were eight colored school teachers. The city school, Cynthiana Colored School, had three teachers, and was soon overcrowded. In 1921, the Board of Education purchased the old hospital in Cynthiana, had the building remodeled, the name Cynthiana Colored School changed to Banneker School, and two years of high school were added to the curriculum [source: History of Education in Harrison County, pp.116-124]. Mr. Newsom was principal. At the end of the school term in 1925, there were 150 students enrolled in Banneker School. The teachers earned a little more than $400 annual salary and the principal earned $1,000. By 1926, the number of colored teachers had decreased to 5, and the reason given was due the decrease in the African American population in Harrison County. The first high school graduation took place in 1928 [source: Harrison Heritage News]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Harrison County were Ernest Alexandria, Jessie Crawford, Vivian David, May H. Fields, James F. Hillard, Ethel L. Jones, and Lucindia Lewis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1956, the first schools in Harrison County to be listed as integrated were Buena Vista, Connersville, Harrison County High School, Oddville, Renaker, and Cynthiana High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.431]. For more see "African American Education in Harrison County," Harrison Heritage News, vol. 6, issue 2, February 2005 [available online]; and Welcome to Harrison County, KYGenWeb [online]. 

  • Banneker School, 1921-1963
  • Cynthiana American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Cynthiana Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Cynthiana School, ?-1921
  • Leesburg School
  • Water Street School


See photo images in Cynthiana by M. B. Kennerly, pp.51-55, via Google Books.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hart County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were two colored schools in Hart County, KY, a freedmen school in Munfordville and one in Woodsonville. The schools were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. There were two districts with colored common schools in 1875, when the school commissioner failed to report the schools to the Superintendent of Public Instruction and no appropriations were made from the public fund, thus the school commissioner had to pay $36 for the 146 students and he was later reimbursed [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1875, v.2, Chapter 798, pp.575-576]. The Halltown Colored School opened around 1878 and closed in 1953, according to the marker outside the school house that was restored by the Mt. Gilboa Baptist Church; it was the last one room colored school in Hart County. In 1880, Maria Cox was a school teacher in Hardyville, along with John W. Harlow who was also a preacher, and in 1900 Lettia Rowe was a school teacher in Priceville [sources: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1886, Hart County had 10 colored school districts [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. Two years later, there were 15 colored schools: 12 schools held for 5 months; 2 schools held for three months; and no teacher was found for the school in the smallest district [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1888, pp.185-187]. During the 1901-02 school term the Negro teachers earned an average monthly salary of $31.56, and during the 1902-03 term they earned an average of $29.67 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1901-June 1903, p.354]. In 1925, there were 10 colored elementary schools in Hart County, each with one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. During the 1932-1933 school term, a 3rd class high school was added to the Horse Cave Colored School and there were 15 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.49]. In the 1940 U.S. Census, the following Hart County teachers were included: Verd R. A. Butler; Henrietta G. Best; Newton S. Thomas in Horse Cave; Miss Mae Willie Wood in Munfordville; and Gladys Woodson. Newton S. Thomas was the school principal at Horse Cave Colored School from 1937-1957, he was also the basketball coach [source: Kentucky Civil Rights Oral History Project, Interview with Newton Thomas, May 28, 2002, Conducted by Betsy Brinson .pdf]. When Thomas arrived at the school, there were grades 1-12 with 128 students taught by 6 teachers and Thomas taught the high school with one other teacher. In 1955, Carter Dowling in Munfordville was the largest colored elementary school in Hart County, with 195 students and 5 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.214]. The Memorial High School and Munfordville High School began to integrate during the 1956-57 school term according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, pp.627-628.

  • Colored Schools (15)
  • Munfordville Freedmen School
  • Woodsonville Freedmen School
  • Hardyville School
  • Priceville School
  • Horse Cave School
  • Halltown School
  • Carter Dowling School

See photo image of Halltown Colored School and the marker at the flickr site by The Freedman.

See photo images of students of the Horse Cave Colored School, at the Horse Cave Stories website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Henderson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a school in Henderson County, KY, that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. The school didn't last: the teachers were threatened and run out of town [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. There was a colored school in Cairo in the early 1870s [source: Starling, p. 378], and Dr. Pickney Thompson is credited as the author of the 1871 act that created a colored school in the city of Henderson, KY [source: History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling, p. 719]. The act was amended in 1872 because of a wording error, "...be so amended as to read between the ages of six and twenty years, instead of between the ages of sixteen and twenty years..." -- [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1871, Chapter 112, p. 194]. The trustees of the school were all white: Dr. Pickney Thompson, H. S. Park, A. F. Parker, Jacob Held Jr., and Y. E. Allison [source: History of Education in Henderson County, Kentucky, by Hal E. Dudley, pp. 91-92]. A school house was built on the lot located at the corner of First and Alves Streets; the lot was purchased by the Trustees. Classes started September 2, 1872, and Samuel Harris, who was also white, was the superintendent and one of the teachers. He was assisted by Mrs. E. P. Thompson, an African American, who resigned after three months. She was replaced by Mrs. Mary W. Letcher, also African American; she had been a school teacher in Henderson County since before the 1871 colored school opened in the town of Henderson. Both Mary Letcher and William W. Gilchrist were two of the African American teachers in Henderson County as early as 1870, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Teacher John Mason had also been employed as the Henderson colored school superintendent in 1874, and his wife Martha was the assistant teacher [source: Dudley, p. 92]. There were 145 students attending the school [source: Dudley, p. 93]. The Masons were from Louisville, KY, and had been teachers at Runkle Institute in Paducah, KY. Runkle Institute was one of the early schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Four years after the Masons arrived in Henderson, KY, in 1878 another room was added to the Henderson colored school and Miss Virgie D. Harris, a graduate of the school, was added to the teaching staff. In 1880, the teachers listed in the census were Mary Letcher, Addy Letcher, Elija Ash, John K. Mason, and William H. Hall who lived at the home of Aaron Cabell. During the 1882-83 school term, another addition was made to the Henderson colored school, and there were four teachers: the Masons, Miss Alice B. Moting, and William H. Hall. Two other schools in Henderson were the High Street School built in 1881 and the Alves Street School, which was built in 1889; a colored high school was established on the third floor of the Alves Street School [source: Dudley, p. 93]. The county colored schools were developed after 1871, and in the year 1880 there were 16 colored schools, and in 1892 there were 37 [source: Dudley, p. 121]. By 1908, there were 663 students enrolled in the Henderson County colored schools [source: Dudley, p. 93]. In 1916, the expected attendance at the Anthoston Colored School was 19 [source: Library of Congress, PPOC]. In 1935, the number of county colored schools had decreased to 15 one-room schools and a three-room school. [source: Dudley, p. 177]. The school in Corydon had three teachers, and there was also a two-year high school. The new Douglass High School, built in 1931-32 on the corner of Alvasia and Clay Streets, was in the city of Henderson and served as the high school for all the other colored schools in Henderson County [source: Dudley, pp. 177 & 155]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Henderson County were Annette C. Brown, Martha Bunch, Adella Cabell, Geneva Caldwell, Henry Ellis Cheaney, Thelma Clark, Jolene Collins, Anna Mae Dixon, Fannie Dixon, William Dixon, Adella Early, Laura Early, Hazel M. Fellows, Nellie Garland, Edward Gloss, Rosa C. Green, Ella Hill, Lorenza D. Jones, Herbert Kirkwood, O'Herl Laugley, Shelton Laugley, Florence LaVette, Eugene Mundy, Helen Neeley, Willa M. Reeder, Albert W. Settle, Tommie Soper, Walter H. Story, Mary Sweatt, Pasey Taylor, Lee Thomson, Lorene Towler, Flora A. J. Walker, and Willa Mae West [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1951, G. Brisco Houston was principal of the Henderson County Consolidated Schools [source: "Notes on district officers," KNEA Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 6 (online at Kentucky Digital Library)]. In 1956, the first schools to be listed as integrated were Weaverton, Central Grade School, and Seventh Street Grade School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.431].

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (37)
  • Henderson School
  • Eighth Street School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1933-34, p.46]
  • High Street School
  • Alves Street School
  • Douglass High School
  • Cairo School
  • Anthoston School
  • Corydon School
  • Henderson County Consolidated Schools
  • Henderson County Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-38, p.45]
  • J. Boyd School [see p. 23 in Kentucky Historic Schools Survey by R. Kennedy and C. Johnson]
  • Scuffletown School [see p. 23 in Kentucky Historic Schools Survey by R. Kennedy and C. Johnson]
  • St. Clement's Mission School - The church grew out of Sunday afternoon Sunday School held at a home with teachers Mary Jane Gaines and Charlotte Lyne. The mission was established in 1887 by Rt. Rev. Thomas U. Dudley, and the lot was given and the building was funded by Mrs. Virginia Barnett Gibbs so that a day school could be added. Rev. Churchill Eastin was the 1st priest in charge of the mission [sources: "Churches" a sheet in File: Henderson County - Education, Box 16, of the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, University of Kentucky Special Collections; and Journal of Proceedings of the 63 Annual Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Diocese of Kentucky, May 20-22, 1891].

 

   See photo images of the Anthoston Colored School and students, the images are within the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog [PPOC].

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Henry County, KY
Start Year : 1871
End Year : 1956
From 1871-1875, Elijah P. Marrs taught at a colored school in New Castle, KY, the school was in session from January-June of each year [source: Life and History of the Reverend Elijah P. Marrs, pp.88-108]. Other Negro teachers at the colored schools were Ben Booker at Jericho, George Ecton at New Castle, John Styles at Eminence, and Ada Straws at Pleasureville [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, the New Castle School was opened by the Church of Christ; the property where the school stood was purchased in 1884 and the church constructed the school two years later [source: Churches of Christ by J. T. Brown, pp.173-174]. Dr. J. M. Mainwaring was the teacher for one year. T. August Reid was the school president the following year and continued up to 1892 when the school closed. From 1895-1897, Henry County had 10 colored school districts with one school in each district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.434-438]. The schools had an average attendance of 342 students with 12 teachers, 1895-96, and an average of 371 students with 13 teachers, 1896-97. A few years later, during the 1910-11 school term, there were 410 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent, p.111]. Mrs. Essie Gaskins was the teacher at the Campbellsburg School in 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.28 (NOT Campbellsville)]; along with Elizabeth Jenkins [p.30] and A. L. McKane [p.31] at New Castle; Olivia A. Long [p.32] and R. D. Roman [p.35] at Eminence; and Lula M. Willis [p.38] at Pleasureville. By 1925, there were 6 colored elementary schools with 8 teachers and 326 students enrolled in the rural schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. Five years later, the colored school in Eminence had an average attendance of 76 students in the elementary grades, taught by 2 women teachers who earned total salaries of $978, and there was a Class III high school with three students taught by one male teacher who earned a total salary of $704 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.67]. The Negro teachers in Henry county in 1940 were Nannie M. Armstrong, Hattie Clackson, and Louis Spradling [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Both the county and city schools in Henry County remained segregated until integration began at the Eminence High School for whites during the 1956-57 school term, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.432.

  • New Castle Colored School [taught by Elijah P. Marrs, 1875]
  • New Castle School [Church of Christ, 1886-1892]
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Jericho School
  • Campbellsburg School
  • New Castle School
  • Eminence School
  • Pleasureville School
  • King Street School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.628]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hickman County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Between 1866 and 1870 there was a Freedmen School in Columbus, KY, [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. Six Hickman County colored schools are included in the title Hickman County, Kentucky, One Room Schools by LaDonna Latham. The schools are listed below. In 1880, Myra Ashley was a teacher at the Clinton School, and George E. Nall, from Alabama, was a teacher at the Columbus School [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 10 colored schools in Hickman County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.439-443. The average attendance was over 450 students taught by 13 teachers. Beginning in 1911, the Clinton colored school served as a traveling library station, and there was a second station for African Americans in Columbus, both in Hickman County [source: Kentucky Library Commission, Biennial Report, 1910-1929]. A new brick school house was completed in 1915 for the colored students in Clinton, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1915]. In 1928, there were seven teachers in the Hickman County colored schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 18-21, 1928, p. 25]. There were nine teachers during the 1933-34 school term, two of whom had two years of college and four had one year of college, and there were two new school buildings constructed in the county for the colored children [source: History of Education in Hickman County, Kentucky (thesis), by V. A. Jackson, pp. 121 & 127]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Hickman County were Emma Kane, Georgia Cromwell, Christine Dorrel, Lena Harper, Edgar Jones Jr., Laculia Jones, Vera Rash, and Harriett Webb [source: U.S. Federal Census].  In 1947, the Hickman County school teachers listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, p. 28, were Mrs. Christine Cole, Mrs. Vivian Jones, Grant Martin Jr., Mrs. Melvan Martin, and Mrs. Susie M. Powell. The first school to be listed as integrated was Hickman County High School on p.114 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Clinton School
  • Columbus Freedmen School held in rented school house
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Columbus School
  • Hailwell School
  • Hayes School
  • Moscow School
  • Oakton School
  • Springhill School
  • Wolf Island School
  • Kane School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Sunshine Hill School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hickman County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Jackson County, KY
Start Year : 1882
The Pine Grove College in Jackson County, KY, was founded by Berea College in 1882. It was an integrated school. Colored and white children had been attending the same school even before Pine Grove College was established. There is not a record of a colored public school in Jackson County, KY [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory; Kentucky School Directory; Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. Jackson County was established in 1860, and according to the U.S. Federal Census, in 1870 there were six African American children between the ages of 5 and 10, they lived in Horse Lick and Coyle. In 1900, there were nine African American children between the ages of 10 and 18, they lived in Horse Lick and Pond Creek. It is not known when Pine Grove College closed. In the 1940 U.S. Census, there are no African American children of school age.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jackson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Jessamine County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1963
One of the earliest African American schools in Jessamine County, KY, was Arial Academy, founded in 1868 at what had been Camp Nelson then renamed Arial. The school was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools). Ariel Academy was open to both girls and boys, then became an all girls school. The school was renamed Camp Nelson Academy, and in 1871, it became Fee Memorial Institute, organized by Rev. John G. Fee about a mile from the national cemetery on Danville Pike, according to the thesis of James Edward Nankivell, The History of Education of Jessamine County, pp.111-121. The school had an independent board of trustees before it was turned over to the Presbyterian Church. There were 12 acres of land, a three story framed dormitory, and a school building. The school contained grades 1-8, and any continuing students went to Berea College for high school. The three teachers earned between $10-$12 per month, with free room and board. In 1904, Berea College was segregated. Fee Memorial Institute continued with grades 1-8, until 1916 when a normal school training program for teachers was added, and the graduate students would do their practice teaching at Fee Memorial Institute. In 1924, fifteen acres of land was purchased on the eastern border of Nicholasville and a new brick school house was constructed. The cost was $10 per month, per student, for room and board. In addition to Fee Memorial Institute, a second colored school in Jessamine County was established in 1873 in Sulphur Well [source: Nankivell, p.121]. By 1880, there were seven colored school districts in the county: three with frame school houses, districts 5-7; school was held in a tent in district 4; and there were no school houses in districts 1-3. The tuition was between 60 cents and $2.28 per three months of instruction [source: Nankivell, p.122]. The Nicholasville school had the lowest attendance with 11 students, and the Lee and Hervytown Schools had the highest attendance with 30 students. All of the teachers were males, and they earned between $12-$27.68 per month. In 1888, a Colored Teachers Institute was organized [source: Nankivell, p.123-127]. By 1890, there was a school house in all of the colored school districts [source: Nankivell, p.128]. In 1891, there were four more schools, and there would be as many as 12 colored school districts before the number was reduced to seven by 1927. All of the schools, except the one in Nicholasville, were under the county board of education and had grades 1-8 [source: Nankivell, pp.130-134]. The Nicholasville school was under the city board of education and had grades 1-8 and a two year high school program. A new school building was constructed in 1930. A private school, Keene Industrial Institute, was opened in 1900 by Prof. W. H. Parker [see NKAA entry for Keene Industrial Institute]. The school was moved to Beattyville in 1903. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Jessamine County were Mattie M. Byrd, John C. Caldwell, Mattie D. Crutcher, Bettie M. Frye, Emma J. Guyon [Emma Jean Guyn Miller], Roberta Miller, Albert Myers, Cecil Payne, L. Payne, Molly Payne, Elna Pitts, Weldon Smothers, and Sadie Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Jessamine County were integrated in 1963 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.121]. See also Effect of Desegregation on Academic Ahievement of Negro Students of Jessamine County, Kentucky (thesis) by Eugene Martin Rasmussen.

  • Arial Academy
  • Camp Nelson Academy
  • Fee Memorial Institute
  • Sulphur Well - District 6 (frame school house)
  • Nicholasville School - District 1 (no school house)
  • Hervytown School - District 2 (no school house)
  • Keene School - District 3 (no school house)
  • Lee School - District 4 (school held in a tent)
  • Camp Nelson School - District 5 (box structured school)
  • Marble Creek School - District 7 (frame school house)
  • Troutman School - District 8
  • Troy School - District 9
  • Hickman School - District 10
  • Clear Creek School - District 11
  • Wilmore School [source: R. G. Harden, "Rosenwald-Dunbar 50th Anniversary Reunion," July 18, 2013, p.4  - copy provided by Hallie Miller]
  • Vineyard School [source: Carrie Mae Burdette Oral History Interview at University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.] [source: Hallie B. Miller - "Weldon Smothers was a teacher at the Vineyard School."]
  • Keene Industrial Institute
  • Rosenwald-Dunbar School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jessamine County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Johnson County, KY
Start Year : 1927
End Year : 1956
There is not a record of colored schools or Negro children in Johnson County, KY, prior to 1927 [sources: Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. Though the children are not listed in the education reports, in 1870, there were at least five Negro children between the ages of 5 and 18, and in 1920, there were fifteen [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The children may have attended school in a nearby county. It would be several more years before there was a report of one colored elementary school in Johnson County with 12 students and one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.63] The school was located in Van Leer. The next report is of one colored student on p.51 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1934-35. A little more than two decades later, the Mayo State Vocational School in Paintsville is listed as having both white and colored students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory,1955-56, p.218]. The term "integration" is not used until the following year in reference to Mayo State Vocational School in Paintsville and Our Lady of the Mountains School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.436]. The Mayo State Vocational School continued to be listed consistently as the integrated school in Johnson County.

  • Van Leer School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Johnson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Kenton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were schools for African Americans held in churches in Kenton County, KY, and there were schools led by the American Missionary Association and a Freedmen School that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. After the Freedmen's Bureau left Kentucky, the Covington Board of Education hired the first African American teacher in 1873, she was paid $30 per month according to the thesis of Howard H. Mills, A History of Education of Covington, Kentucky, p.65. Classes started the first Monday of September in the Second District School on Greer Street. The school had been used by white students up until 1871. Several years later, in 1879, the African American school had grown considerably, there was an average attendance of 173 students who were instructed by the principal and two teachers [source: Mills, p.72]. In 1880, the teachers in Covington were Edward Trail from Kentucky, amd John S. McLeod and Della Williams from Ohio [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was also a teacher at the school in Milldale, in 1883 there was a search for a new teacher [see NKAA entry for Milldale Colored School]. In Covington, the colored school was moved to the southside of 7th Street between Scott and Madison Streets [source: William's Covington and Newport Directory,1882, p.15], it was named 7th Street Colored School and Samuel R. Singer was the principal [source: William's, p.134]. Clara B. Grandstaff, from Cincinnati, was a teacher at the school [source: William's, p.65] along with Minnie Moore who was also from Cincinnati [source: William's, p.107]. In 1884, Andrew Jackson was the janitor at the school [source: William's, 1884, p.95]. A new school building for the 7th Street Colored School was completed in 1888 [source: B. L. Nordheim, Echoes of the Past]. By 1893, there was an average attendance of 287 students taught by nine teachers: Samuel R. Singer, Principal; Minnie Moore; Lillian Armstrong; Tillie Young; Laura A. Tray; Mary E. Allen; Annie Price; Charles Haggard; and Edwin H. Ball [source: Mills, p.82]. A woman teacher taught high school classes beginning in 1895, the program was named William Grant High School. William Grant (info at nky.com) was a Kentucky Legislator from Covington who had followed through on his promise of an African American public school in exchange for the African American vote in 1876. The first William Grant High School graduation was held June 21, 1889, with two graduates, Annie E. Price Hood and Mary E. Allen [source: "Lincoln-Grant School" by T. H. H. Harris in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, pp.552-554]. Both graduates had been elementary school teachers at the 7th Street Colored School.  In 1909, the city of Latonia was annexed to Covington and the Lincoln Colored School in Latonia was merged with the 7th Street Colored School in Covington, and the combined school was named Lincoln-Grant School, while the high school kept the name William Grant [source: "William L. Grant" by T. H. H. Harris on p.413 in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky]. The number of school age children increased to 44 high school students and 360 students in the elementary grades [source: Mills, p.103]. In 1914, the night high school was established in Covington for students who had completed 8th grade and were at least 14 years old [source: Mills, p.107]. In the colored night school, students were taught basic English and arithmetic. By 1924, within the colored day school, there were 519 students with a teaching faculty of 4 high school teachers and 18 elementary teachers [source: Mills, p.114]. The number of students would outgrown the size of the building, and in 1928, a bond was issued and passed with $250,000 approved for the building of a new colored school on Greenup Street, to be completed by September of 1930 [source: Mills, p.117]. The plans had to be changed due to the down turn in the economy and the school was completed in 1932. [For an early history of the William Grant School see "History of the School" on pp.1 and 2 of The Lincoln-Grant Herald, v.1, no.1, January 1913.] Another colored school in Covington was the United Bible School at 801 Russell Avenue, it opened around 1940 and is listed in William's Covington (Kenton Co., Ky) City Directory. In 1943, J. M. Gillian was the teacher at this school [source: Williams, p.411]. There was also a school for African American children in Elsmere, KY, Wilkins Heights. The head teacher was Rosella F. Porterfield who is recognized for encouraging the integration of Elsmere schools in 1955. Dunbar School was also located in Elsmere at 421 Spring Street with Thomas R. Lewis as the teacher 1936-1939 [source: William's Elsmere Directory for 1936-37, p.599, and for 1938-39, p.562]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Kenton County, KY, were Roscoe C. Baught, Martha Bishop, Alberta E. Booker, William Craig, Maggie Fisher, Nathan Fleming, Eliza W. Gooch, William Hargraves, Elenora Henderson, Etta L. Hundley, Jewell Jackson, James H. Johnson Sr., May Fortes Kelly, Coleman Kelly, Laura E. Lewis, Mamie Memy, Ella Mitchell, Nan Mae Orben(?), Paul Redden, Chester A. Rice, Ednice Simpson, Melvin W. Walker, Catherine Williams, and Clarence Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Kenton County schools that began to integrate in 1956 were Kenton Elementary, Simon Kenton High School, La Salette Academy, Covington Catholic High School, Elsmere Elementary, Erlanger Elementary, Lloyd Memorial High School, and St. Henry Grade School and High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.436-437]. St. Henry High School, La Salette Academy, Covington Catholic High School, and Northern Kentucky State Vocational School, had all been listed as having "white and colored" students during the 1955-56 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.219]. See also The Life and Legacy of Lincoln-Grant School, Covington, Kentucky, 1866-1976 by J. M. Walton.

  • Church Schools
  • American Missionary Association Schools
  • Freedmen School
  • Second District School
  • 7th Street School
  • Lincoln Colored School in Latonia
  • Lincoln-Grant School in Covington
  • William Grant High School
  • Milldale School
  • United Bible School
  • Wilkins Heights in Elsmere
  • Dunbar School in Elsmere
  • Our Savior [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.868]


See photo image of the 7th Street Colored School and additional information at the Greater Cincinnati Memory Project website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Kenton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Knott County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
Knott County, KY, was formed in 1884. From 1885-1887, there were no colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1886 and 1887]. Ten years later, there was a report of one colored school district with one school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.474-477]. The school was taught for five months by one teacher. There was an enrollment of 37 students and the average attendance was 12. In 1925, there was still the one school with one teacher and with 83 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1925, p.67]. Two years later, there were two colored schools, each with one teacher, and a total of 57 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.81]. July 1, 1930- June 30, 1931, Knott County was one of twelve counties to receive aid from the Rosenwald Fund for the extension of the school term to 8 months; $58 was received for the colored schools at Breeding Creek and Yellow Creek [source: "Counties Aided on the Extension of Terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.11, no. 2, January 1932, p.27]. In 1936, there were still 2 Negro teachers in Knott County, and they were members of the 7th District Negro Education Association [source: "District Education Association of the K. N. E. A.," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.7, no.1, October-November, 1936, p.57]. By 1955, the Yellow Creek School was closed and there were 38 students enrolled in Breeding Creek Colored School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.219]. Carr Creek High School for whites began to integrate the following year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.437]. The elementary grades continued to be segregated until 1963 when the Knott County School Board came under federal court order [U.S. District Judge Mac Swinford] to integrate the schools [source: "Knott County Board told to integrate," Park City Daily News (Bowling Green, KY), 09/12/1963, p.9 - article online]. The lawsuit was filed by 14 Negro students who had been denied enrollment at the Carr Creek Elementary School for white children, the case was represented by attorney James A. Crumlin. Godloe Adams was the only Negro teacher in the county, he taught at the Breeding Creek School for Negro children, which had 11 students, grades 1-6.

  • Breeding Creek School
  • Yellow Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Knott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Larue County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
In 1880, Molly Clagett was a teacher in the colored school in Hodgenville, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There is a paragraph written about the colored schools in Larue County, KY, on page 72 in the 1885-1887 Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky. By 1895, there were 4 colored schools, and the following year, there were 5 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.484-487]. Each of the schools had one teacher. The school term was five months and all the buildings were frame structures. The average student attendance was 106 in 1895-96, and 113 in 1896-97. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School held in the school house in Buffalo, KY, the teacher was Bessie Ford, and there were 12 students [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. Some of the teachers at the colored schools are listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal: B. H. Larke in Hodgenville (1916, p.31); Miss Lucile Curle in Upton (1928, p.37); Rev. Claud and Mrs. Cecilia Taylor in Hodgensville (1929, p.55); and Mr. Amos Lasley in Hodgensville (1935, p.58). There was not a high school for Negro students, the students attended Bond-Washington High School in Hardin County. Below are the names of the colored schools that were in Larue County, KY, [sources: Old Schools in LaRue County by Edward Benningfield, and the 1914-1915 Census of LaRue County Schools (Colored Schools) by L. L. Salsman and C. L. Owens]. The Negro teachers in Larue County in 1940 were Lucy Curle, Meaner Hughes, Amos Lasley, Cecil Lasley, Omer Lasley, Mabel Lasley, and Ollie Lasley [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Buffalo, Hodgenville, and Magnolia, were listed as white and integrate in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.436. It would take several years of effort for all of the schools in Larue County to be desegregated in 1967.

  • Buffalo School
  • Hodgenville School
  • Knob School
  • Lincoln Springs School
  • Lyons Station School
  • Moonlight School in Buffalo
  • Orrender School
  • Upton School
  • Siberia School
  • Georgetown School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.870]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Larue County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Laurel County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
The one colored school in Laurel County was included in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. By 1880, there were two colored schools, according to the thesis of John Milburn Taylor, History of Education in Laurel County, Kentucky, p.140. One school was located in London and the other was in East Bernstadt. The school term for the colored schools was two months and there were 62 students enrolled in the schools. In 1895, there were three colored school districts, each with one school [source: Taylor, p.115]. The two female Negro teachers earned the highest monthly salary of all teachers: white males $33.74, colored male $41.12; white females $39.99, colored females $45.90 [source: Taylor, p.117]. A new school opened in London in 1900, and in Altamont in 1901 [source: Taylor, p.140]. The Altamont School closed in 1909. There were five teachers at the colored schools in 1900, and they earned an average of $37.85 per month. With the closing of the Altamont School, the county was left with four teachers for an average of 104 regularly attending students. By 1925, the average attendance was 71 students, the East Bernstadt School was closed, and one of the schools in London had closed [source: Taylor, p.141]. The school closings left only the one colored school in London. Two years later a two year high school was added to that school, and there was a library with 90 books. There was one teacher for all ten grades. The school term was eight months, and the teacher earned $816 for the term. In 1931, the teacher's salary was increased to $914, and the library had 365 books. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Laurel County were Steven Griffin, Emily S. Williams, Orange Yokley, and Raytha Yokley. In 1955, London High School was listed as having white and colored students, on p.220 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The following year, the first school to be listed as integrated was Sue Bennet College Trade School on p.438 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57

  • Colored School
  • London School
  • London School (2nd school)
  • East Bernstadt School
  • Altamont School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Laurel County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lawrence County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Education for African Americans in Lawrence County, KY, began after the Civil War. The early schools were held in the homes of ministers and by sympathetic whites, according to John E. Elkins in his thesis, The History of Education of Lawrence County. "Later Negro teachers were secured and the school was conducted in the church." --[source: Elkins, p.101]. In 1886, there were two colored schools in Lawrence County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887. At some point after 1887, there was only the one school in Louisa [source: Elkins, p.101]. Though the school was located in Louisa, it came under the county school system. In 1900, the teacher's salary was $28.79 per month, and the student enrollment was 45. There were 44 students in 1916, and by 1935, there were 30 students. The first colored school building was constructed in 1923, it was a one-room frame building that cost about $1,500, of which $800 was received from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and the remainder was paid by the Lawrence County Board of Education. Grades 1-8 were taught at the school. In 1933, the school teacher was Mrs. Bertha Murphy who was a graduate of Kentucky Institute for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University] and her salary was $84 per month. There was not a colored high school in Lawrence County; the county board of education paid $50 per year for Negro high school students from Lawrence County to attend Booker T. Washington High School in Ashland, KY. In 1935, there were four students who traveled each school day from Lawrence County to attend high school in Ashland. The Louisa Elementary and High School were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.438.

  • Early Church Schools
  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Louisa School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lawrence County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lee County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1961
In 1880, Carter Lightfoot was a teacher at the colored school in Lee County, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Five years later, during the 1885-86 school term, there were two colored schools, one was held in a church and the other in a log building [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. There is a paragraph written about the schools on p. 72 of the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, school-year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, pp.499-502]. The average attendance at the colored schools was 45 students for 1885-86, and 37 for 1886-87. In 1903, the Beattyville Industrial Institute opened; the school had previously been located in Keene, KY, and was named Keene Industrial Institute. By 1915, there was one colored school in Lee County [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1913-1915, p.38]. Mr. G. A. Chandler was the school teacher in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. During the 1927-1928 school term, there was again 2 colored elementary schools in Lee County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.63]. The schools had one male teacher and one female teacher, and the teachers earned a total salary of $608, and the average attendance for both schools was 30 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory,1930-1931, p.74]. There would again be only one colored school in Lee County in 1939 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.508]. In 1940, Lena Lightfoot was the only Negro teacher in Lee County who was listed in the U.S. Federal Census. In 1948, the Green Hill School and the teacher, Mrs. L. E. Embry, held membership in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.17, no.2, pp.26 & 27]. The first school to be listed as integrated was Lee County High School on p.872 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lee County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Leslie County, KY
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1943
There was only one colored school in Leslie County, KY, and it existed as early as 1883, when H. C. Napier, the school commissioner, failed to report that there were 11 colored children attending school in the county [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, 1883, chapter 405, p.731]. As a result of the oversight, the Superintendent of Public Instruction authorized that $15.40 be withdrawn from the common school fund and be paid to the teacher of the Leslie County colored school, approved March 17, 1884. Eleven years later, there was still one colored school in Leslie County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.504-507. There was one teacher for an average of 31 students 1895-96, and for 33 students 1896-97. In 1925, there were 12 students in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The listing for a colored school in Leslie County came and went in the 1930s; on p.51 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1935-36 there is a listing of one school, but there was not listing for 1936-37, though the one school was listed again starting on p.51 in the 1937-38 directory and continuing until the 1942-43 directory. The school was not listed in the 1943-44 directory. During the year 1943, the Asher v Huffman case went before the Kentucky Court of Appeals in an attempt to allow Bruce Asher to attend the Leslie County School for white children, rather than forcing him to attend a colored school. There were 2 Negro students counted in Leslie County as late as 1958, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1011, and there were no schools in the county listed as integrated prior to 1965 according to the 1964-65 directory.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Leslie County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Letcher County, KY
Start Year : 1911
End Year : 1963
In 1911, the Whitesburg Colored Graded School held its commencement March 23 and March 24 [source: "Whitesburg Colored School closes with entertainment," Mountain Advocate, 03/31/1911, p.1]. The school teachers were Miss S. P. Lewis of Fairfield, and Ellen B. Adams of Barbourville. The Whitesburg Colored School was one of the few in kentucky to have a colored superintendent, J. Neil Burnside [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Fleming Colored School was located in Letcher County [source: Mountain Eagle, 02/04/1960 and 09/05/1963, school mentioned in articles titled "County School Financial Statement"]. Burdine Colored School was part of the Jenkins Independent School System of Negro Schools located in Jenkins, Burdine, and Dunham. According to the 1939 thesis by Frances Rolston, the colored schools in the Jenkins School System were developed due to the influx of Negro coal miners working for Consolidated Coal Company. The first Jenkins Colored School was established in 1916 with one teacher and 58 students. In 1928 there were 528 students in the colored schools in Letcher County. During the 1936-37 school year, there were 374 students in 3 schools. The end of school year report included Fleming one room school with one teacher and 36 students; Carbon Glow one room school with one teacher and 25 students; and Haymond two room school with two teachers and 70 students. For a number of years, Dunham Colored High School, under the Jenkins School System, was the only high school for African Americans in Letcher County. Tom Biggs Colored School was located in McRoberts, KY. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Letcher County were Camilla Elliott, Alfred Greenwood, Mattie Greenwood, M. L. Jackson, Blanche McSwain, Clemintine Masby, William Mudd, Marion Nelson, Marie Price, William Stovall, and Clara Whitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more information see the thesis History of Education in Letcher County, Kentucky by F. Rolston. The first school in Letcher County to be listed as integrated was St. George, a Jenkins Independent school on p.128 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Burdine School
  • Carbon Glow School
  • Dunham School
  • Fleming Neon School
  • Haymond School
  • Jenkins School
  • Tom Briggs School in McRoberts
  • Whitesburg Graded School


See the 1921 photo image of the Burdine school children, Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Letcher County, Kentucky: Burdine, Carbon Glow, Dunham, Fleming, Haymond, Jenkins, McRoberts, Whitesburg

African American Schools in Lewis County, KY
Start Year : 1885
End Year : 1959
In 1885, there was one colored school in Vanceburg, KY, the school was held in a church [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. At times, there were two colored schools, one in each of the colored districts, though the County Superintendent was not always able to verify that the schools were in session, and he wrote that the majority of the colored students did not go to school on a regular basis [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1885-1887, p.128 and pp.193-194]. By 1895, there were two schools with an average attendance of 19 students 1895-96, and an average of 11 students 1896-97 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.513-516]. There was one teacher at each school. The average attendance was about the same for the next several years. The average salaries for the teachers were $33.66 from 1909-10, and $33.08 from 1910-1911 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1909-11, p.49 and p.151]. By 1925, there was one colored school in Lewis County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The Lewis County Schools started to integrate during the 1959-60 school term, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.799, and Indian School was the first to be named as integrated in the 1961-62 directory, p.874.

  • Colored Schools (2)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lewis County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lexington and Fayette County, KY
Start Year : 1798
End Year : 1956
Often mentioned as one of the early schools for African Americans in Lexington, was a school taught by a white man from Tennessee around 1830. But an even earlier school was a Sunday school taught in 1798 at the old home of Colonel Patterson on High Street [source provided by Yvonne Giles: "A Sunday School," Kentucky Gazette, 10/16/1798, p.3. col.2]. Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least four schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1867 two of the schools in Lexington were Howard School on Church St and Mitchell & Talbott School on Upper Street. In 1867, the Independent African Church School had been opened by Rev. Frederick Braxton, and H. C. Marrs left the colored school in Lagrange, KY, to teach at Braxton's school in Lexington [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116]. In 1880 the colored teachers in Lexington and Fayette County were C. J. Braxton at South Elkhorn (son of Rev. Frederick Braxton); William Jackson at Briar Hill; John Jackson at Sandersville; George Newman; and in Lexington there was Chapman Mourse; Annie Warde; S. Jane Washington, who was teaching prior to the Civil War and had her own school; Mary B. Hawkins; Louisa McMillan; J. A. Ross; Ella Ross; Julia Shows; Lou Simpson; Lucy W. Smith; Ada Trotter; Sarah M. Turner; and Emily O. Warfield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first commencement for the Fayette County colored schools was held at the courthouse on June 1, 1894 [source: Programme: 1st Commencement of Fayette County Colored Schools]. The graduates were Cora B. Simpson, Coleman Greene, Sallie Coleman, Mary Greene, all from Uttingertown School. Frank Byrd and Bessie J. Cooper graduated from Fort Spring School. G. S. Johnson, Green Seals, Garfield Sanders, and Claude W. Strider were all graduates from Cadentown School. In 1896, there were 16 colored schools in Fayette County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.347-351]. Five of the schools were held for five months and 11 of the schools were in session for more than five months. One of the schools was a training school for colored teachers. The average attendance at all of the schools was 1,011 students who were taught by 16 teachers (one teacher at each school). The teachers' average monthly pay was $70 for male teachers and $52 for female teachers.  In 1925, the colored high school was located at Dunbar School in Lexington and W. H. Fouse was the principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.39]. The school was rated an "A" high school. The Maddoxtown School was a county training school for teachers, L. W. Taylor was the principal [p.65]. In 1925, there were four teachers who taught at the Maddoxtown training school which had a 4 year high school. The teachers' average salary was $1,088 for a nine month term; it was the highest average salary of all the teachers at the colored training schools in Kentucky.  The supervisor of the industrial teachers in Fayette County in 1925 was Mrs. E. Birdie Taylor [p.66]. In 1925, there were 13 colored elementary schools in Fayette County, with 1 high school, all taught by 18 teachers [p.67]. In Lexington, there were 39 elementary teachers and 15 high school teachers [p.69]. By 1932, there were high schools at Douglas School, rated an "A" high school with 5 teachers; at Russell School, an unrated high school with 7 teachers; and at Dunbar School, rated an "A" high school with 13 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-33, p.45]. In 1940, there were 113 Negro teachers in Fayette County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, there were two schools listed as having white and colored students: Kentucky Village and University School, both state schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, pp.209-210]. The following year, there were several schools listed as integrated: Athens-Shelby, Briar Hill, Bryan Station (integrated & white), Clays Mill, Kenwick, Lafayette Sr. High, Linlee, Russell Cave, Yates, Kentucky Village, Ashland, Henry Clay, Johnson, Lexington Jr., and Lexington Catholic High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.426-427].

City Schools

  • Bethesda Normal and Industrial school - [established by Rev. O. L. Murphy on the corner of Alford and Smith Streets - source: Lexington Leader, 12/04/1906, p.1, c.2] - provided by Y. Giles
  • Canadian and Ohio Industrial School - [opened at Colored Methodist Church at Race and Corral Streets - source: Lexington Leader, 08/31/1907, p.1. c.2] - provided by Y. Giles
  • Carver School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.853]
  • Chandler Normal School [photo]
  • Christian Church School (on 4th Street, became Mitchell & Talbert School)
  • Colored Industrial School (Negro WCTU)
  • Colored School No. 2
  • Colored School No. 3
  • Constitution Street School
  • Corral Street Normal (1868), supported by the American Missionary Association - [source: Congressional Serial Set, Executive Documents of the House, 2nd Session of 46th Congress, 1879-'80, v.2, Education no.1, part 5, v.3, p.80 (online in Google Books)]
  • Douglass School
  • Dunbar School
  • Forest Hill School
  • Fourth Street School
  • Independent African Church School (Frederick Braxton entry in NKAA)
  • Jane Washington School (on 2nd Street, opened prior to the U.S. Civil War) (supported by Lawyer Andrew Bush)
  • Ladies of the Episcopal Church School [source: Kentucky Gazette, 12/28/1867, p.3]
  • Lexington Freedmen School
  • Lexington High School (supported by the Freedmen's Bureau)
  • Lexington Polytechnic Institute [source: Kentucky Leader, 0/15/1894, p.7]
  • Lexington Sabbath School (established by the Episcopal Church & supported by the Freedmen's Bureau)
  • Lower Street School (1883)
  • Patterson Street School
  • Mitchell & Talbott School [Mrs. E. Belle Mitchell-Jackson and Mrs. Talbert]
  • Pleasant Green Church School (closed around 1876, and reopened as Patterson St. School)
  • Russell School No. 1
  • St. Andrew's Colored Episcopal Parochial School [source: Lexington Daily Transcript, 02/01/1891, p.7]
  • St. Peter Claver School
  • St. John's School (opened 1888) [source: Lexington Daily Press, 06/18/1889, p.4]
  • Sunday School (1798)
  • Booker T. Washington School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.853]

County Schools

For more see The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 by C. G. Woodson; Maydwell's Lexington City Directory 1867; Emerson and Dark's Lexington Directory 1898-9; "Colored school location," Leader, 08/10/1883, p.1; "Colored county schools," Leader, 09/06/1903, p.3 and other articles in the Lexington Leader newspaper between 1895-1911; and Educational History of the Negroes of Lexington (thesis) by William Henry Fouse, which includes information on teacher  S. Jane Washington. See Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky 1917-1932 by A. Turley-Adams, Kentucky Heritage Council and Kentucky African American Heritage Commission. See also Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.106-107 & 111-114].


  See 1929 photo image of students in the lunch line at Maddoxtown Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lincoln County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Crab Orchard, KY [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. It was one of the early schools for African Americans in Lincoln County. There were two colored schools in 1875, according to the thesis of Morris B. Vaughn titled History of Education in Lincoln County, Kentucky, p.123. There were 12 schools In 1880; 13 schools in 1881; 16 schools in 1887 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky]; and in 1902 there were 17 colored schools in Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.123]. In 1880, the teachers at the colored schools were Emily Gogins in Hustonville; Belle Graham at Turnersville; and Ester Kincaid in Walnut [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1931, several of the schools had been consolidated and there were nine colored graded schools in the county. The consolidated schools were located in Stanford, Halls Gap, Hustonville, and McKinney. According to the title Lincoln County, Kentucky by Turner Publishing Company, p.121, the first colored school house in Crab Orchard, KY, was thought to have been built behind First Baptist Church on Cedar Street around 1890. The first school bus was thought to be the one used to transfer students from Cedar Ridge to the Crab Orchard Color School [see p.130]. The next school building was constructed in 1924 on Highway 150. The third building was constructed in 1937 by the Second Christian Church, located on Cedar Street, the school was off to the side and behind the church. Within the same title, on p.124, there is mention of a Colored School in District A in 1897, located in Stanford, KY. There had been a colored school in Stanford as early as 1879, it was established by the African American community that had also hired a teacher who graduated from Berea [source: "Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/06/1879, p.3]. The teachers hiring included a school examination, followed by a parade and a festival [source: "The Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/13/1879, p.2]. In 1925, Lincoln High School in Stanford was a Class 3 school with one teacher and 16 students, and W. D. Tardif was the school principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. Another school, McKinney Polytechnic Institute, opened in 1911 with three students from Iowa [source: "The McKinney Polytechnic Institute...," Stanford Interior Journal, 11/10/1911, p.1]. During the 1930s, the high school students in Stanford were bused to Bate High School in Danville; there had been a high school within Stanford School up to the 1930-31 school term, but it was deemed to be more cost efficient to bus the 22 students to Danville. The Lincoln County Board of Education paid Bate High School $5 per month for the instruction of the high school students from Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.124]. The Logantown School and Hubble School were merged with the Stanford School. According to the Handbook of Kentucky by the Kentucky Bureau of Agriculture for 1906-1907, p.515, there were 17 colored school districts in Lincoln County. In 1909, School No.16, located in Preachersville, was merged with the school in Walnut Flat [source: "Preachersville," Interior Journal, 06/25/1909, p.1]. The colored school in Hubble was located on Cherry Street, the building was sold in 1914 [source: "Hubble," Interior Journal, 03/13/1914, p.2]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Lincoln County were Katie Coulter, Joe A. Gaines, Mary T. Good, Houston Graves, Thelma Graves, Susie Harris, Estella Jarmon, Elizabeth Perkins, Florence Stepp, Cordelia Wood, and Maggie Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school in Lincoln County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62 was Crab Orchard High School on p.875.

  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Crab Orchard Freedmen School
  • Crab Orchard School
  • Halls Gap School
  • Hustonville School
  • Hubble School
  • Logantown School
  • Lincoln School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.874]
  • McKinney School
  • McKinney Polytechnic Institute
  • No. 16, Preachersville School
  • Stanford School [including a high school, name changed to Lincoln]
  • Tunersville School
  • Walnut Flat School

 See photo image of the Crab Orchard Colored School on Cedar Street, built in 1937, a Flikr website by Road Trip.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lincoln County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Livingston County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
There were colored schools in Livingston County as early as 1879 when the county clerk collected 95 cents and the sheriff's office collect $135.95, both for the Colored School Fund, and funds were withdrawn for the Negro teachers total pay of $108.96 [source: Auditor's Report, School Fund - Colored, p.135, p.138, and p.149 in the 1879/1881 Biennial Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of Kentucky - online at Google Books]. In 1895, there were 6 colored schools in Livingston County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.523-527]. The average attendance was 125 students 1895-96 and taught by 7 teachers, and 138 students 1896-97 taught by 6 teachers. Male teachers' average monthly pay was $42.00 during 1895-96, and $26.78 during 1896-97.  Female teachers' average monthly pay was $25.50 during 1895-96, and $20.34 during 1896-97.  By 1905, there were still six colored schools, one in each district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1905-1907, p.343]. In 1910, the trustees of the Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, took its case against school superintendent Charles Ferguson to the Kentucky Court of Appeals. The trustees, who won the appeal, were fighting to share in the 1909 school tax Livingston County received from the Illinois Central Railroad Company [source: "Commonwealth, for use of Trustees of Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, v. Ferguson et. al." in The Southwestern Reporter, v.128, June 8-July 6, 1910, pp.95-96 - online at Google Books]. At one point in time, there were as many as seven colored school districts according to the title Livingston County, Kentucky, p.114. The colored schools were listed as sub-district schools, A, B, C, D, E, F, and Beach Hill. In 1925, there were five colored schools in Livingston County with a total of 116 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and two years later, there were four colored schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.81]. The Negro teacher in Livingston County in 1940 was Clara N. Moore [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Livingston County schools started to integrate in 1961 with Livingston Center High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875].


See photo image of colored school in Smithland, KY, at Explore UK.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Livingston County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Logan County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
The colored school in Logan County, KY, was one of the 13 counted in the 1866 publication titled Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. Between 1866 and 1870, there was to be a colored school established in Auburn and supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, but the plans were scrapped due to a mob's reaction. In spite of the opposition, by 1872, there was an African American school in Russellville, KY, the teacher was C. C. Vaughn [Cornelius C. Vaughn, 1847-1923; Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 93]. Vaughn, who was born in Virginia, was a Berea College graduate and he had been a school teacher in Cynthiana, KY [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.104-105]. C. C. Vaughn would remain in Russellville for more than 50 years; he was a leader in the community and he was in charge of the public education of Negroes in Russellville. In 1879, there were 26 colored school districts in Logan County, according to the thesis of Charles Thomas Canon, History of Education in Logan County, p.43. The enrollment and attendance records, if they ever existed, were no longer available when Canon completed his thesis in 1929. However, records from 1881 showed that there were 18 log house buildings and 9 frame houses [source: Canon, pp.47-48]. In 1880, the colored teachers in Logan County were Carry Smith in Adairville; Lewis Temple, James F. Gray, and Carl C. Vaughn in Russellville; and William Turner in Keysburg [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were 21 teachers in the colored schools in Logan County, and many of the schools were taught in churches [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. By 1901, there were 9 log house schools and 16 frame schools [source: Canon, p.92]. In 1917, the number of log house schools had decreased to 2 and there were 21 frame schools. Between 1917 and 1932, Logan County would have more Rosenwald structures than any other Kentucky county; there were 8 schools and a library [see NKAA entry for Rosenwald Schools]. The school in Adairville was supported by the Jeanes Fund and had a two year high school that was attended by 8 students in 1925 (Logan County Trade School), and there were 155 elementary students [source: Canon, pp.66-68]. The county school system would pay the tuition of students who wanted to attend Russellville City High School, a four year high school. The highest attendance at the Logan County colored schools was 1,049 for the school terms in 1904 and 1905 [source, Canon, pp.93-94]. In 1925, Margaret Holland was the county spervising industrial teacher in Adairville, she served for 7 months [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. By 1927, the attendance had decreased to 459. In 1930, the colored school in Knob City was taught by John Cooper [see M. Morrow, "The History of Russellville's Uncovered Cabin," News Democrat Leader, 03/04/2009, Opinions section, p.A4 [available online]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Logan County were Lee Butler, Jonella Dickerson, Alice Dunnigan, Vera H. Eidson, Helen First, Elisa Funt, Anna King, Heddy B. Lewis, Mattie McReynold, Frank Orndorff, Stella Ernestine Procter, Alice Ruth Procter, John William Roberts, Edwin Smith, Nannie Sweatt, Katherine Turner, James P. Walker, and George H. Wards [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.439-440, were Russellville High School and Sacred Heart. The schools listed as "white & integrated" were Adairville, Auburn, Lewisburg, and Olmstead.

  • Colored Schools (27)
  • Adairville School
  • Adairville Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Auburn Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Johntown Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Keysburg School
  • Knob City School
  • Logan County Trade School [principal A. M. Todd - source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926]
  • Russellville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Logan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Louisville and Jefferson County, KY
Start Year : 1827
End Year : 1956
Some of the earliest schools for African Americans in Louisville, KY were established in the 1820s. In 1865, there were 7 colored schools with 12 teachers and 730 students [source: H. C. Burnett and H. S. Foote, "From Kentucky (4th paragraph)," New York Times, 07/23/1865, p.5]. There were at least three schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In the 1870s there were at least 15 schools. The first high school for African Americans in Kentucky was located in Louisville in 1873 and was mentioned in several leading newspapers in the United States [source: "The First Colored high school in Kentucky," The New York Times, 10/09/1873, p.1]. In 1880, there were more African American teachers in Louisville and Jefferson County than any other Kentucky town/city or county. The Jefferson County and Louisville teachers in 1880 were Silas Adams, Bell Alexander, Lucy Booker, Sallie Bowman, Thomas Brown, Albert Burgess, Isaac Caldwell, John Collins, Addie Couisins(?), M. F. Cox, L. C. Cox, Lucy Duvall, James Gray, Allen W. Henson, Martha Johnson, William A. Kenzie, W. P. Lewis, Mary Meed, Clarence M. Miller, Isidora Miller, William T. Peyton, Elizabeth Smiley, Mary S. Spradling, Mamie Sublett, Joseph Taylor, John Thomas, Frank Thomas, Tilda Walker, Anna Walker, Jenney Wise, E. C. Wood Sr., Silas Adams, Ada Bedford, Martha Buckner, Virginia Burks, Louretta Carter, Joseph M. Ferguson, Daniel Gaddy, Nancy Hickman, Mack McKinley, I. M. Maxwell, Eliza Jane Mitchell, Elizabeth Morris, Lizzie Patterson, Charles Preston, Mary Robeson, Larry Scott, Nellie Slaughter, Rebecca Smith, and Martha Webster [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 23 colored schools and 22 teachers in the public school systems in Louisville and Jefferson County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.457-461. {The number of schools, students, and teachers were undercounted by the superintendent.} The average attendance was 905 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 651 students during the 1896-97 school term. In 1925, there were 13 elementary schools in Jefferson County with 20 teachers, and in Louisville there were 155 elementary teachers and 32 high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. In 1940, there were more than 400 Negro teachers in Louisville and Jefferson County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Schools listed as having "white & colored" students in 1955 were Kentucky School for the Blind and St. Agnes [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]. The first schools to be listed as integrated are on pp. 432-436 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57: a total of 88 schools were noted as integrated, 17 schools in the Jefferson County School system, and 71 schools in the Louisville Independent School system.

  • Bannecker School
  • Bond School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • California School
  • Central School
  • Colored High School
  • Colored Normal School
  • Convent of the Good Shepherd - 518 S. 8th Street**
  • Cotter School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Frederick Douglas School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.49]
  • Dunbar School
  • DuValle Jr. High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Eastern School
  • Eight Ward School
  • Ely Normal School supported by the Bureau
  • Forest School (Anchorage) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.862]
  • Highland Park School
  • Immaculate Heart of Mary School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.218]
  • Industrial School of Know Mission for Colored Children - [founded in 1886, located at 1122 Madison Street, Louisville, KY, conducted by the Women's Missionary Society of the Presbytery of Louisville, KY]*
  • Industrial School of Reform, Colored Girls Building
  • Alexander Ingram School (Jeffersontown) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.862]
  • Jacobs School (Harrods Creek)
  • Jeffersontown School
  • Jackson Street School
  • Lincoln School
  • Louisville Christian Bible School - [opened in 1873 by W. H. Hopson, conducted by P. H. Morse for four years, school was an experiment] - - The Apostolic Times, 09/18/1873, p.4, col.s 2-3
  • Louisville Free Kindergarten Association, Colored Normal Department
  • Louisville Teacher Training School
  • Madison Street School
  • Maiden Lane School
  • Main Street School
  • Moore School
  • Newburg School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.70]
  • Parkland School
  • Pearl Street School
  • William H. Perry School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Portland School
  • Portland Freedmen School
  • Ridgewood School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.216]
  • Shelby Street School
  • South Louisville School
  • Special for Boys School [Prima F. Washington, Principal, school located at 13th and Liberty, source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.51]
  • St. Augustine School - 1314 W. Broadway**
  • St. Mark's High School - [incorporated in 1867 by trustees Rev. B. B. Smith, Joseph S. Atwell, N. B. Rogers, Jesse Meriwether, and John C. Towels, and as ex-officio, the Bishop of the Episcopal Church, school operated under the auspices of the Episcopal Church] - - Approved March 8, 1867, Chapter 1806, "An Act to Incorporate St. Mark's High School" in Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, 1867, v.II, pp.342-343.
  • St. Peter Claver - 532 Lampton Street**
  • Jane Grey Cannon Swisshelm School (1838)
  • Talbert School
  • Taylor School
  • Twelfth Ward School
  • Twenty-ninth Street School
  • Twenty-seventh and Cedar Streets School
  • Virginia Avenue School
  • Booker T. Washington School
  • Western School
  • Western Girls' High School
  • Wheatley School
  • Wilson Street School
  • Young School

 

See image of the Industrial School of Reform, Colored Girls Building, from Weeden's History of the Colored People of Louisville, at NYPL Digital Gallery.

 

 

For additional information about the early Colored schools in Louisville, see the entry "African American Education" in the Encyclopedia of Louisville, by J. E. Kleber; and see the references to "colored schools" within chapter 17 in volume 2 of History of the Ohio Falls Cities and Their Counties by L. A. Williams & Co.

 


Sources: *see Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1896-1897, p.765, for more on the Industrial School of Know Mission for Colored Children in Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 18, 0000UA129, File: Negro Schools. Located in the University of Kentucky Special Collections; **see "Mailing List: Catholic City Schools - 1935-1936" by the Diocese of Louisville, in Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 18, 0000UA129, File: Negro Schools. Located at the University of Kentucky Special Collections; see "Don't forget the date," Courier-Journal, 08/20/1906, p.2; "Teachers and their salaries," Courier-Journal, 05/28/1909, p.6; Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, 1909 and 1911; see the NKAA entry Early School in Louisville, KY; see photocopy image of South Park School in Jefferson County on p.30 at Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf]; and see the Kentucky Public School Directory. See also "Still I rise!" Public discourse surrounding the development of public schools for African Americans in Louisville, Kentucky, 1862 – 1872 by M. B. Robinson (dissertation).

 

Read about the oral history interviews on the 1975 first cross-district racial integration plan for Louisville schools: 1) Interview with Lyman  T. Johnson, February 29th, 1980, and 2) Interview with Judge James Gordon, March 12th, 1980.  
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lyon County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Lyon County, KY. William M. Smith was the teacher in Eddyville, and William Silvie was the teacher in Parkersville, both according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1886, the county had 11 colored school districts, with most of the school sessions held in churches [see the NKAA entry African American Schools 1886]. In 1895 another colored school district was added, bringing the total to 12 colored schools with seven log buildings and three frame buildings; nothing was mentioned about the other two school buildings in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp. 532-535. There was one teacher at each school with the average attendance of more than 250 students for all 12 schools each school term. From 1899-1903, there was one student from Lyon County, KY, studying at the Normal School for Colored Persons in Frankfort, KY [source: Biennial Report, 1899-1901, p. 144, and 1901-1903, p. 81]. The average attendance at the Lyon County colored schools fluctuated from year to year; during the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance was 200 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 407]. The teachers' average monthly salary was $27.00 in 1906 [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 431], and in 1910, $45.55 for male teachers and $34.58 for female teachers [source: Biennial Report, 1909-1911, p. 151]. There was a school in the African American community of Kansas in Lyon County, and pictures of the school children and what is thought to be the remains of the school house can be viewed at a Flickr site by The Nite Tripper. In 1916, Lucy Bond and R. H. Bond were the school teachers at the Eddyville colored school [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 25]. In 1925, there were seven colored schools in Lyon County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. In 1940, there were at least three Negro teachers in Lyon County: William Henderson in Eddyville; Christine Holland in Eddyville; and James Mathew in Kuttawa [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1962-63 school term, the Lyon County Elementary School in Eddyville became the first integrated school in Lyon County [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p. 140].

  • Parkersville School
  • Eddyville School
  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Kuttawa School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Oakland School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Kansas School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lyon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Madison County, KY
Start Year : 1825
End Year : 1956
In his master's thesis, History of Education in Madison County, Robert E. Little wrote that in the first quarter of the 1800s, slave owner Green Clay taught his Negro overseers to read and write [p.42]. Also according to Little, it was around 1850 that slave owner Cabell Chenault built a school on his property for his slaves [p.42]. Chenault and his daughter taught at the school. It was in 1866 that the first public colored school was held in Madison County with as many as 34 students [sources: History of Education in Madison County, p.43; the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Education in Kentucky; and the NKAA entry African American Schools - Kentucky, 1866]. According to author Richard D. Sears, John H. Jackson taught a school class in Madison County in 1868, and Cornelius C. Vaughn taught at a freedmen's school in Richmond in 1870 [source: A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91]. There were several colored schools in Madison County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, the teachers in Madison County were William Crawford, Elizabeth Crawford, Mary E. Crawford, and Milley Crawford, all in Glade, KY; Belle Bleston in Richmond; and  John Harper in Kirksville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1880 to 1881, there were 14 colored schools and 14 teachers [Little, p.44], the schools were taught in churches and rented buildings, and there were only two or three colored school buildings [Little, p.45]. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature approved the Act that would allow Samuel Watts, Sydney Campbell, and Madison Tevis to build a school house for colored children in District 12, on land given to them by W. C. Peyton, which was less than a mile from the white school Silver Creek Academy also known as the Blythe School [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Regular Session - November 1881, v.II, Chapter 1327, p.878]. According to Little, in 1886, there were 27 colored schools [Little, p.172]. In 1888, there were still 27 colored school districts in Madison County, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887]. There were as many as 34 colored schools in 1893 and in 1897 [Little, p.172], and the highest attendance was during the 1893-94 school term with 975 students [Little, p.174]. In 1903, there was a colored school in Berea [source: "Berea and vicinity," The Citizen, 11/26/1903, p.6; and the Joshua Crenshaw Report on the Berea Colored School 1905-06]. Within the Black American Series title, Berea and Madison County by J. G. Burnside, there are pictures of former students, teachers, and principals at Madison County colored schools. The pictures were taken prior to school desegregation in Bobtown, Farristown, Middletown, Peytontown, and Richmond. Also included are students and faculty at Berea College prior to segregation in 1904. Other Colored schools in Madison County in 1912 were Concord School, Richmond City School, Valley View School, and Calloway Creek School [source: "Graduation Diplomas," Richmond Climax, 02/07/1912, p.4]. During the school year 1932-33, there were 14 colored schools in Madison County [Little, p.172-173]. The Madison County Board of Education paid $4 per month, per county high school student who attended Richmond Colored High School; there was not a colored high school in the county. In 1940, the teachers in Madison County were Elizabeth Baten, Robert Blythe, Lena Blythe, Willie Campbell, Warfield B. Campbell, Bessie Cavington, Millie Embry, Mcgustar Estell, Margaret Fletcher, Jarman Haynes, Bessie Irvine, Charles M. Irvine, R. H. Jackson, R. L. Johnson, Roanna Maupin, Cabal Merritt, Andrew Miller, Jarnie Moran, George W. Parks, Rev. F. H. Shipes, Katherine Taylor, Anna Turner, Georgie Walker, Julien A. Walker, Alitha White, Dorothy White, Hazel White, Maggie B. Wilson, and Estilla Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.440, were Central High School, and Foundation School (Private), and Madison-Model High School was listed as white & integrated. The Madison County schools were fully integrated in 1963.

  • Green Clay Slave School
  • Chenault Slave School
  • Colored Schools (34)
  • Berea School [also referred to as Pasco School, records at Berea College Archives]
  • Berea Freedmen School
  • Bobtown School
  • Brassfield School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Calloway Creek School
  • Concord School
  • Farristown School
  • Glade School
  • Grapevine School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Kingston American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Kirksville School
  • Middletown School
  • Peytontown School
  • Richmond American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Richmond Freedmen School
  • Richmond High School
  • Valley View School 

Subjects: Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Madisonville and Hopkins County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1957
According to the 1866 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, there was one colored school in Hopkins County. In 1880 there were several more schools and the teachers in Nebo were G. B. Barnett and Albert Morrow; Elsie Cooper was in Madisonville; and Mary O'Bryan was in Kitchen [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1888, there were 18 colored school districts [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. March 26, 1888, the Kentucky General Assembly approved an act for the city of Madisonville to establish a system of public schools for Colored children [source: Chapter 689, pp.472-475, Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, Regular Session, v.2, 1888]. The system was to cover all points one mile from the center of the city, and the school district covered two miles out. The act outlined the structure of a Colored school board which would be responsible for the hiring of the teachers, the curriculum, and the operation of the school. Colored children only, between the ages of 6-20, would be allowed to attend the schools. The first school trustees were John R. Ross, George H. Speed, Alex Mitcheson, Ephraim Porter, and Edward Nisbet. A poll tax was to be collected from Colored property owners for the building of a school. A second poll tax was to be levied against the Colored male, head of households to pay the teachers' salaries and other expenses. The Earlington Colored School opened in 1891. The Atkinson Literary and Industrial College opened in 1892 in Madisonville. The Zion High School was located in Madisonville in 1893 [source: "Mrs. Celia Dunlap visited the Zion High School at Madisonville...," Bee, 02/23/1893, p.2]. In 1895, there were 24 colored schools in Hopkins County with 27 teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.444-448]. The average attendance was 940 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 850 students during the 1896-97 school term. Clarence Timberlake was superintendent of Colored schools in 1918, according to the Proceedings and Reports for the Year Ending 1918 by the John F. Slater Fund. Teachers and principals of the Madisonville Colored Schools are listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal (KNEA Journal), 1916-1950. In 1925, there were 9 elementary schools in the Hopkins County school system; and there were 6 elementary teachers and 3 high school teachers in Earlington; and 8 elementary teachers and 2 high school teachers in Madisonville [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 and p.69]. On the cover of the KNEA Journal, dated January-February 1933, vol.3, issue 2, is a picture of the newly built Rosenwald High School in Madisonville. William E. Lee was the principal of the 10 room school, which had an industrial department with brick-laying, mechanical drawing, and home economics. Other principals of the Madisonville Colored School from 1922 to 1941 were Nora B. Ross and Pearl M. Patton [source: The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky by H. Ardis Simons]. The Negro teachers in Hopkins County in 1940 were Nettie M. Bass at Nortonville; Agnes Brasher at Dawson Springs; Laura Frazier, Grace G. Howard, Ida M. King, Lester Mimms, and Georgie B. Orton, all in Earlington; Mayme Parker, Vesta Pollard, Vader Pritchett, Nora Ross, Grace Noel Smith, Anna Lou Smith, Frances Talbert, Juanita Talley, Thomas J. Wheeler, Helen Noel, Mabel Lester, Mary Lovan, John Grace, Ruth Harvey, Alma Chambers, Rose J. Blythe, Ora B. Clements, and Ola Crowley, all in Madisonville [source: U.S. Federal Census].  See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Earlington, KY. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Dawson Springs elementary and high school that had been for white students, on p.629 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58.

  • Colored Schools (24)
  • Atkinson Literary and Industrial College
  • Branch Street School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Dawson Springs School
  • Earlington School
  • Kitchen School
  • Madisonville School
  • J. W. Million School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Nebo Schools (2)
  • Nortonville School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Rosenwald High School
  • Zion High School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hopkins County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Magoffin County, KY
Start Year : 1881
End Year : 1941
There was never more than one colored school in Magoffin County, KY, according to author Edgar W. Bailey in his thesis, History of Education in Magoffin County, pp. 34-35, 64-66. In 1881, there were 25 colored students in the school, and $14.50 was appropriated to the school by the state. The school was mentioned in the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. For some years the school was taught in one section of Magoffin County for half a school term, and then taught in another section of the county for the latter half of the school term. The school had elementary grades only and was supported by the state for the most part, with very little local support. There was never a colored high school in Magoffin County. Author Bailey explains that, "Negro population is very sparse in the county. The colored census is gradually decreasing." --p.67. Between 1884 and 1931, the highest number of colored students who attended school was in 1902 with 17 students. The lowest number was 3, for the years 1914-16 and 1917-18. The teachers' average salary ranged from to a low of $19.77 during the 1896-97 term, to a high of $36.75 during the 1911-12 school term. In 1925, there were no data for the colored school in Magoffin County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926. By 1930, there was again one school listed with an average attendance of 9 students taught by one teacher who earned $518 for the school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.78]. In 1935, Mr. Erin Patrick, in Gullett, was one the three teachers in Magoffin County, according to the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.45 & p.61. In 1938, there were still three Negro teachers in Magoffin County, according to the "1938 K.N.E.A. Membership by counties" in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1938, v.9, no.1-2, p.54]. The three teachers continued to be noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory until the 1941-42 directory. The first school in Magoffin County to be listed as integrated was the Kentucky Mountain Gospel Crusade School, on p.120 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Magoffin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Marion County, KY
Start Year : 1824
End Year : 1956
Around 1824, Father Nerinckx, a Catholic priest and educator in Kentucky, started a Negro sisterhood in Loretto, KY, that in the long run was to provide a teaching sisterhood for the education of the colored race [source: The Growth and Development of the Catholic School System in the United States, by Rev. J. A. Burns, pp.232-233]. Several Negro children were adopted and educated, and in May of 1824, three of the girls were admitted to the religious veil. Father Nerinckx died a few months later and the project ended. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freemen School in Lebanon, Ky [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1869, the trustees of what was referred to as the African School of Lebanon, KY, were Senaca Wade, John McElroy, and Allen G. Drake; the trustees exchanged a lot of land with John Goggin, and the new land was thought to be a better location for the future colored school house [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Adjourned Session 1869, chapter 1634, pp.539.540]. The Lebanon School for Colored Children was opened in 1872 by the Sisters of Loretto [source: Loretto: annals of the century by A. C. Minogue, p.236]. In 1880, Ella Maskes was the school teacher at the Lebanon Colored School [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was a colored school in Raywick in 1888, but without a building or a teacher, and the school trustees did not accept the offer of a Sister from the Loretto Convent [source: Ten Years a Priest by Rev. John Culleton]. It took until January of 1890 for an agreement to be formed between the school trustees and Rev. Culleton; the colored school would be turned over to the Catholic Church and Rev. Culleton would see that a school house would be built in Raywick and a teacher from Ohio, Ms. Anna Culliton, would teach the school with one of the Sisters from the Loretto Convent [p.65]. It was agreed that until the colored school was completed, the Negro children would be taught in an unused room in the white school house. In response, The Louisville Times newspaper accused Rev. Culleton of ordering Negroes in Raywick to take charge of half the St. Martha School for white children. The new colored school building in Raywick opened during the spring of 1890. In 1894, the Poplar Corner School was constructed by the Marion County Board of Education, according to the history provided Ken Bell on his website Bells Chapel Restoration Project, August 2007. Ken Bell's aunt, Cleo Bell Spalding, was a teacher at the school. From 1895-1897, there were 13 colored schools in Marion County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.545-548]. Most of the schools were in session for 5 months. Though there were over 1,000 Negro children counted in the school census, the average attendance was 293 for 1895-96, and 286 for 1896-97. The schools were taught by 13-14 teachers each year. The average salary for 1895-96 was $50.72 for male teachers and $32.61 for female teachers, and the following school year, the salaries were $49.11 for males and $23.04 for females. The colored common schools graduates (grade 8) for the years 1897-1901, were Walker Roberts, Daniel Burton, Charles Johnson, Early Ray, James B. Maxwell, and Annie Carter [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1899-1901, p.66]. In 1916, Ms. Emma Rice, J. W. Roberts, and Ms. Georgia Thomas were the teachers at the Lebanon Colored Schools [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.34 & 36]. Also around 1916, there were two Catholic colored schools, St. Francis Xavier School in Raywick with 67 students and one teacher, and St. Charles School in St. Mary with 65 students and one teacher [source:Negro Education: a study of private and higher schools for Colored People in the United States, Department of the Inferior, Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1916, No. 39, V.II, p.278]. In 1925, there were 6 colored schools in Marion County, and 3 elementary schools and one high school in Lebanon [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-69]. The principal of the high school was J. B. Sterrett, and it was an A (accredited) school with five teachers and 143 students [Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.62]. In 1932, Ms. Nettie Lee Hughes was principal of the new Rosenwald School built in Lebanon, KY, the school was featured on the cover of the KNEA Journal, October-November 1932, v.3, no.1. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Marion County were Helen P. Foster, Mary D. Henderson, Mary E. Lancaster, Lelia R. Lyons, and Mary Smth [source: U.S. Federal Census]. St. Augustine School was the first in Marion County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.440.

  • Sisterhood of Loretto - Negro Sisterhood School
  • Freedmen School
  • African School
  • Raywick School (pre-1890)
  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Lebanon School
  • Lebanon School for Colored Children (Sisters of Loretto)
  • St. Augustin Ladies' Academy in Lebanon [source: Progress of a Race, p.640]
  • St. Francis Xavier School
  • St. Charles School
  • St. Mary School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.877]
  • St Monica School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.223]
  • Rosenwald School
  • Banks Chapel / School
  • Poplar Corner School / Bells Chapel

See photo image of the Banks Chapel AME Zion Church / School at The Freedman flickr site.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marion County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Marshall County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1928
The colored school districts in Marshall County, KY, were established in 1866, but with no schools until 1874, which was the only year that the two schools were open according to the thesis of Tullus Chambers, History of Education in Marshall County, p.39. The reason given for the closing of the schools was that there were too few students. Though attendance may have been low, there were more than a few Negro children in the county; according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were more than 100 Negro children in Marshall County between 5 and 18 years old in 1870 and in 1880. In 1886, there were still 3 colored school districts [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. There is a photo image online of the Walnut Grove, No.2 Colored School, the picture was taken between the 1880s and 1890s [source: Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives Electronic Records Archives]. There were still more than 100 Negro children of school age in Marshall County in 1900, according to the census records, but the numbers would be greatly reduced as Negroes left Marshall County for other locations. The last colored school is listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory for 1927-1928, p.64; it was a county school with eight students and one teacher. In 1935, Tullus Chambers noted that there were only 5 Negro children in Marshall County, and the prior year, one of the children had attended the colored school in McCracken County because there was no longer a colored school in Marshall County [p.57]. The child's tuition had been paid by the Marshall County Board of Education. There was only one child of school age listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census and none in the 1940 Census. In 1938, there was a colored school at the Negro Village Site in Gilbertsville, KY; the school was part of he African American community that had been established by the Tennessee Valley Authority for work on the Kentucky Dam Project [see NKAA entry Negro Village Site]. The school was not included in the public school directory. The first school to be listed as integrated in Marshall County was St. Paul X, on p.141 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1962-63.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Negro Village School
  • Walnut Grove School [photo image at KDLA Electronic Records Archives

 

There are African American children on the far right of the picture of school children in Marshall County, KY. The photo image is in the Cora Wilson Stewart Photographic Collection, ca. 1900-1940, within the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marshall County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Martin County, KY
There is no record of a colored school in Martin County, KY, though there were African American children of school age in the county [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory, Kentucky School Directory, Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. In 1880, there were about 18 children of school age, including the four children of William and Mahala Davidson. None of the children are listed in the U.S. Federal Census as being in school, and the older boys are listed as working on the farm. There continued to be a few African American children of school age in Martin County; it is not known if the children attended school in a neighboring county. In the 1940 U.S. Census, the Simpkins family had lived in Martin County in 1935 but had since moved to Grant, WV, where their children were enrolled in school. There is no listing of Martin County schools being integrated before 1965 in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Martin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mason County, KY
Start Year : 1865
End Year : 1956
According to Kentucky author Marion B. Lucas, freemen in Maysville, Kentucky, opened a school prior to the end of the Civil War. There were at least four schools in Mason County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, two of the colored school teachers were Annie B. Simpson in Orangeburg, and Wyatt N. Stewart in Maysville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. According to Elizabeth Jefferson Dabney, in her thesis, The History of Education in Mason County, Kentucky, "There is little statistical material available in regard to the general report of the Negro schools. The only years between 1874 and 1890 for which a report could be found were the years 1880 and 1881" [p.68]. There were nine colored schools in Mason County in 1880, and 12 schools in 1881 [Dabney, p.68]. A year later, in 1882, one of the colored schools had a high school, and there were 40 students. The principal D. L. V. Moffitt resigned at the end of the school year [see citation below]. In 1891, there were 15 colored schools [Dabney, p.160], one of the schools was in Maysville led by Charles Harris, the principal, and three assistants, Miss Britton, Miss Barbee, and Miss Smith. Another school was in the community of Washington and was led by Miss Belle F. Chew, from Cleveland, OH, and she was assisted by Miss Mary Bookram from Oberlin, OH [source: "About men and women," Cleveland Gazette, 05/09/1891, p.3]. According to author Dabney, the 1891 superintendent's report stated that most of the teachers at the Mason County colored schools came from Cincinnati, Dayton, Cleveland, and Stubenville, Ohio [p.160]. Other colored schools that existed during the 1890-1891 school term are listed in Dabney's thesis as Dover School No.106; Minerva School No.105; Mayslick District No.101; Charleston No.109; and Murphysville No.110 [pp.171-172]. The Maysville Colored School continued into the 1900s, and in 1904, there was a complaint made to the Maysville Board of Education that there were not enough teachers at the colored school [source: "There was no business...," Evening Bulletin, 10/01/1904, p.1]. In 1915, the Maysville Colored Moonlight School was reported by Cora W. Stewart to be one of the best for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools by Y. H. Baldwin]. In 1925, there were two colored high schools in Mason County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. At the high school in Mayslick, Mrs. L. F. Berven was principal; it was a Class 3 school with one teacher and 7 students. In Maysville, there was also a Class 3 high school. There was also a county training school in Mayslick with Mrs. L. F. Brown as the principal along with 3 teachers who earned an average salary of $853; there were 2 years of high school and an 8 month school term [p.65]. By 1930, there were eight colored schools according to Dabney [p.160]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Mason County were James Batly, Ethel Boulden, Elizabeth Bowens, Edna Cunningham, Virginia Doley, Charlton Fields, Virgil Ford, Emory Gentry, Tioltha Howard, Jesse R. Howell, Bertie Howell, Helen L. Humphrey, Beatrice Lewis, Eleanor Mathias, Adeline Mlecher(?), Meria J. Smith, and Ida Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, was the Orangeburg High School, on p.441. Also listed were schools with the notation of "white & integrated": Mayslick High School (previously a school for whites), Minerva High School, Washington Jr. High School, and Maysville High and Center Graded School. For more see A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. Lucas; see "D. L. V. Moffitt...," and "Our public schools," both articles in the Evening Bulletin, 06/01/1882, p.3; "The Colored school commencement in every way excellent - interesting program rendered," Evening Bulletin, 06/14/1902, p.1; and see the c.1910 photo image of the Maysville and Mason County colored schools at the Northern Kentucky Views website.

  • Colored Schools (15)
  • Charleston School
  • Dover School
  • Mayslick - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Mayslick School
  • Maysville School
  • Maysville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Maysville Freedmen School
  • Maysville John Fee High School
  • Minerva School
  • Moonlight School
  • Murphysville School
  • Orangeburg School
  • Washington School
  • Washington Freedmen School

See photo image (near bottom of page) of Maysville Colored High School at the Northern Kentucky Views website.

See photo images (mid-way down the page) of the Mason County colored schools at the Northern Kentucky Views website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Maysville and Washington, Mason County, Kentucky

African American Schools in McCreary County, KY
Start Year : 1925
End Year : 1951
McCreary County, formed in 1912, was the last county established in Kentucky. It is not known when the colored school in McCreary County, KY, opened. In 1925, there were 6 children enrolled in the one colored elementary school in Stearns [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68; and subsequent volumes]. The school is listed in the 1926 Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, p.64. In 1936, McCreary County was listed as having one Negro teacher in the 9th District of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1936, p.58]. The independent colored school located in Stearns, would never have more than 20 students. During the 1946-47 school term, there were only 4 students enrolled [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.647]. The 1950-51 school term of the colored school, which had 3 students, was the last with a teacher listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.977. The 1952-53 term was the last with a listing of Negro children in the school census for McCreary County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.433]. There were no schools in McCreary County listed as integrated prior to 1965 in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory.

  • Stearns School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: McCreary County, Kentucky

African American Schools in McLean County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
Within the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, it was reported that McLean County had five colored district schools that were taught in churches [see the NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. The schools were held three to five months [source: A History of Education in McLean County, Kentucky by Leonard C. Taylor, p.33]. There were seven colored schools in 1890, and by 1939, there were three [source: Taylor, pp.58 & 62]. The Livermore Colored School operated for nine months and had 17 students. The other colored schools were in Calhoun and Sacramento [source: "Sacramento Black School by Janey Johnston - 1992" in Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky]. Miss Geneva Clayborne, Miss Mary E. Eads, and Mrs. M. L. Humphrey, all of whom lived in Calhoun, were the teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.54, 57, & 63. The Sacramento school was a one room building located behind the Sacramento Methodist Church. There is a picture of the teacher and students on the page titled "Sacramento Black School 1918-1920" in Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky. There was not a colored high school in McLean County; the high school students were transported each day to Western High School in Owensboro, and the transportation was paid by the county board of education. In 1939, the school attendance for Negro children in McLean County was 40 and five were high school students [source: Taylor, p.63]. Siblings Betty Jean and Henry Thomas were the first Negro students from Sacramento, KY, to graduate from high school [source: Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky]. In 1940, there was one Negro teacher, Myrtle Green, listed in the U.S. Federal Census for McLean County. Myrtle Green was at Calhoun. The prior year, there had been three Negro teachers in McLean County, and in 1940, there were two, one in Calhoun and one in the Livermore Independent Colored School [sources: "K.N.E.A. membership by counties," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1939, v.9, no.s 1-3, p.53; and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1940-41, p.866]. The Sacramento Colored School had closed, leaving the Calhoun Colored School that had an enrollment of 18 students, and the Livermore Colored School that had an enrollment of 15 students. The Livermore Colored School was last listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1949-50, p.541; there were four students enrolled in the school. The listing of the last colored school in McLean County is on p.224 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56; there was an enrollment of 15 students.  The following year, there was the first listing of integrated schools: Calhoun, Livermore, and Sacramento, on p.442 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Livermore School
  • Calhoun School
  • Sacramento School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: McLean County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Meade County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, at least two freedmen schools existed in Meade County, KY, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. One school was located in Brandenburg, the other in Haysville. Both of the school buildings were burnt down by those opposed to schools for African Americans; however, the school in Brandenburg continued in a rented building. In 1880, Edward Williams was the school teacher in Meadville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1895-1897, there were nine colored schools in Meade County, with three schools held in log cabins and six in frame buildings in 1895 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp. 572-576]. About 200 students attended the schools during the five month school term. There was one teacher at each school: three male teachers and six female teachers. The African American teachers' average monthly salary for the school term 1896-97 was $25.72 for the males and $24.89 for the females. By 1907, the average monthly wages for the teachers at the colored schools was $24.00 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Schools, 1905-1907, p. 431]. In 1916, A. L. Poole was the teacher in Brandenburg, J. A. Starks at Ekron, and S. W. Starks at Sirocco [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp. 34 & 36]. In 1923, Professor S. W. Starks was still the teacher in Sirocco, and Mr. J. A. Starks was still the teacher in Ekron [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p. 75]. Meade County would have as many as six Negro teachers during the 1920s, according to various issues of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA) Journal. In 1931, there was a two-year high school program at the Brandenburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, February 1931, vol. 1, no.3 , p. 11], with seven students in the high school program, all taught by one teacher who earned $840 for the school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p. 81]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Meade County were Anna B. Payne and John Lewis Pool, both in Brandenburg, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The Meade County Schools began to integrate during the 1956-57 school term at Meade County High School, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p. 442.

  • Brandenburg Freedmen School
  • Haysville Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Brandenburg Elementary and High School
  • Meadville School
  • Ekron School
  • Sirocco School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Meade County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Menifee County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1955
There was one colored school in Menifee County, KY, from as early as 1886 [see NKAA entry African American Schools 1886]. In 1895, the school house, made of log, was located in the one colored school district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1895-June 1897, pp. 577-580]. The average attendance of eight students (1896-97) was taught by a single teacher. There continued to be one teacher in the one colored school from 1928-1939 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p. 27, up to Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1939, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 53]. The colored school is listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory up to 1955 when there were six students enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1954-55, p. 579]. There were no schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory prior to the 1964-65 school term.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Menifee County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mercer County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866 there was a colored school in Mercer County, KY, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky. An early teacher, Susan Mary Craig, was one of the first African American school teachers in Harrodsburg, KY, according to the thesis by William M. Wesley: The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, pp. 186-201 and p. 205. Susan Mary Craig had attended a white school and taught students in Harrodsburg before the Civil War. She opened a school after the war, located on Fort Street and later moved to Greenville Street. Another teacher was Landonia Simms from Ohio, who was hired by Craig to teach at her school. After the death of Susan Mary Craig, Sallie Ann Taylor began teaching at the school. Taylor is often noted as the first African American teacher in Harrodsburg. Another teacher was a Dr. Jackson, who moved the Craig School to the basement of the New Methodist Church. The school was later taught by Dr. I. H. Welch. Another school was started by Ellen Craig Harris, the daughter of Susan Mary Craig. Classes were held in Ellen Harris' home for 40-50 students who paid $1 per month for instruction. The State Association of Colored Teachers was formed in 1877, and the second annual meeting was held in Mercer County, August 7, 1878 [source: The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, p. 185]. The colored schools in Mercer County were still operating independently in the 1870s. In 1880, the teachers at the colored schools were Samuel Gill at McAfee; Nathan Singleton at Salvisa; and George Craig (son of Susan Mary Craig), James T. Harris, and Mattie Nerick, all in Harrodsburg [source: U.S. Federal Census]. W. E. Newsom would become a teacher in Mercer County, teaching from 1888-1891. During this time, the city of Harrodsburg had at least two colored schools, one in the basement of St. Peter's Church and one at the corner of Lexington and Warrick Streets. By 1893, there were 10 colored schools in Mercer County, according to the county superintendent's report. In 1903, A. L. Garvin became principal of Harrodsburg Colored School, and a new school building was constructed on four acres of land. There were Colored Moonlight Schools in every colored school district in Mercer County in 1911. There were eight school districts [source: 1911 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. Principal A. L. Garvin left Mercer County in 1920, and Maynette M. Elliott became principal of Harrodsburg Colored School; she was the granddaughter of Susan Mary Craig. (Her name is given as Mattie Elliott in the census records.) By 1929, there were five colored schools in Mercer County, including Rosenwald Schools in Maye, Salvisa, and Unity; and schools in rented buildings in Burgin and Robinson Row. In 1930, Maynette M. Elliott was principal of the newly constructed West Side School in Harrodsburg. The school held the elementary grades and the approved four-year high school grades. The cost of the school was covered in part by $4,000 from the Julius Rosenwald Fund [source: "Counties aided on buildings," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 2, issue 2, p. 23]. A picture of the school is on the cover of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 2, issue 1 (October-November 1931), and additional information about the school is on p. 6. Another school in Mercer County was Wayman Institute, established in 1890 just outside Harrodsburg, KY; it was owned by the Kentucky Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E.) [source The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, pp. 196-201]. The first school teacher for Wayman Institute was Dr. I. H. Welch, who had resigned as the school teacher of the New Methodist Church School. Dr. Welch taught the first class of Wayman Institute in the lecture room of St. Peter's Church. The students came from surrounding counties and boarded with families in Harrodsburg. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Mercer County were Helen Boston, Florence Coleman, Jane Franklin, Mary Franklin, Carol Franklin, Nellie C. Gillispie, Annie R. Hayes, Cecelia Jackson, Bertha Lewis in Burgin, Beulah Sallee, Janetta Taylor, and Lesta Washam [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools in Mercer County to be listed as integrated were the Mercer County High School, Burgin Independent (integrated, colored, and white), and Harrodsburg High School, on p.442 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Susan Mary Craig School
  • Ellen Craig Harris School
  • McAfee School
  • New Methodist Church School
  • St. Peter's Church School
  • Lexington / Warrick Street School
  • Harrodsburg School
  • Maye School
  • Salvisa School
  • Unity School
  • Burgin School
  • Robinson Row School
  • Moonlight Schools (8)
  • Wayman Institute
  • West Side School
  • Mayo School

 

  See photo image of the Mayo School, in Kentucky Digital Library. 

 

 

Access Interview Listen to the Mercer County African American Oral History recordings for more about colored schools in Mercer County, KY, at "Pass the Word" a Kentucky Historical Society website.  
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Mercer County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Metcalfe County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, a colored school in Edmonton, KY, employed a 30 year old teacher named Ellen J. Butler, a widow who was a boarder with the John Jones family [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were seven colored school districts in Metcalfe County, KY [see the NKAA entry for African American Schools 1886]. Thomas J. Ray was a teacher in Edmonton as early as 1916 and at least as late as 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 34; and April 18-21, 1923, p. 72]. There were still seven colored schools in 1925, all elementary schools, with one teacher each [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. The following year, another colored school was opened, and there were nine teachers at the eight schools [source: Kenucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p. 82]. In 1931, there were 10 Negro teachers in the Metcalfe County schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1931, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 19]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Metcalfe County included Zenobia Brewes and Lola A. Mitchell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Another teacher was Robert Lee Smith, who retired in 1942 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, November-December, 1942, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 7]. During the 1942-43 school term, the number of colored schools had fallen to six [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1942-1943, p. 1116]. The Metcalfe County High School was listed as the first integrated school in Metcalfe County in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p. 134].

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Edmonton School
  • Blue Springs School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Cedar Top School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Summer Shade School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Metcalfe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Monroe County, KY
Start Year : 1846
End Year : 1963
In 1846, the Mt. Vernon Church was built in Gamaliel, KY, and the building also served as a school [source: Black Heritage Sites by N. C. Curtis, pp.99-100]. The church and school were established near Freetown, and the dual purpose log structure was built by George Pipkin, Albert Howard, and Peter West. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Tompkinsville, KY, supported by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; however, the school was burned down [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1886, there were five colored schools in Monroe County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 9 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.591-594]. Four of the 9 school houses were made of logs, and 5 were frame structures, and during the 1896-97 school term another colored district was added, but classes were not held because there was not a school house or a teacher. During the 1895 school year, there were 80 students attending school regularly, and the following year there was an average of 133 students each school day. Each of the 9 schools had one teacher. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School in Monroe County [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1926, the teachers at the Gamaliel Colored School were Mrs. Elma and Mr. Roscoe W. Pipkin [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.54], classes were still held in the Mt. Vernon Church [source: Curtis, p.100]. The African American children of Monroe County attended high school in Hickory Ridge [source: Curtis, p.100]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Monroe County were Kate Barkesdale, Vera Edwards, Roscoe W. Pipkin, Elma Pipkin, and Winfred Pipkin [source: U.S. Federal Census]. School integration started during the 1963-64 school term at the following schools: Fountain Run, Gamaliel Elementary and High School, and Tompkinsville High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.134].

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Tompkinsville Freedmen School
  • Gamaliel School
  • Fountain Run School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Moonlight School
  • Roy's Chapel School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22, File: Monroe County, Title: WPA 3, Monroe Co. - Education (Lenneth Jones-643-4), List of Schools, p.4, July 16, 1939]
  • Forkton School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Tooley's Ridge School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Bethlehem School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]

  See photo image of the Mt. Vernon Church and School at Gamaliel, at the flickr site by The Freedman.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Monroe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Morgan County, KY
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1907
It is not known when the first colored schools opened in Morgan County, KY, but there were 7 free Blacks attending school in Morgan County in 1850, according to author M. B. Lucas in his book A History of Blacks in Kentucky, 2003, p.145. In 1906, there were at least five Negro teachers who received teaching certificates in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907, p. 421]. During the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance at the one colored school was 11 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, pp. 407 & 345], and there was one teacher in the school, it was the teacher's first year teaching in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p.427]. Very little data about the colored school, teachers, and students in Morgan County were published in the biennial reports from the Kentucky Superintendent's Office. The colored school is not mentioned in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926 or any of the subsequent volumes. During the 1961-1962 school term, the Salem Schools were the first in Morgan County to integrate [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 882].

  • Colored School (1850)
  • Colored School (1906)
  • Salem School

*This entry was completed with assistance from Morgan County, KY, historian Ron Gevedon.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Morgan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
Between 1866 and 1870, there were two schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The first school for Colored children in Montgomery County was thought to be established in 1881 with Mrs. Anna Thompson as the teacher, according to Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. The school was held in a one-room building located at the corner of Queen and Locust Streets in Smithville, the present location of Keas Tabernacle CME Church. There was actually other colored schools in Montgomery County; in 1880 the teachers were Anna Belle Botts and Victoria Clarke, both in Mt. Sterling; Alex Davis in Aarons Run; and Sarah Jackson in Smithville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first commencement of the Mt. Sterling Colored School was held in 1891, and Professor J. S. Estill had completed his first year as principal of the school. In 1892, J. Green Trimble offered a lot on his farm for a colored church, and he also offered for sale, at the lowest price, a lot for a colored high school [source: "Highland Park," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 07/05/1892, p. 4]. There were 12 colored schools in Montgomery County in 1895 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp. 595-598]. The average attendance was 696 students taught by 17 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 900 students taught by 19 teachers for 1896-97. The average wages for male teachers was $34.00 and the female teachers earned $33.00 per month, 1895-96, and the following year, male teachers earned $38.00 and female teachers earned $35.00. The majority of the teachers were fairly well educated and more than two-thirds of them held a first class teaching certificate. In 1899, Professor Estill presented diplomas to the graduates during the commencement exercises at the court house [source: "Colored School commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/09/1899, p. 3]. It was reported in the Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/04/1900, p. 7, that there were no colored county schools in Montgomery County, "as there are not exceeding ten colored children of school age in the county." This wasn't exactly true; according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, in Montgomery County, KY (including Mt. Sterling) there were at least 891 Blacks who were 10 to 20 years old. In 1914, the Colored Moonlight School held classes in the Mt. Sterling Colored School: there were 75 students, the most at any one Moonlight School in Montgomery County [source: "Moonlight schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1914, p. 1]. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Mt. Sterling Colored Moonlight School was one of the best for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. In 1918, the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal was Prof. George W. Adams, who had come to the school in 1914. At the end of the school year in 1915, the school had the first grammar school commencement [sources: Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/01/1918, "The School children of the city...," p. 1, and "A Nice compliment," p. 2; and "Commencement exercises of colored school," 06/02/1915, p. 1]. The previous principal, Professor Estill, had left in 1914 for a teaching position at the Colored Normal School [today Kentucky State University]; his replacement was Prof. George W. Adams, who came from the Glendale Reform School in Lexington [source: "Goes to Frankfort," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/14/1914, p. 5]. Professor Adams resigned in 1918 to take a position with the National Benefit Life Insurance Company in Washington, D.C. and was replaced by Mrs. Robert [Cathryn] Gatewood [source: "Colored principal resigns," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 01/29/1918, p. 4]. Prof. George W. Adams was back in 1919, serving as superintendent of the Mt. Sterling colored schools [source: "Colored commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/20/1919, p. 9]. Professor Adams' return coincided with the organizing of the colored county school system in Montgomery County, one of the schools was named Prewitt School, mentioned under the heading "Prewitt Descendants" on p. 25 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. In the fall of 1919, plans were made for the construction of the Colored Training School to serve Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County [source: "The Right spirit," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1919, p. 5]. J. W. Muir was the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal in 1922, and the new teachers were Miss Barnes, Miss Coons, and Miss Keller [source: "Teachers selected for city schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 06/08/1922, p. 1]. In 1930, there were two high schools: Montgomery County Colored School and Mt. Sterling Colored School [source: "Colored high schools--Kentucky, 1930-31," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 23-24]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Montgomery County were Anna J. Black, Dwena Carrington, Viola Chenault, Robin Hamilton Davis, Judia Davis, William Ethel, Katherine Gatewood, Amilda Gatewood, William Hawkins, Wayman Hockett, Margaret Hockett, Susie Jones, Cornie McClure, and Melinda Preevitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The two Negro high schools were consolidated in 1952, and in 1964 the schools in Montgomery County were fully integrated after DuBois High School was burned down. The St. Partick School in Mt. Sterling was the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1015. For more on the history of the colored schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, see the "Schools - 1881-1964" on pp. 17-18 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Aarons Run School
  • Smithville School
  • DuBois School (built in 1939)
  • Montgomery County High School
  • Moonlight School
  • Mt. Sterling American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Mt. Sterling Freedmen School
  • Mt. Sterling School
  • Mt. Sterling High School
  • Prewitt School
  • Training School of Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County

  See photo image of the Montgomery County Training School on p. 32 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Muhlenberg County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
One of the teachers at a colored school in Muhlenberg County was William H. Ross, who left teaching in 1887 to open a grocery store.  Between 1891 and 1893, there were 14 African American teachers in Muhlenberg County colored schools, with an average monthly pay of $29.06 for male teachers and $28.10 for female teachers [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. Sallie L. Waddleton Campbell was a school teacher at the Central City Colored School in 1894; she was the wife of William J. Campbell. The school houses and grounds were valued at $1,258.00 and the furniture at $74.50. There was a new school built in 1893 that cost $25. In total, there were 13 school districts with 13 schools: 2 schools in session for 3 months; 2 in session for 4 months; and 9 in session for 5 months. Six of the schools were log buildings and three were frame, and there was no mention of where the remaining schools were held. None of the schools were in good condition (not including the new building) [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. There were 14 colored schools in Muhlenberg County again in 1895, according to Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.603-607. Six of the schools were held in log buildings and 4 were held in a frame structure, and there is no mention of where the remaining 2 schools were held. The average attendance was 309 students 1895-96, and 333 students 1896-97. In 1909, the colored schools at Bevier and Drakesboro needed furnishings and repairs, and the same was true for most of the colored schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "A Plea to the members of the fiscal court," The Record, 03/18/1909, p. 3]. Professor William Holloway was the principal of the Drakesboro Community School in 1937; the school was the result of the consolidation of rural schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "1937 K.N.E.A. Honor Roll" on p. 14, and "Education since the War of 1917" on p. 22, in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1937]. The Negro teachers in Muhlenberg County in 1940 were W. E. Bennett, Jennie V. Bord, Drusilla Dulin, Blanche Elliott, Willie Hightower, Amelin Jones, Louis Littlepage, Richard McReynolds, Robert Martin, Goward Mathis, Cathonia Morris, Eligh Render, Mabel W. Render, Sophronia Robinson, Corrie L. Smith, Leslie S. Smith, Naomi Smith, Lillian Tichenor, Iva Y. Traylor, Vernetta Walker, Eloise Walker, James Waterfield, and James Watson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, the colored school in Greenville had Mrs. Blonnie Shelton as the teacher, and C. L. Timberlake was principal of the County Teachers Training School [source: "The New president at the West Kentucky Vocational Training School, Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, March 1949, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 12 & 18]. The St. Joseph Elementary and High School were the first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.146.

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Bevier School
  • Central City School
  • Drakesboro School
  • Drakesboro Community School
  • Greenville School

Central City Negro School See photo image of the Central City Negro School, in the Kentucky Digital Library online.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bevier, Central City, Drakesboro, and Greenville, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Nelson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were three colored schools in Nelson County, KY, funded by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. There was a Freedmen school in Bardstown and one in Bloomfield, and a school run by the American Missionary Association in Springfield [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The New Haven School for Colored Children opened in 1869, it was a Catholic school managed by the Sisters of Loretto [source: Loretto: annals of the century by A. C. Minogue, p. 236]. In 1871, St. Monica's School for Colored Children opened in Bardstown and was run by the Sisters of Charity [sources: The Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Kentucky by A. B. McGill, pp.287 & 399; and The History of Catholic Education in Nelson County (thesis) by Sister M. R. O'Leary, pp.94-95]. In 1880 there were at least 7 Negro school teachers in Nelson County; Daniel Peppers in the Bardstown; James Richardson in Bloomfield; 17 year old Fannie Davis in Bloomfield; Mollie Johnson in Boston; Henry Miller in Nelson Furnace; and J. W. Richards and his wife Florida in Bloomfield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The number of colored schools in Nelson County continued to grow, and by 1895, there were 16 schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.609-612]. There was one teacher at each of the schools, and in 1895, there was an additional teacher at the two schools with a high school program. The teachers' average pay, 1899-1900, was $48.37, and for 1900-1901, it was $39.55 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1899-1901, p.455]. Six students from Nelson County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons during the 1902-1903 school term, and 400 or more students attended the colored schools in Nelson County 1901-1903 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1901-1903, pp.81 & 329]. In 1916, the school in Fairfield was taught by Nelson Bryant, and the school in New Haven was taught by Willa F. and M. B. Claggett [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.26]. The school in Cox's Creek was taught by Mrs. Dora Hutchinson in 1929 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.46]; Mrs. Hattie Davis was the teacher in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.53]; and in 1947, Miss Dora Davis was a teacher at the school, she is listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal as a sustaining member of KNEA, on p.36 of the January-February issue, v.18, no.1. Lena Berry Whitney was a teacher at Chaplin in 1940; she is listed as an honor member of KNEA in 1943 and 1944 [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census; Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1943, v.13, no.2, p.31, and February-March 1944, v.15, no.3, p.23]. The Negro teachers in Nelson County in 1940 were Bell Bauman, Jessie B. Cherry, Hattie Davis, Hattie Hansford, Elizabeth Hardin, Sallie P. Lewis, Martha Lewis, Richard Lee Livers, Steve Samuels, Sherman L. Smith, Fannie B. Smith, Lena B. Whitney, and Charles Woodson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first Nelson County schools integrated during the 1956-57 school term were New Haven School, Nazareth Academy, and St. Joseph Preparatory School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.443].

  • Bardstown Freedmen's School
  • Bloomfield Freedmen's School
  • Springfield American Missionary Association School (funded by the Bureau)
  • New Haven Catholic School
  • St. Monica School
  • Colored Schools (16)
  • New Haven School
  • Boston School
  • Nelson Furnace School
  • Fairfield School
  • Chaplin School
  • Cox's Creek School
  • Eli H. Brown, Jr. School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.225]
  • Bardstown Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.225]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Nelson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Nicholas County, KY
Start Year : 1867
End Year : 1955
One of the earliest colored schools in Nicholas County, KY, was located in Carlisle, it was a Freedmen School supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The year 1867 is the date given as the beginning of the colored school system in Nicholas County by author Mary Bradley Moss, in her thesis The History of Education of Nicholas County, p.104. In 1880, Samuel Mitchell was the teacher at Head Quarters [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first report about the schools was recorded in 1881. There were four colored schools, one of which was held in the old jail house in Carlisle, and the other three were held in log cabins [source: Moss, p.104]. The school sessions were held for 2-3 months per year. By 1891, there were seven colored school districts with one school in each district, and the overall attendance ranged from 228 students to 150 students. Male teachers earned $30.16 per month and female teachers earned $30.47 per month [source: Moss, p.105]. In 1897, the school in Henryville was replaced with a new two story, frame building and there were two teachers [source: Moss, p.106]. The number of colored schools began to decrease in 1894, and by 1928, there were four: Henryville (2 schools), Moorefield, and Headquarters [source: Moss, p.107]. The principal at the Henryville Colored School taught the high school department and two female teachers taught the other grades [source: Moss, pp.107-108]. At the Henryville school, the principal was a high school graduate and earned $75.00 per month, while the female teachers had two years of college and earned $93.15 per month. All three were the highest paid teachers at the colored schools. The colored schools were under the county school system [source: Moss, p.109]. In 1916, Mary E. White and Mary F. Williams were two of the three teachers who were members of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.38]. Mrs. Lizzie D. McGowan was one of the school teachers in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.67]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Nicholas County were Ethel L. Jones, Carrie D. Murray, and Mary Francis Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Prior to the beginning of school desegregation at the Carlisle High School in 1955, Negro high school students in Nicholas County were bused to Western High School in Paris, KY [source: Finding the Fifties by D. J. Dampier; and History of Nicholas Countyby J. W. Conley]. The Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p. 444, lists the Carlisle Independent High School as the first in the county to start integrating the student population.

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Carlisle School
  • Henryville School (2)
  • Moorefield School
  • Headquarters School
  • Booker T. Washington School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.883]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Nicholas County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ohio County, KY
Start Year : 1878
End Year : 1962
In 1878, there was a bill in the Kentucky Senate to authorize the building of a colored school in District 1 of Ohio County [source: Journal of the Regular Session of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1877, p.764]. The bill was said to have passed due to the Democrat vote, according to the article "Colored voters remember..." in the Hartford Herald, 08/01/1877, p.2. The school teacher at the Hartford Colored School in 1880 was Joe C. H. Taylor and the school year began in September [source: Hartford Herald, "The colored school...," 09/01/1880, p.3]. Prof. McDowell from Bowling Green, KY was the teacher at the Hayti Colored School [source: "Prof. McDowell...," Hartford Herald, 09/10/1884, p.3]. In 1886 there were 11 colored schools in Ohio County, according to the Kentucky Superintendent Report, and by 1899 there 8 school districts reported in the article "Statistics" in the Hartford Republican, 06/02/1899, p.3. In 1892, there was an investigation by the Hartford Herald on behalf of the colored schools and the colored teachers who had not received their pay. The newspaper reviewed the bookkeeping of the Ohio County school superintendent and determined the colored teachers were owed their pay [source: "In case a suit is brought..." and "Cowering beneath the Herald's revelations" both in the Hartford Herald, 10/26/1892, p.2] The debate about the disposition of the colored school fund became a political disagreement between the Democrats and Republicans as to which had done more for the Negro. Other schools in Ohio County included Rockport Colored School in District 9 with P. A. Gary as the teacher [source: "Report," Hartford Republican, 11/17/1893, p.4]. The Sulphur Springs Colored School teacher was Samantha Bracken during the 1893-94 school year [source: "Program," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.2]. There was a colored school in McHenry as early as 1894 when Miss Charlotte Eidson was the teacher [source: "McHenry Colored School," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.1]. L. W. Smith was the McHenry school teacher in 1904 [source: "The Guess candle," Hartford Herald, 01/20/1904, p.3]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ohio County were Delois Eidson, Kenneth Eidson, William C. Jackson, Mittie K. Render, and Ethel Tichenor [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated were  Beaver Dam Elementary and High School; Hartford Elementary and High School; and Wayland Alexander School, all on p.147 of the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63

  • Bruce School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.883]
  • Hayti School
  • Hartford School
  • McHenry School
  • Rockport School
  • Sulphur Springs School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ohio County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Oldham County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
H. C. Marrs is credited for one of the earliest colored schools in Oldham County, KY; the school was in session in 1866, and the following year, Elijah P. Marrs took over the school for his brother, H.C Marrs, who left to teach in Lexington, KY [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116].  Between 1866 and 1870, there were two colored schools supported by the Freedmen's Bureau in Oldham County, KY: one school in LaGrange and one in Peewee Valley [see the NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. In 1880 two of the teachers in the colored schools were Lewis E. Carter, who lived in Brownsboro, and Lulie Booker who lived in Covington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The number of colored schools had increased by 1895 when there were 8 schools with 9 teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.624-629]. During the two year period, 1895-1897, all but one of the schools was in session for 5 months, and the remaining school was open longer. There was an average attendance of 232 students for 1895-96, and an average of 224 students for 1896-97. During the 1900-01 school term, three students from Oldham County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.144]. For the school year 1910-1911, the Negro teachers' average monthly salary was $60 for male teachers and $37.43 for female teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Instruction, p.48]. In 1916, Romania Booker was the teacher at the Pewee Valley School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.25], and by 1924, the teacher had married and her name was Mrs. Romania Flournoy [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.50]. The Pewee Valley School was one of the colored schools selected to received funding to extend the school term to 9 months [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]. In 1925, Mrs. George Retter was the teacher at the Goshen School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, p.85]. Retter was one of 6 Negro teachers in Oldham County, when there were 242 children in the schools, and there were seven elementary schools and a high school at the LaGrange School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. In 1928, Mrs. Georgia Taylor, was the teacher in the Crestwood School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p.61]. Another Crestwood teacher was Mrs. Ethel Howell, who also taught at Brownsboro [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.46]. In 1930, J. V. Coleman was principal of the LaGrange Colored High School (Class 3) which had 14 students taught by one teacher who earned an annual salary of $810 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, pp.27 & 85]. By 1940, according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were at least 6 Negro teachers in Oldham County: Louise Coldwell; Ms. Lang; Grace Parrett; Melvin Strong; Maude Vaughn; and James T. Cooper who was principal of the LaGrange School, and he had been a teacher at the Crestwood School in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.52]. The LaGrange Colored High School continued to serve the entire county, with less than 20 students being taught by one teacher until 1947 when there was an enrollment of 23 students, which was the last year the high school existed [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1947-1948, p.487]. Integration of the schools began in 1956 in the county school system with LaGrange Elementary School and St. Aloysius [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.444].


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Oldham County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Owen County, KY
Start Year : 1877
End Year : 1958
During the 1877-78 school term, there was a total of three colored schools in Owen County, KY, according to the thesis of Capitola Simpson, History of Education in Owen County, p.111-119. One school was located in Owenton and two in New Liberty, and the following school year, two more schools were established, one in Harrisburg (Long Ridge) and one in Dallasburg. In 1880, two of the teachers were Joseph Johnston and Robert Langford, both in New Liberty [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Gratz Colored School was added during the 1881-1882 year and over the next few years there were also schools in New Columbus, Sparta, Monterey, Maple Grove, and Buck Run. The earlier schools were taught in churches, and later in log cabins, frame buildings, and a box building. The teachers were brought in from other states because it was felt that there were no qualified Negro teachers in the county. The schools were in session two or three months in the 1880s; five months starting with the 1893-94 school terms; and six months starting with the 1907-08 school term when there was an average school attendance of 145 students. The teachers' average monthly salary during the 1893-94 term was $33.00 for Negro male teachers and $25.00 for Negro female teachers. The salaries would fluctuate over the years, and during the 1908-09 school term, the average monthly salary for Negro males was $32.00 and Negro females earned $30.00. By 1912, the number of colored schools decreased to seven; there were five schools in 1913; and four in 1915 [source: Simpson, p.222-228]. The average daily attendance for the term 1915-1916 was 100, and by 1929-1930, the average attendance was 86, with 15 students in high school. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Owen County were Daisy Fitzgerald, Priscilla Henry, and Ethel Ware [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Owen County began to integrate in 1958 with Owen County High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1017]. 

  • Owenton School
  • New Liberty School
  • Harrisburg School
  • Dallasburg School
  • Gratz School
  • New Columbus School
  • Sparta School
  • Monterey School
  • Maple Grove School
  • Buck Run School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Owen County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Owsley County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1953
The Sag School was the only colored school in Owsley County, KY [source: The History of Education in Owsley County, by Eugene Field Gabbard, p. 112]. The school was located in District 14, which is where the majority of the Negro population lived in Owsley County. In 1895, the school was included in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.632-635. The school was held in a frame building and the average attendance was 11 during the 1896-97 school term. There was only one teacher whose average monthly salary was $20.81 during the 1895-96 school term, and $19.71 during the 1896-97 school term. In 1925, there was still the one school with one teacher for the 12 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. The 1939 school enrollment at Sag School was 19 students. The school was located on land the county school system purchased from Billie Hall. The African American community built the school and raised the money for the seats and equipment. The teacher was Sanford Scott, who encouraged students to continue their education at Kentucky Normal School [at present day Kentucky State University] in Frankfort, KY. Two of the students who attended the normal school were Jack Jett, who in 1922-23 was a farm agent in Jefferson County, and Lena Guess Lightfoot, who returned to teach at the Sag School during regular terms and attended the normal school in the summer [source: Gabbard, p. 113]. A picture of the Sag School, a one-room school house, is on p. 127 in Gabbard's thesis. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Owsley County was Lena Lightfoot [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The one colored school in Owsley County continued to be listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, but was not counted in the 1952-53 directory on p.435. It was again counted in the 1953-54 directory, p.805, but was not counted in the 1954-55 directory or any subsequent directories. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Owsley High School and Grade School on p.444 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.  

  • Sag School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Owsley County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Paducah and McCracken County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the early colored schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, was Runkle Institute located in Paducah, KY, established between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freemen Schools]. The act to establish public schools for African American children in McCracken County was approved by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873. There would be an annual tax to support the schools: 20 cents on each one hundred dollars of property owned by persons of color, and a poll tax or per capital tax of $1 for each Colored male resident over the age of 18. In 1880, the colored teachers were Charles Brooks, William Clark, Matilda Fletcher, Columbus Holland, James Owens, George Owens, and Samuel Reed [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1893, there were 13 colored school districts with 13 school houses in McCracken County: 6 log buildings, 1 frame building, and 6 brick buildings [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky by Francis M. Irwin, pp.63-66]. There were 13 teachers, 7 males and 6 females, who taught an average of 340 students each day during the 8 month school term. In 1925, Lincoln High School in Paducah was a Class 1A school with Mrs. M. R. Phillips as principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. The high school had 6 teachers and an enrollment of 127 students. There were 9 elementary schools with 9 teachers in the county school system meant to serve 1,741 students; and in Paducah, there were 18 elementary teachers and 7 teachers at Lincoln High School, all meant to serve 1,166 students [pp.68-69]. Sixteen years earlier, in 1909, Dennis Anderson began building West Kentucky Industrial College, the school offered secondary education (high school) and junior college for the training of teachers. In 1928, the school had 11 faculty members and their annual salaries were as follows: D. H. Anderson, President, $3,000; H. S. Osborne, Dean, $2,000; W. W. Maddox, $1,233; Mrs. M. J. Egester, $1,080; J. A. Walker, $1,110.78; Mrs. A. H. Anderson, $1,008; Mrs. M. V. McGill, $900; R. W. Daevson, Manual Training, $1,008; Mrs. S. E. Poston, Domestic Science, $810 (second wife of Ephraim Poston); Miss M. A. Robison, Matron and Teacher, $540; Mrs. B. A. Dawson, $945 [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky by Francis M. Irwin, pp.110-112]. The school had an average attendance of 343 students, and there were extra-curricular activities such as football, tennis, croquet, basketball, and volleyball. Lincoln High School opened in 1908, and in 1926, there were four teachers, all graduates of a four year college [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky]. In 1916, Paducah Public High School (Lincoln) was listed in the Bureau of Education Bulletin on Negro Education. J. B. F. Prather was principal of the four year high school and the eight elementary grades that were also within the school. There were 39 students and four teachers. There had been a public high school for African Americans in Paducah since the 1890s. By the 1940s, the city of Paducah had seven public schools for Colored children; the schools were listed in Caron's Paducah, KY City Directory, 1941 and 1942: Dunbar School at 2510 Yeiser Street (Lexie B. Mays was the teacher); Garfield School on Harris, southeast corner of Ninth Street, (Mattye O. Strauss was the principal); Lincoln School on the west side of Eighth Street and Lincoln Jr. High and Lincoln High School, both at 1715 S. Eighth Street (E. W. Whiteside was principal of all three schools); Rowlandtown School at 1400 Thompson Avenue (Henrietta Brogwell was the teacher); and Sanders School on the east side of Levin Avenue, north of 32nd Street (Kate O. Smith was the teacher). In total, there were at least 68 Negro teachers in McCracken County in 1940 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The West Kentucky Vocational School was the first to be listed as having both "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.224]. The following year, the schools listed as integrated were Clark, Jefferson Jr. High, Longfellow, and Paducah Tilghman, on p.441 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57. For more see Chapter 998, pp. 509-510, Acts Passed at the ... Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth, 1873 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; and Paducah Public High School on p. 280 in Negro Education, Bulletin, 1916, No. 39, vol. 2, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education. See photocopy image of Union Station School in McCracken County on p.31 at Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].
 

  • Runkle Institute
  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Dunbar School
  • Garfield School
  • Lincoln School
  • Northside School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879]
  • Paducah Public High School (1890s)
  • Rosemary School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879]
  • Rowlandtown School
  • Sanders School
  • Southside School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879]
  • Union Station School
  • West Kentucky Industrial College 
  • West Paducah School
  • Woodland School

  See photo image of West Paducah Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library - images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Paris and Bourbon County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Some of the early colored schools in Bourbon County were built and supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The Negro common schools began around 1874, according to James R. Welch in his thesis titled The History of Education of Bourbon County. In 1880, the school teachers were George Nelson in North Middletown; Eugene Jones, Reuben Butler, and Henry L. Gowen in Paris; Elisha Lewis in Millersburg; A. Wm. Knowx in Clintonville; and Annie Trotter in Hutchison [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following comes from Welch's thesis: In 1881, there were 1,765 colored school age children counted in the school census, and not many of them attended school. There were 16 colored school districts, with 15 schools. In 1885, there were 22 colored schools. In 1886, there were 24 colored schools, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.227-230. All of the schools were held in full session [5 months] up to the 1893-94 school year, which was about a decade prior to the beginning of a continuing decrease in the number of schools and students [source: The History of Education of Bourbon County]. The number of school districts held constant between 1890 and 1908, with 22 to 24 colored school districts and a daily attendance from a high of 1,063 students in 1893-94, to a low of 532 students in 1902-03. The attendance numbers picked up, but started to slip again in 1906. From 1908-1919, the number of colored schools decreased from 20 to 12. The following is a compilation of newspaper items on the history of Paris and Bourbon County colored Schools; the articles contained quite a bit more information than was printed in most other Kentucky newspapers for the same time period. Reverend Graves, who died in 1902, had come to Paris, KY in 1901 to become principal of the Paris Western Colored School. There were 248 students and seven teachers, and the numbers would remain consistent for the next several years. The prior year there was a high school graduating class of eight: Katie L. Long, Anna E. Parker, Fannie B. Buford, Dora B. Kimbrough, Jimmie R. Fields, James B. Woodward, and Keatha R. Williams. Graduation ceremonies were initially held at the Opera House in Paris, KY, with admission costs of 10 cents, 15 cents, and 25 cents. A smaller school system was the Millersburg Colored School, where in 1901 there were three graduates: Frank R. Lewis, Lucile Jefferson, and Hattie B. Mayburry. Manual training was introduced in the Paris school in 1907 with 26 men and boys enrolled in the newly established night school; the Colored teachers' wages for the year totaled $2,550. Mrs. Nettie H. Grant was the school principal at the Claysville Colored School in 1907, which was the year that the Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association held their meeting at the school [source: "Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association," Bourbon News, 11/12/1907, p.4, col.6]. In Paris, at the end of the school year in 1909, there were two graduations, one for 7th graders held at a local African American church and one for high school graduates held in the school auditorium. In 1909, new colored schools were scheduled to be built in Ruddles Mills and Jacksonville. The following year, several colored schools in the county were consolidated: Ruddles Mills School with Glentown School; Millersburg School with Shipptown School (the school location was undecided); and Houston School with Amentsville School. By 1910, a new school was being built in Centerville, and the Sidville School was to be repaired if church members would agree to help raise funds for the repairs. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Paris Colored Moonlight School was one of the best in the state for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools by Y. H. Baldwin]. See photocopy image of Cumensville School on p.12 at Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf]. The following is additional information from Welch's thesis. The total number of students had continued to decrease. During the 1908-09 school term the average elementary school attendance was 587 colored students, and by the end of the 1932-33 term, the average attendance was 296. An industrial training school opened in Little Rock in 1914, it was established with support from the Slater Fund. It was developed into the Bourbon County Training School for colored persons in 1918, and was also referred to as the Little Rock Training School. For more see The Bourbon News articles - "Colored School Commencement," 06/12/1900, p. 1.; "Millersburg," 02/15/1901, p. 2; "Commencement items of the Paris High Schools," 05/31/1901, p. 3; "New board elects teachers," 07/05/1901, p. 3; "A tribute," 05/02/1902, p. 5; "City Schools," 09/09/1902, p. 5; "Meeting of school board," 06/14/1907, p. 1; "Expenditures," 07/16/1907, p. 8; "800 pupils," 10/08/1907, p. 6; "Calendar of Colored School," 06/04/1909, p. 1; "School Improvement League in session," 08/24/1909, p. 3; "County School Board," 11/16/1909, p. 4; "County School Board meets," 05/10/1910, p. 1; and "Recent meeting of the County Board," 08/12/1910, p. 1.

 

In 1925, G. W. Adams was principal of Western School which had 9 elementary teachers and 5 teachers at the Class 1 Level B high school that had an enrollment of 112 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 69]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Bourbon County were Mattie F. Alexander, Howard Allen, Minerva Bedford, Charles R. Bland, Nora S. Bland, Sallie F. Brooke, Charles Buckner, Jessie Buford, Mary Butler, Nannie Butler, John Derrickson, Dewese Grant, Dorothy Hankins, Ola Delle Jacobs, Mary Elizabeth Kellis, Anna McBonner (sp), Carrie Murray, William Reed, Minnie Steele, Ennis Toles, Elizabeth Thomas, Archie Thomas, Mattie Whaley, Betty Williams, Lily Mae Williams, Clara Mae Woods, and Willa Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in Bourbon County were Bourbon County High School, North Middletown High School, and Paris Independent 7th Street Schools, all in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842.
 

  • Amentsville School
  • Baptist Church School (James. M. Thomas' School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Bourbon County Training School [Little Rock]
  • Brentsville School
  • Browntown School (submitted by Myke Carter; photo image by The Feedman)*
  • Caneridge School
  • Centerville School
  • Claysville School
  • Clintonville School
  • C. M. Clay's School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Cumensville School
  • Currentsville School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Glentown School
  • Houston School
  • Hutchison School
  • Jacksonville School
  • Jackstown School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Little Rock School
  • Methodist Church School (Reuben Butler's School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Monterey School
  • Millersburg School
  • Millersburg Freedmen School
  • Moonlight School
  • North Middletown School
  • Paris American Missionary Association School
  • Paris Freedmen School
  • Ruckerville School
  • Ruddles Mills School
  • Shipptown School
  • Sidville School
  • Western School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842]

 See photo image of Clintonville Colored School building at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
 
*Browntown was an African American Community on Townsend Valley Road in Bourbon County, KY, from the 1800s-sometime in the 1900s [source: The Feedman, Browntown Church Flickr site].
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Pendleton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1952
The first colored school in Pendleton County, KY, was probably the American Missionary Association School supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The first school mentioned in the thesis of Elbert Wallace Richmond, A history of Education in Pendleton County, Kentucky, pp.48-49, was established in 1878 in Falmouth. The teachers in Falmouth were George Black and Polly Southgate, according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1885, there were two other schools, one in Levengood and one in Clays Run. The first colored school report for the three districts in Pendleton County was filed in 1888. The school terms were three months, and the average monthly salary of the three teachers was $25. By 1900, two of the schools had closed, leaving only the Falmouth school [source: Richmond, p.71]. The county school board provided transportation for the children in the county to attend the school in Falmouth. A new school house was constructed in 1907 [source: "Pendleton County" on p.161 in Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky for the Two Years Beginning July 1, 1905 and Ending June 30, 1907]. In 1916, the teachers were Grace Ayers and Imogene Ayers [source: "Membership Kentucky Negro Educational Association 1916," Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.24]. In 1932, the teacher was Mrs. Bertha Chambers [source: Richmond, p.71]. The average salary was $80 per month and the average attendance was 33 students with a school term of seven months. There was not a colored high school in Pendleton County, KY. The Negro teachers in Pendleton County in 1940 were Amanda Hinton and Anna L. Hinton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, the Falmouth Colored School had closed, the building was sold, and the students were bused to the colored school in Harrison County [source: "Pendleton County Public Schools" on p.708 in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky]. The Falmouth Colored School had closed in 1952, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1951-52, p.709. The St. Frances Xavier School was the first listed as having "white and colored" students, on p.226 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The first school to be listed as integrated was Morgan, on p.444 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Falmouth School
  • Levengood School
  • Clays Run School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pendleton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Perry County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
In 1895, there was one colored school in Perry County, KY, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.641-645, and the average attendance was between 31 and 16 students. During the 1899-1900 school term, the Negro teacher's average salary was $32.57 per month, and the following term the salary was $21.60 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-1901, p.455]. During the 1905-06 school term, the teacher's salary had increased to $49.44, and the following term the salary was $34.66, and the school had an average attendance of 27 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905-June 1906, p.431 & p.407]. In 1928, the colored school teachers included Mr. Elmer Williams in Hazard [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p.59]; Miss Delinia Barker in Hazard [p.32]; Anna Hood in Hazard [p.44]; Rev. J. T. Martnee in Hazard [p.49]; and Miss Corina South in Blue Diamond [p.55]. During the 1930-31 school term, the Vicco Colored School received $40, and the Hazard Colored School received $80 from the Rosenwald Fund in support of the school libraries [source: "Counties aided on school libraries," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, p.25], and in 1932, the Vicco School received aid in order to extend the school term to 8 months [p.24]. A colored school mentioned in history books about Perry County, KY, is the Town Mountain School in South Hazard [sources: History of Perry County, Kentucky by E. T. Johnson, pp.116-117; and Observations of God's Timing in the Kentucky Mountains by R. Huston, p.119]. Author E. T. Johnson also mentions the Liberty Street Colored School, which had a high school that was open to students from the county [p.117]. The Liberty Street School was built in 1936 in Hazard as part of the Work Progress Administration projects, the school closed in 1963 [source: B. Richards, "Former Liberty students reunite at memorial," Hazard Herald, 07/2013 - online]. The Higgins Colored School also had a high school, the school was located in Vicco and the high school was an approved 3 year county high school [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1937, v.8, no.2, p.55; and October-November 1931, v.2, no.1, p.24]. The Vicco teachers were Mr. A. J. Williams in 1929 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.58]; Mr. C. A. Colerane in 1935 [source: The Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.52]; and Mr. and Mrs. A. D. Puryear in 1935 [p.61]. In 1940, the Vicco Colored School was merged with the Hazard Colored School system [source: The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky (thesis) by W. T. Gilbert]. According to the U.S. Federal Census, in 1940, there were at least 10 Negro teachers in Perry County: Lou Visa Cannon in Bulan; Pearl B. Cornett; Rankine J. Dearmond in Blue Diamond - Hervyton; Lillian Green; Cregan Herald and her husband Bergen Herald; Betty Kelly in Bulan; Mary Tate from Alabama, lived in Hazard; Carl Walker in Hazard; and Florence Zimmerman in Blue Diamond - Hervyton. School integration is indicated as starting in 1956 at the Perry County Schools, the Hazard Independent Schools, and the Hazard High School, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445.

  • Higgins School in Vicco (Higgins School merged into Liberty Street School in 1940)
  • Hazard School (before 1936)
  • Blue Diamond School
  • Town Mountain School
  • Liberty Street School
  • Kodak School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.885]
  • Tribey School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.885]

 

  See photo image of students at Town Mountain Colored School at the Hazard, KY and Perry County: a photo history website. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Perry County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Pike County, KY
Start Year : 1875
End Year : 1956
The colored school in Pike County, KY, was established prior to 1875, according to Herbert Woodson Crick in his thesis, History of Education in Pike County, Kentucky, p. 47. The school was located in Pikeville. In the 1890s, Effie Waller Smith was a teacher at the Pikeville Colored School. There were 63 Negro children and one Negro teacher in Pike County in 1890; 83 students in 1910; 87 students in 1920; and 83 students in 1930 [source: Crick, p. 106]. The Pikeville Colored School offered two years of high school. There were four teachers in the county colored schools. William R. Cummings was principal of the Perry A. Cline School in 1938 when he wrote "History of the Perry A. Cline High School," which appeared on p. 49 of the KNEA Journal, vol. 9,no. 1-2. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Pike County were Edwin Pearson who was a grade school teacher in Millard; Albert J. Cummings; Jesse Wyler; and Mary L. Whitefield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Perry A. Cline School would become a four year high school and then close in 1966 when the Pike County schools were fully integrated. Prior to that, the Pikeville College Trg. School was listed as having "white & colored" students in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.227. The following year Belfry School was listed as having "white & integrated" students, and there were three schools listed as integrated: Majestic, Mullins, and Pikeville High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445]. 

  • Perry Cline School
  • Pikeville School
  • Pike County Schools (4)
  • McAndrews School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.886]
  • Northside High School on Hellier Street, 1929-1932 [source: M. F. Sohn, "The Black Struggle for Education and Learning," Appalachian Heritage, v.16, Fall 1987, pp.35-42]

   See photo image of 1938 Pikeville Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library-Images.



   See photo image and bio of W. R. Cummings on p. 16 in KNEA Journal, January/February 1942, vol. 12, no. 2.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pikeville, Pike County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Powell County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
There were three African American schools in Powell County, KY, in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1906, the examination for Colored school teachers was held in Stanton, KY [source: "Examination for colored school teachers...," Clay City Times, 06/24/1906, p. 3]. Within the Powell County Educational Division No. 1, the teacher at West Bend Colored School was Valeria Samuels in 1916, and the Clay City Colored School teacher had not been selected [source: "Teachers selected," Clay City Times, 06/08/1916, p. 4]. In 1925, there were 2 colored schools, one in West Bend and one in Clay City, each with one teacher, and there were 69 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. The Clay City School was replaced with Rosenwald school that was built 1926-27 [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.66]. In 1927, Scott Mitchell was the teacher at West Bend Colored School, which included a two year high school [sources: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association,  April 20-23, 1927, p. 53, and April 8-21, 1928, p. 19]. By 1932, there were still 2 colored elementary schools with a total of 80 students, and the West Bend Colored High School which had 9 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.57]. The school term 1932-33 was the last for the West Bend High School; though the high school students continued to be counted in the Kentucky Public School Directory. Perhaps the high school students attended school in a nearby county.  In 1941, Allie Gentry was the principal at West Bend Colored School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 11, issue 2, p. 19]. By 1943, one of the two colored schools was closed [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1943-44, p.541]. The last colored school in Powell County, believed to be the West Bend School, was noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1959-60, p.806; there were 14 students enrolled in the school that was taught by one teacher. According to the title Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, pp.65-66, the West Bend Colored School was a Rosenwald School located on Turley Road, built between 1917 and 1920, and the school closed in 1960. The school had closed during school integration in Powell County. The process had started with the Powell County High School noted as being "white & integrated" in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445, and the following year the same school is listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.642.

  • Clay City School
  • Stanton School
  • West Bend School

  See the 1927 photocopy image of the Clay City Colored School on p. 40 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Powell County, Kentucky: Clay City, West Bend, Stanton

African American Schools in Pulaski County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One or the earliest colored schools in Pulaski County, KY was the Freedmen School located in Somerset. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. Not too long after the school was established, the teacher at the Freedmen School was run out of town, but that did not deter the effort for there to be colored schools. In 1880, there were schools with the following teachers: William P. Barker who was 15 years old; Charlie Goings; and Robert Owens [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886 there were 6 colored schools [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. Ten years later, there was a court case concerning clarification on the appropriation of taxes between white and colored schools in Pulaski County: "Board of Education of Somerset Public Schools v. Trustees Colored School District No. 1, Pulaski County" [online at Google Books]. The taxes were needed to support the 10 colored schools that had an average attendance of 224 students for the school year 1895-96, and 256 for the 1896-97 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.653-657]. There were 11 Negro teachers at the 10 schools, they earned an average monthly wage of $34.79 during the 1895-96 school term, and the following year, male teachers earned $28.33 per month, and female teachers earned $20.17 per month. Nine of the 10 schools were taught for 5 months, and one school was held more than 5 months. Seven of the school buildings were log cabins, and three of the schools were held in frame buildings. One student from Pulaski County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) during the 1900-01 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-June 1901, p.144]. The following biennium, there were 5 students from Pulaski County at the State Normal School for Colored Persons [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1901-June 1903, p.81]. During the same time period, in the Pulaski County colored schools, the teachers' average monthly salaries were $31.00 for 1901-02, and $22.87 for 1902-03 [p.355]. In 1925, there were 4 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher in the colored schools in Somerset, KY, and two teachers in the rural schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68-69]. By 1927, the teachers in the various colored schools listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 20-23, 1927, were Miss Arneeda Gilmore and Mrs. Ollie M. Gilmore [p.45]; Mrs. Bertha Bogle [p.37]; Mrs. Blanca Brown [p.38]; Miss Virginia E. Lackey [p.50]; and Mrs. Betty McClasky and Prof. E. B. McClasky at Dunbar School [p.51]. More than a decade later, there were at least nine Negro teachers in Pulaski County, KY, according to the 1940 U.S. Federal Census: Ernest Alexandria who had lived in Cynthiana, KY in 1935; Christine Barger; Mae Brown; Bertha Dorye; Virginia Lackey; Perry McDowell; Maggie Smith; Hatha Weat; and G. P. Wilson who was the principal at Dunbar School. In 1956, Pulaski County schools started to integrate their student populations at the county schools, Somerset High School, and St. Mildred School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].

  • Freedmen Colored School in Somerset
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Dunbar School (built in 1909)
  • Bourbon School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, pp.11 & 84]
  • Garner School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, p.30]
  • Owens School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, p.11]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pulaski County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Robertson County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1946
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Mt. Olivet, KY; William Crosby was the school teacher and he was also a farm worker according to the U.S. Federal Census. William Crosby was a Kentucky native, he was a husband, and father of three. In 1886, there were two colored schools in Robertson County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. During the two year period 1895-97, there were still two colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97,  pp.657-660]. There was one teacher at each school and the school terms lasted five months. Both the male and the female teacher earned $24.39 the first school year, and during the second year, they each earned $19.17. At one school, classes were held in a log building, and the other school was held in a frame building. There were 34 students enrolled for the school term 1895-96, and 39 enrolled for the 1896-97 term; less than half the students attended school on a regular basis. By 1907, there was only one colored school in Robertson County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, pp.166-167].  Mr. R. L. Diggs was the school teacher at the Mt. Olivet Colored School in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.56]. Beginning in 1947, the colored school in Mt. Olivet was no longer listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory [source: 1947-48 volume, p.488]. Integration of the student population began in 1956, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446; the Deming School is listed as integrated with 5 Negro children in the school census.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Mt. Olivert School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Robertson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Rockcastle County, KY
Start Year : 1865
End Year : 1938
A colored school in Rockcastle County, KY, was established several years prior to 1884, according to the thesis of Egbert F. Norton: History of Education in Rockcastle County, Kentucky, pp. 57-58. Norton estimated that the colored school house had been built in 1865 [source: Norton, p. 79]. In 1886, there were two colored schools; one in Brodhead and one in Mt. Vernon [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1899, the teacher of the colored Mt. Vernon school was Remetha Ford [source: "The colored school here..." in the column "LOCAL and OTHERWISE," Mount Vernon Signal, 11/17/1899, p. 3]. By 1903, there was only one colored school, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky For the two years beginning July 1, 1901, and ending June 30, 1903, p. 232. In 1906, it was reported in the Mount Vernon Signal that there were 23 colored students in Rockcastle County [source: "Kentucky's Annual School Census," 07/13/1906, p. 3]. One of the last terms for a colored school in Rockcastle County was noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.64; there was one school, one teacher, and 19 students enrolled in the school. According to E. F. Norton, by 1930, there were nine Negro children of school age listed in the school census of Rockcastle County, and the average school attendance was 0. There may have been a 0 attendance because there was no school for the children. Norton stated, on p. 79 of his thesis, "Colored education in Rockcastle became less serious during this period, because of the gradual decrease in colored population in the county." There were 79 Blacks listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census for Rockcastle County, KY, including 17 children between the ages of 6 and 18. Looking at prior years, the U.S. Census population in Rockcastle County, KY, listed 92 Blacks and 38 Mulattoes in 1910; 71 Blacks and 35 Mulattoes in 1920; 79 Blacks in 1930. By 1933, there was another colored school in Rockcastle County; the school was located in Mt. Vernon and had an enrollment of 11 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1933-34, p.58. Miss Lena Marshall was the school teacher in Mt. Vernon in 1935 [source: KNEA Journal, vol. 6, no.1, p. 59], and she was the first teacher from that county to enroll in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. The 1937-38 was the last term of the school; there was one teacher and 7 students were enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-38, p.56]. In 1940, there were still Negro children of school age in Rockcastle County: 14 year old Genena Jacker had completed the 7th grade; 10 year old Joyce Jacker had completed the 3rd grade; 14 year old Pete L. Jarber had completed the 7th grade, he was working, a farm laborer; 11 year old Morris Newcomb had completed the 1st grade; and there was no school information about 8 year old Sallie Newcomb [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There are no notations in the Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65, that the Rockcastle County Schools integrated prior to the end of the school term.

  • Brodhead School
  • Mt. Vernon School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Rockcastle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Rowan County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1930
The colored schools in Rowan County, KY, seemed to come and go from the late 1800s to about 1930. As early as 1895, there was one colored school in Rowan County, KY, the school was taught for five months, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.665-668. No more than 10 students attended the school on a regular basis. The teacher's average monthly pay was $24.39, 1895-96, and $19.44, 1896-97. By 1912, the colored school had closed and reopened with an enrollment of 10 students, 1911-12, and 8 students, 1912-13 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-12, p.4; and 1912-13, p.112]. In 1920, Beatrice Mance, a Kentucky native who was 19 years old, was the school teacher [source: U.S. Federal Census].  Mance was a boarder with the Luke and Lizzie France family in Morehead. The family was among the 21 Blacks and 2 Mulattoes listed in the 1920 census for Rowan County, with the France children as the only school age children between the ages of 5 and 18. Luke France worked at a mechanical shop, and both he and his wife could read and write. By 1925, no school was listed in the school directory.  In 1930, there was again one colored school in Rowan County and there was an enrollment of 9 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.89]. The teacher was Kentucky native, 20 year old Agatha Chennault who lived with the France family on Railroad Street in Morehead, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The following year, 1931, there was no longer a colored school listed for Rowan County in the school directories. The first school in Rowan County to be listed as integrated was the Breckinridge Training Schools in 1961 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.889].

  • Morehead School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Rowan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Russell County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Parker H. Jackman was one of the first teachers in the colored schools in Russell County, KY; he began teaching after the Civil War ended. It is not known how long the school existed or where it was located. By 1895, there were four colored schools in Russell County, KY, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.669-672]. One of the schools was taught in a log cabin and the other three were taught in frame buildings. The average attendance was 40 students and there were 4 teachers, 1895-96, and there were 35 students and three teachers, 1896-97. The teachers' average wages were $24.12, 1895-96, and $19.08, 1896-97. During the 1902-03 school term, there was one student from Russell County who attended the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-03, p.81]. The average attendance at the Russell County colored schools was 38, 1901-02, and 48, 1902-03 [p.329]. In 1905, the students attending Russell Springs Colored School moved from their old school building to the school that was used by the white students [source: Russell County, Kentucky: history & families by Turner Publishing Company, p.156]. A new school had been built for the white students who attended Russell Springs Academy, a private school. Their old school, where the colored students would be attending, was located on North Main Street near the Christian Church. Several years later, a new school building for the colored students was constructed on S. Highway 379. There were 3 colored schools in Russell County in 1925 with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68], and the following year, there were 2 colored schools [1926-1927, p.82]. In 1935, Miss Thelma Simpson was a school teacher in Jamestown [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.6, no.1, October-November 1935, p.63]. There continued to be two colored schools in Russell County, until 1953, when Greens Chapel was the one remaining school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1953-1954, p.807]. In 1955, the Russell County High School was the first to report having both white and colored students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.228], and the following year the school was listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Russell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Scott County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866, there was an American Missionary School for the freedmen of Scott County, the school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. According to Apple, Johnston, and Bevins, freedmen in Scott County had to secure a building before the Freedmen's Bureau would consider establishing and maintaining a school in Scott County [source: Scott County Kentucky: a history edited by L. Apple, F. A. Johnston, and B. Bevins, p.249]. The community organized a colored school board of directors in the spring of 1866 and rented a house for the school. Classes started in October of 1866 with 20 students and the cost was $1.50 per student, except for orphans and poor children who attend for free. In 1873, Charles Steele was head of the Georgetown Colored School. According to author A. B. Bevins, Charles Steele founded the school in 1873 and it was named Boston School, and there were two teachers, Lyda G. Ross and Emma Shores [source: Involvement of Blacks in Scott County Commerce by A. B. Bevins, p.9]. One other teacher at the school was Allen Allensworth [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.120]. In 1884, the Graded School for Colored Children opened and the name of the school was eventually changed to Chambers Avenue School, Charles Steele was head of the school until his death in 1908 [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. In 1880, the teachers in the colored schools were Charles Blackburn, a Kentucky native who was 20 years old; Quincey Bailey, also 20 years old; and Charles Steele who was 25 and married with a one year old son [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, one of the colored schools was held in a rented building [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1891, two additional schools were built [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, School Year Ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.213]. By 1895, there were 15 colored districts with 9 colored schools, with 10 teachers, and an average attendance of 442 students; and one additional district was added the following school year, still with 9 schools, 10 teachers, and an average attendance of 465 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.673-676]. The teachers' average wages were $46.53 for males and $41.83 for females, 1895-96, and the following school year, the wages were $40.08 for males and $34.74 for females. Around mid-October of 1898, the Peach Orchard Colored School in Scott County burned down [source: Kentucky Gazzette, 10/15/1898, p.3]. During the 1900 and 1901 school terms, there was one student from Scott County who attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.144]. During the same period, within the colored schools of Scott County, the teachers' monthly pay was $40.90, 1899-1900, and $35.87, 1900-1901 [p.455]. From 1902-03, there were two students from Scott County attending State Normal School for Colored Persons [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903,  p.81]. The average attendance at the colored schools in Scott County was 464 and the teachers' average monthly wages was $44.14, 1901-02 [pp.329 & 355]; and the following school year, 1902-03, there was an average of 437 students and the teachers' average monthly wages was $34.12 [pp.329 & 355]. In 1908, Edward B. Davis replaced Charles Steele as principal of the Chambers Avenue School, and Davis remained as the principal until his death in 1934 [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. According to Apple, Johnston, and Bevins, the white community of Stamping Ground, KY helped the African American community to buy the land and build the Stamping Ground Colored School [source: Scott County Kentucky: a history edited by L. Apple, F. A. Johnston, and B. Bevins, p.249]. Between 1917 and 1920, Rosenwald Schools were built in Sadieville and New Zion to replace older colored school buildings [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 by the Kentucky Heritage Council, and the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission].  From 1921-1922, there were Rosenwald Schools built in Boydtown, Great Crossing, and Watkinsville [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.27]. In 1925, there were 7 colored schools in Scott County, KY, and the high school was located in Georgetown in the Chambers Avenue School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-67; and 1927-1928, p.56]. An additional elementary school was added in 1926 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, pp. 82-83]. In 1926, Ruth A. Takecare was the teacher in Stamping Ground [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.62]. In 1929, the Chambers Avenue School was renamed Ed Davis School, and after Ed Davis died in 1934, his wife, Betty Webb Davis served as principal of the school [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. The Rosenwald School in Zion Hill was built 1929-30 [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.29].  In 1940, there were at least 18 Negro teachers in the colored schools in Scott County: Ella Arrington; Ida Mae Chinn; Bettie Davis; Katy C. Generals; Lucille Goosey; Estella Hawkins; Julia B. Johnson; Rhodea Lightfoot; Raymond McClellan; Mary Neal; Benjamin Patterson; Celia Scott; Mary Somers; Sallie P. Tilford; Mattie Mae Warner; Margaret L. White; Virginia Williams; and James P. Wilson [U.S. Federal Census]. Integration of the schools in Scott County started in 1956 with Scott County High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].

  • American Missionary School supported by the Bureau
  • Georgetown Colored School
  • Graded School for Colored Children
  • Peach Orchard School
  • Chambers Avenue School
  • Stamping Ground School
  • Ed Davis School (1929-1956)
  • Zion Hill School [see NKAA entry for Zion Hill]
  • Sadieville School
  • New Zion School
  • Boydtown School
  • Great Crossing School
  • Watkinsville School

  See photo image of c.1920 photo image of New Zion Rosenwald School on p.40 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 by the Kentucky Heritage Council, and the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Shelby County, KY
Start Year : 1849
End Year : 1956
As early as 1849, a colored school was attempted in Shelbyville, KY; Rev. C. W. Robinson was flogged in the school room by the Shelby County chief patrol officer for Robinson's daring to have a Sunday School for free Negroes and for slaves who were given permission to attend the school. Another early colored school in Shelbyville, was the American Missionary Association School, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedman Schools]. The teacher at the school was assaulted by the county judge and run out of town. Still, there were colored schools established in Shelby County, KY.  In 1880 there were four teachers: Sarah Clark in Shelbyville; Lucy Gwinn in Christianburg; P. Charles Jones in Shelbyville; Lewis Lawson in Shelbyville; and Ada Mumford in Shelbyville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1886, there were 13 colored school districts with 13 colored schools, and two of the schools were open for eight months [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, June 1886 and June 1887, pp.64, 76, & 92-93]. Most of the schools were taught in churches. A new school, Colored Common School No.14, in Drewsville was built on land William M. Blackwell sold to the school trustees in 1887 [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.63]. The number of colored schools continued to increase and by 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Shelby County, KY [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.677-680]. There was an average attendance of 708 students, 1895-96, and 1,020 students, 1896-97. There were 25 teachers employed in the schools, and their average monthly salaries were $42.12, 1895-96, and $28.35, 1896-97. In 1898, there were 20 colored schools in Shelby County [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.280].  From 1907-1919, Daisy Morgan Saffell was the school principal at the colored school in Shelbyville, and her husband George W. Saffell Jr. was a teacher at the school [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.170].  In 1912, Lincoln Institute opened in Lincoln Ridge, KY. The school came about after Berea College became segregated by court order. In 1925, J. W. Roberts was the superintendent for the colored city schools; Shelbyville was one of eight city school systems in Kentucky to have a colored school superintendent [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. J. W. Roberts was also the principal of the Shelbyville Colored High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. It was a 3rd class high school with 2 teachers and 26 students. There were 9 elementary schools in the county, and 6 teachers in Shelbyville [pp.68-69]. In 1936, the Shelbyville School System devised a contract for providing high school education to colored students; transportation was provided to Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. The arrangements were made between the schools of Shelbyville, Shelby County, Henry County, and Eminence. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Wil Allen in Shelbyville; Beatrice Boyd in Shelbyville; Marie Brown in Shelbyville; Joseph and Kathleen Carroll in Simpsonville; Katherine Freeman in Simpsonville; Mary Greenfield in Simpsonville; Lamont Lawson in Simpsonville; Lula McCampbell in Simpsonville; Herbert McCoy in Simpsonville; Martha Nuckols in Simpsonville; A. G. Pinbury in Simpsonville; Jewel J. Rabb in Shelbyville, wife of Dr. Maurice F. Rabb, Sr.; James Ray in Simpsonville; Helen Shouse in Simpsonville; James Taylor in Simpsonville; and Whitney Young, Sr. in Simpsonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1945, fire destroyed the Shelbyville Colored School and a new school was built at the corner of 11th and High Streets in Martinsville [source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. Shelbyville Elementary School was the first to be noted as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.447.    

  • Colored Schools (20)
  • Shelbyville Sunday School
  • American Missionary Association School (supported by the Bureau)
  • Shelbyville School
  • Christianburg School
  • School No.14 in Drewsville
  • Simpsonville School
  • Chestnut Grove School
  • Stringtown School
  • Olive Branch School
  • Todds Point School
  • Southville School
  • Scotts Station School
  • Buck Creek School
  • Harrisonville School
  • Benson School
  • Clarks Station School
  • Logans Station School
  • Evansville School
  • Bagdad School
  • Clayvillage School
  • Rockbridge School
  • Clear Creek School
  • Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville
  • Lincoln Model School (closed in 1940 - source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, pp.281-282)
  • Montclair School (replaced Lincoln Model School)
  • High Street School
  • Mulberry School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.890]
  • Waddy School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Simpson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Elijah P. Marrs is credited with opening the first school for Negros in Simpson County in 1866; Marrs had returned home from service in the American Civil War [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.115-116]. The students paid $1 per month to attend the school, and Marrs was paid $25 per month salary. The school lasted for one year; Marrs left in 1867 to teach school in Lagrange, KY. Between 1866 and 1870, Simpson County, KY, had a Freedmen School that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. The school was located in Franklin. The school teacher was mobbed and had to be saved by U.S. Troops. In spite of the mobbing, there continued to be colored schools in Simpson County, and in 1880 three of the teachers were Henry Bogan, Joe Perdue, and Eoline Malory [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Between 1885-1887, there were 10 colored school districts in the county [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, School Years Ending June 30th 1886 and June 30th 1887, p.130]. A decade later, there were 12 colored schools with 15 teachers, and the schools were held in three log cabins and nine frame buildings with an average attendance of 363 students during the 1895-96 school term and 400 students during the 1896-97 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.681-684]. Between 1899 and 1901, there was one student from Simpson County at the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p. 144]. For the 1909-1910 term, the Negro teachers earned an average wage of $47 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1909-1911, p.50]. In 1919, there were 68 adult students in the Simpson County Colored Moonlight School that were taught by Gertrude Mahin, Iola Ryons, and Bessie Lawrence, all of whom were also teachers at the colored schools for children. Harlem Renaissance poet, Blanch Taylor Dickinson, born in Franklin, was a school teacher in 1916 up through 1923 when she taught in Franklin along with Miss Effa B. Dixon, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Mr. T. B. Williams, Mrs. W. L. Lawrence, Miss Lizzie Moore, and Mr. A. E. Robinson,  [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.37; and April 18-21, 1923, pp.51, 56, 66, 69, 72, & 80]. [Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County.] In 1925, the Franklin Colored Schools was one of ten systems in the state to have a colored superintendent, the Franklin superintendent was T. C. B. Williams [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Williams was over the 4 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher in Franklin, and the 8 elementary schools in rural Simpson County were under the county school system and there was one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, pp.68-69]. The school teachers included Mr. T. J. Dixon, Mrs. Effie Dixon, Prof. D. T. Wright, Miss Cora Mae Barlow, Mrs. Lula Bradley, Mrs. Mary Burrs, Mrs. G. G. Mahin, Mrs. L. B. Payne, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Prof. T. C. B. Williams [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, pp. 49, 50, 51, 53, 56, 68, 72, 82, & 83]. By 1940, the teachers at the colored schools were Josephine Berry; Lula Bradley; John Bradley; Mary E. Burrus; Virgie L. Burress; Cathrin Douthett; George Douthett; Hulean Gumm; Wilson Hale and Mary Hale; G. B. Housten; Cora M. Jackson; Hubert Neal; Margrette Neal; Tom Payne; Mary E. Stringer; Blanch Taylor (Dickinson); and Tucker Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Simpson County Schools are first listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.143.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Elijah P. Marrs School
  • Franklin School
  • Lincoln School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Spencer County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1957
Spencer County had colored schools as early as 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 1886 and school year ending June 1887 [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. One of the schools was located in Taylorsville (District 1) and the superintendent reported that attendance was extremely low at the school (pp.213-214). By 1895, there were 9 colored school districts, each with one school, and 2 of the schools were in session more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.685-688]. Four of the schools were held in log buildings and 5 of the schools were held in frame buildings. The average attendance was 207 students (1895-96), and 206 students (1896-97). The eight female teachers' average monthly wages were $25.20 (1895-96) and $26.45 (1896-97). The one male teacher earned $24.03 (1895-96) and $18.81 (1896-97). Four students from Spencer County attended the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University), 1900-1901; two of the Negro teachers in Spencer County were graduates of a normal school; and 8 of the teachers taught in Spencer County for the first time during the 1900-01 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, pp.144, 445, & 451]. In 1916, the teachers in the Spencer County colored schools included Emma Taylor and Zueta Taylor; Eva M. Shelburne, Ruth D. Shelburne, and Sue Pery Shelburne; and Lorena E. Brown. [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25, 32, & 35]. All of the teachers were in Taylorsville. By 1925, there were 4 colored elementary schools with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68].  Fifteen years later, according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were 3 Negro teachers in 1940: Charity Mason, Monroe Miles, and Mabel Miles. The Spencer County schools started to integrate in 1957, as mentioned in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.644.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Taylorsville School 

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Spencer County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Taylor County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Taylor County, KY; the teacher was Robert Hubbard at the Campbellsville school [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There were still schools during the 1886-87 school term [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1888, p.130]. In 1895, there were 10 colored schools in Taylor County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.689-692]. The average attendance was 281 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 252 students during the 1896-97 school term. There were 11 teachers. In 1916, the following school teachers were listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916: Fannie B. Gaddie and J. H. Gaddie, Saloma (p.28); Norian E. Harris, Campbellsville (p.29); Ethel Von Lewis, Campbellsville (p.31); C. B. Nuckolls [or Nuchols], Campbellsville (p.33); and Maxwell Philpott, Campbellsville (p.34). Mrs. G. E. Philpott taught the Colored Moonlight School in Campbellsville, beginning in 1915, with students between the ages of 18 and 55 [source: "Mrs. G. E. Philpott...," Freeman, 02/13/1915, p.3]. Robert L. Dowery conducted night school for colored soldiers at Camp Zachary Taylor during WWI. In 1937, there were seven, one room, colored elementary schools in Taylor County, KY, according to the thesis of John Albert Jones, History of Education in Taylor County, p.77. One of the schools was in Campbellsville and in 1939 that school was replaced by the newly constructed Durham School, grades 1-12; the school received funding from the Rosenwald Fund and it housed the second high school for African Americans in Taylor County [source: Images of America: Campbellsville by DeSpain, Burch, and Hooper, p.92-93]. The earlier high school, Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes, existed in 1922 when teacher C. B. Nuchols [or Nuckolls] left the school for a teaching job with Booker T. Washington School in Ashland, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools in Boyd County, KY]. The Taylor County Industrial High School, located in Campbellsville, was established between 1911 and 1919, and was funded by the John F. Slater Fund [source: A History of Education in Kentucky by W. E. Ellis, p.179]. Margaret Ray was the teacher at the Taylor County Industrial School in 1925, the term of service was 9 months and the school received $450 from the Jeanes Fund [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. Also in 1925, C. V. Haynes was the principal of the Taylor County Training School in Campbellsville  [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 65]. The training school was a Class 3, two year high school with 1-3 teachers and 6 students. The high school was in session for 9 months and the teachers' average salary was $630. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Taylor County were Flora Bell, Ethel Lewis, Rodney K. Ivery, Ortie L. Miller, Helen Miller, Margaret Ryan, and Melvin Strong [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, the school named Our Lady of Perpetual Help was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students, on p.229 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The Negro student at the school was Wallace Williams, who would become an Olympic marathon runner. The following year, Our Lady of Perpetual Help would become the first school in Taylor County to be listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.447]. In 1961, basketball player Clem Haksins transferred from Durham High School to Taylor County High School, which was the year Taylor High School was listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.890. See also the unpublished manuscript [1939-1940] titled "Public Education in Taylor County (con.)" by Nelle B. Crawley, 507 Central Avenue, Campbellsville, KY., p.4, section Colored:, in the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, 0000UA129, File: Taylor County Education, at the University of Kentucky Special Collections.

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes
  • Durham School
  • Campbellsville Colored Moonlight School
  • Camp Zachary Taylor Colored Night School
  • Taylor County Training School
  • Shady Grove School
  • Burdick School
  • Smith Ridge School
  • Saloma School
  • Sweenyville School
  • Old Pitman School
  • Pleasant Union School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Taylor County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Todd County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
At least two colored schools were established in Todd County, KY, by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. One school was located in Hadensville, and another in Trenton. In 1880, there were several more schools and the teachers were Henry Beid at Kirkmansville; Filmore Gaugh, Euclide Loving, and Jarusha Russell at Elkton; and Ben Mansfield and Wilson Hunter at Trenton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1920, Nannie Samuel was the school teacher at the Fairview School [source: U.S. Federal Census].  Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County. There were 17 colored elementary schools in Todd County in 1925, each with one teacher, and there was one high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.83].  There were 21 teachers at the 17 elementary schools during the 1926-27 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.82]. The class 3 colored high school was located in Elkton and J. W. Waddle was the principal during the 1927-28 term, the high school had 2 teachers and 11 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.57]. The Elkton School held both the elementary and high school. J. W. Waddle had been with the Elkton School as early as 1916, along with J. S. Henderson, Robert M. Small, Emma Stoner, and Rhoda Hall; and T. Henderson and P. T. Frazer in Allensville [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.28, 29, 30, 35, 36, & 37]. In 1940, there were 15 Negro teachers in Todd County, KY according to the U.S. Federal Census: Bonnie H. Bell, Leon Bell, Ora Ferguson, James P. Griffin, Hattie L. Griffin, Rhoda Hall, Manice Gladdiak, Iola Marrow, Mazella Marshall, Bertha Mae Morehead, Inez Russell, Robert Small, Daveny F. Smith, Larizza Terry, and Massey Ward. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Todd County Central High School, on p.143 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Hadensville Freedmen School
  • Trenton Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Kirkmansville School
  • Elkton School 
  • Fairview School
  • Guthrie School
  • Allensville School
  • Todd County Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.229]
  • Trenton Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, p.891]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Todd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Trigg County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, D. M. Brown was a school teacher at the colored school in Cadiz (Trigg County), KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Brown was from Tennessee; he was married, and had three children. By 1886, there were 3 colored school districts in Trigg County [source: see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. In 1887, Rev. Wendell H. McRidley founded and was the first president of the Cadiz Normal and Theological College. The number of colored schools continued to grow, and in 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Trigg County, with two of the schools were in session for more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.698-702]. Nine of the schools were held in log buildings and 10 were held in frame structures. The average attendance was 1,218 students, who were taught by 21 teachers, 1895-96, and 1,054 students taught by 22 teachers, 1896-97. The teachers' average monthly wages were $67.18 for males and $43.00 for females, 1895-96; and $46.70 for males and $31.40 for females, 1896-97. In 1900, the teacher at the Montgomery colored school was George Danden from Tennessee [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The class 2 high school for Negro students was located in Cadiz, the principal was J. E. Bush in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 39]. The high school had 2 teachers and 23 students. There were 14 teachers at the 13 elementary schools [p.68]. Mrs. Thelma Brooks was the school teacher at the Cerulean Colored School in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, (1935), v.6, no.1, p.50]. Fourteen year old, Lillie H. Bingham was a student at the Cerulean School in 1935 when she won the 1st prize of $10.00 in the student spelling bee held during the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Conference in Louisville, KY [source: "Elementary School Department," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.6, no.1, p.21]. In 1940, there were seven Negro teachers in Trigg County, according to the U.S. Federal Census: Martha Caudle, Susa A. Cunningham, Susa Mae Cunningham, Lillie V. Curlin, Plumb Maston, Cora P. Reed, and Reuben Tinsley. The Trigg County High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentaucky

African American Schools in Trimble County, KY
Start Year : 1833
End Year : 1925
In 1833, there was a Miss Davis in Trimble County, KY, who opened a school for slaves, she gave them books and was teaching them to read, which caused a stir and the school was shut down [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas, pp.141-142]. In 1874, there was a colored school in Trimble County with Maria F. Carter as the teacher. There were three colored school districts in 1895, each with one school, and one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, p.703-706 ]. The average attendance was 55 students 1895-96, and 28 students 1896-97. During the 1899-1900 school term, the average salary for the teachers was $24.91 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.15]. The following school year, the average salary was $24.10. During the 1901-02 school term, the average attendance at the colored school was 24 and the school teacher's average monthly wages were $24.50; and the following school term the average attendance was 25 and the teacher's average monthly wages were $20.79 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903, pp.329 & 355]. The colored school in Trimble County was still in operation during the 1912-1913 school term when there was an enrollment of 5 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, pp.112 & 122]. By 1925, there was no longer a colored school in Trimble County, KY, though the school census listed 7 colored school-age children in the county [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. There is no mention as to where the children attended school or if they attended school. In 1930, there were no children of school age listed for Trimble County in the U.S. Federal Census. The Milton Elementary School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

  • Miss Davis' School for Slaves (1833)
  • Colored School (M. F. Carter)
  • Colored Schools (3)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Union County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1957
As early as 1880, there were colored schools in Union County, KY; the teachers were Mollie Kirk, and Pamelia H. Wynn in Caseyville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were 9 colored school districts and 6 of them had schools; three of the school districts were too poor to afford schools [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 11 school districts, nine of the districts had a school, and 2 of the schools were in session for more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.707-710]. Two of the schools were held in log buildings and 7 were held in frame buildings. There were 13 teachers in the 9 schools. The schools had an average attendance of 368 students 1895-96, and 389 students 1896-97. During the two year term of 1899-1901, the teachers' average monthly wages were $45.11 the first year, and $35.50 the following school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.15]. In 1931, there was a colored high school in Sturgis, KY, with an average daily attendance of 10 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.74]. There was also a colored elementary school at Sturgis with an average daily attendance of 91 students taught by 2 women teachers.  Dunbar School was located in Morganfield, and was named for poet Paul L. Dunbar. There had been a colored high school in Morganfield since 1932 when there were 14 students taught by 1 teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.58]. There were three teachers in the Dunbar High School in 1941 and two grade school teachers; the high school students from around the county were transported by bus to Dunbar High School [source: "Dunbar Colored High School," information by C. L. Timberlake, Principal of School, and reported by Sarah D. Young of Sturgis, typed 05/20/1941. Found within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, File: Union County]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Union County were John M. Hoke, Alphonso Lovelace, Elizabeth McCulley, Amos Parker, Emma Peppin, Mary L. Reed, John Robinson, Hattie Robinson, Dorothy Slaughter, Clarence Timberlake, and George Wakefield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, there were four graduates from the Blessed Martin School located near Waverly, KY [source: Union County Advocate, 05/19/1955]. The graduates were Joseph Curry, Betty Chambers, Hershel Harris, and Frances Hammond. The total student enrollment was 26 high school students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.229]. There was also an elementary school with an enrollment of 51 students taught by 2 teachers. The colored school in Uniontown had an enrollment of 13 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.448]. The Sturgis school for whites was the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.644]. For more about the desegregation of the Sturgis School see Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky education by John M Trowbridge and Jason Lemay. 

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Caseyville School
  • Blessed Martin School
  • Dunbar School 
  • Sturgis School
  • Uniontown School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Union County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Warren County, KY
Start Year : 1800
End Year : 1958
One of the earliest schools for slaves in Kentucky was established by Peter Tardiveau (d.1817), a Revolutionary War volunteer from Bordeaux, France. Tardiveau was a friend and fellow Revolutionary War veteran of Robert E. Craddock. The school was located in Warren County, KY, around 1800 for the slaves of Robert E. Craddock [see NKAA entry Willis Russell]. One of the first schools for the freemen was established between 1866 and 1870 in Bowling Green with support from the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The school teacher was run out of town. During this same time period, a school was held within the Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church which was established in 1866 [see NKAA entry Stoney Point]. The school was moved in 1908 to a newly built school house in Stoney Point, and the school continued to serve the community for about 20 more years before it was closed and the children were bused to the Smith Grove School. In 1880, the colored teachers in Warren County were Andrew Bowles; Frances Buckley in Woodburn; George D. Loving; C. R. McDowell; Tobias Sweeney; Willis Tisdale; J. B. Henderson; Maria J. Mayo; and Alex Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1895, the Simmons Memorial College was in operation, headed by Robert Mitchell [see NKAA entry American Baptist Home Missionary Schools; and Rev. Robert Mitchell in Lexington Herald, 10/08/1926, p.16]. In total, there were 30 colored schools in Warren County in 1895 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.712-715]. Warren County had the highest number of colored schools recorded in the 1895-1897 biennial report of the Kentucky Superintendent, more than any other Kentucky county. All but one of the schools were held for 5 months, and the remaining school was held for more than 5 months. Each of the schools had one teacher and the male teachers' average monthly pay was $39.93, 1895-96, and $31.56, 1896-97. The female teachers average monthly pay was $37.93, 1895-96, and $27.41, 1896-97. The average attendance was 709 students, 1895-96, and 863 students, 1896-97. In 1902 a school was opened in the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Bowling Green, KY. The school was later moved into a building on State Street and named Bowling Green Academy. Other communities with colored schools were Sunnyside, Freeport, and Oakland [see NKAA entry African American Communities in Warren County, KY]. In the 1930s, a report completed by Kathryn S. Coleman lists twelve colored schools in Warren County, along with the enrollment numbers, and the number of teachers per school. The title of the report is "Public Schools," and on pp.10-11 is the section titled "Warren County, Colored Public Schools" [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, 0000UA129, File: Warren County, at the University of Kentucky Special Collections]. Within the Shake Rag District in Bowling Green was the State Street High School [see NKAA entry Shake Rag]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Warren County were Robert Barlow, Christine Barlow, E. Hortense Bathnic(?), Ethel Buford, Virginia Cabell, Lula Carpenter, Clara Cole, Addie J. Edmonds, Lutisha Frierson, Willie Gossom, Lena Hudson, C. A. Hutcherson, Latter Huston Cox, Eva Kuykendall, Lila Bell Lee, Frances Luvalle, Charity McCrutchen, Emma Milligan, Mabel Moore, Frank Moxley, Claude Nichols, Alroma Nichols, Mattie Patticord, A. L. Poole, Ethel Ray, A. P. Williams, Delorese Williams, Clara Bell Yarbrough, and Henry Yost [source: U.S. Federal Census]. St. Joseph School was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students, on p.230 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, and the school is the first to be listed as integrated on p.1021 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59. For more on the school integration in Warren County listen to the George Esters interviews (High Street School) within the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society website.

  • Colored Schools (30)
  • Peter Tardiveau School on Craddock Plantation
  • Freedmen School
  • Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church School
  • Smith Grove School
  • Simmons Memorial College (Baptist)
  • Bowling Green Academy (Presbyterian)
  • Loving Union School (in Sunnyside)
  • Woodland School (in Freeport)
  • Kepley School (in Oakland)
  • Oakland School
  • State Street High School
  • High Street School
  • Bristow School
  • Cosby School (in Alvaton)
  • Rockfield School
  • Woodburn School
  • Salem School (in Rockfield)
  • Dellafield School (in Bowling Green)
  • Robert Mitchell School for Ministers
  • H. D. Carpenter School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.891]

 
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Warren County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Washington County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1956
The first Negro school in Washington County was established in 1868, according to the thesis of William L. Case, A History of Education in Washington County, Kentucky. The colored school district had an average of 29 children attending each colored school during the five month school term. According to author Case, between 1879 and 1880, there were seven school districts with seven schools; 1 log building and six frame buildings. The colored school teachers earned an average monthly salary of $25.44. The the first school report from the county school commissioner was in 1880. The colored teachers in 1880 included Leotta Meaux and R. W. Christian [source: U.S. Federal Census]. It was in 1883 that the colored students and the white students of Washington County received the same per capita amount, $1.30 per student. The colored schools still existed in Washington County, KY, in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In the 1895-97 Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, on pp. 716 & 718, there were 13 colored schools in 13 districts. Ten of the schools were held in log or frame school houses, with about 200 students attending the schools during each term. The first commencement of the Springfield Colored School was held at the Opera House on July 17, 1902 by Principal M. B. Givens; reserve seats cost 25 cents, general seats 15 cents [source: "Commencement exercises," News-Leader, 07/17/1902, p. 3]. In 1905, the school principal was Mrs. Eliza Davison, and her assistant was Miss H. E. Wells [source: "The Entertainments given by the pupils of the Springfield Colored School...," News-Leader, 02/16/1905, p. 5]. That same year, a school was held in Randall's Chapel in Springfield, KY [source: "Will Best, a Negro...," Springfield Sun, 01/25/1905, p. 5]. In 1908, an election for the formation of a new colored school district was held in Washington County [source: "Election Notice! of colored graded school," Springfield Sun, 10/07/1908, p. 2]. There was a two year high school, the Washington County Training School in Springfield, with Principal C. V. Haunes who earned $125 per month [source: A History of Education in Washington County, Kentucky]. There were 19 high school students and the school was in session for eight months of each year. In 1925, L. L. Rowe was the principal of the Springfield Colored High School, a Class 3 school that was also a county training school with 4 teachers over the 2 year high school that was in session for 8 months, and the average salary was $712 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp. 41 & 65]. In 1931, Prof. G. W. Adams was the principal of the Washington County Training School; he was previously the principal of the colored school in Paris, KY [source: Prof. G. W. Adams...," KNEA Journal, vol. 2, issue 1, p. 26]. Mrs.Catherine Gowdy was the teacher at the Washington County Supervising Industrial School in Springfield in 1925 [p.66]. The term of service was 8 months and the school received $400 from the Jeanes Fund. In 1935, there were 402 children in the colored county school district and the Springfield district [source: "Letter on salary schedule," KNEA Journal, vol. 5, issue 2, p. 20]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Washington County were David E. Carmon, Ada Hughes, Ann Philips, and Nancy Ray. A pioneer teacher in Washington County was Mrs. Elizabeth Goodloe Clark, who died in 1942; she started teaching at the age of 16 at the Mackville Colored School [source: "The Late Mrs. E. G. Clark, Historian, Kentucky Negro Education Assn.," KNEA Journal, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 19-20]. St. Catherine Academy was the first school to be listed with "white & colored" students, on p.230 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, and the following year it was the first school to be listed as integrated, on p.448 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Mackville School
  • Randall's Chapel School
  • Springfield School
  • Washington County Training School
  • High Street School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.892]

 

  See photo image of the Washington County Training School in Springfield on p. 20 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [available online in .pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Washington County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Wayne County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1956
According to an article in Overview, both African American and white settlers of Shearer Valley and Simpson Branch (then called Turkey Ridge) came together to build the first church/school house for colored and white children in Wayne County, KY. The school was built in 1868 and was named the Little Flock School and Church [source: History of Public Education of Wayne County, 1842 to 1975 by Ira Bell]. William Simpson, who was white, was the first teacher. The names of 76 Negro teachers, beginning in 1885, are listed on pages 18-19 in History of Public Education of Wayne County, 1842 to 1975 by I. Bell. There was one colored school in Wayne County in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Later other African American schools were established in the county in Dogwood, Duncan Valley, Mill Springs, Monticello, and Meadow Creek. According to the thesis of Harry F. Young, History of Education in Wayne County, pp.35-37 and 69-73, in 1890, all of the colored school buildings were log structures that in total were valued at $700. The schools were poor and the teachers were not very well prepared. During the  1895-96 school term, there were 7 colored schools in Wayne, and the following school term there were 8 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.721-725]. There was one teacher at each school. Male teachers' average monthly pay was $24.75 during 1895-96, and $18.74 during 1896-97. Female teachers' average monthly pay was $25.06 during 1895-96, and $19.17 during 1896-97. The average attendance was 143 students 1895-96, and 165 students 1896-97. Looking at the 37 year period, from 1890-1927, the highest average enrollment at the colored schools in Wayne County was 191 students during the 1920-21 school term, and the lowest average attendance was 60 students during the 1917-18 school term. There were never more than 8 teachers in the colored schools in Wayne County. In 1925, L. Iva White was the supervising teacher of the Wayne County Industrial School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. The school was located in Monticello and the teacher's term of service was 7 months. The school received $350 from the Jeanes Fund. In 1931, there was a high school in the Monticello School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.78]. It was a Class 3 high school with one teacher and an average attendance of 6 students. William E. Didlicks was principal of the Monticello School. In 1940 the Negro teachers in Wayne County were Edna Bertram and Carl M. Burnside [source: U.S. Federal Census]; they were 2 of the 4 Negro teachers in Wayne County [source: "K.N.E.A. membership by counties," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.9, no.1-3, p.54]. For more see "Negro Schools," Overview, vol. 13, issue 1, 1992. Overview is published by the Wayne County Historical Society in Monticello, KY. In 1955, there were three colored schools in Wayne County, and Wayne County High School was listed as having both "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.230]. The following year, the Wayne County High School and the Rocky Branch School were listed as integrated, and the Monticello Independent Schools were noted as "white, colored, and integrated" [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.448].

  See 1937 photo image of Monticello School in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Wayne County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Webster County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1957
As early as 1880, there were colored schools in Providence, Webster County, KY; the teachers were Kentucky natives C. Haughton, born around 1858, and Mandy Stanley, born around 1863 [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. There were 11 colored schools with 12 teachers in 1895, and 2 of the schools were held in a log building, and 9 were held in a frame building [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.725-728]. The average attendance was 277 for 1895-96, and 355 for 1896-97. The male teachers' average monthly wages were $40.97 and females received $37.86, 1895-96; and the following school term, males received $33.99 and females received $30.69. In 1900, Ida Bell Shackleford was a school teacher in Dixon [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1905-1907 school terms, the average attendance was 471 students, and the teachers average monthly salaries were $44.76 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, pp.407 & 431]. In 1916, Webster County colored teachers included Owen Brooks and William D. Brooks, both in Dixon, and J. V. Coleman in Providence [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25 & 26]. By 1925, there were 9 colored rural schools in Webster County, and the school in Providence had 4 elementary teachers and 3 teachers in the Class 1 high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 68-69]. W. O. Nuckolls was the principal of the high school, which had 30 students. In 1931, the Webster County Training and Rosenwald City High School was constructed in Providence, KY, with W. O. Nuckolls as principal [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1931, v.1, no.3, p.16]. In 1938, the new Sebree Colored School was constructed by the WPA [source: waymarking.com]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Webster County were Curtis Bishop, Vatula Bishop, Gurner Bishop, Owen Brooks, Laura Campbell, Claudine Drake in Slaughtersville, Francis Finley, Geneva Fergurson, Leslie Hayes Jr., Comagell Marton, Gertrude Mitchell, Ovenus Mitchel, Dorothy Mitchell, Helen Nuckolls, Martha Helen Nuckolls, Harvey Saieva, James R. Shearer, Virginia Springfield, Deborah Woolfork, and Louis Woolfork [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In December of 1956, the Sturgis and Clay school systems were directed by U.S. District Judge Henry L. Brooks to submit their desegregation plans by February 4, 1957. Both school systems complied and in September of 1957, Negro students were admitted to the schools. For more about the desegregation of the Clay Elementary School see the NKAA entry James and Teresa Gordon (siblings).

  • Colored Schools (11)
  • Providence School
  • Dixon School
  • Sebree School [source: Goodman-Paxton Photographic Collection at UK Special Collections]
  • Slaughtersville School
  • Webster County Training and Rosenwald City High School (in Providence)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Webster County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Whitley County, KY
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1956
In 1883, the American Missionary Association (AMA) opened a church and a school in Williamsburg, KY, that was attended by both Negroes and whites [see NKAA entry Williamsburg (KY) Colored Academy]. In 1885, there was a school teacher at the colored schools, the teacher was a normal school graduate [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, end of school years, June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.110]. Ten years later, 1895-96, there were 5 colored schools with 7 teachers, and the following term, there were 8 schools, each with one teacher [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.729-733]. The schools were open 5 months of each year. The average attendance was 85 students 1895-96, and 100 students 1896-97. The teachers' average monthly wages were $26.89 for 1896, and the following school term, the teachers' wages were $21.12 for males and $19.78 for females. By 1925, there were 4 colored schools in rural Whitley County, each with one teacher, and 1 colored school in Williamsburg with one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-69]. Though, according to the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, p.50, there were two teachers at the Williamsburg Colored School: Henry W. Bond and his daughter Ruth A. Bond. There were three Negro teachers listed in the 1940 U.S. Federal Census: Benjman Barrus, Evelyn Griffey, and Thelma Lewis. The Williamsburg Independent Schools were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.449. For additional information about the teachers of the Williamsburg Colored School see the NKAA entry Williamsburg (KY) Colored Academy.

  • AMA School
  • Williamsburg School
  • Colored Schools (8)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Whitley County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Wolfe County, KY
Start Year : 1885
End Year : 1925
In 1885 the colored school in Wolfe County had 55 students [source: "Our county schools," The Hazel Green Herald, 04/01/1885, p. 3]. In 1886 the school was included in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. P. E. Davenport was the school teacher in 1891 [source: "The Following endorsement ...," The Hazel Green Herald, 12/11/1891, p. 5]. In 1897, Prof. Austin from Paris, KY, was the school teacher at the Daysboro Colored School [source: The Hazel Green Herald, "Prof. Austin began teaching the colored school Monday," and "Prof. Austin of Paris...," 12/09/1897, p. 1]. It was the only colored school in the county [source: Document No. 11, Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp. 733-737]. The building was a log cabin with furniture worth $20; it was to seat the 43 students studying at the elementary level. Wolfe County had no high school for African Americans. The teacher, Prof. Austin, was paid $24.57 per month. W. C. Crawford, also from Paris, became a school teacher in Wolfe County in 1898 [source: "W. C. Crawford, of Paris...," The Hazel Green Herald, 07/28/1898, p. 3]. During the school term 1901-02, the average attendance at Wolfe County colored common schools was 19 students and the teacher's average monthly pay was $22.32, and during the following school term, the average attendance was 8 and the teacher's average monthly pay was $24.48 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903, pp.329 & 355]. During the 1911-12 school term, there were 22 students enrolled in grades 1-8 of the colored school, and the teacher's average monthly pay was $37 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, pp.14 & 49]. The following year, the enrollment was 25 [p.112]. By 1925, no schools were listed for Wolfe County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926. There were no schools listed for Wolfe County in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1916-1952; perhaps the teacher in Wolfe County did not participate in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. There is a single notation of Wolf County Schools being integrated on p.449 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, though the notation does not appear again; all schools in Wolfe County are designated as "white" in the subsequent issues of the Kentucky Public School Directory and the Kentucky School Directory.

  • Daysboro School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Daysboro, Wolfe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Woodford County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
A Colored School in Midway, KY, had its exhibition attacked by a mob on July 31, 1868 [source: Index to the Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the United States, 1871, p. 49]. The school may have been one of the two Freedmen Schools in Woodford County established between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In the Kentucky superintendent's reports for the years 1881-1886, there were 16 colored school districts; the Versailles Colored School was said to be a model school [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1881-1886]. In 1880, the teachers in Woodford County included Jason Jefferson, Mary Taylor, P. Bronham, J. C. Hawkins, and George Jackson, all in Versailles, and Wallace Lewis in Midway [source: U.S. Federal Census]. According to the Simmons Elementary School website [no longer available], the Simmons School existed in the late 1890s along with the Woolridgetown School and 17 other colored schools in Woodford County. When the Woolridgetown School burned, students attended school at a church in Big Spring Bottom. Within the Hifner Photo Collection are pictures of all the Colored schools in Woodford County in 1892, including Simmons and Big Spring. The collection was created for the educational exhibit at the World's Fair and is available online via the Hifner Collection at the Kentucky Historical Society Digital Collections web page. During the 1895-97 school terms, there were as many as 18 colored schools, and the average attendance was 525, 1895-96, and 628, 1896-97 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.739-742]. There were 20 teachers in the colored schools, and the average monthly pay for male teachers was $55.82, 1895-96, and $41.78, 1896-97. For the female teachers, the average monthly pay was $48.19, 1895-96, and $27.57, 1896-97. Various colored schools in Woodford County are mentioned in issues of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, available full-text in the Kentucky Digital Library - Journals. In 1916, the teachers listed in the journal were Emma D. Hale and Katie Hancock in Midway; and Pearl E. Arnold in Versailles [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.24-29]  In 1925, the Simmons Street School in Versailles had a Class 1 high school with J. L. Bean as principal, and the high school had 2 teachers and 59 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. There was no colored high school in the county among the 9 elementary schools taught by 11 teachers [p.68]. In Versailles, there were 5 elementary teachers and two high school teachers [p.69]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Woodford County were Jennie A. Bean, Gladys Carter, W. J. Christy, Ada B. Crawford, Elene Jackson, Rose I. Johnson, Ethelbert McClesky, Emma Minnie, Lula Rowland, Ada Scruggs, and Robin Stepp [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated are Versailles High School, St. Leo, and Midway Independent Schools, all on p.449 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57. See also the KHS to Dedicate Historical Marker to Honor Midway Colored School, a Kentucky.gov website.

  • Colored Schools (19)
  • Big Spring Bottom School (church)
  • Davistown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Elm Bend School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Fermantown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Fort Spring School
  • Frazier School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Jacksontown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Midway School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Midway School (Hadensville, 1911-1958)
  • Midway Freedmen School
  • Milville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Mortonsville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Mount Vernon School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Nashville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Simmons School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Versailles School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Versailles Freemen School
  • Woolridgetown School

Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Woodford County, Kentucky

[African American Schools] Negro Public Elementary Schools , 1931
Start Year : 1931
The following information comes from the 1931 master's thesis by Pleasant Moore titled The Status of the Negro Public Elementary Schools of Kentucky, #33 at Indiana State Teachers College, pp.40-46, & 65-68. The data is from the Kentucky Department of Education for the school year ending June 30, 1929. Pleasant Moore's thesis is thought to be first scientific study of the public elementary schools for Negroes in Kentucky. It was the author's hope that his work would be used to address many of the problems, such as school terms that were less than the state required time period, lack of sufficient schools, and more responsibility for the education of Negro children on the part of independent school systems and cities of the 5th and 6th class. 

 

Largest Total Elementary Enrollment  
Louisville (city) 6986
Christian County 1978
Lexington (city) 1760
Paducah (city) 1110
Harlan County [610 average attendance] 840
   
Largest Average Daily Attendance  
Louisville (city) 5400
Lexington (city) 1354
Christian County 1205
Paducah (city) 907
Hopkinsville (city) [694 total enrollment] 625
   
Highest % of Attendance Based on Enrollment  
Marion County  [247 attendance] 100%
Rowan County  [6 attendance] 100%
Lee County  [27 attendance] 93%
Sturgis (city)  [81 attendance] 93%
Ballard County  [77 attendance] 91%
Laurel County  [67 attendance] 90%
Paris (city)  [343 attendance] 90%
Pike County  [199 attendance] 90%
Elkton (city)  [198 attendance] 89%
   
Highest Average Annual Teachers' Salaries
 
Kenton County  [21 teachers] $1526.67
Jefferson County  [259 teachers] $1407.63
Campbell County  [4 teachers] $1275
Fayette County  [90 teachers] $1050
Clark County  [20 teachers] $994.33

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools: Ralph Bunche Community Center Oral History Project (FA 455)
Start Year : 2008
End Year : 2009
The following information comes from the collection notes about Ralph Bunche Community Center Oral History Project (FA 455): "This collection consists of ten interviews done with African Americans who attended the Ralph Bunche School when it was still a segregated school in Glasgow, Kentucky. The interviews were conducted by Jessica Bonneau; Barry Kaufkins served as the faculty advisor on the project. Interviews were arranged alphabetically by the informant. The interviewees discuss the importance of the school in the African American community, the values taught at the facility, teachers and teaching, prejudice, segregation and integration, and general attitudes toward African Americans. Concurrently the interviews also reveal information about African American culture in Glasgow. The interviews are on CD’s (compact discs). This project was funded by the Kentucky Oral History Commission, Frankfort, Kentucky." The collection has 1/2 box, 11 folders, 21 items, conaining the originals and compact discs. All items are available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscrips and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers and Shoe Repairers in Lexington, KY, Prior to 1900
End Year : 1900
The term shoemaker was sometimes written as two words [shoe maker] in the early city directories. The making of shoes was one of the skilled labors performed by slaves throughout the South. Once slavery ended, former slaves used the skill in their businesses that were often operated out of their homes. The industrial manufacturing and mass production of shoes would greatly reduced the number of individual shoemakers. The names of the shoe factories, especially in Louisville, KY, can be found in city directories, along with the listing of shoemakers, both African American and white. In Lexington, KY, there was an abundance of African American shoemakers, and a few shoe repairers. They are noted in the directories with (c), (col), (cld), or (col'd). Below are the names of some of the African American shoemakers and shoe repairers located in Lexington, KY, prior to the year 1900. Practically all were born in Kentucky.

 

  • Sally A. Jackson was a shoe binder who lived on E. Short Street between N. Mulberry and Walnut. She was a free person and is listed in the Directory of the City of Lexington and County of Fayette for 1838 & '39.
  • Micajah M. Mason was a shoemaker who lived on W. Water Street between N. Mill and Broadway. He is listed as a free man in the 1838-39 directory, and in the 1859-60 directory when he lived on E. S. Mulberry between Short and Barr Streets.
  • Edward Oliver was a boot and shoe maker. He lived at 4 E. Water Street and is listed as free in the 1838-39 directory.
  • Parker Pee (b.1808 in KY) was a shoe and boot maker and lived at 23 W. Short Street. He is listed as free in the 1838-39 directory, in the 1859-60 directory when he was living on S. Main between Broadway and Spring Streets, and he is listed in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census.
  • William Tanner, a shoe maker, lived on E. Short Street between Walnut and Bank Streets. He is listed as free in the 1838-39 directory
  • Thomas Johnson (b.1822 in KY) was a shoemaker on S. Broadway between Main and Water Streets. He is listed as a free man in the 1859-60 directory, and in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Isaac Robinson was a shoemaker who lived on S. Short Street between Spring and Jefferson. He is listed as a free man in the 1859-60 directory, and he is listed as cook living at 11 S. Broadway in the 1877-78 directory.
  • Moses Thomas, boots and shoes, lived on S. Short Street between Broadway and Mill Streets. He is listed as a free man in the 1859-60 directory.
  • Andrew Bryant, Sr. (b.1814 in KY) was a boot and shoemaker at Hunt's Row. He was born in Kentucky, and lived on High Street between Upper and Mulberry Streets. Bryant was married to Myra Bryant, b.1839 in KY. He is listed as a free man in Williams' Lexington [Kentucky] Directory, City Guide, and Business Mirror, Volume 1 - 1859-60 and he is also listed in Maydwell's Lexington City Directory 1867.
  • E. Dishman and Lawson Dishman were boot and shoemakers at 13 1/2 Water Street, both are listed in Sheppard's Lexington City Directory 1873 and 1874. Ebenezer Dishman, Sr. (1818-1901) and Lawson Dishman (1828-1899) were two of the sons of William and Frances Dishman. Ebenezer was born in Fayette County, KY, and was the husband of Georgiana Dishman (b.1830). They are listed in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census as the parents of four children. Lawson Dishman was born in Fayette County, KY, and was the husband of May Dishman. Lawson Dishman was a shoemaker and a tanner. He is later listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82, as a shoemaker in Dill's Ally, 4th house west of Jefferson St. In the same directory is a listing for Ebenezer and his son James E. Dishman (b.1852). They are listed as shoemakers at their home 205 N. Upper Street. James E. Dishman was born in Fayette County, KY.
  • (1873 and 1874) Alex Burton was a shoe maker at 13 1/2 Water Street, he lived in Guntown. By 1880, Burton had moved his business and family to Danville, KY.
  • (1873 and 1874) Lewis Morton was a shoemaker at 175 E. Third Street.
  • Harvey Young, b.1814 in KY, had his shop at 159 Correll [Corral] Street. He was the husband of Susan Young, b.1839 in KY. Twelve year old Daniel Bell lived with the Youngs. They are all listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. Harvey Young's business is listed in Prather's Lexington City Directory 1875 and 1876. In an earlier directory, Williams' Lexington City Directory 1864-65, Harvey Young was listed as a shoemaker, with no race distinction, and his home was on Water Street between Upper and Mulberry Streets.
  • David French (b.1822) was a shoemaker at 112 N. Upper Street, according to Prather's Lexington City Directory 1875 and 1876. He was born in Kentucky, and was the husband of Hannah French, b.1835 in KY.
  • John Thomas (b.1857) had his business in his home at 206 N. Limestone, which is listed in the R. C. Hellrigle and Co's Lexington City Directory 1877-78. He was born in Kentucky, the son of Emma Thompson and the brother of shoemaker Charles Thomas [listed below].
  • Silas Crowders sold shoes and boots at 267 N. Limestone, near his home at 269 Limestone. His business is listed in Williams' Lexington City Directory 1881-82. There is an earlier listing for Silas Crowdus (b.1824 in KY), in Prather's Lexington City Directory 1875 and 1876, he was a shoemaker located at 137 S. Broadway
  • Titus Buckner (1855-1936) was a minister and shoemaker, his business was at his home on Winslow Street between Upper and Limestone, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82. [He was still repairing shoes in the 1930s and is listed in Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory 1931-32.] Reverend Titus Buckner was born in Fayette County, KY. He was the husband of Julia Buckner, b.1856 in KY, and the couple lived at 196 Eddie Street, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. Titus Buckner was a widower by 1920. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery, according to his death certificate.
  • Price Buford (b.1820 in KY) worked out of his home in Gill's Alley, 9th house west of Jefferson Street, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.
  • Shoemaker Evan Collins did business at the home he shared with Charles Henderson, located in an ally between Spring, Lower, Maxwell, and Pine Streets. Collins is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.
  • Isaac Johnson was a shoe repairer on Georgetown Street, 3rd house north of King. He is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.
  • Charles Skillman (1844-1888) made shoes at his home, 144 Lower Street. He was born in Kentucky, and was the husband of Emma Skillman b.1850 in KY. Charles Skillman is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.
  • Charles Taylor and Charles A. Thomas (b.1862) were both shoemakers at 138 N. Limestone. Charles Thomas was born in Kentucky, the son of Emma Thompson, and the brother of shoemaker John Thomas. Thomas and Taylor are listed separately in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82, but with the same address.
  • The William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82 lists two John Toles, the first worked at his home, 80 N. Broadway. The second John Toles also worked from his home on Vine Street, 3rd door east of Broadway. The older John Toles was born in 1820 in Kentucky.
  • John Wilkerson (b.1832) made shoes on Broadway, 3rd house north of Maxwell. His home was on Limestone and Winslow. Wilkerson was born in Kentucky, and was the husband of Virginia Wilkerson, b.1834 in KY. John Wilkerson is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.
  • Nathaniel Wilson (b.1809 in VA) lived on Limestone and worked from home, the fifth house south of 6th Street, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.
  • Shoemaker William Vinegar had a business on Cox Street, he worked out of his home. His business is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.
Shoe makers in Lexington, listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census:
  • Albert Diggs (b.1854), Sanders Diggs (1855-1898), and Edmund Diggs (1857-1912), all born in Kentucky, and the sons of Brooks and Emily Carter Diggs. The family of nine lived in Brucetown.
  • Jack Stopher (b.1845) was the husband of Minnie Stopher (b.1850). The family of five were all born in Kentucky, and lived in Kinkeadtown.
  • Shoemaker John Tobs (b.1820) was also a servant with the Wasfield family. Tobs lived with the family on Broadway.
Shoe makers listed in the Directory of African Americans in Lexington, Kentucky, 1893 by D. Y. Wilkinson:
  • Isaiah Graves at 29 Ballard Street.
  • Charles Green worked for F. King. His address was 24 Wickliffe Street.
  • William S. Irvine at 57 Megowan Street.
  • John Latcher at 55 E. Water Street.
  • Wallace Maxberry at 5 Drake Street.
  • Henry Nichols (b.1860 in KY) at 79 S. Limestone, he was the husband of Susan Nichols. In 1900, the couple lived on Corral Street, according to the U.S. Federal Census.
  • Isaiah Stone at 11 Blackburn Street.
  • Charles Thurston at 57 Megowan Street.
Shoe makers in Lexington, mentioned in newspapers:
  • George Robinson (1863-1911), a shoe maker who was born in Kentucky, died in 1911 after being burned in a fire at his home at 180 Locust Avenue in Lexington, KY. Source: Lexington Leader, 08/28/1911, p.1. Robinson was a widow, according to the 1910 U.S. Federal Census.
[See also NKAA entries African American Shoe Shiners and Shoe Repairers in Lexington, KY, 1930-1947; African American Shoe Makers in Kentucky; and African American Shoe Makers from Kentucky.]
Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers from Kentucky
Start Year : 1880
The following is a list of African American shoe makers who were born in Kentucky and lived in other states. The information comes from the 1800 U.S. Federal Census, except where noted otherwise. [See also Kentucky shoe makers and Lexington, KY, shoe makers.]

Illinois

  • George T. Smith (b.1834) was a shoe maker who lived in Paris with his wife Jennie Smith (b.1861 in MS).

Indiana

  • F. M. Green (b.1844) was a boot and shoe maker who lived in Evansville. He was a widower with four children, and a boarder lived with them on 5th Street.
  • James Lee (b.1840) was a shoe maker who lived in Jeffersonville with his wife Amy (b.1846 in KY), their two children, and James' mother. The family lived on Broadway.
  • Anthony McDougal (b.1843) was a shoe maker who lived in Jeffersonville. He was the husband of Elizabeth McDougal (b.1852 in KY). The family of five and two boarders lived on Indiana Avenue.
  • Henry Patton (b.1858) was a shoe maker who was a prisoner in Michigan City.
Iowa
  • Philip Reeves (b.1844) was a shoemaker who had learned his craft as a slave in Kentucky. In 1900, he lived 211 N. Eighth Street in Keokuk with is wife Jennie (b.1845 in GA) and their son Wesley (b.1871 in IA). Philip Reeves is highlighted in a 1905 article in The Freeman, 10/14/1905, p.4. He is described as a popular shoemaker and shoe repairer at the business address of 317 Johnson Street.

Kansas

  • James Bradley (b.1845) was a shoe maker who lived in Atchison City on 3rd Street. He was the husband of Sina Bradley (b.1849 in KY).
  • Alexander Gregg (1824-1904) was known in Kansas as Deacon Gregg, he was a boot and shoe maker who was born in Kentucky. Gregg left Kentucky and first settled in Missouri, then moved on to Kansas where he was one of the founders of the Baptist Church in Lawrence in 1862. He was the husband of Mary F. Gregg (b.1839 in MO). The couple lived on Tennessee Street with their children, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. For more see "In Memory of Deacon Gregg," Plaindealer, 02/26/1904, p.4.
  • John Page (b.1850) was a shoe maker who lived in Leavenworth with his parents Richard and Anna Page who were both born in Virginia. The family lived on Miami Street.
Michigan

  • Peter Fisher (b.1859 in KY) was a shoe maker who was the son of William (b.1815 in KY) and Harriet Fisher (b.1818 in KY). The family of six lived in Greenfield.

Mississippi

  • Tom Broadwaters (b.1841), a shoe maker, was the husband of Laura Broadwaters (b.1852 in LA). The family of three lived in Vicksburg.
  • Thomas Monday (b.1855) was a shoe maker who lived in Wilkinson County with his wife Nancy (b.1858 in MS) and their five children.
  • Thomas Payne (b.1825) was a shoe maker who lived in Vicksburg with his wife Eliza Barnett (b.1839 in MS). They shared their home with an orphan and three boarders.

Missouri

  • George Brenson (b.1816) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Judy Brenson (b.1813 in KY), and the family of five lived in Pierce City.
  • Newton Harden (b.1847) was a shoe maker who lived in Jefferson City.
  • Samuel Lewis (b.1857) was a shoe maker who lived in Jefferson City.
  • Jefferson Pierce (b.1840) was a shoe maker who lived in Joplin with his wife Sarah (b.1841 in KY), their six children and a boarder.
  • Presley Steward (b.1821) was a shoe maker. He lived in Linneus with his wife Ellen (b.1836 in MO) and their seven children.

Ohio

  • Joseph Grubbs (b.1828) was a shoe maker who lived in Xenia with his wife Eliza (b.1832 in VA). The couple lived on Lexington Street.
  • Albert Parks (b.1888 in Carlisle, KY) was a shoe repairer in Cincinnati, OH, having opened his business in 1922. He was the son of John W. and Laura Parks, and was a veteran of the U.S. Army. Source: Cincinnati's Colored Citizens by W. P. Dabney

Tennessee

  • Charles Bailey (b.1822), a shoe maker, was the husband of Emily Bailey (b.1825 in TN). The family of six lived in Montgomery County.
  • Thomas Ball (b.1828) was a shoe maker who lived in Milan with two nieces.
  • A. J. Cox (b.1831) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Mary Cox (b.1836 in TN). The family of eight lived in Murfreesborough.
  • Ben Henderson (b.1844) was a shoe maker who lived in Chattanooga with his wife Hanah (b.1852 in NC), their three children, Hanah's mother, and a boarder.
  • David Masterson (b.1850) was a shoe maker who lived in Roane County. He was the husband of Charlotte Masterson (b.1856 in TN). The family of five lived on Lowly Street.
  • Daniel Settles (b.1829) was a shoe maker who lived in Nashville. He was a widower and lived on Cherry Street.

Washington, D.C.

  • Edward Bean (b.1851) was a shoe repairer who lived on 21st Street, N.W.

Subjects: Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers in Kentucky [not Lexington]
Start Year : 1880
The following is a list of shoe makers from the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, except where noted. These are shoe makers who were born in Kentucky or lived in Kentucky. The list does not include those who lived in Lexington, KY, or those who lived outside Kentucky. [There is a separate entry for Lexington shoe makers before 1900, African American Shoe Shiners and Shoe Repairers in Lexington, KY, 1930-1947, and for Kentucky shoe makers who lived in other states.]

Allen County

  • Berry Walker (b.1838 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Kittie Walker (b.1840 in KY), and the family of eleven lived in Scottsville.

Ballard County

  • Arche Booker (b.1841 in VA) was a shoe maker who lived in Blandville.

Bath County

  • Sims McElhany (b.1805 in KY) was a shoe maker, and he and his wife Fanny were also servants for the Crooks Family. They all lived in Tanyard.

Bourbon County

  • John Jones (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Millersburg. He was the husband of Clara Jones (b.1830 in KY), and supported a family of eight.

Boyle County

  • John Baughman (b.1849 in KY) is listed in the census as a shoe maker who is crippled. He was the husband of Lizzie Baughman (b.1857 in KY), and supported a family of five. The family lived in Danville. 
  • Samuel W. Brumfield (b.1827 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Danville with his family of six. He was the husband of Sarah A. Brumfield (b.1834 in KY).
  • Alex Burton (b.1832 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Danville. He was the husband of Mattie E. Burton (b.1852 in KY), and supported a family of four. The family lived on Lebanon Pike.
  • William Caldwell (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker who was a widower supporting a family of five.
  • R. Cowan (b.1820 in KY) is listed in the census as a shoe cobbler who lived in Danville. He was the husband of Harriet Cowan (b.1823 in KY). The family of six lived on Lexington Avenue.
  • Henry Mack (b.1833 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Mary Mack (b.1831 in KY), and supported a family of five.
  • Timothy Masterson (b.1832 in KY) was a shoe maker who supported a family of seven. He was the husband of Lucinda Masterson (b.1844 in KY).

Christian County

  • Jessie Hart (b.1855 in TN) is listed in the census as a shoe cobbler who lived in Garretsburg.

Clark County

  • Robert Banks (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Anna M. Banks (b.1825 in KY). The family of five lived in Winchester.
  • James Robinson (b.1858 in KY), a shoe maker, was the son of Peter and Minerva Robinson. The family of seven lived in Winchester.
  • Jordon Stogdon (b.1837 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Lottie Stogdon (b.1847 in KY), and the family of eight lived in Blue Ball.

Floyd County

  • James Weaver (b.1873 in KY) was the owner of a shoe shop in Wheelwright, KY. He repaired shoes. He was the husband of Lucinda Weaver (b.1899 in VA). The couple lived on Otter Creek Road. [source: 1930 U.S. Federal Census]

Franklin County

  • Baker Clark (b.1828 in KY) was a shoe maker in Frankfort. He was the husband of Betty Clark (b.1832 in KY), and the family of three lived on Wilkerson Street.
  • Henry Rodman (b.1851 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Mary E. Rodman (b.1858 in KY). The family of six lived on Clinton Street and shared their home with four boarders.
  • Benjamine Spencer (b.1854 in KY) was a shoe maker in Frankfort. He was the son of Frank and Caroline Spencer, and the family of seven lived on Clinton Street.
  • John Stanley (b.1840 in CT) was a shoe maker incarcerated in the Frankfort Penitentiary.
  • Henry Thompson (b.1848 in KY) was a shoe maker incarcerated in the Frankfort Penitentiary.

Garrard County

  • Dennis Brown (b.1800 in MD) was a shoe maker who lived in Lancaster. He was the husband of Neoma Brown (b.1802 in KY), and they had a son.
  • Henry Mason (b.1825 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Harriet Mason (b.1844 in KY), and the family of seven lived in Lancaster.
  • Jettie E. Knox ( -1898), a shoe maker, Knox was killed by Lancaster Postmaster J. I. Hamilton over a loan dispute. Knox had come from North Carolina about a year before his death [source: "About 10:30 o'clock Wednesday,..." in the column "Lancaster, Garrard County" on p.1 of Semi-Weekly Interior Journal, 09/11/1896]. Jettie Knox was the husband of Ella B. Cook, a school teacher in Stanford, KY [source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census]. The couple married in Danville, KY, July 28, 1896 [source: Kentucky Marriages Index].

Grant County

  • Hary Powers (b.1744 in VA) was listed in the census as a 106 year old widower who was shoe maker.

Green County

  • George Edwards (b.1843 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Greensburg. He was the husband of Esther Edwards (b.1852 in KY), and supported a family of seven.

[Harrison County]

  • Leander Agers (b.1799 in MD) was an earlier shoe maker and property owner listed in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census. He was head of a family of eight, husband of Susan Agers (b.1803 in KY), with four sons who were also shoe makers: Wiley, Leander Jr., Peter, and Daniel Agers.

Henderson County

  • Leander Ward (b.1856 in KY) was a shoe maker in Henderson. He was the husband of Frances Ward (b.1856 in KY) and the family of four lived on Elm Street.
  • Green Willingham (b.1821 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Edy Willingham (b.1810 in KY) and the couple lived in Hebbardsville.

Hickman County

  • William Jackson (b.1849 in TN) was a shoe and boot maker who lived in Columbus.

Hopkins County

  • Miles Nourse (b.1832 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Madisonville with his wife Rachel (b.1840 in KY), their son, and a boarder.

Jefferson County

  • James Alcorn (b.1838 in KY) was a boot and shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was a boarder with the Williamson Family on West Walnut Street, South Side.
  • Jerry Ballinger (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was the husband of Mary Ballinger (b.1832 in KY), and the family of four lived on Brook Street.
  • George Bright (b.1844 in KY) was shoe maker who lived in Louisville on Floyd Street.
  • W. H. Hunter (1882-1938, born in SC) was a shoe maker and a shoe repairer, and a teacher. His shop was located at 1401 W. Chestnut and he advertised his business in the Louisville Leader. Hunter is listed in the city directory from 1917-1938. [sources: Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville for 1920, p.2238; Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville for 1936, p.2662; and ad in The Louisville Leader, 11/10/1917, p.2]
  • R. J. Johnson (b.1854 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was the husband of Nannie Johnson (b.1860 in KY), and the family of four lived on Market Street.
  • Sam Mattingly (b.1827 in KY), a shoe maker, was a widower who lived in Louisville on Magazine Street.
  • Francis Smith (b.1835 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville with his wife Susan Smith (b.1847 in KY). The couple shared their home with two boarders on Ninth Street, West Side.
  • Washington Vanduke (b.1805 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was a widower and lived on Oldham Street.

Jessamine County

  • Galvin Pugh (b.1840 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Syntha Pugh (b.1856 in KY). The family of five lived in Nicholasville.
  • John Wheeler (b.1820 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Nicholasville. He was the husband of Luisa Wheeler (b.1840 in KY).

Marion County

  • Simon Irvine (b.1834 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Lebanon. He was the husband of Emma Irvine (b.1843 in KY), and the family of five lived on Chandler Street.
  • David Lee (b.1831 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Loretto. He was the husband Harriet A. Lee (b.1831 in KY).
  • Josiah Yokum (b.1820 in KY) was a boot and shoe maker who lived in Lebanon. He was widower who lived with his two young sons on Republican Street.

Monroe County

  • Jerry Kirkpatrick (b.1822 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Tompkinsville. He was the husband of Jane Kirkpatrick (b.1850 in KY), and supported a family of five.

Montgomery County

  • Anderson Taul (b.1853 in KY) was a shoe maker in Mt. Sterling. He was a boarder with the Everett Family.
  • Ben Tipton (b.1845 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Mt. Sterling.
  • James Willis (b.1840 in VA) was a shoe maker who lived in Mt. Sterling. He was a boarder with the Everett Family.

Nelson County

  • Hans Brown (b.1825 in KY) was a shoe maker who supported a family of eight. He was the husband of Adaline Brown (b.1827 in KY).

Nicholas County

  • Horace Baker (b.1839 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Sarah Baker (b.1840 in KY), and the family of four lived in Henryville.
  • Henry Lawson (b.1820 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Carlisle. He was the husband of Manda Lawson (b.1820 in VA).

Pulaski County

  • Henry Owens (b.1824 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Silva Owens (b.1839 in KY), the family of five lived in Somerset.

Scott County

  • Reason Baker (b.1826 in VA) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Lidia Baker (b.1829 in MD) and supported a family of eight.
  • Cupid Bradford (b. - d.1871) was a shoe maker who was killed in Stamping Ground, KY [source: Involvement of Blacks in Scott County Commerce by A. B. Bevins, p.3].
  • Henry Scott was a boot and shoe maker in Scott County in 1870 [source: Involvement of Blacks in Scott County Commerce by A. B. Bevins, p.3 {second pagination}].

Simpson County

  • Alfred Foster (b.1840 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Franklin. He was a boarder with the Creekmore Family.

Todd County

  • Thomas Johnson (b.1825 in VA) was a shoe maker who lived in Allensville. He was the husband of Sallie Johnson (b.1833 in KY), and supported a family of four.

Warren County

  • Thornton Cole (b.1823 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Hadley with his sister and brother-in-law and their four children.

Wayne County

  • Patrick Kindrick (b.1833 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Mill Springs. He was the husband of Marthey Kindrick (b.1840 in KY), and supported a family of five.
  • William Sandusky (b.1842 in KY) was a shoe and boot maker who lived in Monticello. He was divorced and supported a family of four, they lived on West Street.

See photo image of Benjamin F. Spencer shoe shop in Frankfort, KY, photo part of the Spencer Family Papers in Explore UK.
Subjects: Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Shoe Shiners and Shoe Repairers in Lexington, KY, 1930-1947
Start Year : 1930
End Year : 1947
By 1920, there were approximately 50,000 shoe repair shops in the United States. In Lexington,KY, there were many African Americans who supported their families as shoe repairers, shoe shiners, and shoe finishers. The making, repairing and caring of shoes were trades taught in Kentucky's African American normal and industrial institutes, orphanages, and schools for students with disabilities. During the economic depression, when jobs were few and the purchase of new shoes had drastically declined, skilled workers in other trades turned to shoe repair and shoe shining as a source of income. Very limited research has been done on these occupations, but very good documentation can be found in reference to Lexington, KY, and African Americans employed in the shoe care and repair market. Below are some of their names for the years 1930-1947. Many were WWI and WWII veterans. The information comes from Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directories, U.S. Federal Census Records, military registration records, death certificates, and other sources as noted.

[See also the NKAA entries African American Shoe Makers and Shoe Repairers in Lexington , KY, prior to 1900; African American Shoe Makers in Kentucky; and African American Shoe Makers from Kentucky.]

  • William Anderson was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe and Hat Shop (1939 directory). William and Luvenia Anderson lived at 252 E. 3rd Street (1940-41 directory).
  • William E. Anderson (b.1873) was a shoe shiner for M. Churchill Johnson. He had been a porter at his father's barber shop at the corner of Main and Upper Streets, according to his WWI draft registration card. Anderson lived at 321 E. 2nd Street (1940-41 directory) with his father Will Anderson. [see also NKAA entry Suter Brothers, Barbers]
  • Robert Arthur was a shoe repairman at Ben Snyder Inc. Robert and Mary Arthur lived at 668A Charlotte Court (1942 directory).
  • Thomas Atkins was a shoe shiner at Woodland Barber Shop. He lived at 543 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory).
  • Edward Bailey was a shoe shiner at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company. He lived at 150 N. Eastern Avenue (1947 directory).
  • Roosevelt Ballard was a shoe repairman at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company. He lived at 389 Patterson Street (1945 directory).
  • James W. Beatty was a shoe shiner at 204 Deweese Street (1942 directory).
  • Benjamin Bibbs (b.1880) was a shoe shiner at N Y Hat Cleaners (1931 directory). According to his WWI draft registration card, Bibbs had been a tinner at State University on Limestone [now University of Kentucky], and he and Lena Bibbs lived at 167 E. 7th Street.
  • William Bibbs was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. He lived at 716 N. Limestone Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Coleman Bledshaw was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. He was the husband of Artemesia Bledshaw, and the couple lived at 530 Lawrence Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Daniel Boone was a shoe shiner for Clyde R. Clem. Boone lived at 558 N. Upper Street (1937 directory).
  • Robert Brookter was a shoe repairman for Mrs. Sadie Bederman. He lived at 501 Patterson Street (1945 directory). [The last name Brookter was more common in Louisiana and Mississippi, than in Kentucky.]
  • Willie Brown (b.1916) was a shoe shiner at a shoe shining parlor in Lexington, KY. He and his wife Alice Brown lived at 374 E. 2nd Street. Willie Brown lived in Hopkinsville, KY, in 1935 (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • William Huston Bradshaw (b.1877) was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 274 E. 2nd Street (1940-41 directory), and was the husband of Susie Bradshaw, according to his WWI draft registration card. 
  • Matthew Buckner was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Buckner lived at 448 Ohio Street (1937 directory).
  • Thomas Henry Buckner (b.1878) was a shoe shiner. He lived at 450 Chestnut Street (1943-44 directory). He had been a waiter at the Phoenix Hotel in downtown Lexington, according to his WWI draft registration card, and lived at 824 Charles Avenue with his wife Mollie Buckner.
  • Titus Buckner (1855-1936) was a shoe repairman (1931 directory). He had also been a shoemaker and was listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82. Buckner was also a minister. Reverend Titus Buckner was born in Fayette County, KY. He was the husband of Julia Buckner, b.1856 in KY. The couple lived at 196 Eddie Street, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. Titus Buckner was a widower by 1920, and Mattie Titus is listed as his wife in the 1931 city directory. Titus Buckner is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington, KY, according to his death certificate.
  • Jesse Cawl (1911-1971) was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop at 244 E. Short Street (1942 directory). He was born in Jefferson County, KY, and Eugene Booker is listed as his mother on the birth certificate. Cawl was a WWII veteran, he enlisted in Cincinnati, OH, on January 22, 1943, according to his Army enlistment record. Cawl died in Louisville, KY.
  • Felix Chapman (1906-1966) was a shoe maker in 1940 (U.S. Federal Census). He was also a shoe repairman and shoe finisher for Charles H. McAtee. Chapman lived at 366 E. 2nd Street (1939 directory and 1940-41 directory). He was later a shoe repairman at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company, and lived at 545 Wilson Street (1945 directory). Chapman had been a chauffeur and lived at 336 E. Short Street (1927 directory). Chapman died in Bourbon County, KY.
  • Marcus Caldwell was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Marcus and Sarah Caldwell lived at 507F S. Aspendale Drive (1939 directory).
  • Robert D. Claybourne (b.1880) was a shoe repairman at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived with his wife, Lollia Claybourne, and family at 357 Wilson Street (1947 directory). Claybourne, born in KY, had been a shoemaker at a shoe store in Louisville according to the 1920 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Farris Craig (b.1890) was a shoe shiner for Fred D. Bostic. Craig lived at 352 Poplar Street (1937 directory). He is listed with his wife Anna H. Craig, and his step-daughter in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census. He had been a porter in a barber shop owned by William Johnson in Lexington, KY, according to his WWI draft registration card. Craig was born in Danville, KY, the son of John and Jessie Craig, according to the 1900 Census.
  • Kenneth Craig (1923-1945) was a shoe repairman for Samuel Bederman. He lived in Versailles, KY (1943-44 directory). Craig was born in Buffalo, NY, the son of Clayton Coleman and Roy C. Craig, Sr., and according to his death certificate, his parents were Kentucky natives. Kenneth Craig died of tuberculosis in Lexington, KY.
  • Joseph Davis was a shoe repairman employed by Samuel Bederman. Davis lived at 324 Hickory Street (1931 directory). He was later a shoe shiner at Harber Shoe Repair Company, and lived at 501D N. Aspendale Avenue (1940-41 directory).
  • John Doty was a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor. He lived at 468 Kenton Street (1942 directory).
  • Loyal R. Drye (1901-1975) was a shoe shiner at Five Minute Hat Shop. Loyal and his wife Eliza lived at 178 Race Street (1931 directory). He died in Cincinnati, OH.
  • Jessie Edwards was a shoe shiner for Samuel Bederman. He lived at 327 Chestnut Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Ceola Evans (b.1913) was a shoe shiner at a shoe shining parlor. He and his wife Bessie Mary Spencer Evans and their two children lived with the Spencer family at 562 E. Third Street (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • Alphonso Fair was a shoe shiner employed by William T. Hurst. Alphonso and Mayme Fair lived at 446 Ash Street (1931 directory).
  • Nathaniel C. Farmer was a shoe repairman at 306 E. 2nd Street (1931 directory).
  • William Fisher was a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor. He lived at 197 Deweese Street (1947 directory).
  • Thomas Foster was a shoe shiner at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Foster lived at 313 Henry Street (1939 directory).
  • Lawrence Fox was a shoe shiner for Martin Berlin. Fox lived at 427 Kenton Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Mitchell Garth (b.1881) was a shoe shiner. He worked from his home at 133 W. Water Street (1937 directory). Garth was born in Alabama, and had been a janitor while a boarder at the home of Samuel Young on Corral Street, according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • James A. Graves (b.1891) repaired shoes at his home, 523 S. Spring Street (1931 directory). He was born in Kentucky, the son of Florida Graves, according to the 1920 U.S. Census. James Graves later repaired shoes at 211 Deweese Street (1937 directory). James was the husband of Abbie Graves. The city directory entry reads "Shoe Repair Shop, I Doctor Shoes, Heel Them and Save Their Soles" (1945 directory).
  • Patrick Green was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop (1947 directory).
  • Walker Green was a shoe finisher at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 726 Chiles Avenue (1945 directory).
  • Peter Harley was a shoe shiner at 164 Race Street (1943-44 directory).
  • Sam Harris (b.1880) was a shoe repairman at a shoe shop. He and his wife Deedie lived on 533 Jefferson Street in Lexington (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • Samuel M. Harrison (1874-1951) was a shoemaker and shoe repairman at 535 Jefferson Street, and he lived at 533 Jefferson Street (1931 directory). Harrison was born in Fayette County, KY, the son of Martha Allen Harrison and Essix Harrison, according to his death certificate. He was the husband of Cordelia Harrison. By the 1940s, Samuel Harrison had expanded his shoe repair business to include the making of artificial limbs (1943-44 directory). Samuel M. Harrison is buried in the Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington, KY.
  • John F. Holman was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 150 N. Eastern Avenue (1943-44 directory).
  • Henry E. Howe (1911-1984) was a shoe finisher at a shoe shop in 1930 when he was living with his grandmother Mary Howe at 275 E. 4th Street, according to the U.S. Federal Census. He was later a shoe repairman at 607 N. Limestone, and was married to Nannie Howe. The couple lived at 275 E. 4th Street (1937 directory). A few years later, Henry Howe lived at 332 Ohio Street (1942 directory) with his wife Louise P. Howe (1945 directory), and he was still repairing shoes on N. Limestone.
  • Alex Hutsel was a shoe shiner employed by Samuel Bederman. Hutsel lived at 350 Deweese Street (1942 directory).
  • William Irvin was a shoe shiner for Robert E. Parris. Irvin lived at 549 Thomas Street (1937 directory).
  • Christ Jackson was listed as a laborer who lived at 180 Correll Street [Corral Street] in the R. C. Hellrigle and Co's Lexington City Directory 1877-78, and he was later a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor (1939 directory). Christ and Lillie Jackson lived at 309 Coleman Street (1939 directory and 1940-41 directory).
  • James L. Jackson was a shoe shiner who lived at 217 E. 2nd Street (1942 directory).
  • Robert Jackson was a shoe repairman for Sol Bederman. He and his wife Annabelle Jackson lived at 219 E. 2nd Street (1945 directory).
  • Roy Jackson was a shoe shiner at 314 Corral Street (1931 directory).
  • Robert E. Johnson was a shoe shiner for Samuel Bederman. He lived at 436 Kenton Street (1943-44 directory).
  • Shirley B. Johnson was a paperhanger when he and his wife Sidney lived at 553 Ohio Street (1931-32 directory). Shirley Johnson was later a shoe shiner at O K Barber Shop, and the couple lived at 145 Prall Street (1939 directory).
  • Chester Jones was a shoe repairman at 559 White Street (1937 directory). He was later a shoe shiner at the Lexington Shoe Hospital (1939 directory).
  • Lloyd Jones was a shoe finisher and shoe repairman at McGurk's Shoe and Hat Shop. Lloyd and Mary Jones lived at 684C Charlotte Court (1943-44 directory & 1945 directory).
  • Oliver Jones was a shoe shiner at 371 Corral Street (1937 directory).
  • William C. Jones repaired shoes at 243 Lee Street. He and his wife Callie C. Jones lived at 923 Whitney Avenue (1931 directory).
  • John L. Lawrence was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. John and Mary Lawrence lived at 450 N. Upper Street (1940-41 directory).
  • David Lee was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 736 N. Broadway (1943-44 directory).
  • Spurgeon L. Lewis (1911-1985) was a shoe shiner at Unique Shine Parlor. Lewis lived at 326 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory) with his parents, Henry S. and Elizabeth T. Lewis. There was a family of eight listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Joseph B. Lyons, Sr. was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Joseph and Sam Ella Lyons lived at 182 Eddie Street (1937 directory). They later lived at 507D S. Aspendale Drive (1942 directory). [He was the father of Donald W. Lyons, Sr. and Joseph B. Lyons, Jr.]
  • Robert Hamilton McClasky (b.1881) was a shoemaker at his home at 209 South Broadway, and was the husband of Clara M. McClasky, according to his WWI draft registration card. He is listed as a widow in the 1920 Census, he was sharing his home, 207 S. Broadway, with his brother John E. McClasky (b.1891) who was a shoe repairman. Both brothers were born in Kentucky. Robert McClasky was later a shoe repairman at 207 S. Broadway (1931 directory), and would become the owner of Tuskegee Shoe Shop, which had a separate entry in the city directory (1945 directory). The shop was located at his home. The directory entry reads "Tuskegee Shoe Shop, (c; Robert H. McClasky), 35 Years of Dependable Service, Shoe Repairing, and Rebuilding." He was the husband of Birdie McClasky (1945 directory).
  • Andrew McGee (1894-1942) was a shoe shiner for John K. Reeder. McGee lived at 346 Corral Street (1939 directory). He is listed in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census as a barber. He had earlier been a porter at Wiley & Fields, at the corner of Main and Broadway, according to McGee's WWI registration card. Andrew McGee was born in Kentucky, the son of Pollie Lee and William McGee, according to his death certificate. He lived with his grandmother when he was a child; Jane Lee was a widow who lived on Constitution Street in Lexington, KY, according to the 1900 Census. Andrew McGee was a WWI veteran and is buried in the National Cemetery in Nicholasville, KY.
  • Michael Miegel was a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor (1947 directory).
  • William Mells was a shoe shiner for Martin Berlin (1940-41 directory). He later shined shoes at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. William and Jean Mells lived at 248 Jefferson Street (1942 directory). Jean Hamilton Mells was a 47 year old widow when she died in 1948, according to her death certificate.
  • Thomas Mells (1900-1967) was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Mells lived at 122 W. 4th Street (1942 directory), and later lived at 248 Jefferson Street (1943-44 directory). He died in Lexington, KY, according to the Social Security Death Index.
  • Thomas Mullen was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 351 E. 3rd Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Robert Mundy (1915-1976) and Thomas L. Mundy (1916-1983) were brothers, both were shoe shiners at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Robert was the husband of Ruth Mundy and the couple lived at 419 Chestnut Street. Thomas Mundy lived at 243 Ann Street (1937 directory). The brothers were born in Kentucky, the sons of George and Sally Mundy. The family of seven is listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, they lived on Mary Street in Lexington, KY.
  • Edward M. Neal, Jr. was a shoe repairman at 508 Thomas Street (1937 directory).
  • Raymond Nichols was a shoe shiner for Henry Howe (above). Nichols lived at 738 N. Broadway (1939 directory).
  • Kenneth A. Paige (1903-1961) was a shoe repairman at 322 Chestnut Street in the 1930s. Kenneth and his wife Anna J. Paige lived at 219 W. 7th Street (1931 directory). Kenneth Paige is listed in the Lexington city directory for almost two decades, including his employment at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company (1942 directory). Paige was also a shoe repairman at Pinkston's, and lived at 351 Corral Street (1945 directory). He was owner of "Paige's Shoe Repair Shop, The House of Souls and Heels." The business was located at 211 Deweese Street (1947 directory).
  • Charles Palmer did shoe repairs at his home, 445 Chestnut Street. He was the husband of Anna B. Palmer (1931 directory).
  • John Nimrod Paul was born in 1885 in Russell County, KY. He was the husband of Emma Grider Paul, born in 1892 in Cumberland, KY. The couple lived in Russell Springs, KY, according to John Paul's WWI registration card. John Paul had a shoemaker's shop in Russell Springs according to the 1920 U.S. Federal Census. By 1930, the family of six lived in Lexington, KY, and John Paul did shoe repairs from their home at 457 Georgetown Street (1931 directory).
  • Felix Pearsall (1922) was a shoe shiner for Charles H. McAtee (1939 directory). He was the son of Katherine Pearsall who was a widow when listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Gilbert W. Potter (1910-1954) was a shoe shiner for Sol Bederman, and he and his wife Virginia lived at 667C Charlotte Court F (1945 directory). He had been a waiter (1937 directory), and was later a porter at Drake Hotel (1939 directory). Gilbert W. Potter served in the U.S. Army during WWII, he enlisted in Cincinnati, OH, October 23, 1942, according to his enlistment record.
  • William Reed (b.1924) was a shoe shiner in a barber shop. He was the son of Susy Reed. The family lived at 349 Wilson Street (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • Albert Rogers was a shoe shiner at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Rogers lived at 230 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory).
  • Jesse Ross shined shoes at N Y Hat Cleaners. He lived at 731 Whitney Avenue (1931 directory).
  • Paul L. Seals (1930-1985) was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 500C N. Aspendale Drive (1947 directory). Seals was the son of Robert P. and Marjorie R. Seals, the family of four is listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Harry Shields was a shoe repairman. He lived at 248 E. Short Street (1942 directory). Shields was later a shoe repairman at Tuskegee Shoe Shop (1947 directory). He was the husband of Sarah Shields.
  • David Singleton was a shoe shiner for Sol Bederman. He lived at 248 E. 5th Street (1937 directory).
  • Jerry Smith was a shoe shiner at 118 W. Vine Street. He was the husband of Beatrice T. Smith (1947 directory).
  • John Smith repaired shoes at 401 1/2 Race Street. He and his wife Mary Smith lived at 562 Thomas Street (1931 directory).
  • Rudolph Smith was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 374 E. 2nd Street (1943-44 directory). He was later a shoe shiner at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company, and lived at 428 Ash Street (1945 directory).
  • Thornton Smith was a shoe shiner at 390 Patterson Street. Smith lived at 721 Noble Avenue (1942 directory).
  • George W. Stewart was a shoe repairman at 337 N. Limestone. George and Leona P. Stewart lived at 341 N. Limestone (1937 directory).
  • George A. Stone was a shoe shiner and a shoe repairman at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Stone lived at 532 Emma Street (1939 directory), and later lived at 425 N. Upper Street (1943-44 directory).
  • A second George A. Stone was a shoe finisher at 417 E. 2nd Street. He was the husband of Rose L. Stone (1943-44 directory), the couple lived at 309 E. 2nd Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Albert Taylor was a shoe shiner. He lived at 133 Water Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Dillard Taylor (1884-1939) did shoe repairs at 801 Whitney Avenue. He was married to Lizzie Taylor (1931 directory). Dillard Taylor was born in Scott County, KY, the son of Litha Redd and George Taylor, according to his death certificate. He was buried in Georgetown, KY.
  • George T. Taylor (1900-1952) was a shoe repairman. He lived at 322 Chestnut Street (1942 directory). Taylor was later a shoe repairman at Third Street Bargain Store. George and Rosa Taylor lived at 316 Deweese Street (1945 directory). According to his death certificate, George T. Taylor was also a shoemaker. He was born in Macon, GA, the son of Eugenia and Lee Taylor. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington, KY.
  • Ella B. Thomas was one of the few women who were employed as a shoe repairer. The business was at 337 N. Limestone, and Thomas lived at 341 N. Limestone (1931 directory).
  • James Tribble was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 753 Loraine Avenue (1943-44 directory).
  • Sanford Vinegar was a shoe shiner for George Miner. He lived at 477 W. 4th Street (1937 directory).
  • E. Waldo was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners located at 321 Wilson Street (1942 directory). He was the husband of Corine Waldo.
  • Joseph E. Walker was a shoe shiner. Joseph and Mozelle Walker lived at 157 N. Eastern Avenue (1945 directory).
  • Virgil Washington was a shoe repairman employed by Sol Bederman. Washington lived at 309 E. 6th Street (1931 directory).
  • Thompson Webb was a shoe shiner at Unique Shine Parlor. He was the husband of Hattie Webb (1939 directory).
  • Earl White was a shoe shiner for Sol Bederman. White lived at 702 Lindbergh Court (1940-41 directory).
  • Joseph White was a shoe repairman for Samuel Bederman. White lived at 343 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory).
  • Albert Wilkerson was a shoe shiner at State Cleaners. He lived at 413 Elm Street (1937 directory)
  • Jesse Williams was a shoe repairman at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Jesse and Clara Williams lived at 205 E. Euclid Avenue (1937 directory).
  • Jesse Williams, Jr. was a shoe repairman at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company. He lived at 248 Roosevelt Boulevard (1943-44 directory).
  • William Wilson was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters & Cleaners (1937 directory).
  • William Winchester was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners (1940-41 directory).
  • Harry E. Worsham was a shoe shiner at Lexington Shoe Hospital. Worsham lived at 445 Chestnut Street (1942 directory). He was later a shoe repairman for Mrs. Sadie Bederman (1945 directory).
  • Nathaniel Young was a shoe shiner at Martin's Barber Shop. Nathaniel and Luella Young lived at 108 York Street (1939 directory).

See 1907 photo image of shoe shiner on Lexington, KY street in University of Louisville Libraries: Digital Archives. For more information on shoe repairing in general, see The Shoe Industry by F. J. Allen. For more general information on African American shoe shiners see Encyclopedia of African American Business, v.2, K-Z, edited by J. C. Smith. See also Establishing and Operating a Shoe Repair Business by J. G. Schnitzer and C. R. Budd.


Subjects: Barbers, Businesses, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Tuberculosis: Care and Deaths, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Russell Springs, Russell County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Bourbon County, Kentucky / Alabama / Cincinnati, Ohio / Macon, Georgia / Louisiana / Mississippi / Buffalo, New York

African American Slave Owners in Kentucky
Start Year : 1830
In 1924 the Research Department of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History completed a study of the free Negro slave owners found in the 1830 U. S. Federal Census. The study found that there were 3,777 Negro slave owners in the United States. Negro slave owners were listed in 29 Kentucky counties (see below). Ownership may have meant the purchase of a spouse, an individual's children, or other relatives who were not emancipated. Ownership was also an investment: purchased children and adults may or may not have been given the opportunity to work off their purchase price in exchange for their freedom. A History of World Societies documents a total of 6,000 Negro slave owners in the U.S. for the year 1840 [p. 846]. The 1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules do not identify slave owners by race; the individual names of slave owners must be searched in the U.S. Federal Census to identify the individual's race. For more see the Research Department's article, "Free Negro owners of slaves in the United States in 1830," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan., 1924), pp. 41-85; A History of World Societies, by J. P. McKay, et al. [2006]; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas.

Kentucky Counties with Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]
 

  1. Adair County (1) - Swaney Burbridge
  2. Barren County (1) - Leander Force
  3. Bourbon County (9) - Peter Allen, Sally Wallace, Isaac Jones, James Monday, Peter Grant, Gabriel, Allen Heathman, Edmon Hurley, Stephen Brooks
  4. Bracken County (1) - Lethia Thomas
  5. Bullitt County, [Mt. Washington] (2) - Isaac Ellison, Bash Oldridge
  6. Christian County, [Hopkinsville] (1) - Michael Cocke
  7. Clark County (2) - John Dudley, George Birth
  8. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) - Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black -- Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer'y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith
  9. Fleming County (1) - Jacob Truett
  10. Franklin County, [Frankfort] (6) - Harry Mordecai, David Jones, John Ward, Burrel Chiles, John S. Goin, Samuel Brown
  11. Graves County (1) - Alias Keeling
  12. Green County (1) - Thomas Malone
  13. Harrison County (1) - Benjamin Berton
  14. Henderson County (1) - Liverpool Pointer
  15. Jefferson County (1), [Louisville] (5) - J. T. Gray -- Betty Cozzens, David Straws, Frank Merriwether, Daniel Brigadier, Sally
  16. Jessamine County (3) - Judith Higenbothan, Anthony of colour, William a man of color
  17. Knox County (1) - Isaiah Goins
  18. Logan County, [Russellville] (5) - Nicholas Valentine, Robert Buckner, Edward Jones, Isham Husketh, William Barber
  19. Madison County (1) - George White
  20. Mason County (9), [Washington] (3) - Thomas F. Bowles, John Glasford, Edward Cooper, H. Markham, Roseann Wann, Charles More, Ann Baylor, Edmond Toliver, Acam Diggs -- Peggy Miles, John Lightfoot, Isaac Johnson
  21. Mercer County (9) - Anderson Harris, Ben Harris, Spencer Easton, Fielding Melvin, Jemima Fry, Hercules Jenkins, George Warman, Adam Beaty, Sanko Robinson
  22. Montgomery County (1) - Richard Lee
  23. Nelson County, [Bardstown] (4) - Thomas Smiley, Joe Cocke, Thomas Rudd, George Aud
  24. Nicholas County (1) - George Mallery
  25. Rockcastle County (1) - David Cable
  26. Shelby County (1), [Shelbyville] (3) - John Edwards -- Peter Short, Hannah Harris, Jim Henson
  27. Warren County (2) - Jane Palmore, Bazzle Russell
  28. Washington County, [Springfield] (2) - Robert C. Palmer, Ignatius Sandy
  29. Woodford County (13) - Joe Miller, Lawrence Corbin, Betty Tutt, Billy Campbell, Henry Mason, Tom Stratford, Ambrose Hardy, Richard Harvey, Samuel Cloak, Nathan Twiner, Joel Hawkins, Moses Weaver, Jordan Ritchie

Subjects: Free African American Slave Owners, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Slavery in Mexico - Tom West
According to author J. K. Turner, Tom West was born free in Kentucky and later became a slave in what was described as an experiment in Mexico. Turner met West in 1908-1909. West had earned $2 per day in a brickyard in Kentucky, and he left the U.S. for Mexico by way of Florida along with 80 other African Americans, with the promise of earning $3.75 or 7.5 pesos per day. They were to work at coffee and rubber plantations in La Junta. Once in Mexico the group was locked away at night, and armed guards watched over them as they worked during the day. Unbeknownst to West and the other African Americans, they had been sold as slaves to an American plantation owner and were forced to work off their purchase price before they would be paid for their labor. Those who escaped and then captured were beaten, and according to Turner, the Diaz government turned a blind eye to the whole affair. African American slavery in Mexico was considered a failure, and Tom West was freed after two years on the plantation but remained in Mexico. For more see Barbarous Mexico, by J. K. Turner.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Mexico

African American Theater Buildings in Kentucky
Start Year : 1900
End Year : 1955
Of the more than 1,500 theaters listed within the title African American Theater Buildings by Eric L. Smith, a few were located in nine Kentucky cities between 1900-1955. The theaters were managed by both African Americans and whites, and the predominate clientele were African Americans. The theaters in Kentucky were:

  • Frankfort - Kentucky State College Theater, picture house
  • Henderson - Doxy Theater, picture house
  • Lexington - Ada Meade, Lyric Theater, and Orpheum Theater, all picture houses
  • Louisville - Dixie Theater, Grand Theater, and Lyric Theater, picture houses. Lincoln Theater, and Palace Theater, both picture houses and vaudeville. Ruby Theater and Victory Theater were both vaudeville
  • Mayfield - Unique Theater, picture house
  • Owensboro - Plaza Theater, picture house
  • Paducah - Hiawatha Theater, picture house
  • Pikesville - Liberty Theater, picture house [may be Pikeville, KY]
  • Winchester - Lincoln Theater, picture house
Texas, Florida, and North Carolina were the states with the most African American theater buildings. Also included in E. L. Smith's book is a listing of African American drive-in theaters, all were in the South.
See photo image of the Lyric Theater in Lexington, KY, 12/09/1948, at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky: Frankfort, Franklin County / Henderson, Henderson County / Lexington, Fayette County / Louisville, Jefferson County / Mayfield, Graves County / Owensboro, Daviess County / Paducah, McCracken County / Pikeville, Pike County / Winchester, Clark C

African American Union Sailors from Kentucky
Subjects: Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American WACs Who Were Born in Kentucky
Start Year : 1943
End Year : 1945
This is a partial list of the African American women born in Kentucky and served in the WACs. The information comes from the WWII Army Enlistment Records. Martha L. Bell, b.1918, Daviess County; Georgia A. Bradley, b.1900; Lena C. H. Bruce, b.1923, Kenton County; Sarah M. Carr, b.1911, Jefferson County; Gladys L. Collier, b.1923; Lula B. Collins, b.1910; Dorothy C. Davis, b.1919; Ethel W. Fields, b.1922, Jefferson County; Alma C. Fischer, b.1924; Edna M. Griffin, b.1909; Willia M. Griffin, b.1920; Zelma H. Grooms, b.1922; Elizabeth Hardyster, b.1921, Jefferson County; Ann M. Highsaw, b.1917, Jefferson County; Florence J. Hoard, b.1919, Jefferson County; Ruth Holt, b.1911; Hannah E. Huley, b.1911, Grant County; June C. Ingram, b.1921; Juanita M. Irvin, b.1920, McCracken County; Julia M. Jackson, b.1911, Jefferson County; Lula M. Johnson, b.1918, Fayette County; Alma E. Kairson, b.1918; Emma L. Lutz, b.1917; Hollie B. Martin, b.1903; Anna C. Morrison, b.1923; Mary E. Neal, b.1914; Dorthea M. Owens, b.1920; LaVenta M. Penn, b.1916; Thelma L. Pruden, b.1923, Daviess County; Catherine Roberts, b.1920, Bath County; Beaulah C. Simms, b.1924; Emma Smith, b.1922, Lincoln County; Marjorie Smith, b.1923; Mattie L. Sproul, b.1917, Barren County; Vivian Steward, b.1918; Susie D. L. Tardy, b.1920; Annie B. Thurman, b.1921, Fulton County; Ora L. Tichenor, b.1915; Anna S. Townsend, b.1923, Jefferson County; Effie M. Turner, b.1923; Joanna M. Turner, b.1900; Anna M. Wall, b.1924, Fulton County; Lena M. Warden, b.1923; Helen C. Washington, b.1919, Bourbon County; Alice T. White, b.1923, Fayette County; Thelma M. Wimbley, b.1921; Daisy B. Utterback, b.1922, Graves County; Dorothy J. Young, b.1921.
See photo images of African American WACs, including Kentuckian Willa B. Brown [Chappell], at flickr website.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Women's Groups and Organizations, Women's Army Corps (WACs)
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in Kentucky Killed By Lightning
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1940
In early newspapers are articles about people in Kentucky killed by lightning, and the articles were many times front page stories.  There are also lightning deaths noted in the U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, 1850-1885 and in the annual Mortality Statistics volumes, some of which are available full-text at Google Books. See Lightning Fatalities by State, 1956-2012, a NOAA website, for a rank of where Kentucky stands in terms of deaths due to lightning. This entry is an introduction to the names, geographic locations, and data on African Americans in Kentucky who were killed by lightning. 

 

Since 2006, there have been less than 50 lightning deaths per year in the United States, according to the statistics at the NWS (National Weather Service) Lightning Safety, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) website. For earlier data, back to 1940, and additional information, see Victims/SurvivorsSafety Tips, and other educational links on the National Weather Service, NOAA website. See also Lightning Casualties and Their Proximity to Surrounding Cloud-to-ground Lightning (thesis) by M. M. Lengyel; An Epidemiological Description of Lightning-related Deaths in the United States by P. J. Duclos and L. M. Sanderson; and search in PubMed for articles on lightning and lightning injuries.

  • 1850 - Jenny, a slave, killed by lightning strike, May 1850. Warren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, line 1, Year Ending 1st of June 1850.
  • 1860 - Robert, a slave and farm hand, killed by lightning, April 1860. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.2, line 10, Year Ending 1st of June 1860.
  • 1860 - Nathaniel White, a 13 year old slave was killed by lightning May 1860. Barren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.3, line 12, Year Ending 1st of June 1860.
  • 1860 - Ruben White, a slave who was married, was killed by lightning May 1860. Barren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.3, line 12, Year Ending 1st of June 1860.
  • 1868 - Two white men and a colored man killed by lightning in London, KY. June 26, 1868. Laurel County. Source: "Three men killed by lightning in Kentucky," New York Times, 06/28/1868, p.1.
  • 1870 - James Diggs, a farm hand, killed by "effice [efficacy] of lightning," November 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 29, Year Ending 1st of June 1870.
  • 1870 - Edmond White, 9 years old, was killed by lightning July 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 27, Year Ending 1st of June 1870.
  • 1870 - Pauline White, 13 years old, was killed by lightning July 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 27, Year Ending 1st of June 1870.
  • 1890 - Lish Wilson, 15 years old, was one of two boys killed by lightning in Louisville, KY. The boys and two others had been out fishing and took shelter under a tree when it started to rain and lightning. June 1890. Jefferson County. Source: "Article 2 - No Title," The New York Times, June 15, 1890, p.2.
  • 1902 - Nelson Holmes a Negro farm hand was killed by lightning in Mt. Sterling, KY. July 1902. Montgomery County. Source: "Severe storm in Kentucky," Spokane Daily Chronicle, 07/28/1902, p.1.
  • 1907 - Evans Duncan, colored, was killed by lightning at Cleaton. July 1907. Muhlenberg County. Source: "Here and there," Interior Journal, 07/23/1907, p.1.
  • 1907 - A Negro named Mimms was struck by lightning and killed while plowing the fields of Frank Waldron near Allensville, KY. The two mules attached to the plow were also killed. August 1907. Todd County. Source: "News notes," Interior Journal, 08/20/1907, p.1.
  • 1908 - Thomas Gaines, a 13 year old colored boy, was struck by lightning and instantly killed while passing under a tree on the farm of Catesby Woodford. June 1908. Bourbon County. Source: "Prominent farmer and colored boy killed by lightning," Bourbon News, 06/16/1908, p.1. Thomas Gaines was the son of Gertie Hanline Gaines; the family lived in Flat Rock. Source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census.
  • 1911 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 20-29, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1911: twelfth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.385.
  • 1916 - One colored person in Kentucky, a child 5-9 years old, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1916: seventeenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.321.
  • 1917 - Three colored persons were killed by lightning: a baby under 1 year old; person between 20-29 years old; and a person of unknown age. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1917: eighteenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.347.
  • 1918 - Four colored persons were killed by lightning: a child between 5-9 years old; a child between 10-19 years old; a person between 20-29 years old; and a person between 40-49 years old. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1918: nineteenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.326.
  • 1919 - Three colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning: two children between the ages of 10-19; and a person between 40-49. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1919: twentieth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.336.
  • 1920 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 40-49, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1920: twenty-first annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.361.
  • 1922 - Two colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning: a child 10-14 years old; and a person 35-44 years old. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1922: twenty-third annual report, part 1, by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.410.
  • 1925 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 35-44, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1925: twenty-sixth annual report, by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.185.
  • 1929 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 35-44, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1929: thirtieth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.284.
  • 1931 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 45-54, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1931: thirty-second annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.249.
  • 1932 - Three colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning; they were all between the ages of 25-34. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1931: thirty-third annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.246.

Subjects: Killed by Lightning
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in the Military Oral History Project
Start Year : 2002
End Year : 2004
The following subject terms come from the "Pass the Word" website. "African Americans, Florida, Germany, Japan, Korea, Korean War, 1950-1953, Kuwait, Military, Persian Gulf War, 1991, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Vietnam War, 1961-1975, World War, 1939-1945, ..."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in the Thoroughbred Industry Oral History Project
Start Year : 1994
End Year : 1995
The following information comes from the description on the "Pass the Word" website. "This series focuses on the experiences of African Americans working in the thoroughbred industry in Kentucky. The majority of interviews focus on backside occupations including hot walkers, exercise riders, and groomers. Other occupations include trainers, clockers, and jockeys. Interviewees discuss employment opportunities for African Americans in the racing industry, individuals they have worked with including owners and trainers, living conditions at the track, how they were trained in various occupations, working on horse farms, family life, race horses they have worked with, and the Kentucky Derby. Most of the interviews were conducted in Louisville with individuals who have worked at Churchill Downs."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in the Upper Cumberland Region (FA 510) [oral histories]
Start Year : 1991
End Year : 1997
The following information about the oral history collection, African Americans in the Upper Cumberland Region (FA 510), comes from the collection note at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives:  "This collection contains interviews with or about African Americans in the upper Cumberland region of Kentucky and Tennessee. The interviews are life histories focusing on what it was like growing up in the region. Researchers should look at the subject analytics below to determine the counties included in this study. This project was done as part of a class in folk studies at Western Kentucky University and supervised by Lynwood Montell." The collection is 6 boxes, 54 folders, 238 items, dated 1991-1997, consisting of original papers, transcriptions, photos, and cassette tapes.  All items are available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Upper Cumberland Region, Kentucky and Tennessee

African Americans Returning to the U.S from Honduras [Jimmy Johnson]
End Year : 1940
Jimmy Johnson was born in either 1911 or 1913 in Louisville, KY, and lived at 99 W. Springfield Street in Roxbury, MA. Not many African Americans from Kentucky had migrated to Massachusetts before or after the Civil War. The U.S. Census shows just one free African American from Kentucky living in Massachusetts in 1850, 28 in 1870, and in 1920, 184. Among those 184 there were three Johnson families, but Jimmy Johnson was not listed as a member of any of those families. According to the La Perla (ship) passenger list for July 1932, Johnson was described as a "USC (United States Citizen)=Stowaway=From Boston." The La Perla was owned by the United Fruit Company, a U.S. Corporation based in Boston, MA; the company traded in tropical fruit grown in the West Indies and Central American countries and sold in the U.S. and Europe. United Fruit Company was the largest employer in Central America and managed the postal service in Guatemala. Its steamers transported the fruit, mail, passengers, and cargo between the United States and Central America. In 1928, Roy T. Davis, the U.S. Minister to Costa Rica, wrote the Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg, to say the State Department had been informed that Marcus Garvey (UNIA) had received a large donation and monthly subscriptions from Negro employees of the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica. Garvey was denied a return visit to Costa Rica and prohibited from visiting Honduras. The exact number of American Negroes living in Honduras prior to the 1930s is not known. May Ford, a former slave from New Orleans, LA, had sailed to Honduras in 1868 with his former owner, George Henry Friarson, aboard the steamship Trade Winds. Friarson had plantation interests in Honduras and returned to the U.S. after a brief stay. May Ford decided to remain in Honduras and had various jobs, including work on fruit plantations. He was about 76 years old when he returned to the U.S. in 1904 aboard the Anselm (owned by the United Fruit Company); May's passage was paid for by Friarson's son. In 1910, six year old Beresford L. Grant, a U.S. citizen, returned from Honduras with his mother, Wilhelmina Grant (born in England). The Grants and two other Negroes born in England arrived at the Tampa, FL, Port on June 6, 1910, aboard the Carrie W. Babson. The Grants and one of the other passengers had been living in Belize, British Honduras. There were other American Negroes who returned to the U.S. from Honduras as stowaways. In 1932, Kentucky native Jimmy Johnson returned to the Boston, MA, Port aboard the La Perla; he had boarded the ship at the Puerto Castilla Port in Honduras. The port had been built by the United Fruit Company and was used to transport goods from the Castilla Division of the United Fruit Company. The Castilla Division operated until the late 1930s. It is not known why Jimmy Johnson went to Honduras, what his occupation was while there, or why he stowed away on the La Perla to return to the United States. Two other stowaways from Honduras were 20-year-old Amos Bailey from Hattiesburg, MS, and a man who went by the name Vans Miller (18 or 19 years old) and claimed to be a U.S. citizen from Philadelphia, PA. According to the Galveston, TX, Passenger List, Bailey and Miller had been laborers in Honduras, and both left from the Puerto Castilla Port aboard the Comoyagua (owned by the United Fruit Company) and returned to the U.S. at the Galveston Port on June 24, 1936. Bailey was admitted to the country as an American Negro citizen, but Miller, who spoke both English and Spanish, was denied. For more about the United Fruit Company see Bananas: how the United Fruit Company shaped the world, by P. Chapman. For more about the United Fruit Company in Honduras see M. Moberg, "Crown colony as Banana Republic: the United Fruit Company in British Honduras, 1900-1920," Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 28, issue 2 (May 1996), pp. 357-381. For more about the fleets owned by the United Fruit Company, see The Ships List website for the United Fruit Company. For more about Marcus Garvey and Honduras, see The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, vol. 12, edited by R. A. Hill. For more about May Ford, see "Back to slavery home," The Washington Post, 08/22/1904, p. 12.
Subjects: Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Roxbury, Massachusetts / New Orleans, Louisiana / Chicago, Illinois / Hattiesburg, Mississippi / Belize and Puerto Castilla, Honduras, Central America

African Baptist Church (Henderson, KY)
Start Year : 1840
The African Baptist Church of Jesus Christ, located in Henderson, KY, held its meetings in fields, barns, or any location where they could gather. In 1840, the African Baptist Church received membership into the white Baptist Church, according to "African Baptist Church," pp. 476-480 in the History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling. The group stayed within the white Baptist Church until 1845, when the African Baptist Church was organized, after which the group held services in the basement of the white Baptist Church. Willis Walker, a slave, was chosen as the pastor of the African Baptist Church, and the church purchased his freedom for $560. Rev. Walker died during a creek baptism and was replaced by Rev. Henry Green from Danville, KY. In 1866, the African Baptist Church split: 33 members left to form the Race Creek Baptist Church. In 1866, the African Baptist Church separated from the white Baptist Church and moved into its first building, the old Methodist Church building at the corner of Elm and Washington Streets. The church was renamed First Missionary Baptist Church, and several more churches would grow out of the congregation: St. Paul's Baptist Church in Corydon; St. John Baptist Church; New Hope Baptist Church; Walnut Hill Baptist Church; and Fourth Street Baptist Church.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky

African Baptist Church (Paris, KY)
Start Year : 1857
The African Baptist Church in Paris, KY, grew out of the Baptist Church of Christ (for whites) that was constituted in Paris, KY, in 1818. The Baptist Church of Christ had begun in Tennessee in 1808 and spread to other southern states. During a revival in winter of 1827-28, 46 slaves were received into the Baptist Church of Christ in Paris, KY. In 1832, the Reformation Movement caused the church to split and in 1833 the church was reorganized with 48 white members. As the church grew, there would again be African American members, most of whom were slaves. In 1855, these African American members were separated from the Baptist Church of Christ by Elder J. B. Link, with their own church known as the African Baptist Church, that would be led by Reverend Elisha W. Green from 1855-1893. Rev. John Fisher was pastor for one year. Rev. Henry Battle Webster from Woodford County was pastor of the church beginning in 1896. The congregation built a church on 8th Street in 1858 and today the church is known as First Baptist at 128 W. 8th Street. The church was initially under the rule of the Baptist Church of Christ with the threat that if they attempted to act independently of the parent church, then the African Baptist Church would be closed. In the summer of 1884, a branch of the African Baptist Church split and became the Zion Baptist Church in Paris, KY. The split was due to the dissatisfaction of members who wanted church services to be held more than twice a month; Rev. Green was pastor of two churches and led services at each church twice a month. He refused to give up one church in order to have services every Sunday at the other church. He did, however, help organize the Zion Baptist Church with the help of Rev. M. M. Bell, the church was first located in Marble Hall on Main Street. The first pastor was Rev. W. R. Davis. Today the Zion Baptist Church is located at 312 W. 8th Street in Paris, KY. For more information see "New Baptist Church," The Bourbon News, 12/16/1910, p.3; A History of Baptists in Kentucky by F. M. Masters; and see "Rev. Henry Battle Webster, D.D." on pp.225-226, and "Zion Baptist Church, Paris, KY" on p.282 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky.

See photo image of Zion Baptist Church in Paris, KY, on p.119 of Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, at NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky

African Cemetery No. 2 (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1869
End Year : 1976
The cemetery has been located at 419 E. 7th Street since 1869 when, according to The Kentucky Leader (02/03/1892), the Union Benevolent Society No. 2 formed "to take care of the sick, bury the dead and perform other deeds of charity." The organization purchased four acres in November 1869; the charter from the Legislature permitted the operation of a cemetery in 1870. In 1875 another four acres were purchased. The official name of the cemetery became Benevolent Society No. 2 of Lexington, Kentucky. Well over 6,000 men, women, and children are interred in the cemetery, and 100 have been identified as U.S. Colored Troops of the Civil War. The information in this entry comes from African American Cemetery No. 2, a flier published by African Cemetery No. 2, Inc. (Feb. 2005). Board member Yvonne Giles has been researching the history of the cemetery and completed the publication titled Stilled Voices Yet Speak in 2009. There is also a film about the cemetery titled Eight Acres of History: Lexington's African Cemetery No.2, produced by the Lexington Public Library Cable Channel 20. For more information about the cemetery, Juneteenth celebrations, and other events, see African Cemetery No. 2 or contact the African Cemetery No. 2, Inc., P. O. Box 54874, Lexington, Kentucky 40555. See also S. Lannen, "Reliving Slavery," Lexington Herald Leader, 6/19/05, City&Region section, p.B1; and M. Riegert and A. Turkington, "Setting stone decay in a cultural context: conservation at the African Cemetery No. 2, Lexington, Kentucky, USA," Building and Environment, vol. 38, issues 9-10 (September-October 2003), pp. 1105-1111.



*NOTE: There are five subpages at the African Cemetery No.2 website: A Brief History ; Grave Markers - Names A-Z ; Horsemen Names ; Newsletter ; Veterans.

 

 
Subjects: Businesses, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Benevolent Societies, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African Church (Danville, KY)
Start Year : 1846
The first Saturday of August 1846, the First Baptist Church for whites, separated its 126 African American members into their own independent church known as the African Church. The first pastor was Rev. Jordan Meaux, a property owner who was consider a good leader in the church. Rev. Henry Green was the second minister, followed by Rev. Isaac Slaughter who served for 26 years. For more information and a picture of the church, see Negro Baptist History, 1750-1930 by L. G. Jordan
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

The African Repository and Colonial Journal (periodical)
Start Year : 1825
End Year : 1892
Published by the American Colonization Society, the journal was first known as The African Repository and Colonial Journal. In 1850 the title changed to The African Repository and in 1892 to Liberia. The journals contain reports, records, and activities of the American Colonization Society. Included in the issues are the names of slave owners, estates, and the freed slaves who were to be colonized in Liberia, Africa. An example of the listing can be found under the heading "African Colonization in Kentucky at the Google Book Search site.
Subjects: Freedom, Liberia, Liberian Presidents & Diplomats, Religion & Church Work, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Inheritance, Colonies, Colonization
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Liberia, Africa

Africa in Fort Scott, Kansas [George Tivis]
Birth Year : 1880
Death Year : 1900
From 1880-1900, there was said to be a Negro colony that lived near Fort Scott, Kansas, according to an article by H. V. Cowan titled "Cattle now graze at site of early Negro settlement" in The Fort Scott Tribune and The Fort Scott Monitor newspaper, October 22, 1960, pp.1&2 [article online at Google News]. The settlement called "Africa" was established by former slaves and credited to Mr. and Mrs. George Tivis from Kentucky, and their children Melinda, Richard, Alvin, George Jr., and Esther. According to the newspaper article, some of the children were married and had families of their own, and by 1900, all had moved away from the settlement, with some going on to Oklahoma. Looking back in time using census records, there is the question of which George Tivis founded the settlement, because there were three African American men from Kentucky named George Tivis who lived in or near Fort Scott (Bourbon County), Kansas before the year 1900. The first one is listed in the 1885 Kansas State Census; George Tivis, was born around 1810 in Kentucky, and there was his wife L. Tivis, born around 1814 in South Carolina, and two other family members, A. Tivis and W. Tivis, both born in Kentucky. The family lived in Marion (Bourbon County), Kansas in 1885. They were among the more than 500 African Americans who were living in Fort Scott, Kansas, between 1880 and 1885, and about 77 of them were born in Kentucky. There were four African Americans with the last name Tivis, and of the four, Harry Tivis was the only one born in Kentucky [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]; therefore George Tivis (born around 1810) was either not included in the 1880 census, or he arrived sometime after the 1880 U.S. Census was taken. The second George Tivis from Kentucky was living in Mississippi with his wife and two daughters in 1880, according to the U.S. Federal Census. This particular George S. Tivis was born in April of 1843 in Kentucky, and his wife Mary Tivis was born in Georgia in December of 1851. The couple had at least 7 children: Lizzie Tivis; May Tivis White who was married to George White from Missouri; James; George Jr.; Esther; Richard; and Elisha [sources: 1880 and 1900 U.S. Federal Census]. The oldest four children were born in Mississippi and the last three were born in Kansas. George, Mary, and their children did not arrive in Fort Scott, Kansas until some time after George Jr. was born around 1884; the family is not listed in the 1885 Kansas State Census. A third George Tivis from Kentucky is listed in the 1905 Kansas State Census. He was born around 1851 and was the husband of Amanda who was born around 1853 in Kentucky. The couple had three children: Cordelia, John, and Dalia. The family may have been in Fort Scott as early as 1885, around the year that Cordelia Tivis was born. In any event, by 1910, there is only one George Tivis listed in the U.S. Federal Census for Fort Scott, and he is the husband of Mary. In 1916, Mary and George Tivis lived at 707 S. Broadway [source: p.204 in R. L. Polk & Co.'s Fort Scott City Directory, 1916]. George Tivis (also spelled Tevis), born in 1843, was a Civil War veteran; he served with the 122nd Regiment of the U.S. Colored Troops, Company G [source: U.S. Civil War Soldiers, 1861-1865]. He was born in Franklin [County?], KY and enlisted in Lexington, KY on June 30, 1864 [source: U.S. Descriptive Lists of Colored Volunteer Army Soldiers, 1864]; George Tivis was a slave when he enlisted. The last of George and Mary's children to live in Fort Scott was John Richard Tivis who died in 1966, leaving Elisha Tivis as the sole survivor of the children [source: "John Richard Tivis" in the Deaths-Funerals section of The Fort Scott Tribune and The Fort Scott Monitor, 04/04/1966, p.6 [article online at Google News]. Elisha Tivis lived in Kansas City, Kansas. It has yet to be determined if the three men from Kentucky named George Tivis were related.
Subjects: Communities, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Colonies, Colonization
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Africa, Fort Scott, Kansas

The Afro-American Mission Herald (Louisville, KY) (newspaper)
Selected issues of The Afro-American Mission Herald, 1900-1901, are available online at the Kentucky Digital Library. The newspaper was originally published in Louisville, KY, by the Foreign Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention of the United States of America. The publication kept missionaries and others informed about the work being done abroad. The newspaper remained in Louisville for eleven years and was then moved to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The newspaper changed its name to Mission Herald, and it is still in print today. For more information and access to the issues available online, see the Kentucky Digital Library, The Afro-American Mission Herald website.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Agricultural and Mechanical Association of the Colored People of Bourbon County
Start Year : 1874
On January 16, 1874, the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky passed an act for the benefit of the Agricultural and Mechanical Association of the Colored People of Bourbon County. The act, referring to the organization's colored fair, prohibited booths and the selling of refreshments or liquor within a half mile of the fairgrounds while the fair was in progress. The fair was held in Millersburg, KY. For more see Chapter 58 of the Laws of Kentucky in Acts Passed at...Session of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth, printed in 1874 at the Kentucky Yeoman Office in Frankfort, KY [available full view via Google Book Search] .
Subjects: Colored Fairs & Black Expos
Geographic Region: Millersburg, Bourbon County, Kentucky

Aikens, Julia E. Jackson
Start Year : 1901
End Year : 1993
In 1959, Julia Aikens became the first African American switchboard operator at the U.S. Post Office in South Bend, Indiana. Born in Hancock County, KY, she was married to Arthur Aikens; the couple moved to South Bend, IN, in 1946. Julia Aikens was a graduate of Knox Beauty College and Grigg's Business School in Chicago. She had owned a beauty shop. Aikens also served as a WAAC and a WAC during World War II, enlisting March 23, 1943, in Columbus, OH. For more see the Julia Aikens' entry in The Black Women in the Middle West Project, by D. C. Hine, et al.; and the Julia E. Aikens Collection at the Northern Indiana Historical Society.
Subjects: Cosmetologists, Beauty Shops, Hairdressers, Beauty Supplies, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Postal Service, Women's Groups and Organizations, Women's Army Corps (WACs)
Geographic Region: Hancock County, Kentucky / South Bend, Indiana

Ainsworth, Marilyn V. Yarbrough
Birth Year : 1945
Death Year : 2004
Ainsworth was born Marilyn Virginia Yarbrough in Bowling Green, KY, the daughter of Merca L. Toole and William O. Yarbrough. When Marilyn was a child, the family moved to Raleigh, NC. She was a graduate of Virginia State University and, in 1973, the UCLA Law School. Ainsworth was an aerospace engineer with IBM and Westinghouse. She and her husband, Walter, were able to pay her law school tuition with her winnings from the Hollywood Squares Show. Marilyn Ainsworth later earned additional winnings from the television game shows Concentration and Match Game. She was a law professor at several colleges and served as dean of the University of Tennessee College of Law. She was the first African American woman to become dean at a major southern law school, and she was one of the first African American female law professors in the United States. Prior to her death, Ainsworth was a law professor at the University of North Carolina. For more see Who's Who In American Law; Who's Who of American Women; Who's Who Among African Americans, 1985-2006; and L. Stewart, "Yarbrough, 58, law professor," The Daily Tar Heel, 03/15/04.

 See photo image and biography of Marilyn Y. Ainsworth at the University of Kansas Women's Hall of Fame website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Lawyers, Television, Migration East
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Air Force Historical Research Agency
The agency is a historical depository for the United States Air Force historical documents. The documents collection was originally located in Washington D.C. after World War II and is presently at Maxwell Air Force Base near Montgomery, AL. The depository has the world's largest collection of documents on U.S. Military aviation. Documents in the collection contain information on Kentucky African Americans, including the formation of the 477th Bombardment Group [Roy Chappell was a member], described in The Freeman Field Mutiny: a study in Leadership [.pdf]; and African American servicemen in Kentucky in Black Americans in Defense of Our Nation and Blacks in the Marine Corps. Visit the Air Force Historical Research Agency for much more information.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, National Resources
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Maxwell Airforce Base, Alabama

Akins, Clyde B., Sr.
Birth Year : 1950
Clyde B. Akins, Sr. is the pastor of First Baptist Church in Bracktown, KY, and an educator. He is also author of From burden to blessing. He is a graduate of the University of Kentucky with a B.A. in Social Work, and his Master's of Divinity and Doctorate of Ministry are from Lexington Theological Seminary. He served in the Army as a multilingual interpreter and taught foreign languages, having studied eight languages. Akins was appointed to the Kentucky Board of Education in 2006. He was appointed by Governor Steve Breshear to the University of Kentucky Board of Trustee in 2011. For more see First Baptist Church Bracktown; "Governor Fletcher Appoints Members to the State Board of Education," 02/24/2006 (a Kentucky government press release); F. E. Lockwood, "Expanding a ministry - First Baptist Church Bracktown moves into its $6.5 million facility with lots more room and outreach opportunities," Lexington Herald-Leader, 07/08/2006, Main News section, p. A1; the Akins interview, "Future Black Males Working Academy," Connections with Renee Shaw, #215, 06/02/2007, at KET (Kentucky Educational Television); and L. Blackford, "Lexington minister joins UK board - Breshear fills number of college posts," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/02/2011, p.A4.
Subjects: Authors, Civic Leaders, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Bracktown, Fayette County, Kentucky

Alcohol Not Served to Women at Bars
Start Year : 1938
End Year : 1974
In January 1952, there were three arrests: Miss Frankie E. Maxwell, owner of the Top Hat Tavern in Louisville, KY, and her bartenders Lloyd A. Phillips and George Smith. Each was charged with selling cocktails to females at the bar. The Kentucky Law § 2554b-188, which had been in effect since 1938, stated that, "[n]o distilled spirits or wine shall be sold, given away or served, on premises licensed under this Act for the sale of alcoholic beverages at retail for consumption on the premises, to females, except at tables where food may be served." Maxwell, Phillips and Smith were charged a reduced fine of $100 each for the offenses, but their attorney asked for the $300 fine so that the cases could be appealed. In 1974, § 2554b-188 was repealed. For more see "Café manager fined for serving drinks to women at bar," The Louisville Defender, 01/05/1952, vol. 18, issue 41, front page & p. 2; and 244.320 Females to be served only at tables [Repealed, 1974].
Subjects: Alcohol, Businesses
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Alexander, Henry
Birth Year : 1802
Henry Alexander was a slave from Mayslick, KY, who purchased his freedom when he was 21 years old. He was a merchant and is listed in the 1840 U.S. Federal Census as a free man. Henry and his wife, Lucy Alexander, had a daughter, Maria Ann Alexander, who graduated from Oberlin College with a Literary Degree in 1854 and taught for a while in Covington, KY. Maria married Mifflin W. Gibbs, and the couple moved to Vancouver Island, Canada. Mifflin Gibbs would become the first African American judge in the United States. Harriet A. Gibbs was one of the couple's five children. For more see F. Fowler, "Some undistinguished Negroes," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 5, issue 4 (Oct. 1920), p. 485.
Subjects: Fathers, Freedom, Migration North, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Mayslick, Mason County, Kentucky / Vancouver Island, Canada

Alexander, Joseph L.
Birth Year : 1930
Death Year : 2002
Joseph L. Alexander was a senior at Fisk University in 1951 when it was announced that he would become the first African American admitted to the University of Louisville School of Medicine. Alexander was born in Oneonta, AL, and grew up in Anchorage, Kentucky. He received a four-year scholastic scholarship to attend Fisk. The University of Louisville trustees had decided during the summer of 1950 to admit Negroes to the school's graduate and professional schools. Alexander would go on to accomplish many firsts during his career. He was a military surgeon and performed the Army's first kidney transplant. He was the first Chief of Surgery at the Martin Luther King Jr. General Community Hospital, and during the same period he was a professor at the Charles R. Drew Post Graduate Medical School; both institutions are in Los Angeles, CA. Alexander wrote many medical articles, including "The King-Drew Trauma Center," published in the Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 68, no. 5 (1976), pp. 384-386. He became the first African American member of the California Club in Los Angeles in 1988 after the city passed an ordinance that banned membership discrimination by private organizations. Joseph L. Alexander was the son of Hattie Hughes. The Joseph L. Alexander Fund was established at the University of Louisville. For more see "A Fisk University senior, Joseph L. Alexander...," on page 257, and "Joseph L. Alexander" on page 284 -- both articles are in The Crisis, vol. 58, no. 4 (April 1951), and the same article can be found on pp. 204-205 of the Journal of the National Medical Association, vol. 43, no. 3 (May 1951); under the heading "Died:" "Joseph L. Alexander...," Jet, May 27, 2002, p. 54; "Watts finally gets a hospital," Ebony, December 1974, pp. 124-128, 130, 132, and 134; "Joseph L. Alexander, M.D." in A Century of Black Surgeons: pt. 1 institutional and organizational contributions, by C. H. Organ and M. M. Kosiba; and "Alexander, 72, pioneer as scholar, physician," The Los Angeles Times, 05/14/2002, News section, p. B9.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Oneonta, Alabama / Anchorage, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Nashville, Tennessee / Los Angeles, California

Alexander, Kelvin E.
Birth Year : 1969
Kelvin Alexander was born in Clinton, KY, the son of Mildred Alexander. He now lives in Bowling Green, KY, where he is serving a second term as vice president of the American Postal Workers Union Local 453, the first African American to serve in that position. Alexander is a graduate of Hickman County High School and Western Kentucky University, where he earned a B.A. in mass communication and minored in public administration. He is a member of the Oakland Mount Zion Baptist Church in Oakland, KY, and will soon be a deacon. He is also a member of Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity. Kelvin and his wife Diana are the parents of William Alexander. Information submitted by Mildred C. and Kelvin E. Alexander.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Postal Service, Religion & Church Work, Fraternal Organizations, Union Organizations
Geographic Region: Clinton, Hickman County, Kentucky / Oakland and Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

Alexander, Lucy
Birth Year : 1803
Lucy, who was born in Kentucky, was the wife of Henry Alexander. Though Henry had purchased his freedom at the age of 21, it is not known if Lucy had aways been free or was freed sometime after her birth; she is listed in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census as a free person. Lucy and Henry worked strenuously to earn money to send their children to school. Their daughter, Maria A. Alexander, graduated from Oberlin College with a Literary Degree in 1854. Maria married Mifflin W. Gibbs, and the couple moved to Vancouver Island, Canada. Mifflin Gibbs would become the first African American judge in the United States. Harriet A. Gibbs was one of the couple's five children. For more see They stopped in Oberlin: Black residents and visitors of the Nineteenth Century, by W. E. Bigglestone.
Subjects: Migration North, Mothers
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Oberlin, Ohio / Vancouver Island, Canada

Ali, Muhammad [Cassius Clay]
Birth Year : 1942
Born in Louisville, KY, as Cassius Clay, he was the son of Marcellus and Odessa Grady Clay. In 1964 he joined the Nation of Islam and changed his name to Muhammad Ali; he is also referred to as "The Greatest." Ali won the light heavyweight gold medal as a member of the U.S. Boxing Team at the 1960 Olympics in Rome, Italy. He was taken to California by his lawyer, Alberta O. Jones, to train under Archie Moore. Jones, a Kentucky native, also established a trust fund for Ali, who was an exceptional boxer with great promise. His career included 56 wins in 61 bouts with 37 KOs, and he was three-time heavyweight champion of the world. Ali was honored as Sportsman of the Century in 1999. For more see King of the World, by D. Remnick; and see photos and video at The Official Muhammad Ali website.

Photo of Muhammad Ali at website.
 
Photo of Muhammad Ali in Explore UK.
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing, Olympics: Athletes, Games, Events
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Rome, Italy

Allen, Anthony, Sr.
Birth Year : 1857
Anthony Allen was a horse trainer from Lexington, KY, who lived in Baltimore, MD. He was born in 1857, the son of Daniel and Caroline Allen [sources: 1880 U.S. Federal Census and 1870 Freedman's Bank Record #239]. In 1900, Anthony Allen was the husband of Mary F. Allen; the family of four lived in Baltimore, MD, on Cathedral Street [source: U.S. Federal Census]; they had lived at 936 Brevard Street earlier [source: R. L. Polk & Co.'s Baltimore City Directory for 1900, p. 82]. In 1910 there were five children in the family, and in 1920 the family of six lived at 122 Patapsco Avenue [source: U.S. Federal Census; and Baltimore City Directory, 1920, p. 349]. In 1920, Anthony Allen spent part of the year as a horse trainer in Delaware County, PA, and part of the year in Baltimore, MD [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1930, Anthony Allen was listed with no job title; his wife Mary was the proprietor of a lunch room [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Anthony Allen is named in the last paragraph of the article, "They will live as long as racing does," Capital Plaindealer, 12/20/1936, p. 6. There are a number of articles in the Sun and listings in the Daily Racing Form with Anthony Allen listed as a horse trainer.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Migration North
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Baltimore, Maryland

Allen, Bessie Miller and Henry
The Allens were the first African American social workers in Louisville, KY, they managed the Kentucky Home Society for Colored Children. In the 1920 U.S. Federal Census, Henry (b.1877 in KY) is listed as the janitor of the home, and Bessie is listed as the matron and probation officer. The Allens were the parents of author and librarian Ann Allen Shockley. Bessie Allen was a graduate of State University [Simmons University in Louisville]. She started a nonsectarian Sunday School in 1902. She was also head of the Colored Department of Probation Work and opened the Booker T. Washington Community Center, which offered domestic classes for boys and girls. She also organized a marching band for African American children. Bessie Allen (1881-1944) was born in Louisville, KY, the daughter of Anna and John D. Miller. For more see "Ann A. Shockley" in A Biographical Profile of Distinguished Black Pioneer Female Librarians (selected), by L. G. Rhodes; and Life Behind a Veil, by G. Wright.
Subjects: Fathers, Mothers, Social Workers, Sunday School, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Allen, Charles E.
Birth Year : 1931
Allen was born in Cynthiana, KY, to Isham and Mildred Wilson Allen. He is a graduate of Central State University (B.S.) and served in the military before earning his M.S. at the University of Southern California. Allen was a teacher and math specialist in the Los Angeles school system and served as a consultant to the state departments of education in Iowa, Minnesota, New Mexico, California, Nebraska, Oregon, and North Carolina. He was director of the National Council of Teachers of Math, 1972-1975, and has authored several math books, including Supermath, Adventures in Computing, and Adventures in Computing Book II. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-1997.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky / Los Angeles, California

Allen County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1920
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1920
Allen County, located in south-central Kentucky, was formed in 1815 from parts of Barren and Warren Counties. The county is named for Colonel John Allen, and the county seat, Scottsville, is named for Kentucky Governor Charles Scott. Allen County is one of the Kentucky locations to experience oil booms: 1850, 1890, and 1915-1920. Below is the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks and free Mulattoes listed in the U.S. Federal Census for Allen County for the period during the oil booms.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 179 slave owners
  • 795 Black slaves
  • 102 Mulatto slaves
  • 25 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 314 slave owners
  • 1,246 Black slaves
  • 283 Mulatto slaves
  • 27 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
Available online are the Allen County slave births, 1852-1861, provided by Sharon Tabor. The listing includes the names of a few free born Blacks, also.

1870 Federal Census
  • 806 Blacks
  • 199 Mulattoes
  • About 44 U.S. Colored Troops listed Allen County, KY, as their birth location.
1880 U.S. Federal Census
  • 718 Blacks
  • 175 Mulattoes
1900 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,100 Blacks
  • 3 Mulattoes
1920 U.S. Federal Census
  • 634 Blacks
  • 143 Mulattoes
  • There were about 110 draft registration cards by Blacks, and 1 Colored, in Allen County, KY.
For more see A History of Scottsville and Allen County, by H. H. Patton; the "Allen County" entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and Till Freedom Came: slaves in Allen County, 1815-1866 by G. Conner. For more on the oil fields in Kentucky, see Brandon C. Nuttall, "Oil and Gas History of Kentucky: 1860-1900" at the University of Kentucky Geological Survey website.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky

Allen, Dudley
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1911
Dudley Allen, a slave born in Lexington, KY, was owned by either Walter or John Dunn. Allen would become a noted thoroughbred owner and trainer. He owned a stock farm in Lexington, where he trained his own young horses and sold others to wealthy horsemen. Allen had purchased the farm after serving in the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry Regiment. He was the first African American to own a Kentucky Derby winner: he was part owner of the 1891 winner Kingman, ridden by Isaac Murphy. Allen was one of two leading trainers at Churchill Downs in Louisville, KY. The following was submitted by University of Kentucky Anthropology Researcher Nancy O'Malley: Dudley died at his residence, 416 Kinkead Street in Lexington, KY. He and his wife, Margaret Crittenden Allen (d. 1919), had lived in the home since around 1871, when Margaret purchased the lot from George B. Kinkead. The couple was married by Reverend George Downing in Lexington in 1866, after Dudley Allen had served in the Army with Company M of the 5th U.S. Colored Cavalry, 1864-1866 as a Quartermaster Sergeant. The 5th Colored Cavalry fought October 2, 1864, in Saltville, VA; "many of the soldiers had not been adequately trained and were not properly equipped, and a disastrous defeat followed." The 5th Colored Cavalry also fought at Lexington on October 19, and at Harrodsburg on October 21, retuning to Virginia in December when the Saltville works were destroyed. For more see Dudley Allen in the Encyclopedia of Ethnicity and Sports in the United States, by G. B. Kirsch, et al. See also "The Allen House Lot," chapter XI in Kinkeadtown: Archaeological Investigation of an African-American Neighborhood in Lexington, Kentucky, by N. O'Malley. Quotation from Nancy O'Malley's submission.

Nancy O'Malley, Assistant Director
William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology and
Office of State Archeology
1020A Export Street
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506
Ph. 859-257-1944
FAX: 859-323-1968
Subjects: Businesses, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, & The Derby, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Allen, Elmer Lucille
Birth Year : 1931
Mrs. Elmer Lucille Allen was born in Louisville, KY. She is a 1953 chemistry graduate of Nazareth College [now Spalding University], and in 1966 she became the first African American chemist at the Brown-Forman Company in Louisville. Allen was one of three women employed at the company, where she held the title of senior analytical chemist. She retired from the company in 1997 and returned to college to earn a MA in creative arts in ceramics from the University of Louisville in 2002. Allen's art work has been displayed at various galleries in Louisville, Indiana, Kansas, and many other locations. She was the first recipient of the Community Arts Lifetime Local Achievement Award in 2004, and that same year was also recognized as a Woman of Distinction. In 2007 she was one of the "Women of Spunk" honorees. Allen is also actively involved as a community volunteer with organizations such as the Louisville Western Branch Library Support Group, Inc. For more see J. Egerton, "Actors Theatre will honor Women of Spunk," The Courier-Journal, 12/02/2007, Arts & Travel section, p. 1I; and "Black Achievements in the Arts Recognized by Governor's Awards" a kyarts.org press release on 01/31/2005.
See "U of L: Elmer Lucille Allen" at YouTube.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Chemists, Civic Leaders, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Allen, Frank, Jr.
Allen was elected to the City Council of Burkesville, KY, in 1969, becoming the city's first African American elected official, and was re-elected in 1971. For more see "36 city officials include mayor, police court judge," Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials [1972], by the Commission on Human Rights, p. 10.
Subjects: First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Burkesville, Cumberland County, Kentucky

Allen, James A.
Birth Year : 1857
Death Year : 1922
James A. Allen was the first African American police detective in Cincinnati, OH. He was born in Greenupsburg [Greenup], KY, the son of Frank and Jane M. Allen [source: Ohio Death Record, for James A. Allen]. James A. Allen came to Cincinnati after working on steamboats for several years. He was a coachman for Robert J. Morgan in Walnut Hills, Cincinnati. Robert J. Morgan would become the Police Commissioner for Cincinnati. James A. Allen was still his coachman in 1886, according to Williams Cincinnati Directory, and by 1887, he was a Cincinnati policeman. A few years later he was named a detective. By 1892, there were 11 African Americans employed by the Cincinnati Police Department. James A. Allen was the only one who was a detective, along with eight patrolmen and two turnkeys who were African Americans [source: "Personal mention," Plaindealer, 08/12/1892, p. 6]. James A. Allen is listed in the 1900 Census as a detective who was single and lived alone, and he was mistakenly listed as white. His first wife had been Lugusta Adams Allen. His second wife was Maude I. Goodson Allen, born around 1882 in Mississippi, and according to the 1910 and 1920 census records, the couple lived on Richmond Street with their son James A. Allen, Jr. For more see Cincinnati's Colored Citizens, by W. P. Dabney; and Images of America: Cincinnati Police History, by C. Mersch and the Greater Cincinnati Police Historical Society Museum.
Subjects: Migration North, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Greenupsburg [now Greenup], Greenup County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Allensville (KY) Emancipation Celebration
For more than 123 years, on or around August 8, the Allensville community has been celebrating the Emancipation of African Americans. About 200 people attended the celebration in 1992. For more see "Kentuckians celebrate Emancipation Proclamation," The Evansville Courier, 08/10/1992, Metro section, p. A4.
Subjects: Freedom, Emancipation Day / Juneteenth Celebrations
Geographic Region: Allensville, Todd County, Kentucky

Allensworth, Allen [Allensworth, California]
Birth Year : 1842
Death Year : 1914
Allen Allensworth was born a slave in Louisville, KY, the son of Levi and Phyllis Allensworth. He escaped and became a nurse during the Civil War and later joined the Navy and became a chief petty officer. After the war, he returned to Kentucky and became a schoolteacher, an ordained minister, and a delegate to the Republican National Conventions in 1880 and 1884. He was appointed chaplain of the 24th Infantry by President Cleveland and received promotion to lieutenant colonel. In 1890, Allensworth moved to California and established a company to assist African Americans in their migration to California. The town of Allensworth was developed, the first and still the only California town founded by African Americans. Today the area where the town once stood is Colonel Allensworth State Historical Park. Allen Allensworth was the husband of Josephine Leavell Allensworth, also a Kentucky native. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, ed. by R. W. Logan and M. R. Winston; "Rev. Allen Allensworth, A.M." on pp.198-199 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in KentuckyHistory of Allensworth, CAFriends of Allensworth; and for more about Allen Allensworth's military career see his entry in On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier by F. N. Schubert.

See photo image of Allen Allensworth on p.189 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, at the NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Parks, Religion & Church Work, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Nurses
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Allensworth, California (no longer exists)

Allensworth, James L., Sr.
Birth Year : 1845
Death Year : 1922
Reverend James L. Allensworth, Sr. was a pastor, veteran, and respected man; he was also the first African American coroner in Hopkinsville, KY. He owned a single lot of land on Lovier Street, according to the city property tax list for 1893 and 1894. He was manager of the Good Samaritan Association in Hopkinsville [see NKAA entry Colored Lodges - Hopkinsville, KY]. He was editor of The Baptist Monitor newspaper while it was located in Hopkinsville [source: "Papers published by Negroes" in Chapter 13 of A History of Christian County Kentucky, by C. M. Meacham]. He was a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. In 1905, he ran for re-election as the county coroner, and his son James Allensworth, Jr. (1872-1927), was named for the position of constable [source: "Nominated for magistrate, and Jim Allensworth, Jr., for constable," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 09/12/1905, p. 1]. Allensworth, Sr. was re-elected as coroner in 1905 and 1909 [source: "Slate went through easy," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 04/27/1909, p. 1]. He was first elected to the position of coroner in 1894 and in 1895 held an inquest into the death of a man who was hit by a train while walking down the tracks [source: "A stranger killed," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 01/22/1895, p. 1]. He is listed among Christian County's first elected Negro officials [see NKAA entry], and he served as the coroner of Hopkinsville until 1920. Rev. Allensworth's duties included cutting down the bodies of lynched persons and burying them, one case being that of "Booker" Brame, who was said to have been lynched by an unknown party [source: "Coroner cuts down body," Springfield Sun, 04/19/1909, p. 1]. Rev. Allensworth was the husband of Gracie McComb Allensworth; they married in May of 1899 [source: "County Corner weds," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/02/1899, p. 5]. Gracie McComb Allesnworth is listed on James's military pension record. His previous wife was Minerva Perkins Allensworth. Rev. Allensworth, his wife, and their four children are listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. Rev. Allensworth was a Civil War veteran, having served with the 13th Heavy Artillery division of the U.S. Colored Troops. According to his enlistment record, James L. Allensworth, Sr. was born in Christian County, KY, around 1845; he enlisted in Bowling Green, KY, on September 24, 1864. He may have been a slave prior to enlisting in the military; his parents were listed as unknown on his death certificate.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Military & Veterans, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Allensworth, Josephine L.
Birth Year : 1855
Death Year : 1939
Josephine Leavell Allensworth was born in Trenton, KY. She was the wife of Allen Allensworth, and, as her husband had done, she taught in the Kentucky common schools. Josephine Allensworth was also an accomplished pianist. She helped develop the Progressive Women's Improvement Association, which provided books and a playground to the town of Allensworth, California. In 1913, Josephine Allensworth donated the land for the Dickinson Memorial Library in Allensworth. For more see African American Women: a biographical dictionary, by D. C. Salem; Friends of Allensworth; and the Allen Allensworth's entry in On the Trail of the Buffalo Soldier by F. N. Schubert.

See photo image and additional information at blackpast.org.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration West, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Trenton, Todd County, Kentucky / Allensworth, California (no longer exists)

Alleyne, Delores Gordon
Birth Year : 1932
Delores Gordon Alleyne was the first African American woman admitted to the University of Louisville Medical School; she graduated in 1957. Dr. Alleyne was born in Pulaski, TN, and her family later moved to Louisville. She attended Louisville Municipal College for Negroes; when the school was closed, she completed her undergraduate degree at the University of Louisville. Dr. Alleyne has taught at several medical schools; she retired in 1999 as a pediatrician with the Los Angeles County Health Department. For more see "Celebration of Change," Medicine Magazine (Fall/Winter 2004), by the University of Louisville School of Medicine.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration West
Geographic Region: Pulaski, Tennessee / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Los Angeles, California

Alpha Chapter #90, O.E.S., P. H. A. (Midway, KY)
Start Year : 1922
End Year : 1990
The following was written by Mrs. Mollie M. Bradley. According to the charter given by Cecelia Dunlap Grand Chapter, O.E.S., P.H.A., Alpha Chapter was organized in Midway, Kentucky, August 3, 1922. The charter members were Janie Gaines, Virginia Green, Sarah Craig, Bettie Sanders, Helena Smith, Rachel G. Christy, Phoebe C. Thomas, Mary Ella Thomas, Annie Lewis, Ida Smith, and Carrie A. James. The first officers were Elisha Green, worthy patron; Janie Gaines, worthy matron; and Virginia Green, associate matron. These names are listed on the charter. The charter was signed by the grand officers of the grand chapter. They were James L. Dunlap, grand worthy patron; Mollie Williams, grand worthy matron; and Bessie H. Ballard, grand secretary. The chapter struggled for years to exist. The membership decreased, but four ladies continued to meet: Sarah C. Bradley, Rachel C. Christy, Phoebe C. Thomas, and Elizabeth Williams. The first three ladies were sisters. They are to be commended for their endurance and patience. In 1956, several ladies from Versailles joined and the membership increased. An Eastern Star Chapter (PHA) did not exist in Versailles. The chapter was renamed to Alpha Chapter #90, O.E.S., P.H.A., Midway - Versailles by the grand chapter. The Chapter was fortunate to produce several grand officers: Walter T. Bradley, Jr., grand worthy patron (1973-75); Mollie M. Bradley, grand worthy matron (1985-87); Josephine Smith and Daisy Higgins were appointed district deputies. Walter T. Bradley, [Jr.] served as worthy patron during the tenures of his mother, Sarah C. Bradley, worthy matron, (1956-58) and his wife, Mollie M. Bradley, (1978-80). In 1990, the chapter voted to disperse due to a decrease in membership. The grand chapter granted demits to those who desired to join other chapters. Mollie M. Bradley served for ten years as secretary of Alpha Chapter #90, O.E.S. The original charter of Alpha Chapter #90, O.E.S., P.H.A. and a copy of the History of Prince Hall Freemasonry in Kentucky by Dr. William Henry Ballard, Sr. 33 Degree, are in the archives of Mollie M. Bradley, Midway, Kentucky.

Subjects: Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Midway and Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky

Alston, Ethel B. Richardson
Birth Year : 1949
Death Year : 2003
Alston, born in North Carolina, moved to Kentucky with her husband, Virnal J. Alston. It is thought that they were the first African American couple to be admitted to the Kentucky Bar Association. Mrs. Alston was a graduate of Spelman College, where she earned a B.A. in history, and she earned her law degreee at North Carolina Central University School of Law. She was a legislative analyst and attorney with the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission. Alston assisted with implementation issues relating to the Kentucky Educational Reform Act of 1990 and the Postsecondary Education Improvement Act of 1997. In 2003, the Legislative Education Staff Network posthumously awarded Alston the Recognition Award for her service to the organization and to the Kentucky Legislature. For more see SR113.
Subjects: Lawyers
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / North Carolina

Always there: the African-American presence in American quilts
This book written by C. Benberry (Kentucky Quilt Project), includes Kentucky quilters such as Fanny Catlett, who was born in 1859 in Birmingham, Kentucky, and Minnie Benberry of Grand Rivers, Kentucky; and a quilt made by slaves in Richmond, Kentucky. The title Always there: the African-American presence in American quilts was first used for the traveling quilt exhibit that was shown around the country between 1992-94. For more see K. Johnson, "Quilt Records Donated to U of L Archives and Records Center," The Kentucky Archivist: Newsletter of the Kentucky Council on Archives, Spring 2000, p. 4.
Subjects: Quilters, Collectibles
Geographic Region: Birmingham, Marshall County, Kentucky (no longer exists) / Grand Rivers, Livingston County, Kentucky / Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky

American Baptist Home Missionary Society Schools in Kentucky
Start Year : 1895
In 1895, the American Baptist Home Missionary Society had 619 African American students in its Kentucky schools: State University [Simmons University], Louisville; Cadiz Normal and Theological College [headed by Rev. W. H. McRidley], Cadiz; Simmons Memorial College [headed by Robert Mitchell], Bowling Green; Henderson Normal School, Henderson; Glasgow Normal School, Glasgow; and Baptist Church School, Danville. For more see the Sixty-third Annual Report, of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, May 30th and 31st, 1895, pp.115-117 [full view available via Google Book Search]. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Cadiz, Trigg County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

American Fugitive Slaves in the British Metropolis (London, England)
Start Year : 1851
The "American Fugitive Slaves in the British Metropolis" was an ad hoc association formed August 1, 1851, by American fugitives who were in exile in London, England. The organization was established to assist fugitive slaves in finding jobs, education, and settling in England. The organization was founded in response to the passing of the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850 in the United States, which had prompted a greater influx of fugitives in England. There was also the influence of British abolitionists and the American abolitionist who were touring England, Scotland, and Wales; the men were lecturing against slavery in the United States. One of the touring abolitionists was William Wells Brown. Author R. J. M. Blackett mentions in his book, Building an Antislavery Wall, p.5, that not all American fugitives in England were destitute or survived by begging in the streets [as the Avery sisters had attempted]. Blackett noted that fugitive William Watson had enrolled in school. The "American Fugitive Slaves in the British Metropolis" was a short-lived organization. For more information see R. J. M. Blackett, "Fugitive slaves in Britain: the odyssey of William and Ellen Craft," Journal of American Studies, April 1978, v.12, no.1, pp.41-62; and Slave Life in Virginia and Kentucky by F. Frederick.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Freedom, Fraternal Organizations, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Kentucky / London, England, Europe

American Woodmen, Kentucky
Start Year : 1918
The American Woodmen started as a white organization in Colorado in 1901, but became a black organization in 1910, founded by Cassius M. White and Granville W. Norman, both from Austin, TX [source: "History of American Woodmen - the Supreme Camp of the American Woodmen (AWSC)" in Fraternal Organizations by Alvin J. Schmidt]. Members were from 16 states (including Kentucky).  AWSC was a fraternal and benefits organization that provided aid to deceased members, widows, heirs, and orphans via the American Woodmen Life Insurance Company. The organization also provided social and community services. In 1994, the AWSC merged with the Woodmen of the World, and Assured Life Association. In Kentucky, in 1924, the American Woodmen Uniform Ranks met at Camp Nicholas Biddle in Louisville, KY. The Kentucky camp existed as early as 1918 when they participated in the national campaign to recruit 1,000 new members [source: "American Woodmen growing, female band practicing," Cleveland Gazette, 08/10/1918, p.1]. In 1922, C. C. Trimble from Louisville, KY, was the National Supervisor of the American Woodmen [source: Ad "Here the Hon. C. C. Trimble," Advocate (Kansas City, Kansas), 04/21/1922, p.1]. There continued to be a membership in Kentucky in 1937 [source: "American Woodmen to hold ninth quadrennial meeting in August," Plaindealer (Kansas City), 06/04/1937, p.2]. Around 1978, the American Woodmen Life Insurance Company could no longer write insurance certificates in Kentucky and most other states.  

  See photo image of American Woodmen Uniform Ranks met at Camp Nicholas Biddle in Louisville, KY, photo in Kentucky Digital Library.

 
Subjects: Fraternal Organizations

American/Brazilian Slaver "Kentucky" (ship)
Start Year : 1844
In 1844, the slave ship Kentucky, which had been sold by Americans to Brazilians, sailed to Inhambane and Quelimane, Mozambique, under the American flag. The crew was made up of both Americans and Brazilians. Inhambane and Quelimane, located on the southeast coast of Africa, were off limits to the slave ship by treaty. Nonetheless, once the cargo of 530 adult Africans was shackled aboard the Kentucky, the ship was turned over to the Brazilians, and all or some of the American crew returned to Brazil on another ship. The next day, the Africans attempted an unsuccessful revolt. Those thought to be guilty were tried by the ship captain, and 46 African men and one woman were hanged, then shot in the chest and thrown overboard. In addition, 20 men and six women were severely flogged. When the ship reached Brazil, the entire incident was recounted and recorded at the U.S. Consul in Rio de Janeiro and forwarded to the U.S. Congress [House Ex. Doc. 61 & Senate Ex. Doc. 28, both in 30th Congress]. In 1845, Consul Henry A. Wise (Virginia) appealed to President James K. Polk to take a stand against pirate slave ships sailing under the American flag as license for the types of barbarity exhibited on the Kentucky and the slave trade in general. No stand was taken. The Kentucky was eventually found by a British armed vessel, it was tucked away on the Angozha [Angoche] River in Mozambique. With no way to escape by sea, the crew of the Kentucky set the ship on fire and escaped by land. For more see The American Slave Trade: an account of its origin, growth and suppression, by J. R. Spears (published in 1900); and An Exposition of the African Slave Trade: from the year 1840, to 1850 inclusive, by U.S. Department of State, Representative Meeting (1851) [both titles available in full-text via Google Book Search].
Subjects: Freedom, Lynchings, Riots and Protests Outside Kentucky, Slave Trade (U.S.)
Geographic Region: Inhambane and Quelimane, Mozambique, Africa / Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, South America / United States

Among the Colored Citizens (Frankfort Newspaper)
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1892
As early as February 17, 1883, The Frankfort Roundabout newspaper had a column titled "Colored Department" on p.4. "[Under this head we will publish weekly items of interest to our colored citizens.]" The column fell to the wayside until about 1886-1890s when it was titled "Among the Colored People," then changed to "Among the Colored Citizens." The column was initially located on the front page, but was later moved to the latter pages. The content included news of visitors and vacations, church news, deaths, entertainment, and graduations. The full text of the columns is available online within the Kentucky Digital Library - Newspapers and Chronicling America.
Subjects: Colored Notes in Kentucky Newspapers
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

An African American History and Geography of Lexington
By Dr. Jeffery A. Jones, Assistant Research Professor in the Department of Human Behavior, College of Public Health, at the University of Kentucky.
Subjects: Genealogy, History
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Anderson, Carey L, Jr.
Birth Year : 1950
Anderson was born in Louisville, KY, and earned a B.A. in architecture at the University of Kentucky in 1973. In 1977, he became the first African American architect licensed in Kentucky and by 1980 was the first in the state to establish an architectural firm, Anderson Associate Architects. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1980-2006.
Subjects: Architects
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Anderson, Carl L.
Anderson became the first African American member of the Bardstown, KY, City Council in 1975, winning a second term in 1977, a third term in 1979, and a fourth term in 1981. For more see "Three Kentucky cities have black mayors," in 1982 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, 6th Report, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights, p. 21.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Bardstown, Nelson County, Kentucky

Anderson, Charles H.
Birth Year : 1924
Anderson was born in Crab Orchard, KY. In 1969 he became the first African American to win a magistrate election in Jefferson County, KY, and, in 1975, he became the first circuit judge in Jefferson County, 3rd Chancery Division. Anderson was also the first African American candidate for election to the Kentucky Supreme Court, in 1982. For more see "Magistrates, constables are only black county officials," in the Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials [1972], p. 9; and "Eleven blacks hold county level posts," in the Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report [1978], pp. 11-12, both by the Commission on Human Rights; and Profiles of Contemporary Black Achievers of Kentucky, by J. B. Horton.
Subjects: First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Judges
Geographic Region: Crab Orchard, Lincoln County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Anderson, Charles W., Jr.
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1960
Anderson, born in Louisville, KY, was the son of Dr. Charles W. and Tabetha Murphy Anderson. He was a graduate of Wilberforce University and received his law degree from Howard University School of Law. Anderson was admitted to the Kentucky Bar in 1933, and in 1936, as a Republican, was elected to the Kentucky House of Representatives, making him the first African American Kentucky legislator. He had competed against five other candidates: Charles E. Tucker, Rev. Ernest Grundy, Dr. Richard P. Beckman, James D. Bailey, all Democrats, and Lee L. Brown, a Republican. Anderson is credited with a number of early Civil Rights measures, including the Anderson-Mayer State Aid Act, which provided funding for African Americans to seek higher education out of state because Kentucky enforced higher education segregation laws. Anderson was also appointed alternate delegate to the United Nations. For more see Not Without Struggle, by J. B. Horton; and Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000 [electronic version available on the University of Kentucky campus and off campus via the proxy server].
See photo image at Find A Grave.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Lawyers, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Anderson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Anderson County is located in central Kentucky within the Bluegrass Region, bound by seven other counties. Slaves arrived with the first settlers in the 1770s. Lawrenceburg, the county seat, was incorporated as Lawrence in 1820. Anderson County was established in 1827. There were 573 persons [heads of households] counted in the county in the 1830 U.S. Federal Census, excluding the slaves. By 1870, there were 5,500 persons counted in the census. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes in Anderson County between 1850 and 1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 307 slave owners
  • 1,021 Black slaves
  • 259 Mulatto slaves
  • 19 free Blacks
  • 11 free Mulattoes

1860 Slave Schedule

  • 285 slave owners
  • 1,211 Black slaves
  • 146 Mulatto slaves
  • 10 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes

1870 U.S. Federal Census

  • 646 Blacks
  • 67 Mulattoes
  • About 93 U.S. Colored Troops listed Anderson County, KY, as their birth location.

For more see "Anderson County" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia, edited by J. E. Kleber; and History and Families Anderson County, Kentucky, by Turner Publishing Co.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky

Anderson, Dennis H.
Birth Year : 1869
Death Year : 1952
Dennis Henry Anderson was originally from Tennessee. A graduate of Lane College in Tennessee, he became a Methodist minister. His wife was Artelia Harris Anderson. Dennis Anderson came to Kentucky and opened schools in Graves and Fulton counties. He raised funds for the building of the first high school in Fulton County in 1905. Anderson also initiated the building of West Kentucky Industrial College [now West Kentucky Community and Technical College], starting the building with his bare hands in 1909. The school, located in Paducah, KY, became a state institution in 1918. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones; Fifty Years of Segregation: Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1904-1954, by J. A. Hardin; My West Kentucky, by J. M. Blythe; and Dennis Henry Anderson, Founder of West Kentucky Technical College, a Jackson Purchase Historical Society website.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky / Graves County, Kentucky / Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Tennessee

Anderson, Derek
Birth Year : 1974
Born in Louisville, KY, Anderson, a 6'6" guard who played high school ball at Doss High School in that city, averaging 24.7 points his senior year. He played college ball first at Ohio State, from 1992 to 1994, scoring 15.5 points per game. He then transferred to the University of Kentucky (UK) in 1994, sitting out one year before seeing playing time during the 1995-1996 season with the team that won the 1996 NCAA Championship. He was drafted in 1997 by the Cleveland Cavaliers, chosen as the 13th pick in the first round. Over the years he played for a number of NBA teams and retired at the end of the 2007-08 season. Derek Anderson played in more than 500 games; he had a career high 35 points in a 2000 game and scored 1,269 points in the 2000-01 season. For more see Derek Anderson at basketball-reference.com and articles in local newspapers and sports publications such as Sports Illustrated.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Anderson, Ezzrett, Jr.
Birth Year : 1920
Ezzrett Anderson, Jr. was born in Nashville, AR, according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. He became one of the first African Americans from a predominantly African American school to play professional football when he joined the Los Angeles Dons in 1947. Anderson had attended Kentucky State University in Frankfort, KY, where he played football. He also played professional football with the Los Angeles Mustangs. He played for the Hollywood Bears in the Pacific Coast League when they won the title. He also played in the Canadian Football League for seven seasons (1948-1954) and was inducted into the Alberta Sports Hall of Fame and Museum in 2010. In addition to playing football, Ezzrett Anderson, Jr. was also an actor and appeared in 20 Hollywood films. For more see Smith, T., "Outside the pale; the exclusion of Blacks from the National Football League, 1934-1946," Journal of Sport History, 15, no. 3 (Winter 1988); and Pro Football Hall of Fame, General NFL History: African-Americans in Pro Football.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Football, Migration North, Migration West
Geographic Region: Nashville, Arkansas / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Canada

Anderson, Felix S., Sr.
Birth Year : 1891
Death Year : 1983
Born in Louisville, KY, Felix Sylvester Anderson, Sr. was a graduate of Livingston College and Hood Theological Seminary, both in North Carolina, and Western Theological Seminary in Michigan, where he received his Doctor of Divinity S.T.C. He was the first African American Democrat and the fourth African American in the Kentucky General Assembly. Anderson was elected as a Representative in 1954, 1956, and 1958. He was the first African American to chair a standing committee in the Kentucky House of Representatives when he was appointed head of the Committee of Suffrage, Elections, and Constitutional Amendments in 1958. The sway away from Republicans had continued with the Democratic bid for votes from Louisville's African Americans in 1944 during the Presidential election, with emphasis on the Roosevelt administration's economic contributions. By 1948, the number of eligible African American Democrat voters in Louisville had escalated to an all time high of 32.2% of all African American registered voters. For more on Felix S. Anderson, see "Negro heads Kentucky panel," The New York Times, 01/18/1958, p.9; and contact the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission. For more on the voting history, see L. C. Kesselman, "Negro Voting in a Border Community: Louisville, Kentucky," The Journal of Negro Education, 26, no. 3, pp. 273-280.

Access Interview Read about the Felix S. Anderson, Sr. oral history interview available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item record in the SPOKE Database.
 
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Religion & Church Work, Legislators, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Anderson, Florence G.
Birth Year : 1891
In 1915, Florence Anderson was the first African American to be appointed State Supervisor of Colored Rural Schools in Kentucky. She was born in Louisville, KY, and was a graduate of Louisville Central High School and Hampton Institute [now Hampton University]. Anderson had been a domestic science instructor at Denton Institute in Maylon in 1911. She was next a domestic science instructor at Tuskegee Institute, and she left that post in 1913 to teach domestic science at the Colored Institute held in Hopkinsville, KY, during Summer School. In 1914, Anderson was a teacher at State University [Simmons College, KY], and later a school supervisor in Winchester, KY. She had been a school teacher in Maryland, before returning to Kentucky in 1915 to become State Supervisor of Colored Rural Schools. By 1916, Anderson had been replaced as Supervisor of the Colored Rural Schools. Florence Anderson was the daughter of Dr. Charles W. Anderson, Sr. (1865-1931) and Mildred Saunders Anderson. She was an older sister of Kentucky's first African American legislator, Charles W. Anderson, Jr. For more see "Miss Florence Anderson," Freeman, 06/26/1915, p.3; see last paragraph on p.263 of Negro Education, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education, Bulletin, 1916, volume II, No.39; see "Miss Florence Anderson," Freeman, 09/23/1911, p.8; see "Miss Florence Anderson," Freeman, 07/12/1913, p.2; see "Miss Anderson" in the third paragraph of the column "Kentucky's Capital," Freeman, 01/03/1914, p.1; see "Miss Florence Anderson," Freeman, 08/15/1914, p.3; and see "Institute," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 07/06/1912, p.1.
Subjects: Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Anderson, John James [AKA James S. Anderson] [Anderson's Administrator v. Darland]
Birth Year : 1872
Death Year : 1919
Known as James S. Anderson in Kentucky, Dr. Anderson was a doctor of herbal medicine. He was described by his daughter, Irene Anderson Elder, as part black and part Choctaw Indian. Dr. Anderson came to Somerset, KY, from Kingston, TN; he had also had a practice in Chattanooga, where he met Irene's mother, a nurse named Mary Bowman, who was white. Mary gave birth to Irene in 1914 in a home for unwed mothers in Chattanooga. Irene was reared by her maternal grandmother in Lenoir City, TN; she was Irene's protector. Several years later her grandmother died, and Irene went to live with a foster family. Her father, James Anderson, had moved to Somerset, KY, not too long after Irene was born. In Kentucky, he was sometimes regarded as a Negro and at other times as a Choctaw Indian. Anderson established a tuberculosis treatment clinic, Unity Hill Sanatorium, a three story structure with over 100 beds, 65 rooms, a parlor with a piano, and a grocery store in the basement. He came to be considered a wealthy man with $100,000 in the Somerset bank. When Mary Bowman came down with tuberculosis, she came to Somerset to be a patient at Unity Hill for six months. She was still alive when Dr. James S. Anderson died of hypostatic pneumonia or was murdered November 19, 1919; it is still unclear exactly how he died, though pneumonia is given as the cause on his death certificate. After his death, M. L. Jarvis was appointed curator of Anderson's estate. Unity Hill Sanatorium was sold to a group of businessmen who changed the operation to Watnon (or Watson) Sanatorium, a cancer treatment clinic with separate buildings for Negro patients. In 1924, the clinic had closed and the campus became the new location for the Somerset School of Business. Irene Anderson Elder never benefited from her father's wealth. This entry was submitted by Yvonne Giles. For more information see L. A. Kochtik, "Irene's journey: a good life and a bad life," Appalachian Life Magazine, issue 51 (February), pp. 6-8; "Cancer Sanatorium opened at Somerset, Ky.," The Somerset Journal, 01/30/1920, p. 8; and Anderson's Administrator v. Darland, Court of Appeals of Kentucky, 192 Ky. 624; 234 S.W. 205; 1921 Ky.

Additional information: James S. Anderson's birth name was John James Anderson, he was born in Reidville, SC, February 12, 1872 [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census; and Kentucky Death Certificate Registered #142]. He was the son of Henry and Dorcas Drummond Anderson. Dr. Anderson was the husband of Ann Mary Crumly; the couple married in 1897, filed for divorce in 1915, and the divorce was final in 1918 [source: Hart and Dudek Family Tree; and Kentucky Death Certificate Registered #142]. Dr. Anderson is buried in Maple Grove Cemetery in Harrodsburg, KY.
Subjects: Fathers, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Court Cases, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Tuberculosis: Care and Deaths
Geographic Region: Reidville, South Carolina / Kingston, Lenoir, and Chattanooga, Tennessee / Somerset, Pulaski County, Kentucky / Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky

Anderson, Mattie E.
Birth Year : 1853
Mattie E. Anderson, who was born in Ohio, used her own money to open Frankfort Female High School in 1871 to provide African American teachers for Franklin, Fayette, and Woodford Counties in Kentucky. Anderson was the principal and a teacher at the school. She is listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census as a school teacher who was boarding at the home of Peter and Julia Smith. Peter Smith was a barber and his home was located on Broadway in Frankfort. Mattie Anderson is listed as a mulatto, in some sources, her race is given as white. Another teacher boarding at the home was Lucretia Newman from Michigan, who was also listed as a mulatto woman. The third person boarding at the house was 14 year old Winnie Scott who would become a teacher in the Frankfort Colored School. For more see "Miss Mattie E. Anderson" in Noted Negro Women: their triumphs and activities, by M. A. Majors; Library Services to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones, p. 18; and "Frankfort: Miss Mattie E. Anderson, Teacher," The American Missionary, vol. 32, issue 9 (September 1878), p. 276 [available online at Cornell University Library, Making of America website]. See also the NKAA entry for African American Schools in Frankfort and Franklin County, KY.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Ohio / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Fayette and Woodford Counties, Kentucky

Anderson, Myrtle E.
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1978
Myrtle E. Anderson was from Boston, MA. In 1943, she was a 1st Lieutenant in the Women's Army Corps (WACs). Anderson and 2nd Lieutenant Margaret E. Barnes Jones arrived in Camp Breckinridge, KY, with 175 enlisted African American women. The enlistees and officers were the first African American women of the U.S. Army to be stationed in Kentucky. The enlistees were given menial tasks such as cleaning latrines, and some of the women resigned from the WACs. Majors Jones and Anderson fought for better work assignments for the women. Ft. Breckinridge, also referred to as Camp Breckinridge, was disposed of by the U. S. Army on December 5, 1962. Prior to becoming a WAC, Myrtle E. Anderson had been a member of the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAACs) Officers Training Camp at Ft. Des Moines, IA. The WAACs was transitioned into the Women's Army Corps (WACs) during 1943. According to her World War II Army Enlistment Records, Myrtle [D.] Anderson enlisted in the Army on November 25, 1942 in Los Angeles, CA, Inactive Reserve, Aviation Cadet. It was noted on her record that, as a civilian, Anderson had been an actress. While at Ft. Des Moines, she continued her acting career on stage and in film; she performed throughout the run of the play "Run Little Children" and other government-sponsored stage plays for the military [source: H. Levette, "Gossip of the movie lots," Plaindealer [Kansas], 04/02/1943, p. 6]. In June of 1943, Anderson was ill in an Army hospital in Maine, and it was thought that she would have to leave the Army [source: H. Levette, "Gossip of the movie lot," Plaindealer [Kansas], 06/18/1943, p. 6]. Anderson recuperated, however, and continued in the WACs until she was discharged June 1, 1943 [source: U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs BIRLS Death File]. She continued her acting career with small uncredited roles in films. She had first appeared in the film The Green Pastures in 1936, and her last film appearance was around 1957. Myrtle Anderson was born May 26, 1907 and she died October 5, 1978, in Los Angeles, CA. For more about the African American women enlistees see To Serve My Country, To Serve My Race, by B. L. Moore; "6 WACs Resign: WAC Clerks Decline to Scrub Floors," Philadelphia Afro-American, July 10, 1943, p. 1; and see photo image with Myrtle Anderson and others above the photo caption "WAACs departure from Des Moines" in the article "Speaking of WAACs," Arkansas State Press, 01/01/1943, p. 3. For more about Camp Breckinridge, see the Camp Breckinridge entry in the Kentucky Encyclopedia; and History of Camp Breckinridge, Kentucky, by P. Heady. See also the NKAA entry WACs Protest at Camp Breckinridge, KY.

*Please note that there were other African American WAACs named Myrtle Anderson, one being Myrtle Estella Anderson in Kansas City, MO, who arrived at Ft. Des Moines around July of 1942 [source: "Myrtle Anderson feted by business group," Plaindealer [Kansas], 07/31/1942, p. 12]. Anderson had resigned her job as a dietician at the Wheatley Hospital, a job she had held for a year and a half before enlisting in the WAACs. Just prior to returning to Ft. Des Moines in July of 1942, she was voted vice-president of the Business and Professional Women's Club in Kansas City. [Wheatley Hospital was established and run by African Americans in Kansas City, MO, from 1902-1972 - - source: Wheatley-Provident Hospital—Kansas City, a flickr site].

*This may be the same Myrtle Anderson mentioned above. She was recognized for her military service with the American Campaign Medal; her hometown is given as Kansas City, MO.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Military & Veterans, Women's Groups and Organizations, Women's Army Corps (WACs)
Geographic Region: Fort Breckinridge [or Camp Breckinridge], Henderson, Webster, and Union Counties, Kentucky (no longer exists) / Boston, Massachusetts / Los Angeles, California

Anderson, Robert B.
Birth Year : 1843
Death Year : 1930
Anderson was born in Green County, KY. His mother and siblings were the property of Colonel Robert Ball, and his father was the property of Alfred Anderson. When he was six, Anderson's mother had a dispute with the mistress and was sold for field work in Louisiana. Robert never saw his mother again. In 1864, Anderson ran away to Lebanon, KY, where he joined the Army. He served in the west and received an honorable discharge, whereupon he returned to Kentucky but eventually moved out west, in 1870 settling in Nebraska. As a farmer, he had both years of prosperity and years of poverty until he finally found security with a farm of 1,120 acres that grew to be 2,000 acres. Anderson married in 1922 at the age of 79; his wife was 21. His wife's family soon moved in and his wife took over his affairs, which resulted in the land being heavily mortgaged. It was around that time, in 1927, that Anderson had his book published by the Hemingford Ledger: From slavery to affluence; memoirs of Robert Anderson, ex-slave. In 1930, he deeded all of his property to his wife. Robert Anderson died after the car he was riding in overturned; his wife, her brother and a friend survived. Ball's wife, Daisy Anderson, who passed away in 1998, had been one of the three surviving Civil War widows in the U.S. For more see D. D. Wax, "Robert Ball Anderson, ex-slave, a pioneer in Western Nebraska, 1884-1930," Nebraska History, vol. 64, issue 2 (1983), pp. 163-192.
Access InterviewListen to the oral history and read the transcript of Daisy Anderson and Alberta Martin, two of the last living Civil War widows, at radiodairies.org.
Subjects: Agriculturalists, Produce, Authors, Freedom, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky / Lebanon, Marion County, Kentucky / Box Butt County, Nebraska

Anderson, Sammy Louis "Shake"
Born and raised in Louisville, KY, Anderson is a bassist, guitarist, singer, and songwriter. He has worked with Donna Summer, Ray Charles, Stevie Wonder, Earth Wind & Fire, The Indigo Girls, Crystal Lewis, New Breed, and many others. As a songwriter, he was signed to Warner Brothers/Chappel for six years. His musical work with movies includes Dr. DooLittle, Boys on the Side, and Austin Powers. He has performed on Good Morning America, The Tonight Show, and Superbowl XXXVII. Anderson thought that his career had come to an end in 2004 when he was told that he was dying; gastroesophageal reflux disease had caused his esophagus to detach from his stomach, and one of his lungs deflated. After more than nine months in the hospital, Anderson overcame the odds and recovered. His album, Stories from Sammy Louis, is his tribute to another chance in life. The album was recorded at the St. Claire Studio in Lexington, KY. This entry was submitted by Michael L. Meeks. For more see the Shake Anderson website; and J. L. Puckett, "Friends of 'Shake' Anderson to unite for benefit," Courier-Journal, 09/03/2004, Weekend Extra section, p. 12W.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Anderson, Sandford Woodford and Polly Ann
Sanford Anderson, Sr. (b.1836) was born in Kentucky, the son of a slave woman and her white master named Woodford. His mother was sold after he was born, and Anderson was given his freedom and his father's last name. When he was a young man, Sanford left his father's plantation and went to work on the Anderson farm; he then took the name Anderson as his last name. He married a slave named Polly Ann (b.1842) and established a blacksmith business. The family moved to [Springheld] Springfield, Ohio, in 1877 and Anderson supported his family with his new blacksmith business. In the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, the couple is listed with nine children, and all living in the Mad River District in Ohio. Dorothy Evans Bacon was the great-granddaughter of Sanford and Polly Anderson. Highlights of the Anderson family history can be found in the article "The Bacons: a fighting spirit on the color line," Newsweek, Special: Fiftieth Anniversary Issue, vol.101, issue 10, February, 1983, pp. 33-34, 36. The article includes a photo of Dorothy Evans [Bacon] and her parents.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Blacksmiths, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Kentucky / [Springheld] Springfield, Ohio

Anderson, W. H.
Birth Year : 1843
In 1852 the separate coach bill became law in Kentucky. In 1893, Rev. W. H. Anderson, from Indiana, and his wife, Sarah J. Steward Anderson, tested the law by sitting in the white section of the train and refusing to move. They were put off the train and subsequently filed a $15,000 lawsuit against L & N Railroad. U.S. District court ruled the law unconstitutional and void for interstate commerce, and the Andersons won their lawsuit. W. H. Anderson was a Civil War veteran, having served in the 13th Regiment U.S.Colored Infantry. He was the minister of McFarland Chapel in Evansville, IN, in 1889, when he became the first minister in the state to receive an honorary Doctor of Divinity from State University in Louisville, KY [Simmons University]. For more see Kentucky's Black Heritage, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights; A. A. Marshall, "Kentucky's separate coach law and African American response, 1892-1900," Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 98, issue 3 (2000), pp. 241-259; and "Rev. W. H. Anderson, D.D." on pp.36-42 in Our Baptist Ministers and Schools by A. W. Pegues.

See photo image of Rev. W. H. Anderson on p.299 in Sermons, Addresses and Reminiscences and Important Correspondence, With a Picture Gallery of Eminent Ministers and Scholars by E. C. Morris, online at Documenting the American South.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Vigo County, Indiana / Kentucky

Anderson, William Louis
Birth Year : 1868
William L. Anderson was born in Dover, KY. He was editor of several newspapers: the Cincinnati American Reformer (1892-1894), Rostrum (1897-1902), and the Cincinnati Pilot (1911-1912). He was also a publisher of books. Anderson was also an alternate delegate-at-large to the Republican National Convention in Chicago in 1912. He was the husband of Sarah Elizabeth Anderson [source: U.S. Passport Application #448711]. In Novemer of 1918, William L. Anderson applied for a passport in order to travel to France for YWCA work [source: U.S. Passport Application #43510], on the application, Anderson gave his birthdate as August 31, 1868. On a second application made July 2, 1924, Anderson gave his father's name as Louis Anderson, born in Dover, KY [source: U.S. Passport Application #448711]. William L. Anderson was to visit five European countries for business and travel, and return to the United States within three months. In 1930, Anderson and his wife lived on Stone Street, in Cincinnati, OH, and they lived on Richmond Street in 1940, according to the U.S. Federal Census records. For more see Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Dover, Mason County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Anderson, Zelda W.
Birth Year : 1921
Death Year : 2010
Zelda W. Anderson, born in Baltimore, MD, was one of the first African American women to enter the military in the Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC), which was later renamed the Women's Army Corps (WAC). She was a second lieutenant when she arrived at Camp Breckinridge, KY. The post commander, Colonel Throckmorton, attempted to make Anderson the mess officer. When Anderson refused his orders, Colonel Throckmorton had her name removed from the list of WACs who were to go overseas, and she was made the assistant to the (non-existent) post publications officer. Her job was to organize a warehouse of Army regulation manuals with the assistance of 12 other WACs, two German prisoners, and a white civilian who quit rather than take orders from a Negro. When Camp Breckinridge was closed, Zelda Anderson was sent to Fort Knox, KY, where she again was under the command of Colonel Throckmorton. Anderson's new assignment was to make arrangements for Negro entertainment at Fort Knox. Those who entertained the troops included Duke Ellington, Lena Horne, and Earl Hines. Anderson would greet the entertainers at the airplane landing site and find them lodging in Negro hotels, rooming houses, or private homes. The hotels in the area were not integrated. Zelda Anderson died August 13, 2010 in California [source: U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs BIRLS Death File]. For more see the Zelda Anderson entry in War Stories, edited by R. T. King; and the Zelda Anderson oral history transcript at the University of Nevada Oral History Program.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Women's Groups and Organizations, Women's Army Corps (WACs)
Geographic Region: Baltimore, Maryland / Camp Breckinridge, Henderson, Webster, and Union Counties, Kentucky (no longer exists) / Fort Knox, Bullitt, Hardin, & Meade Counties, Kentucky

Archives of Ontario (Canada)
The archives is a program of the Ontario Ministry of Government Services. The archives are made up of a number of collections, including government records, genealogical records, an art collection, and sound and moving images. The exhibit, Black Canadian Experience in Ontario 1834-1914: Flight, Freedom, Foundation, included the stories of former Kentuckians, such as Solomon Moseby and the Emancipation of Susan Holton. Holton and her children were taken to Ohio by Mary Kirk and given their freedom in 1848. The family moved on to Canada. For more information contact the Archives of Ontario.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, National Resources
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Ontario, Canada

Ariel/Hall (Camp Nelson, KY)
After the Civil War, the refugee camp at Camp Nelson became the community known as Ariel. The school, Ariel Academy, was founded in 1868, with initial funding support coming from the Freedmen's Bureau and teachers supplied by the American Missionary Association. The school was led by Howard Fee, son of John G. Fee and Gabriel Burdette, a former slave from Garrard County, KY. The community of Ariel was later named Hall. For more see Historic Jessamine County, The Hall Community, an official Jessamine County website; and A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky: integration and social equality at Berea, 1866-1904, by R. B. Sears.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Camp Nelson, Jessamine and Garrard Counties, Kentucky / Ariel, Jessamine County, Kentucky / Hall, Jessamine County, Kentucky

ARL Career Enhancement Program Participants
Start Year : 2009
The Association of Research Libraries (ARL) and academic libraries partnered for the first time in 2009 to offer the Career Enhancement Program. The University of Kentucky was one of the nine host library locations. The Career Enhancement Program was funded by the Institute of Museums and Library Services (IMLS). The program provides current Library Science students from an underrepresented group the opportunity to gain practical experience in an academic research library setting. Three fellows completed an eight week program at the University of Kentucky Libraries in 2009: Anissa Ali, from Detroit Michigan, a Wayne State University library student; Katie Henningsen, from New York, a Long Island University library student; and Bethany McGowen from South Carolina, a University of South Carolina library student. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Armstead, James, Jr. "Jimmie"
Birth Year : 1919
Death Year : 2006
Said to be born in Louisville, KY, James Armstead, Jr. was a graduate of Louisville Central High School in 1936; he also attended Louisville Municipal College for Negroes. He was a tailback on the Municipal College football team and a starting guard on the basketball team. While still a student, during the summers of 1938 and 1939, he played baseball with the Indianapolis ABCs, a Negro League team. Armstead played baseball full-time in the Negro League from 1940-1951, playing for a number of teams before and after his stint with the military during World War II, including playing first base for the Philadelphia Stars in 1949. He joined the U.S Air Force and trained as a pilot at the Tuskegee Army Airfield in Alabama. According to the U.S. Social Security Death Index, James R. Armstead was born September 8, 1919, and died in Louisville, KY on November 9, 2006. He is buried in Cave Hill Cemetery. He was the son of James Sr. and Ada Armstead, and the husband of Edna Earl Reeden Armstead. [James Armstead Sr. and Ada Armstead were born in Alabama. Though Louisville was given as his birth location in the obituary, other sources gives James Armstead, Jr.'s birth location as Alabama.] For more information see B. Brainstaff, "Buck stops here - and is a hit," Courier-Journal, 03/24/2004, Sports section, p. 1E; "James Armstead, Jr." in the obituaries on of the Courier-Journal, 11/14/2006; and Jimmie Armstead at Negro Leagues Baseball eMuseum.


Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Baseball
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Alabama

Arnett, Charles H.
Birth Year : 1858
Born in Henderson, KY, Arnett was an ordained minister, owned a contracting business, and built seven churches (two in Sebree, KY) and a number of homes in Kentucky. For more see Who's Who of the Colored Race, 1915.
Subjects: Businesses, Construction, Contractors, Builders, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Sebree, Webster County, Kentucky

Arnold, Adam S., Jr.
Birth Year : 1922
Arnold is a Lexington, KY, native who became the first African American faculty member at the University of Notre Dame. In 1957, Arnold was hired as a professor of finance, receiving tenure in 1961. He remained at the school for 30 years. In 2002 he received the William P. Sexton Award for outstanding service to the University of Notre Dame. Dr. Arnold received his Ph.D. in finance in 1951 and his MBA in 1948, both from the University of Wisconsin. He is a U.S. Army veteran, having served during WII. For more see "Arnold honored with Sexton Award," Notre Dame Business Magazine Online, Issue 11, 2004.

Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Education and Educators, Migration North, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Notre Dame, Indiana

Arnold, Horacee
Birth Year : 1937
Arnold, born in Wayland, KY, is a professional drummer who began playing while enlisted in the U.S. Coast Guard during the 1950s. He added an extra 'e' to his first name when he began performing on stage. Arnold has performed with a number of bands over the years, and many are listed in his biography. His own bands were the Here and Now Company, formed in 1967, and Colloquium III, formed in the 1970s. He was one of the most well-known fusion drummers of his time, and he was involved with electronic programming. Arnold studied composition and guitar composition and taught music at William Paterson College [now William Paterson University] in New Jersey. His recordings include two albums, Tales of the Exonerated Flea, re-released in 2004, and Tribe. He also performed in the educational video, The Drumset. Arnold also performed dance; he toured in Asia with the Alvin Ailey Dance Company [now Alvin Ailey American Dance Theater]. For more see the Horacee Arnold website; and "Horacee Arnold" in the Oxford Music Online Database. On YouTube view photos and listen to Horacee Arnold "Puppett of the Seasons" & "Chinnereth II."

 
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Education and Educators, Military & Veterans, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Wayland, Floyd County, Kentucky

Arthur, Jane
Birth Year : 1828
Born in Knox County, KY, Jane Arthur was owned by Ambrose Arthur, one of the largest slave holders in the county. She was the mother of James and Henry Bond; their father was Rev. Preston Bond of Anderson County, KY. [Preston was the husband of Belinda Arthur, daughter of Ambrose Arthur.] Jane Arthur was the great-grandmother of Julian Bond, civil rights leader and former Georgia Representative and Senator. She died of a stroke when she was in her 90s. For more see The Bonds, by R. M. Williams. *According to Carrie Stewart of Williamsburg, KY, Jane Arthur and her family also lived in Williamsburg.
Subjects: Mothers, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Knox County, Kentucky / Lawrenceburg, Anderson County, Kentucky / Williamsburg, Washington County, Kentucky

Arthur, William R. B. [People's Auxiliary Hospital (St.Louis, MO)]
Birth Year : 1868
Arthur, a surgeon and physician, was born in Kentucky; he received his M.D. from Howard University Medical College in 1890. He returned to Kentucky to practice medicine in Louisville, to teach at the Louisville National Medical College, and to serve as a surgeon at the Auxiliary Hospital. Arthur left Louisville and moved to St. Louis, MO, where he founded the People's Auxiliary Hospital and Training School in 1898. The three-story hospital building, which had 12 rooms for up to 15 patients, was located at 1001 N. Jefferson Avenue. For more see the William R. B. Arthur entry in A Historical, Biographical and Statistical Souvenir, by Howard University Medical Department [available full-text at Google Book Search]; "Hospital for Colored Patients," Medical Review, vol. 39 (Jan. 7 - July 1, 1899) [available full-text at Google Book Search]; and Glimpses of the Ages, vol. 1, by T. E. S. Scholes [available full-text at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration West, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / St. Louis, Missouri

Asher v Huffman
Start Year : 1943
Seven-year-old Bruce Asher was the son of Boyd and Hattie Asher. His parents wanted him to attend the school for whites in Leslie County, KY. He looked to be what was considered a white child, but Roy Huffman, the school principal, refused to let Bruce attend the school because, according to Huffman, Bruce was colored. The Asher's sued Huffman, hoping that a mandatory injunction would allow Bruce to attend the school. It was determined by the Kentucky Court of Appeals that Bruce Asher was indeed a colored child because his maternal great-grandmother had been a Negro slave. The Kentucky Constitution, KRS 158.020 sec.187, was used to require that separate schools be maintained for white children and Negro children [children wholly or in part of Negro blood or having any appreciable admixture thereof, regardless of whether they show the racial characteristics of the Negro]. Judge Roy Helm of the lower court had ruled in favor of Huffman, and the Ashers appealed. The Appeals Court affirmed and adopted the lower court's decision, the injunction was refused, and Bruce Asher was not allowed to attend the school for white children. For more see Asher et al v Huffman, Court of Appeals of Kentucky, 295 Ky. 312, 174 S.W. 2d 424, 1943 Ky; and KRS 158.020 - Separate schools for white and colored children. Repealed, 1966 (.pdf). [available online]
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Leslie County, Kentucky

Ashford, Mary B.
Birth Year : 1898
Death Year : 1997
Ashford, born in Kentucky, was a poet, teacher, and advocate for equality. The Mary B. Ashford Senior Citizens Daycare Center in New Haven, CT, was named in recognition of Ashford's more than 40 years of community service and volunteerism. Ashford also compiled a scrapbook containing the history of her family; the book was donated to a Kentucky archive. The Mary B. Ashford Outreach Support Project was established at the Christian Tabernacle Baptist Church. For more see S. A. Zavadsky, "Community remembers Mary B. Ashford," New Haven Register, 05/14/1997, Local News section, p. a3.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Migration North, Poets, Care of the Elderly
Geographic Region: Kentucky / New Haven, Connecticut

Ashland Colored Branch Library (Boyd County, KY)
Start Year : 1935
The location of the Ashland Colored Branch Library was not given in the 1935 Library Annual Report that was submitted to the Kentucky Library Commission by the Ashland Public Library. Services were not provided to Negroes at the main library. The colored library was located within the Booker T. Washington School according to the 1947 Library Annual Report that was submitted to the Library Extension Division by the Ashland Public Library. The library had been located in the school as early as 1941. Emma Brown Horton served as the librarian from 1941-1947. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Colored Public Libraries in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Ashland, Boyd County, Kentucky

Ashworth, John Pater
Birth Year : 1917
Death Year : 2006
In 1972, Reverend J. Pater Ashworth became the first African American to be elected president of the Kentucky Council of Churches. For more see "First Black president named by churchmen," Lexington Leader, 11/16/1972, p. 1.
Subjects: Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Kentucky

At Leisure's Edge
Start Year : 2001
A one hour documentary of Kentucky's historic black parks, by B. L. Shearer, Jr. For more see At Leisure's Edge.

Watch the documentary online at BoydShearer.com.
Subjects: Parks
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Atkins, Boyd
Birth Year : 1900
Death Year : 1965
Boyd Atkins, born in Paducah, KY, was a saxophonist, violinist, and music composer; Louis Armstrong recorded his most famous song, "Heebie Jeebies." Atkins was reared in St. Louis and played with a number of bands and performers, including Dewey Jackson and Paducah, KY, native Fate Marable. He later moved to Chicago, where he led his own band. Boyd Atkins died March 1, 1965, according to the Cook County, Illinois Death Index. For more see "Boyd Atkins" in the Oxford Music Online Database.
Subjects: Migration West, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Saint Louis, Missouri / Chicago, Illinois

Atkins, Calvin Rupert and Dora G. Graham Atkins
Calvin R. Atkins (1870-1923) was born in Hadensville, KY. He was the husband of Dora G. Graham Atkins (1875-1923), who was born in Pembroke, KY. In 1895, Calvin Atkins became a certified teacher for the Todd County Colored School District [see his copy of certification, IHS]. Dora Atkins was also a certified teacher in Todd County [copy of certification, IHS]. In 1900 the family had moved to Anderson, IN, according to the U.S. Census. Dr. Atkins practiced medicine there for a few years, and in 1904, the family moved to Indianapolis. Dr. Atkins received his license to practice in Indianapolis on August 2, 1905; he was an 1895 graduate of Howard University Medical School [now Howard University College of Medicine], according to the 16th Annual Report of the Indiana State Board of Medical Registration and Examination [full view at Google Book Search]. Dr. Atkins was a physician for the Flanner House, which was founded in 1898 to provide health, social, and educational assistance to African American families migrating from the South to Indianapolis [archival information, IHS]. His dedication to the Flanner House is mentioned in a speech given by Aldridge Lewis around 1918 [digital copy of speech, IHS]. He was one of the promoters and vice president of Lincoln Hospital, a hospital for African Americans founded in 1909 in Indianapolis on North Senate Avenue. The hospital had both doctors and dentists, and there were 12 rooms that could hold up to 17 patients. The hospital also had a nurses training program. Dr. Atkins was involved in establishing a similar hospital in Marion, IN. Dr. Atkins was a prominent member of the city of Indianapolis for 19 years before he was murdered in June of 1923. For more see "Calvin R. and Dora G. Atkins" entry in Who's Who in Colored America 1927; Indiana Blacks in the Twentieth Century, by Thornbrough and Ruegamer; the Papers of Calvin R. Atkins and the Dora Atkins Blackburn Papers, some items available online in the digital collections at the Indiana Historical Society; "Suspected slayer who shot himself soon after murder dies," The Indianapolis Star, 06/18/1923, p. 16.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Hadensville, Todd County, Kentucky / Pembroke, Christian County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Atkins, Charles "Speedy"
Birth Year : 1875
Death Year : 1928
He was known as "Speedy" because he was a very fast tobacco worker. He has also been referred to as Henry Atkins in print publications. His grave marker reads Charles Atkins, 1875-1928. Atkins had moved to Paducah, Kentucky, from Tennessee, and one day while fishing he drowned in the Ohio River. His body was turned over to African American funeral home director A. Z. Hamock, who prepared Atkins' body with an experimental super-preservative. The experiment left Atkins body mummified. Pleased with the results, Hamock put the mummified Atkins on display. It was not until 1994 that Atkins was finally buried in Maplelawn Cemetery in Paducah. Numerous television programs and newspapers around the country have highlighted the story of Speedy Atkins. For more see Charles Atkins at Find A Grave.
Subjects: Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Tennessee / Ohio River

Atkinson Literary and Industrial College [H. V. Taylor]
Start Year : 1892
H. V. Taylor was one of the presidents of the Atkinson Literary and Industrial College in Madisonville, KY. The school was founded in1892 and was dedicated in 1894 by Bishop Alexander Walters, who led the effort to build the school, along with the African Methodist Episcopal Zion (AMEZ) Church. According to author H. Ardis Simons, there were 145 students and five female graduates in 1897 [source: The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky by H. A. Simons]. The school was originally located on two acres at Seminary and Lake Streets in Madisonville, and in 1903, the school trustees sold the property and moved the school outside the city. The school was located on 36 acres and had eleven grades, three of which were at the high school level. There were 2 two-story buildings that served as dormitories and classrooms. There were five college graduates in 1906. According to author Simons, the school staff members were Bishop Clinton who was the school president; Mr. Shaw, principal; S. F. Collins; Mrs. M. E. Littlepage; Mrs. W. E. Shaw; and Miss C. M. Shirley. James Muir was president of the school in 1917. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1927; Atkinson College, Madisonville, dedicated, Nov. 16, 1894; "Atkinson Literary and Industrial College" on pp.269-270 in Negro Education, v.2, by the Department of the Interior [available at Google Books]; and Bulletin: announcements for ... by the Atkinson Literary and Industrial College. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Madisonville, Hopkins County, Kentucky

Atwell, Joseph Sandiford
Birth Year : 1831
Death Year : 1881
Rev. Joseph S. Atwell, from Barbados, was the first colored man ordained a Deacon of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Kentucky, according to his obituary on p.5 of the New York Times, 10/10/1881. Rev. Atwell was Rector at St. Phillips Protestant Episcopal Church on Mulberry Street in New York City when he died of typhoid fever in 1881. He had attended Codrington College in Barbados, and came to the United States in 1863 to attend the Theological Seminary of the Protestant Episcopal Church in Philadelphia, PA. He graduated in 1866 and next came to Kentucky where he was ordained a deacon by Bishop Smith. Rev. Atwell was a missionary worker in Kentucky and next went to Petersburg, VA, where he was ordained a priest in 1868 and became Rector of the St. Stephen's Church and was head of a parish school. He then went to Savannah, GA, in 1873 and was Rector of the St. Stephen's Church. He went to New York in 1875. Rev. Joseph S. Atwell was the husband of Cordelia Jennings Atwell, a mulatto from Pennsylvania, and the father of Joseph, Robert, and Earnest Atwell [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. The family lived at No.112 Waverley Place.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Immigration, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Barbados, Lesser Antilles / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Kentucky / Virginia / Savannah, Georgia / New York

Atwood, Rufus B.
Birth Year : 1897
Death Year : 1983
Rufus B. Atwood was born in Hickman, KY. In 1929 he became the sixth president of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University], serving in that capacity until 1962. Atwood led the school toward becoming a four-year accredited college with revised and expanded programs. He was a non-confrontational advocate for the school and the education of African Americans. Atwood was a World War I veteran and the first African American awarded the University of Kentucky Sullivan Medallion for his dedication to education. The Rufus B. Atwood papers are located at Kentucky State University. For more see A Black Educator in the Segregated South, by G. Smith; and the Kentucky State University entry.

  See photo image of Rufus B. Atwood and Lyman T. Johnson at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Access Interview Read about the Rufus B. Atwood Oral History Project interviews that are available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators
Geographic Region: Hickman, Fulton County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Aubespin, Mervin R.
Birth Year : 1937
Born in Louisiana, Mervin Aubespin in 1967 became the first African American to hold the post of news artist at The Courier-Journal newspaper in Louisville, KY. He joined the newsroom staff during the 1968 Civil Rights unrest in Louisville. Regarded as an expert on racism and the media, Aubespin is a past president of the National Association of Black Journalists (NABJ) and was given the Ida B. Wells Award for his efforts to bring minorities into the field of journalism. Aubespin was also the founder of the Louisville Association of Black Communicators. He was awarded the Distinguished Service to Journalism Award in 1991, given by the Association of Schools of Journalism and Mass Communications (ASJMC). He was a 1995 Inductee into the University of Kentucky School of Journalism Hall of Fame. Aubespin retired from The Courier Journal newspaper in 2002. For more see Mervin Aubespin at KET's Living the Story; and P. Platt "Keeping the faith: on Merv Aubespin's retirement," The Courier Journal, 08/11/2002, Forum section, p. 03D.

  View Mervin Aubespin's interviews in Civil Rights in Kentucky Oral History Project.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Opelousas, Louisiana

Aunt Charlotte and King Solomon
Aunt Charlotte was a slave brought to Lexington, KY, in the late 1700s. She was freed and inherited property after her owners died. She supported herself by selling fruit and baked goods at the open market. She and William "King" Solomon had known each other in Virginia, and Aunt Charlotte's story is tied to his in the literature. Solomon was a white vagrant who supported his drinking with wages earned as a digger of cisterns, graves, and cellars. In the spring of 1833, as punishment for his vagrancy, local officials put Solomon up for sale as a slave for one year; at the end of that year he was to return to court. Aunt Charlotte purchased Solomon for $13; she outbid two medical students who were investing in a future cadaver. Aunt Charlotte set Solomon free, and he promptly managed to get liquor, later making his way back to Aunt Charlotte's home, where he passed out on a Thursday. He woke on a Saturday to find that many had died or were dying of cholera while others were evacuating the city. Aunt Charlotte was preparing to leave, but when Solomon refused to go, she would not leave him. People were dying quicker than they were being buried--the gravediggers had deserted the city. Solomon took up his shovel and began burying the dead. His dedication probably prevented further spread of the disease. Both Solomon and Aunt Charlotte survived the epidemic. When Solomon returned to court, the judge shook his hand and others thanked him for his heroic deeds. Solomon died in the poorhouse in 1854; he is buried in the Lexington Cemetery. In 1908 a large tombstone was placed at his grave. It is not known what became of Aunt Charlotte. For more see "King Solomon of Kentucky" in Flute and Violin and other Kentucky Tales, by J. L. Allen; and "King Solomon, Heroic Gravedigger" in Offbeat Kentuckians, by K. McQueen.
Subjects: Alcohol, Freedom, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Inheritance
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Virginia

Aunt Lou's Underground Railroad Tomato
The following information comes from the Southern Exposure Seed Exchange website and from the unpublished book manuscript on gardening by retired UK Librarian Kate Black. "[Heirloom carried through the Underground Railroad by an unnamed black man as he crossed to freedom in Ripley, OH, from KY. Seeds were passed on to Aunt Lou, who passed them on to her great nephew, and eventually on to heirloom tomato enthusiast Gary Millwood.]" Kate Black interviewed Gary Millwood prior to his death in May of 2013.  It was during their conversation that Milwood introduced her to Aunt Lou's Underground Railroad Tomato, a dark pink fruit that he found in Ohio.  For more see Aunt Lou's Underground Railroad Tomato, a Tatiana's Tomatobase website.

  See video "Saving Tomato Seeds - Aunt Lou's Underground Railroad" on YouTube.
Subjects: Agriculturalists, Produce
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Ohio

Austin, Bobby W.
Birth Year : 1944
He was born in Jonesville, an African American community in Bowling Green, KY. Austin earned a B.A. in Economics and Sociology from Western Kentucky University in 1966; a Master's in Sociology from Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in 1968; and a Ph. D. from McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, in 1972. Austin relocated to Washington, D.C. He is the founder and editor of the Urban League Review and a partner with Austin Ford Associates. Austin founded the Village Foundation, which focuses on reconnecting African American males with society. He is co-author of Repairing the Breach and Wake Up and Start to Live, both of which focus on African American males. For more see the Bobby Austin entry at The HistoryMakers website.
Subjects: Authors, Civic Leaders, Sociologists & Social Scientists, Urban Leagues
Geographic Region: Jonesville, Warren County, Kentucky (no longer exists) / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Washington, D. C.

Austin, Helen C.
Birth Year : 1925
Helen Cloud Austin, from Harlan, KY, was the second African American student to attend the University of Louisville School of Social Work, from which she graduated in 1953. With the help of Congressman Henry B. Gonzalez, she became the first African American professional hired at the San Antonio State Hospital, a mental health facility in Texas. In 1983, Austin was the San Antonio Social Worker of the Year and the Texas State Social Worker of the Year. She was inducted into the San Antonio Hall of Fame in 1985. Austin retired from the hospital in 1987. Two years later, she was included in the booklet titled Salute to Black Women Who Make Things Happen by the National Council of Negro Women. After her retirement, Austin continued to be active with several organizations, including serving as president of the Board of Directors for the San Antonio Halfway House, Inc., she started the Senior Citizen Ministry at St. Paul United Methodist Church, and she continued her work with Crosspoint, a nonprofit that provides reentry residential services for ex-offenders, an organization that Austin co-founded in 1963. She is a member of Delta Sigma Theta. The Helen Cloud Austin Papers are at the University of Texas at San Antonio. Information about Crosspoint and other updates were provided by Joan Cheever.

See photo image and additional information about Helen C. Austin at the NASW Foundation website.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Medical Field, Health Care, Corrections and Police, Religion & Church Work, Social Workers, Women's Groups and Organizations, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Care of the Elderly
Geographic Region: Harlan, Harlan County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / San Antonio, Texas

Austin, Jacqueline
Austin has been principal of the John F. Kennedy Elementary School in Louisville, KY, since 1990. Under Austin's direction, the school became the first public school in the state to adopt the Montessori teaching method. This and other reforms helped improve academic performance, attendance, and parental involvement at the school. Austin also expanded school services to include GED adult education classes. In 1996, Austin was chosen as a Milken Family Foundation National Educator Award recipient. For more see Jacqueline Austin at the Milken Family Foundation website, and "KERA: A tale of one school," Phi Delta Kappan, vol. 79, issue 4 (Dec. 1997), pp. 272-276.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Autobiography of a Female Slave, by Mattie Griffith
Start Year : 1856
The Autobiography of a Female Slave was written by Owensboro, KY, native Mattie Griffith. The book was initially thought to be a Kentucky slave narrative, and even today it is still occasionally mistaken as such. Martha "Mattie" Griffith was a white abolitionist who wrote the book in hopes of raising money to emancipate her slaves and resettle them in a free state. A few weeks after the book was published, Griffith admitted writing the story based on real life incidents that she had witnessed. The Louisville Courier denounced the book as abolitionist propaganda. The book did not sell well, but Griffith received money from the American Anti-Slavery Society in 1858 that she used to free and resettle her slaves. Griffith and her sister, Catherine, had inherited their slaves from their deceased parents, Catherine and Thomas Griffith, who died in 1830. The girls were raised by family members in Louisville, KY, and around 1854 they were both living in Philadelphia, PA, where Mattie wrote her book. Beginning in 1859, she wrote a serialized anti-slavery novel with a mulatto heroine from Kentucky: "Madge Vertner," published in the National Anti-Slavery Standard newspaper, July 1859-May 1860. In 1866, Mattie Griffith married Albert Gallatin Browne from Massachusetts. She died in Boston in 1906. This entry was suggested by James Birchfield, Curator of Rare Books at the University of Kentucky Libraries. For more information see the Mattie Griffith Browne entry in the American National Biography Online database; Slippery Characters, by L. Browder; and J. M. Lucas, "Exposed Roots: from pseudo-slave narratives to The Wind Done Gone, the authenticity of representations of black history has always been in question," 02/27/2002, at Indyweek.com (Independent Weekly).
Subjects: Authors, Freedom, Migration North, Inheritance
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Boston, Massachusetts

Averitt, William Rodney "Bird"
Birth Year : 1952
William R. Averitt, known as "Bird," was the nation's leading college basketball scorer during the 1972-73 season; he averaged 33.9 points per game as a player at Pepperdine University. In 1971, he had broken the freshman scoring record three times, and his highest one game score was 59 points when Pepperdine beat Chapman College [source: "Former Hoptown All-Stater: 'Bird' Averitt scores 59 breaking his own record at Pepperdine." Kentucky New Era, 01/16/1973, p.13 (online at Google News)]. Other Kentuckians on the Pepperdine freshman team were Tom Johnson and George Wilson from Union County High School. Averitt, a 6' 1", left-handed shooting guard from Hopkinsville, KY, had been an All-State player at Hopkinsville High School. He was a star basketball player at both the high school and college level.  After his junior year at Pepperdine, Averitt was drafted by the San Antonio Spurs, then an ABA team. He played three years in the ABA and was a member of the 1975 championship team the Kentucky Colonels. When the ABA and the NBA merged, Averitt was drafted by the Buffalo Braves and played for a little over a year before joining the Brooklyn Nets for the rest of the 1977-78 season. In total, William R. Averitt played 5 years of professional basketball.  For more see J. Crowe, "For Ex-Pepperdine basketball star William "Bird" Averitt sky was the limit," Los Angeles Times, 01/25/2010; Bird Averitt at Basketball-Reference.com; and William "Bird" Averitt at the American Basketball Association Players website.

 

  See photo image of William "Bird" Averitt at the American Basketball Association Players website.

 
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Avery, Rose and Minnie [Becca Richards]
During the last two months of 1857, there were several articles in the newspapers in London, England, about two fugitive slaves from Kentucky said to be named Rose and Minnie Avery. The young women were between 18 and 20 years old. In November, the women were seen begging on Black-man Street, both were said to be dressed in the white attire that U.S. slaves wore. The women were taken to the police station by Constable Hinchliffe, 85M, who said he had witnessed one of the women carrying a box used to collect money, and the other woman carried a placard that read "Fugitive Slaves." At the Southwark Police Court, the women said that they were fugitive slaves from a plantation in Kentucky and had escaped to Philadelphia, PA, after their father died and their mother was sold. They said that a benevolent person and free colored persons had taken care of them and later paid their passage on the ship "Jane" that took them to Greenock, England. They supposedly had arrived the previous spring and had not been able to find employment in domestic services in Greenock, so they had walked to London and were living on Bishopsgate-street with a Mrs. Flynn and her husband Mr. Flynn who was a laborer. The women said that they still had not found employment and had resorted to begging on the street. When ask if they had any skills, they said that they could knit. The women had one shilling and the magistrate gave them 4s from the poor box. The news of the slave fugitives from Kentucky was soon printed in the newspapers. The women were described in the North Wales Chronicle newspaper as very attractive, well educated, quadroons who were half-castes ["Story of two Kentucky fugitive female slaves," 11/21/1857, issue 1607]. The police station received numerous letters with small sums of money and offers to take-in the young women. The women had already received a portion of the money, and they were to buy wool for the making of gloves and caps, which they were to sell rather than begging on the streets. Each week, they received money from the donations received at the Southwark Police Station. In December, on their return to court, the women said that they had rented a room from a Mrs. Smith in Crown-court, Wentworth-street, for 2s per week. This was verified by the constable. The women presented the gloves and caps that they said they had made, and they showed how much money they had in their possession. They said that they had been given 5s and 10s from strangers who had heard about their plight, but most of their money had been used for food and a few clothes. The magistrate ordered that they be given a few more shillings from the contributions sent to the court on their behalf. The women also presented a letter that was supposedly from a man in Brighton who wanted to take them in as a nurse and to work in his shop, but the letter was not signed. The magistrate ask that the women report back to court in a week, and sooner if the man who wrote the letter came back to see them. In the mean time, the women's story would continue to be investigated by the Mendicity Society and the Southwark Police Court. As the women were leaving court, a New York merchant gave the constable £2 with which to purchase clothing and boots for the women. The women received the items. When they returned to court, there were three reports, one from the Mendicity Society, one from police investigator Officer Hewett, and one from the M division of the police department. According to the reports and the witnesses who were also in the courtroom, the women were impostors. The older of the two women lived with a black man on Crown-court, Wentworth-street. She may have been from America, but only recently arrived in England. The younger woman lived with an Irish woman who may have been her mother. Her father was an older black man who lived at St. Luke's Workhouse, Chelsea, and the younger woman had visited him and given him money. She had also written a letter to him and signed her name as Becca Richards. Also, the ship "Jane" that had supposedly brought the two women to England, had not been in Greenock for 18 months. The younger woman and the older black man denied knowing each other, though witnesses in the courtroom identified her as the person who had visited him several times and said that she had written the letter. The magistrate concluded that the younger woman was a fake, and therefore, both women were fakes. The women were directed to leave the court and were warned that if they were picked up again for begging, then they would be severely punished. Benevolent persons who had sent money to the courts and the police station, for the women's care, would be contacted and asked if they wished their money to go to the women through application, or have the money added to the poor box. For more see "Southwark. - Kentucky Fugitive Slaves," The Morning Post, 11/18/1857, p.7; "Southwark," Daily News (London, England), 11/18/1875, issue 3591; "Fugitive slave girls from Kentucky," The Morning Chronicle, 11/26/1857, issue 28371; "Fugitive slave girls in London from Kentucky," Hampshie Advertiser & Salisbury Guardian, 11/28/1857, p.3; "The Fugitive slaves from Kentucky," The Morning Chronicle, 12/1/1857, issue 28375; "Kentucky fugitive slaves; extraordinary deception," North Wales Chronicle, 12/12/1857, issue 1609; and "The Kentucky fugitive slaves turn out to be impostors," Hampshire Advertiser & Salisbury Guardian, 12/12/1857, p.3.
Subjects: Freedom, Hoaxes, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Greenock and London England, Europe

Ayers, Rhoda R.
In 1976, Ayers became the first African American member of the Newport, KY, Independent Board of Education. During that year, she was also one of two African American women on a local school board in Kentucky. Ayers was employed by the U.S. Postal Service. For more see "17 blacks are local school board members," in 1978 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report, by the Commission on Human Rights, p. 26.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Postal Service, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky

Ayres, John H.
Birth Year : 1860
Death Year : 1931
John H. Ayres was born in Paris, KY, and moved to Cincinnati, OH, in 1891. He was the business manager of the National Chronicle newspaper in Kentucky and was recognized for his singing talent at the Wehrman Avenue Christian Church in Cincinnati [source: Cincinnati's Colored Citizens, by W. P. Dabney]. He is most remembered for his work with the United Brothers of Friendship (U. B. F.). Ayres was a National Grand Camp Officer, N. K. C., Cincinnati, OH [source: History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, by W. H. Gibson, Sr., p. 131]. In 1896, at the U. B. F. Lodge Meeting, J. H. Ayres was elected State Grand Master and Deputy Grand National Knight Commander with special jurisdiction over Ohio [source: "U. B. F. Lodge Meeting," Freeman, 08/15/1896, p. 6]. Ayres organized the U. B. F. in Cleveland, OH, in 1898, with H. C. Jackson as head of the lodge [source: "News/Opinion," Cleveland Gazette, 02/12/1898, p. 3]. John Ayres was employed as a janitor, and he and his wife, Maggie L. Ayres (b. 1862 in KY), are listed in the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. They were the parents of Jane C. Ayres, born 1896 in Kentucky. In the 1910 Census, the family of three lived on Gilbert Avenue, and J. H. Ayres was a porter at the post office. By 1930, Maggie and John Ayres were living on Kerper Avenue. See also "Phyllis Wheatley Literary," Freeman, 05/02/1896, p. 8.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

 

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