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Gaddie, Daniel Abraham, Sr.
Birth Year : 1836
Death Year : 1911
Reverend D. A. Gaddie was born in Hart County, KY, the son of a slave owner whose last name was Jamison. He changed his last name to Gaddie after he was freed. Gaddie was a blacksmith and became an ordained minister in 1865. A very active member of the Association of the Kentucky Baptist, he was pastor of a number of churches in Louisville, including the Green Street Baptist Church during the 1870s. It is estimated that Rev. Gaddie baptized more than 1,000 people. Rev. Gaddie received an honorary Doctor of Divinity in 1887 from State University [later Simmons University] in Louisville, KY. Some sources say that he was a graduated of the school. Gaddie was also a member of the school's Board of Trustees for seven years, and of the Executive Board for 16 years. Rev. D. A. Gaddie's name can be found on a number of African American marriage certificates, including that of James Cambron and Lucenda Fry Cambron, married in 1895. For more see Afro-American Encyclopaedia: Or, the Thoughts, Doings..., by James T. Haley, p. 476 [available online at the UNC Library, Documenting the American South website]; the Daniel Abraham Gaddie entry in v.4 of the Afro-American Encyclopedia; and the Rev. Daniel Abraham Gaddie entry in Men of Mark by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner [available full view at Google Book Search].

See depiction of Reverend D. A. Gaddie on p.648 in Men of Mark by W. J. Simmons and H. M. Turner.
Subjects: Freedom, Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Blacksmiths
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gaines, Clarence E., Sr. "BigHouse"
Birth Year : 1923
Death Year : 2005
Born in Paducah, KY, Clarence E. Gaines was the salutatorian of his graduating class at Lincoln High School; he went on to graduate from Morgan State University with a chemistry degree. He had been on the basketball, football, and track teams. In 1946 Gaines began coaching football and later coached basketball. In 1967 his Winston-Salem State College [now Winston-Salem State University] team won the NCAA Division II basketball championship, led by Earl "The Pearl" Monroe. It was the first time that a historically Black college had won a national championship. The Clarence Edward "Big House" Gaines, Sr. Collection is housed in the Winston-Salem State University Archives and Manuscripts. He was the son of Lester and Olivia Bolen Gaines. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1992-2006; African-American sports greats: a biographical dictionary, ed. by D. L. Porter; V. Berstein, "Big House Gaines, 81, basketball coach, dies," The New York Times, Sports Desk section, p. 19; and The Legacy of Clarence Edward "Big House" Gaines, Sr., a Digital Forsyth website.

See photo images at the Digital Forsyth website.
Subjects: Athletes, Athletics, Basketball, Football, Track & Field, Migration East, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Winston-Salem, North Carolina

Gaines, Emma
Birth Year : 1857
Death Year : 1949
Emma Gaines was an African American leader who was a native of Kentucky and lived and died in Kansas. She led educational and social efforts as an officer of a number of organizations. For 30 years she was president of the Baptist Women's Convention of Kansas and was among the first members of the Kansas Federation of Colored Women's Clubs when it was formed in June of 1931. She was president of the General Missionary Society, president of the Mothers Conference, and held several other positions at Shiloh Baptist Church in Topeka, Kansas. She was also a delegate for 30 years to the National Baptist Women's Convention, founded by Nannie Burroughs in 1900. Emma Gaines was a member of the Woman's Home and Foreign Mission Board of the National Baptist Convention and was elected vice president in 1897. She was director of the Negro Festival Choir in Topeka and led the group through numerous performances in Topeka and surrounding cities. She was one of the first officers of the National Training School for Women founded in Washington, D. C. in 1909; the school was directed by Nannie Burroughs. Gaines was a Grand Chief Preceptress of the Pearly Rose Tabernacle No. 77, Daughters of the Tabernacle, and served as president of the Daughters of Liberty. In 1899, she was elected Queen Mother of the International Order of Twelve. Emma Gaines was the wife of Thomas Gaines; both were born in Kentucky and had been slaves. Their son, Benjamin P. Gaines, was also born in Kentucky. The family left Kentucky around 1887 and settled in Topeka, Kansas. Beginning in 1927, they were the owners of Gaines and Son Funeral Home, and in 1937, the family lived above the business at 1182 Buchanan Street. The business was initially located at 305 Kansas Street when the Gaines purchased it from the Topeka Undertaking Company, which was owned by the Goodwin family from Tulsa, Oklahoma. Emma Gaines died in 1949. In 1954, the cornerstone of the Gaines Memorial Chapel was put into place, marking the beginning of construction of the church that was named in honor of Emma Gaines. The church was located on Baptist Hill across the street from Kansas Technical Institute [which later merged with Kansas State University]. For more see "The Story of Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Gaines," Capital Plaindealer, 01/10/1937, p. 1; "The Baptist State Convention," Parsons Weekly Blade, 09/04/1897, p. 4; "Mrs. Emma Gaines...," Plaindealer, 09/29/1899, p. 3; "New organized undertaking firm has purchased former Topeka Undertaking Company," Plaindealer, 01/07/1927, p. 1; and "Lays cornerstone of Gaines Memorial Chapel," Plaindealer, 07/23/1954, p. 4.
Subjects: Businesses, Migration West, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Women's Groups and Organizations, Association of Colored Women's Clubs
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Topeka, Kansas

Gaines, Harris B., Sr.
Birth Year : 1888
Death Year : 1964
Born in Henderson, KY, Gaines was Assistant State's Attorney in Cook County, Illinois (1925-1928) and a member of the Illinois State Legislature (1928-1935). Gaines represented the 1st District of Chicago. He was the husband of Irene Mcoy Gaines (1892-1964), and the father of Illinois State Representative Charles E. Gaines (1924-2000). The Harris B. Gaines and Irene M. Gaines Papers are held at the University of Illinois Archives. [The Social Security Death Index gives his birth date as April 6, 1888.] For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37.
Subjects: Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Cook County, Illinois

Gaines, Wallace A.
Birth Year : 1858
Gaines moved to Covington, KY, from Dayton, OH. In 1882 he was appointed a U.S. Storekeeper by Secretary of the Treasury John Sherman. In 1892 he was elected a state delegate-at-large to represent the Republican State League at Buffalo, NY. In an 1898 letter from Sam J. Roberts to President McKinley, Gaines was referred to as "the most trusted Lieutenant among the Negroes in the campaigning for delegates and electoral votes and is the recognized Negro Leader of Kentucky..." Sam J. Roberts was editor of the Lexington Leader and a Republican political operative. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson. Quote from p.303 of The Racial Attitudes of American Presidents, from Abraham Lincoln to Theodore Roosevelt by G. Sinkler.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Migration South
Geographic Region: Dayton, Ohio / Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / New York

Gaither, William Arthur "Bill"
Birth Year : 1910
Death Year : 1970
Bill Gaither was born in Belmont, KY. Popular during the 1930s as a guitarist and blues singer, he recorded under the name Little Bill Gaither and also Leroy's Buddy after the death of his friend and performance partner, Leroy Carr. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville ed., by J. E. Kleber; and The Blues. From Robert Johnson to Robert Cray, by T. Russell.

See photo image and additional information about William Arthur "Bill" Gaither at the Find a Grave website.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Belmont, Bullitt or Harrison County, Kentucky

Galbreath, Haywood
Birth Year : 1956
Haywood Galbreath was born in Mayfield, KY, oldest of six children. When he was 13 years old, he was adopted by a white family. In 1977 he hosted a weekly affairs radio program in Mayfield. Galbreath would become a photojournalist, an actor, and a stuntman. In 1986 he established the H. G. Star-1 Production Co. and H. G. Star-1 News Photos. In 1997 the H. G. Star Company was the first African American-owned news photo service to record the Emmy awards from inside the auditorium. Galbreath is the author of The O. J. Simpson Murder Trial: the complete photo journal of the trial of the century. For more see O. J. Simpson Facts and Fictions, by D. M. Hunt; Minority Photo - Journalism Institute (MPJI); and Anatomy of a Trial, by J. Hayslett.

See photo image of Haywood Galbreath at the MPJI website.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Authors, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Photographers, Photographs, Radio
Geographic Region: Mayfield, Graves County, Kentucky

Gallatin County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Gallatin County, located in north-central Kentucky, was formed in 1798 from portions of Franklin and Shelby Counties. It is surrounded by four counties, with the Ohio River as the northern border. The county was named for Albert Gallatin, born in Switzerland, who was a U.S. Senator, the longest serving Secretary of the Treasury, and the founder of New York University. There are other U.S. states with a county named Gallatin. The county seat of Gallatin County, KY, is Warsaw, which was first known as Ohio River Landing, established in 1814. The name was changed to Fredericksburg and incorporated in 1831. But, there was already a Fredericksburg in Washington County, so the name was changed to Warsaw in honor of author Jane Porter's fictional book Thaddeus of Warsaw [full-text at Google Book Search and Project Gutenberg]. The Gallatin County, KY, population in 1800 was 1,291, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 960 whites, 329 slaves, and 2 free coloreds. By 1860 the population had increased to 4,348, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 141 slave owners
  • 512 Black slaves
  • 75 Mulatto slaves
  • 33 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 170 slave owners
  • 539 Black slaves
  • 169 Mulatto slaves
  • 13 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulatto
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 601 Blacks
  • 97 Mulatto
  • About 5 U.S. Colored Troops listed Gallatin County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Gallatin County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Gallatin County, Kentucky by G. M. Gray; and The Negro Population of Kentucky by A. L. Coleman and D. I. Kim.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Gallatin County, Kentucky

Gamble, Joseph Dunbar
Birth Year : 1926
Death Year : 2005
Gamble, born in Browder, KY, the son of Bessie Breckner Gamble. The family moved to Fort Wayne, Indiana, when Joseph was a child. Around 1960, Gamble and his mother, Bessie, were on their way to a church revival in Phoenix, Arizona, when their car broke down in New Mexico. Gamble liked the area so much that he went back to Fort Wayne, packed up his family, and moved to Albuquerque, New Mexico, in 1961. He became the first African American licensed contractor in the city, sole owner of Abdullah Construction from 1967-1986, incorporating the company as Gamble, Gamble, Gamble, and Gamble Construction Company in 1986. Joseph Gamble was also president of the Albuquerque branch of the NAACP from 1962-1966, advocating for fair housing legislation. He was founder and director of the Albuquerque Afro-American Cultural Center. In 1999 he was awarded the Carnis Salisbury Humanitarian Award. For more see L. Jojola, "Contractor was Noted Civil Rights Activist," Albuquerque Journal, 06/23/2005, Obituaries section, p. D13.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Construction, Contractors, Builders, Historians, Migration North, Migration West, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Browder, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky / Fort Wayne, Indiana / Albuquerque, New Mexico

Gambling Houses (Newport, KY)
Beginning in the late 1800s, Covington and Newport, KY, were known for their gambling and prostitution houses and organized crime. Newport was referred to as "sin city." One of the African American gambling houses in the area was the Alibi Club, owned by Melvin Clark in 1952. The club was acquired by Screw Andrews (Frank Andriello) when Clark was kicked out of Newport after shooting and killing Andrews' casino manager. Clark returned to Newport in 1954 and opened the Coconut Grove. He was later killed by Screw Andrews. Other casinos and clubs that catered to African Americans were the Congo, the Copa, Golden Lounge, the Rocket, York Streets, the Sportsman, and the Varga. For more see Newport, the real sin city, by J. Laudeman; Syndicate wife: the story of Ann Drahmann Coppola, by H. Messick; Sin City Revisited: a case study of the official sanctioning of organized crime in an "open city", by M. DeMichele, G. Potter, Justice and Police Studies, Eastern Kentucky University; Cathie John's website, Gambler shot gangland style in Newport; and D. Baker, "Builder was in business with kin of crime figures," Kentucky Post, 11/02/2002, News section, p. K1.
Subjects: Gambling, Lottery
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky

Garden of Eden (Fort Worth, TX)
Start Year : 1860
Garden of Eden is a historically Black community in Fort Worth, TX, that was settled by freed slaves from Kentucky and Tennessee around 1860. There were 54 households along the Trinity River. Today, the community has a population of 20, descendants of the original settlers. The Garden of Eden had fallen on hard times until the neighborhood association was developed in 2004. Since then the area has been designated a historic neighborhood. Garden of Eden received the 2004 Neighborhood of the Year Award. A cookbook, Recipes from Out to the House, contains a history of the community. In 2008, the city of Fort Worth began adding water and sewer lines to the church; others rely on septic tanks. For more see J. Milligan, "Historically black neighborhood reclaiming paradise," Fort Worth Star-Telegram, 03/10/2008, Domestic News section; and Garden of Eden Neighborhood Association website.

See photo images and additional information about the Garden of Eden community in the article "In the Garden of Edan," by T. Vita, 02/25/2005, at the Preservation website.
Subjects: Communities, Migration West
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Tennessee / Garden of Eden, Fort Worth, Texas

Gardner, Carwell
Birth Year : 1966
Born in Louisville, KY, Carwell Gardner played high school football at Trinity High School in Louisville, where he was a first-team all-state linebacker. He played his college ball first at the University of Kentucky, from 1985 to 1988, where he was the third leading tackler for the 1986-1987 season. After a series of run-ins, disagreements, and an injury, Gardner transferred to the University of Louisville (U of L). He sat out one year before joining the U of L football team as a fullback for the 1989-1990 season, rushing and receiving for 500 yards. Gardner was selected in the second round of the 1990 NFL draft by the Buffalo Bills and ended his professional career with the San Diego Chargers in 1997. He played in 101 total games, rushing for 749 yards. He is the brother of Donnie Gardner. For more see J. Clay, "Defensive end Carwell Gardner leaves UK's football team," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/22/1988; and Carwell Gardner at the ESPN.com website.

See photo image a stats for Carwell Gardner at the NFL.com website.
Subjects: Football
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gardner, Redondo Lee "Donnie"
Birth Year : 1968
Born in Louisville, KY, Gardner played defensive lineman at Trinity High School there; he was considered among the best high school defensive linemen in Kentucky. Gardner played college ball at the University of Kentucky for four seasons before being dismissed from the team his senior year (in 1989). He had been the only true freshman to letter his first year, and in his final season he was second on the team in sacks with four and eighth on the team with 49 tackles. Gardner was taken in the 7th round of the 1990 NFL draft by the Tampa Bay Buccaneers and played for one season. He is the brother of Carwell Gardner. For more see J. Clay, "Claiborne kicks Donnie Gardner off team," Lexington Herald-Leader, 11/14/1989; and Donnie Gardner at the databaseFootball.com website.
Subjects: Football
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Garner, Bob
Birth Year : 1923
Death Year : 1998
Garner, born in Louisville, KY, was a light heavyweight boxer who stood 5 feet 11 inches tall. Garner was a Kentucky Golden Gloves Champion. He started boxing at Douglas High School when he was 14 years old, beginning his professional career in 1943 after winning the Golden Gloves Championship. He had an overall record of 42 wins with 23 KOs, and 42 losses with 17 KOs, and 4 draws. He was a sparing partner of heavyweight champion Joe Louis; the two had several exhibition fights in 1948. Garner's last fight was in Huntington, WV, in 1953. He moved to Lexington, KY, and was employed as a locker room attendant at the Idle Hour County Club. Garner lived the remainder of his life in Lexington with his wife and children. For more see Bob Garner at the boxrec.com; the Bob Garner entry in the Afro-American Encyclopedia; Joe Louis: boxing champion, by R. Vitale; and "State boxing champ Bob Garner, 75, dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, Obituaries section, p. B2.
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky /Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Garner, Margaret
Birth Year : 1833
Death Year : 1856
Margaret Garner was a runaway slave who was later recaptured and died in a shipwreck on the way back to Kentucky. She had killed one of her children rather than have the child returned to slavery. Toni Morrison's novel, Beloved, is based on Margaret Garner. For more see "Horrible Affair," Louisville Daily Courier, 01/30/1856; and Modern Medea, by S. Weisenburger.
Subjects: Freedom
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Garrard County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Garrard County is located on the edge of the Bluegrass Region of central Kentucky. It was formed in 1796 and is surrounded by six counties. The county was named for James Garrard, the second governor of Kentucky 1795-1804, and the first governor to succeed himself. The county seat is Lancaster, founded in 1797, and named for Lancaster, PA. The 1800 county population was 6,186, according to the Second Census of Kentucky; 4,921 whites, 1,259 slaves, and 6 free coloreds. By 1860, the population had increased to 6,953, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 572 slave owners
  • 2,899 Black slaves
  • 275 Mulatto slaves
  • 22 free Blacks
  • 10 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 653 slave owners
  • 3,206 Black slaves
  • 384 Mulatto slaves
  • 79 free Blacks
  • 16 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 3,406 Blacks
  • 535 Mulattoes
  • About 202 U.S. Colored Troops listed Garrard County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Garrard County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Garrard County, Kentucky and Its Churches by F. Calico; and Kentucky: portrait in paradox, 1900-1950 by J. C. Klotter. See photo image of Lancaster Colored School in Kentucky Digital Library - Images.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky

Garrett, Matt
Matt Garrett, the son of Vivian Maddox, was born in Newport, KY. He graduated from Lincoln Grant High School and West Virginia State College [now West Virginia State University]. In 1970 he was the first African American to bowl a 300 game (at the Southland Bowling Alley in Flint, Michigan). Winner of the TNBA National Doubles title and TNBA All Event Title, he was inducted into the Flint Bowling Hall of Fame in 1992. For more see 2001 Award Winner at Greater Flint Afro-American Hall of Fame, a Flint Public Library website.

 
Subjects: Bowlers and Bowling, Migration North
Geographic Region: Newport, Campbell County, Kentucky / Flint, Michigan

Garrison-Corbin, Patricia
Birth Year : 1947
Death Year : 2009
Born in Louisville, KY, Patricia Garrison-Corbin was the first African American female Sloan Fellow at MIT. She was the founder, chair and chief executive officer of P. G. Corbin & Company, the first African American female-owned Wall Street financial services corporation. In 1982 she became the first African American female officer in public finance at Drexel Burnham Lambert. Patricia Garrison-Corbin died of breast cancer in October 2009, she had lived in Center City Philadelphia, PA. She was the daughter of William and Ruby Garrison, and the wife of James D. Corbin. For more see "Corbin's Key to Success," The Bond Buyer, 10/31/02; Who's Who Among African Americans, 1985-2006; and J. F. Morrison, "Patricia G. Corbin, financial whiz, dies at 62," Philadelphia Daily News, 10/21/2009, Local section, p.26.

See photo image of Patricia Garrison-Corbin and additional information at WKU website.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Migration North
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gaunt, Wheeling [or Whelan]
Birth Year : 1812
Death Year : 1894
Wheeling Gaunt was a slave born in Carrollton, KY, the son of a white merchant and a slave mother who was sold down South when Gaunt was a small child. Gaunt bought his freedom from lawyer John F. Gaunt in 1845 for $900, and he also bought his wife, Amanda Smith Knight (b.1821), and his brother, Nick. Wheeling Gaunt and his family moved to Yellow Springs, OH, where he became a wealthy man. Prior to his death, he donated nine acres of land to the city with the stipulation that the income from the land be used to distribute 25 pounds of flour to Yellow Springs' widows at Christmas. In the 1950s the amount of flour was decreased and the widows receive 10 pounds of flour and 10 pounds of sugar. The tradition has continued for more than a century. For more see S. Deal, "Wheeling Gaunt: our remarkable patron. What we know. What we think" [.pdf], 03/17/2005; "Widows the benefactors of century-old tradition," by CNN interactive, December 1996; and "Ex-slave honors widows from grave," The Cincinnati Post, 12/17/1996, News section, p. 45A.

See photo image of Wheeling Gaunt in the Ohio Memory Collection online.
 
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Freedom, Migration North
Geographic Region: Carrollton, Carroll County, Kentucky / Yellow Springs, Ohio

Gavlin, Chrystel L. C.
Birth Year : 1968
Chrystel Gavlin is a 1986 graduate of Jessamine County High School in Nicholasville, Kentucky. She earned a B.A. in Elementary Education at the University of St. Francis in Joliet, IL, in 1990 and graduated from the Northern Illinois University College of Law in 1996. She was the Assistant State's Attorney for Dupage County in Wheaton, IL, the second African American to hold that post. In 2001, Gavlin opened her own law practice in Joliet, IL. For more see "February is Black History Month," The Jessamine Journal, 02/23/2006, p. A8.

See photo image of Chrystel Gavlin, Board of Trustees at the University of St. Francis website.
Subjects: Lawyers, Migration North
Geographic Region: Nicholasville, Jessamine County, Kentucky / Joliet, Illinois

Gay, Marvin P., Sr.
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 1998
Born in Jessamine County, KY, Gay was the father of Marvin P. Gaye, Jr., singer, songwriter, and producer. Gay, Sr. was charged with the shooting death of his son on April 1, 1984. Bishop S. P. Rawlings of Lexington led the funeral tribute. Gay, Sr. had left Kentucky in 1935 and became a pastor at the House of God Church in Washington, D.C. He later moved to Los Angeles, CA, where he died. For more see "Marvin Gaye's Father Placed on Probation in Son's Death," 11/03/84, Main News section, p. A3, and "Lexington Pastor Leads Marvin Gaye's Funeral Tribute," 14/06/84, Obituaries, p. B11, both in the Lexington Herald-Leader. [Marvin P. Gaye, Jr. added an "e" to his last name.]
Subjects: Fathers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Jessamine County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C. / Los Angeles, California

Gay, Tyson
Birth Year : 1982
Tyson Gay is an outstanding track star from Lexington, KY, the son of Daisy Gay Lowe and Greg Mitchell. He is a graduate of Lafayette High School in Lexington, where he won three State Class 3A 100-meter championships and in 2001 set the standing record of 10.6 seconds. Gay attended Barton Community College in Kansas, where he won the Junior College 100-meter Crown in 2002. His successful career running both the 100 and 200-meter races continued in Arkansas. In 2006, Track and Field ranked Gay 2nd in the world in the 100 and 1st in the 200. At the 2007 USA Track and Field Outdoor Championships, Gay set a new record of 19.62 seconds in the 200, beating the record of 19.66 set by Michael Johnson in 1996. Through the years, he has won a number of competitions around the world. He set an American record of 9.7 seconds in the 100 meter race at the 2009 World Championships, and later that year broke the record again at a competition in Shanghai when he ran the 100 meters in 9.69 seconds. At the 2012 Olympics in London, England, Gay came in 4th in the 100 meter race. Tyson Gay's success continues. For more see M. Maloney, "Catch him if you can - Lexingtonian is split-second away from being world's fastest human," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/04/2007, Main News section, p. A1; and M. Maloney, "Gay, in a runaway - Lexington native tops Michael Johnson's meet record," Lexington Herald-Leader, 06/25/2007, Sports section, p. D1.

See photo image and additional information about Tyson Gay at the bio.True Story website.
Subjects: Track & Field, Olympics: Athletes, Games, Events
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Great Bend, Kansas / Arkansas

Gaylord, Harry A.
Birth Year : 1967
Over more than a century, Harry A. Gaylord was one of the very few African American Kentuckians to become a law librarian; the first was Issac E. Black in 1869. Gaylord, born in Concord, NC, was reared in Lexington, KY, the son of librarian and Kentucky native Ruth B. Gaylord and the late Harry Gaylord. He is a graduate of Lafayette High School (in Lexington) and the Illinois Institute of Technology, where he earned a B.A. in architecture. Finding that the architecture market was on a downswing, Gaylord took a job as a library assistant at a Chicago law firm. After four years of doing legal research (1991-1996), he earned his M.S. in Library Science at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 1997 and was immediately hired as a librarian with the Supreme Court of Illinois in Springfield, IL. Gaylord is presently the librarian at BTSB Bookstore in Jacksonville, IL. Gaylord is an active member of the African American Librarians of Springfield. He is author of several articles in Online Information Review and the tribute "Classie Murray had great career at library," Springfield State Journal-Register (3/20/2007), Editorial section, p. 7. A survey of African American Law Librarians is included in Celebrating Diversity: a legacy of minority leadership in the American Association of law libraries, by C. A. Nicholson, R. J. Hill, and V. E. Garces (2006). Information provided by Harry A. Gaylord and Ruth B. Gaylord.

See photo image of Harry Gaylord at the BTSB Bookstore website.
Subjects: Architects, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration North
Geographic Region: Concord, North Carolina / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Chicago and Springfield, Illinois

Gaylord, Ruth A. Burton
Birth Year : 1938
Born in Richmond, KY, Ruth Gaylord graduated from Richmond High School in 1956, Berea College in 1962, and the University of Kentucky (UK) College of Library and Information Science in 1984. She was first a library assistant for the Lexington (KY) Public Library's "InMobile," a bookmobile that provided library services to children in the Lexington inner-city areas. The service was headquartered at Black and Williams Cultural Center on Georgetown Street. While working full-time, Gaylord was also raising four children and caring for her critically ill husband, who was frequently in the hospital; Mr. Harry Gaylord passed away in 1981. Ruth completed her M.S. in Library Science in 1984, becoming the eight African American to graduate from the UK Library Science program (at the time the College of Library and Information Science) and the first to be employed at the Lexington Public Library. Gaylord said that being the first and only African American librarian at the Lexington Public Library was more of a challenge earlier in her career, but she was determined to succeed. Ruth is not bitter about the past because it was a wise decision for her to attend library school, and she loved being a librarian. She was the Assistant Manager at the Eagle Creek Branch in 2006 when she was nominated by the Lexington Public Library for the Lyman T. Johnson Award. Gaylord was selected by the University of Kentucky Libraries and the School of Library and Information Science as one of two recipients to receive the Lyman T. Johnson Award for her many years of service as a librarian and for her perseverance, dedication, and contributions to the profession. Ruth Burton Gaylord retired from the Lexington Public Library, May 2008. She is the mother of librarian Harry A. Gaylord. For more information see "Profile on Ruth Gaylord," News from Lexington Public Library, Sept./Oct., 1984, p. 3; and "Frye, Gaylord receive Torch Award," Lexington Herald-Leader, 12/06/2006, Communities section, p.D2.

See photo image of Ruth B. Gaylord receiving the Lyman T. Johnson Award in 2006 (with Emmett "Buzz" Burnam and Frank X Walker), a flickr site by nonesuchkid.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

General Hospital School of Nursing, Integrated (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1954
In January 1954, the registered nurses training program at the General Hospital School of Nursing in Louisville, KY, was integrated. The last issue to be resolved was housing; the incoming Negro students had been encouraged to live at home rather than move into the student nurses home. The integration had come about with the election of Mayor Andrew Broaddus (1900-1972), a Democrat, who was mayor from 1953-1957. Broaddus had pledged to integrate the program if he were elected mayor. Louisville General Hospital was the teaching and research hospital for the University of Louisville Medical School. Dr. Maurice F. Rabb, Sr. had been added to the hospital staff in 1948 as a part-time resident for advanced work in anesthesiology; Rabb had been practicing medicine in Kentucky for 15 years. He was not allowed to eat in the cafeteria of General Hospital. In 1950, the first Negro student had been accepted into a practical-nurses training class. But prior to 1954, Negro applicants to the registered nursing program had been encouraged to go elsewhere. Once it was mandated the school accept Negro students for this program, the City-County Board of Health declared that Negro students could live in the student nurses home as well. The first three students were Lillian Delores Foxhill, who would be living at home; Latach Mae Scott, who would also be living at home; and Flora M. Ponder, who would be living in the nurses home. For more information see "Louisville policy unsettled on race," New York Times, 02/04/1949, p. 26; "City Hospital will train Negro nurses," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 12/10/1953; "3 Negro student nurses begin school at General," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 02/06/1954; and the Louisville General Hospital Records, which are available at the University of Louisville Libraries Special Collections and Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Nurses, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

George, S. H.
Birth Year : 1878
Death Year : 1936
S. H. George was considered a wealthy physician, politician, and business man in Paducah, KY. He was born in Kentucky. His mother died when he was three years old, and S. H. George was forced to earn his way at an early age. He was a school teacher for several years, and later graduated from Walden University (TN) and Meharry Medical College. He returned to Paducah and opened his medical practice, and is listed in the 1910 U.S. Federal Census. He was the husband of Nettie McClaine (1889-1935), who was born in Decatur County, TN. Nettie was a trained nurse. The couple shared their home with Nettie's mother Susan Jobe Hoskin, according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census. Dr. George was involved in several businesses, including a skating rink. August 1909, during the Emancipation Day celebration, Dr. George charged Daniel Hopwood with trying to pass a bad dollar at the Paducah Colored Skating Rink, located at 10th and Broadway; the rink was in financial trouble in 1909. The counterfeiting case against Hopwood was dismissed from the Paducah courts due to insufficient evidence. Several years later, Dr. George was a Kentucky delegate to the Republican National Convention. His first term was in 1920; the Kentucky Republican State Convention had been undecided as to which African American would be a delegate-at-large, and after a four hour discussion, Dr. George was selected. Also in 1920, Dr. George was co-owner of the newly incorporated Home Drug Company in Paducah. The other two owners were John W. Egester and C. M. Bolden. That same year, Dr. George was owner and manager of the Hiawatha Theater, a picture house at 432 S. 7th Street in Paducah. He paid $10,000 for the business. In 1927, in Washington D.C., Dr. S. H. George was re-elected Grand Esteemed Leading Knight of the Improved Benevolent and Protective Order Of Elks of the World (IBPOEW); he was a Mason, an Odd Fellow, a Pythian, a member of the Court of Calanthe, and vice president of the Pythian Mutual Industrial Association of Kentucky. In 1928, he was again a Republican National Convention delegate. Dr. S. H. George died June 23, 1936, his death notice is on p.155 in An Economic Detour by M. S. Stuart. Dr. George was a founding member, a stockholder, and a 21-year elected member of the board of directors of the Mammoth Life and Accident Insurance Company. For more see "Pick Kentucky delegates," New York Times, 03/04/1920, p.17; "No conviction in counterfeiting cases," The Paducah Evening Sun, 08/17/1909, p.3; see "S. H. George..." on p.16 in NARD Journal, v.30, 1920; African American Theater Buildings by E. L. Smith; "J. F. Wilson re-elected head of Negro Elks," The New York Times, 08/26/1927, p.14; and see S. H. George in The National Cyclopedia of the Colored Race edited by C. Richardson [available online at Internet Archive].
Subjects: Businesses, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Medical Field, Health Care, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Pharmacists, Pharmacies, Skating Rinks, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

Georgetown Colored Branch Library (Scott County, KY)
Start Year : 1923
End Year : 1956
The Georgetown Colored Branch Library was established in 1923 in the home economics room in the Ed Davis High School with Betty Webb as the librarian. She was assisted in the library by high school girls. Betty Webb was also the home economics teacher at the school, she was a graduate of Kentucky Industrial College [now Kentucky State University]. She received library training at Morehouse-Spelman Library Institute for Negro Librarians in 1930. The colored library was established with the help of Rachel D. Harris who was a librarian at the Louisville Free Library Colored Department. The Georgetown Colored Library shelves were filled with discarded books from the Georgetown Public Library that was segregated. The colored branch library was renamed the Charles Steele Branch in 1933. There were also county libraries for colored teachers in Scott County between 1895-1908. The Georgetown Public Library reported to the Kentucky Library Extension Division in 1956 that there were unrestricted library services to Negroes. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones; "[Kentucky] Library Annual Report" for 1923, submitted to the Kentucky Library Commission from Georgetown Public Library; Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the State of Kentucky for Two Years Ended...for the years 1895-1908; M. M. Spradling, "Black librarians in Kentucky" in The Black Librarian in the Southeast by A. I. Phinazee; Directory of Kentucky Librarians, 1st ed. by the Junior Members Round Table of the Kentucky Library Association; and Report of the Library Institute for Negro Librarians, Atlanta, 1930 written by Charlotte Templeton.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Colored Public Libraries in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky

Gibbons, Harriet
Birth Year : 1924
Death Year : 1992
Harriet Gibbons was born in Louisville, KY. A graduate of Kentucky State University and the College of Saint Rose in Albany, NY, she taught black history at Albany High School, and in 1974 was named principal of the alternative high school, Street Academy, both in Albany, NY. Gibbons was selected to fill a vacancy on the city school board and in 1979 became the first African American woman elected to the post, remaining on the board for ten years. Also in 1979, Gibbons was named director of the Office of Equal Opportunity for the city of Albany, staying with the job till 1985. She next became director of the Affirmative Action Office at the New York Department of Health, retiring from the position in 1989. She had also been a caseworker with the Albany County Department of Social Services and was the first African American woman to head a city agency, the Albany (NY) YWCA. After her death in 1992, the Street Academy was renamed Harriet Gibbons High School. The school closed in 2010. In 2012, Harriet Gibbons was posthumously inducted into the Albany City School District Hall of Fame. For more see R. Wexler, "Harriet Gibbons, 68, Former Director of Albany Agency," The Times Union, 04/21/1992, Local section, p. B7.

See photo image and additional information about Harriet Gibbons in the article by C. Miller, "Keeping my promise...and then some," 06/28/2012, at timesunion.com.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Migration North, Board of Education, YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Albany, New York

Gibbs, Clinton
Birth Year : 1891
Death Year : 1970
Clinton Gibbs was one of the musical leaders in Cincinnati, OH, who prepared the chorus each year for the June Festival for Negro Music [The Enquirer, 02/20/2005, p. D1, by J. Gelfand]. The event was an outdoor choral festival that was held in Cincinnati for almost two decades, starting in 1938. Clinton Gibbs was born in Petersburg, KY, the son of Frances Christopher Gibbs and James Gibbs. The family moved to Cincinnati and lived on Wayne Street, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. Francis was a widow who did laundry to help support the family of five. Clinton Gibbs studied piano at Holderoach College, and he studied organ under Prower Symon. Clinton Gibbs also gave private piano lessons at his home and taught piano classes at Douglass School. He was on the faculty of the Lillian Aldrich Thayer Settlement School of Music. He was the organist choirmaster at St. Andrew's Episcopal Church and director of the Queen City Glee Club. Gibbs was secretary of the True American Lodge No. 2 F. & A. M. and belonged to the King Solomon Consistory No. 20 Scottish Rite. He directed the Cincinnati Masonic Chorus at the 100th Annual Communication of the Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Ohio [source: The History of Prince Hall Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the State of Ohio, 1849-1960, by C. H. Wesley, chapter 14]. He was vice president of the Cincinnati division of the National Association of Negro Musicians. Clinton Gibb's birth year in the census records ranges from 1891-1893. According to his World War I draft registration card, he was born August 7, 1893, and he had had a hip disease that left one of his legs shorter than the other. His World War II draft registration card gives his birthday as August 7, 1892. For more see Cincinnati's Colored Citizens, by W. P. Dabney; and p. 24 in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, by P. A. Tenkotte and J. C. Claypool.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Petersburg, Boone County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Gibson, Clifford
Birth Year : 1901
Death Year : 1963
Gibson was probably born in Louisville or Henderson, KY; however, his birthplace is also given as Alabama or Mississippi. A blues guitarist, most of his first 20 recordings were made in 1929; overall, he made about 40 recordings. He recorded under the name "Grandpappy Gibson." He spent a good deal of his career in St. Louis. For more see All Music Guide to the Blues. The experts' guide to the best blues recordings, 2nd ed., edited by M. Erlewine, et al; and The Encyclopedia of Popular Music, 3rd ed., edited by C. Larkin.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County or Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / St. Louis, Missouri / Alabama / Mississippi

Gibson, William H., Sr.
Birth Year : 1829
Death Year : 1906
Gibson, the son of Amelia and Philip Gibson, was born free in Baltimore, MD, and moved to Louisville, KY, in 1847. He was a schoolteacher who helped found the United Brothers of Friendship and the Colored Orphan's Home. He was also president of the Colored Musical Association. Gibson wrote History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten, published in 1897; the book contains a career sketch of Gibson. For eight months, Gibson served as an appointed mail agent under the administration of President Grant. For more see The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and L. M. Gibson, "William Henry Gibson," Negro History Bulletin, vol. 11, issue 9 (June 1948), p. 199.
See photo image of William H. Gibson, Sr. on p. 102 in The Sons of Allen by H. Talbert.
Subjects: Authors, Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Postal Service, Orphans and Orphanages in Kentucky, Fraternal Organizations, Women's Groups and Organizations, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Baltimore, Maryland / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Giles, Yvonne Y.
Birth Year : 1944
Born in Lexington, KY, Yvonne Giles was the first African American woman elected to the La Grange City Council, in 1986, and then re-elected in 1987. She is the director of the Isaac Hathaway Museum, that was located in the Lexington History Center [the old court house] in Lexington. In July 2011, the Museum moved to Georgetown Street in the Robert H. Williams Cultural Center that is housed in the building that served as the Lexington Colored Orphan Industrial Home. Yvonne Giles is also known as the "Cemetery Lady" because she is one of the leaders in the effort to preserve the history and integrity of African American cemeteries in Lexington. She is the author of Stilled Voices Yet Speak, a history of African Cemetery No.2 in Lexington, KY. She has published many  brochures on African American history in Lexington, and made significant contributions to Lexington tourism publications. For more see "Hopkinsville has 3 blacks on city council," in 1988 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Seventh Report, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights, p. 25; Y. Giles, "African American Burials; Fayette County's storied past," Ace Weekly (April 26, 2007), p. 9; and M. Davis, "Search for the dead," Lexington Herald-Leader, 04/06/02, Main News section, p. A1. Also see entries for Isaac Scott Hathaway Museum and African Cemetery No. 2.
Subjects: Genealogy, History, Historians, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / La Grange, Oldham County, Kentucky

Gillard, Howard Harvey
Birth Year : 1883
Death Year : 1971
Howard Gillard was born in Falmouth, KY, the son of Belle and Edward Gillard. The family was living in Milford, OH, in 1900, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Howard Gillard became a lawyer. His office was located at 265 1/2 S. High Street in Columbus, OH. He served as the receptionist and assistant secretary to governors of Ohio. In 1906, Gillard was appointed Messenger in the Ohio Executive Department and was still at that post in 1919. He was also a special writer for the Sunday Dispatch (Ohio). For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; and Journal of the Senate of the...General Assembly of the State of Ohio [full-text available via Google Book Search].
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Lawyers, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Falmouth, Pendleton County, Kentucky / Columbus and Milford, Ohio

Gilliam, Joe W., Sr.
Birth Year : 1930
Born in Steubenville, Ohio, Joe Gilliam, Sr. attended Indiana University, West Virginia State College [now West Virginia State University], and graduate school at the University of Kentucky. Gilliam, a well-respected football coach, began his coaching career at Oliver High School in Winchester, KY, in 1951. He was awarded the Kentucky High School Football Association's Coach of the Year title. Gilliam left Kentucky to coach at Jackson State College [now Jackson State University] in Mississippi, where his team won a national championship. He then was an assistant coach at Tennessee State University, from 1963-1981, before becoming the head coach. Gilliam's career record, spanning 35 years, is 254-93-15, with five undefeated teams and five teams that lost only one game. In 2007, Joe Gilliam, Sr. was inducted into the Tennessee Sports Hall of Fame. He was the father of one of the first African American pro football quarterbacks, Joe Gilliam, Jr. (1950-2000), who was drafted by the Pittsburgh Steelers in 1972. For more see Shadows of the past, by L. Stout; "Joe Gilliam Sr. targets TSU with age bias suit - former football head coach for Tennessee State University," Jet, 02/08/1993; and Coaching the empty backfield offense, by J. W. Gilliam, Sr.

See photo image and additional information at "TSU Coaching Legend Gilliam, Sr. Honored in Roast," 05/29/2012, a TSU Tigers website.
Subjects: Authors, Fathers, Football
Geographic Region: Steubenville, Ohio / Winchester, Clark County, Kentucky / Mississippi / Tennessee

Gilmore, Artis
Birth Year : 1949
Born in Florida, Artis Gilmore came to Kentucky in 1971 to play center for the Kentucky Colonels of the American Basketball Association (ABA). The 7'2" Gilmore previously played for two years at Gardner-Webb College and had an outstanding playing career at Jacksonville University. He was a first-round draft choice when the Kentucky Colonels selected him. The Kentucky Colonels existed from 1967-1976 and won the 1975 ABA Finals. Gilmore was named rookie of the year and player of the year his first year in the league, was overall league leader in rebounds and had many more accomplishments during his ABA career. In 1976, the ABA and NBA merged, and Gilmore continued his career with several NBA teams. He retired in 1989 as one of the all-time leaders in number of games played and rebounds. For more on Artis Gilmore see Who's Who of Sports Champions (1995). For more about the Kentucky Colonels see Remembering the ABA: Kentucky Colonels.

See photo images and additional information on Artis Gilmore at NBA.com.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Jacksonville, Florida / Kentucky / Boiling Springs, North Carolina

Givens, Jack L. "Goose"
Birth Year : 1956
Jack Givens was born in Lexington, KY. A 6' 4" forward and guard, he scored 41 points while leading the University of Kentucky to the 1978 NCAA Championship. He was a three-time All-SEC player and second leading scorer in the history of the school. Givens was the first African American All-American in Kentucky. He was drafted by the Atlanta Hawks and played for two years. Jack Givens is a brother to Reuben Givens and the newphew of Lou Johnson. For more see Jack Givens at databaseBasketball.com.

See photo image and additional information about jack Givens at bigbluehistory.net.

Access Interview Read about the Jack L. Givens oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Basketball
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Givens, Mrs. Fanny Rosalind Hicks and James Edward Givens
Mrs. Fanny R. Hicks Givens was an artist, songwriter, educator, and police matron. She was born in 1872 in Chicago, IL; her parents were Kentucky natives who had migrated North. In the early 1890s, Givens was living in Louisville, KY, she was head of the art department at State University [later known as Simmons University, KY]. The art department had 23 students and their works were exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. She painted a portrait of John R. Walter, Minister of Madagascar and presented it to President Harrison. The portrait was hung in the White House. In 1895, Fanny R. Hicks married James Edward Givens. James Givens was born in 1861 in Greenwood, VA, the son of Jefferson and Mary Ann Dickerson Givens. James Givens was a graduate of Harvard College. He arrived in Louisville in 1892 to become a Latin and Greek instructor at State University. He was later a Latin and English professor at Louisville Colored High School [later known as Louisville Central High School]. He was founder of New South, a weekly newspaper published in Louisville beginning in 1894. From 1898-1900, James E. Givens was the second president of the State Normal School for Colored Persons [later known as Kentucky State University]. He was a storekeeper when he died of typhoid fever in 1910 at his home, 507 Jacob Street, in Louisville, KY, according to the Kentucky Death Records. James Givens was buried in the Eastern Cemetery in Louisville. Prior to his death, he was attended by Dr. Ellis D. Whedbee, husband to Bertha Whedbee, the first African American woman to be employed by the Louisville Police Department. In 1920, the Givens family was living on Finzer Street in Louisville, KY: Mrs. Givens, her daughter Fanny, niece Evaline Williams, and nephew James E. Givens. Mrs. Fanny R. Givens was a portrait artist, and in 1915 she attempted to raise $100,000 to build an Art Institute for the development of Negro artists. She was also a songwriter, on March 23, 1908, she had received a copyright for the words and the song titled "Hallelujah! Christ is Risen," [C 177237]. She was also chair of the Ways and Means Committee in Louisville. She sailed to Liberia, Africa, leaving from the Baltimore port aboard the ship Byron, December 10, 1921, according to her passport application. In 1923, Mrs. Givens and her daughter Fanny were missionaries for the National Baptist Convention, and were to sail to Sweden, the British Isles, France, Holland, Belgium, Denmark, and Germany, according to their U.S. Passport. They were to leave the Port of New York on June 30, 1923, sail to their destinations aboard the Olympic, and return to the U.S. within one year. In 1930, Mrs. Givens would become one of the first African American women to be hired by the Louisville Police Department. Fanny R. Hicks Givens died of breast cancer in Louisville in 1947, according to her death certificate, she was buried in Eastern Cemetery. For more see Mrs. Fanny R. Givens on p.202 in The Crisis, v.18, no.4, August 1919, [available at Google Book Search]; p.366 in Catalog of Copyright Entries, new series volume 3, nos 1-5, January 1908, by Library of Congress Copyright Office [available at Google Book Search]; Black Higher Education in Kentucky, 1879-1930 by L. H. Williams; "Mrs. Fannie R. Givens" on pp.252-253 of the Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky; and the Louisville Division of Police by M. O. Childress, Sr. See the James Edward Givens entry in Harvard College, Class of 1892-1896, Secretary's Report, No.11 by Harvard College [available at Google Book Search]; see "James Edward Givens" entry in Harvard College Class of 1892, Twenty-fifth Anniversary Report, 1892-1917 by Harvard College; and "Prominent Colored Educator" in The Mt. Sterling Advocate, 03/23/1910, p.1. See photo image of Fanny R. Givens at Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. Great Lakes Region website.

Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Corrections and Police, Religion & Church Work, Migration South
Geographic Region: Chicago, Illinois / Greenwood, Virginia / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Givens, Reuben, and Ruth Newby Givens Roper
Givens and Roper are the parents of actress Robin Givens, former wife of heavyweight boxer Mike Tyson, and Stephanie Givens, former professional tennis player. Both Reuben Givens and Ruth Newby Givens Roper are Lexington natives. Reuben was a star baseball and basketball player at Douglass and Lafayette High Schools. He was coached by Charles H. Livisay at Douglass. In 1962, Givens averaged 24.7 points in basketball, winning the Fayette County scoring title, but he did not receive the trophy after the sponsor backed out. He was the first African American basketball player at Lafayette; Douglass High was closed as part of the school system's integration plan. Givens graduated from Lafayette in 1964, the same year he married Ruth Newby. The family lived in New York, where Reuben Givens was tending his options as a professional basketball and baseball player. Ruth had been living in New York with her mother since her parents had divorced when she was a small child; she met Reuben while visiting family in Lexington. Reuben and Ruth Givens divorced in 1969. Reuben Givens, who still resides in New York, is the son of Betty and Dave Givens, the nephew of professional baseball player Lou Johnson, and a brother of University of Kentucky basketball player Jack Givens. For more see the Lexington Herald-Leader articles: B. Reed, "Robin Givens' dad a former Douglass High star," 10/20/1988, Sports section, p. C1, and "Robin Givens' parents are Lexington natives," 10/15/1988, Sports section, p. D17.
Subjects: Baseball, Basketball, Fathers, Migration North, Mothers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / New York

Glass, Carl Lee
Birth Year : 1898
Death Year : 1972
Born in Lexington, KY, Carl L. Glass was a left-handed pitcher, outfielder and first baseman. He first played with the Memphis Red Sox in 1923 and ended his career with the Cincinnati Tigers in 1936. While in Memphis, Carl and Ophelia Glass were boarders on Stephens Place Street, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Lovie Ophelia Johnson was born in 1898 in Tennessee. The couple married in Crittenden County, AR, on November 26, 1927, according to their marriage record on p.307 of the Arkansas Bond for Marriage License Book [online at FamilySearch.org]. Carl L. Glass died in Lexington, KY, according to the U.S. Social Security Death Index. For more see The Biographical Encyclopedia of the Negro Baseball Leagues, by J. A. Riley; and Carl Glass at baseball-reference.com.

See photo image of Carl Glass at Seamheads.com Negro Leagues Database.
Subjects: Baseball
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Glass, James G.
Birth Year : 1884
Death Year : 1962
Dr. Glass was one of the longest practicing physicians in Henderson, KY, where he practiced for 50 years. Glass was a physician and surgeon. He was born in Hopkinsville, KY, the son of Edward W. and Sallie E. McReynolds Glass. He graduated from Clark Embalming School, Walden University, and received his M.D. from Meharry Medical College in 1906. Prior to opening his practice, Glass was in the undertaking business with his father, Edward Glass. He practiced medicine for a year in Hopkinsville, 1908-1909, then moved his business to Henderson, KY. He was the husband of Ora H. Kennedy Glass, a community leader in Henderson, KY. For more see the James Garfield Glass entry in Who's Who of the Colored Race by F. L. Mather [available full view at Google Book Search]; and Dr. James G. Glass on p.84 of Journal of the National Medical Association, vol.55, issue 1, January 1963 [available online].
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky / Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Glass, Ora H. Kennedy
Birth Year : 1893
Death Year : 1971
Born in Henderson, KY, Ora H. K. Glass was president of the Henderson P.T.A. for ten years, leading the drive for funds for a high school building. She was founder and president of the Kentucky State P.T.A., vice president of the National Congress of Colored P.T.A.s, and president of the Blue Grass Auxiliary. She was the wife of Dr. James Glass of Hopkinsville, KY. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.

See photo image of Ora Kennedy Glass and additional information on p.17 of The Crisis, January 1943.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Henderson, Henderson County, Kentucky

Gleason, Eliza Atkins
Birth Year : 1909
Death Year : 2009
Eliza Atkins Gleason was born in North Carolina, she came to Kentucky in 1931 to take up her first library job at the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes. In 1932 she became head librarian and also taught library classes in the new library department that she had created. The department, in conjunction with the Louisville Western Colored Branch Library, was established to continue offering the only library classes for African Americans in Kentucky between 1932 and 1951. Dr. Gleason left Kentucky in 1936, and in 1940 she graduated from the University of Chicago and became the first African American to earn a Ph. D. in librarianship. She was later hired at Atlanta University [now Clark Atlanta University], where she structured and organized the library school beginning in 1940 and would become the first African American library school dean 1941-1946. Decades later, Dr. Gleason returned to Louisville. She was a younger sister to librarian Olie Atkins Carpenter, and they were the daughters of Simon Green Atkins and Oleona Pegram Atkins. In 1892, Simon Green Atkins was the founder of what is today Winston-Salem State University, and his wife Oleona Atkins was a teacher and assistant principal at the school. For more see Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones; Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines, vol. 24 (Sept. 1998-Aug. 1999); Who's Who in America, 38th-46th eds.; and Eliza Atkins Gleason Book Award. See photo image and obituary of Eliza Atkins Gleason in the Winston-Salem Journal, 12/24/2009. For more on Simon G. Atkins, see the chapter "For Service Rather than Success" in Winston-Salem by F. V. Tursi. * Additional information for this entry was provided by Professor J. G. Carew at the University of Louisville, she is the daughter of Dr. Eliza A. Gleason.

  See photo image and additional informtion at "Women's Center Luncheon," a Univesity of Louisville website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration West
Geographic Region: Winston, North Carolina / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Atlanta, Georgia

Glenn, James H., III, "Jimmy"
From Owensboro, KY, in 1999, James H. "Jimmy" Glenn, III, was the first African American to become president of the University of Kentucky Student Government Association. He also received the Lexington-Fayette Urban County Government Distinguished Citizen Award. For more see the Kentucky Kernel, 03/24/00.

See video of Jimmy Glenn as UK Student Government President on YouTube.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Gloucester, John
Birth Year : 1776
Death Year : 1822
John Gloucester was born a slave in Kentucky. He was a gifted singer and the first African American minister of the first African American Presbyterian Church in Philadelphia. Before his church was built, Gloucester would sing outside, and when a crowd had gathered, he would begin preaching. In Kentucky, Gloucester had been owned by Reverend Gideon Blackburn, a leader in the Kentucky Presbyterian denomination. When Gloucester was ordained a minister, he was given his freedom. He preached throughout the United States and abroad, raising enough money to buy the freedom of his wife and children. The family settled in Philadelphia around 1807. For more see The Negro Church. Report of a Social Study..., edited by W. E. B. DuBois [full text at UNC Library, Documenting the American South]; and A Popular History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, by J. H. Patton.

See image of John Gloucester at the NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Glover, Clarence E.
Birth Year : 1947
Clarence E. Glover was born in Horse Cave, KY, and played basketball and baseball at Caverna High School. He was named All-State and All-American in basketball. Glover played college basketball at Western Kentucky University and helped lead the team to the 1971 NCAA Final Four. The team lost to Villanova in double overtime, 92-89. Glover was a 6'8" forward and averaged 8.4 points per game. He was the first round, tenth pick, of the Boston Celtics in the 1971 NBA Draft, and played for one season, averaging 2.6 points per game. He played with the Hartford Capitols in the CBA (Continental Basketball Association) from 1972-1974. Clarence Glover went on to become a high school teacher, basketball coach, and a high school principal. He earned his graduate degree from Butler University, and he is a co-founder of Frenchburg Academy, an alternative school in Frenchburg, KY. He is the assistant principal of Farnsley Middle School in Louisville, KY. Clarence Glover was inducted into the 2007 WKU Athletic Hall of Fame. For more see Clarence Glover at Basketball-Reference.com; "All-Star fever hits Bowling Green" at visitbgky.com; "What the Hell Happened to...Clarence Glover?" at the celticslife website.

See photo images and video with Clarence Glover at the celticslife website.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Migration North
Geographic Region: Horse Cave, Hart County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Frenchburg, Menifee County, Kentucky

Glover, James M. "Juicy"
Birth Year : 1931
Born in Sawmill Hollow near Cumberland, KY, Glover played high school football at Benham Colored High in Benham, KY. He attended Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] where he was an All-American linebacker, graduating in 1956. He was drafted into the NFL and became its first African American center. Glover returned to Kentucky and became the assistant football coach at Kentucky State University. He was inducted into the school's Athletics Hall of Fame in 1975. For more see Shadows of the Past, by L. Stout; and C. Carlton, "Coal Country Common Bond," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/31/1997.
Subjects: Football, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Sawmill Hollow, Cumberland County, Kentucky

Godfrey, Linda R.
Birth Year : 1947
Linda R. Godfrey, born in Lexington, KY, has been a leader on several fronts since graduating in 1965 from old Henry Clay High School [on Main Street], where she was a member of the second integrated class to graduate from the school. Godfrey, a nurse, has worked at several locations in Lexington and is presently a case manager and diabetes nurse specialist at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Hospital off Cooper Drive, providing outreach and care coordination for returning combat veterans. She is a retired Army Nurse, having served (1985-2000) with the 475th MASH hospital unit out of Frankfort, KY. Godfrey also taught health education classes at multiple military hospitals throughout the U.S. and in Japan, Ecuador, and Barbados. She also served as an Army nurse in Saudi Arabia and Iraq during Operation Desert Storm in 1991. She received an Army commendation medal and has received a number of awards for her work with veterans, including the Federal Woman of the Year in 2000. In Lexington, Godfrey was a board member of Hospice when the program was being developed in 1977, coordinating the volunteers. For 13 years she taught pediatric nursing and basic medical surgical nursing at Kentucky State University and today is a part-time lecturer for the clinical labs and nursing programs. Godfrey also teaches health education and diabetes classes throughout the year at local churches. She has served two terms as president of the Northside Neighborhood Association, one of the oldest and largest neighborhood associations in Lexington. Godfrey, one of the original members, is past chairperson of the Historic Preservation Commission of the Fayette-Urban County Government and is completing her second term as vice-chair of the Fayette-Urban County Planning Commission. Linda Godfrey is a graduate of Appalachian School of Practical Nursing [which was on Warren Court in Lexington, KY], where she earned her LPN degree in 1968. In 1972, she earned her RN degree from Lexington Community College [now Bluegrass Community and Technical College] and in 1980 graduated with honors from the University of Kentucky College of Nursing. She is a charter member of the Sigma Theta Tau International Honor Society of Nursing, Delta Psi Chapter. Godfrey, who grew up in Kinkeadtown, attends the Mount Calvary Baptist Church in Pricetown, founded by her great grandfather, Matthew Garner. Pricetown is one of the Negro hamlets founded at the end of slavery. This entry was submitted by William Anthony Goatley with detailed information from Linda Godfrey.

 

Access InterviewLisen to the online interview with Lind R. Godfrey (Part 1 and Part 2), interviewed by Mike Jones, 07/27/2002, at the Kentucky Historical Society website.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Medical Field, Health Care, Military & Veterans, Religion & Church Work, Women's Groups and Organizations, Nurses, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Kinkeadtown, Pricetown, Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Iraq / Japan / Ecuador / Barbados

Golden Jubilee (Georgetown, KY)
Start Year : 1926
Golden Jubilee of the Howards Creek Missionary and Educational District Association: a brief story of fifty years work, 1876-1926, by T. H. Smith, 1882- [Georgetown: s.n.], 1926. Title available at the Filson Historical Society in Louisville, Kentucky.
Subjects: Religion & Church Work, Jubilees
Geographic Region: Georgetown, Scott County, Kentucky

Golden Jubilees (Louisville, KY)
Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky: the story of 50 years' work from 1865-1915 including many photos and sketches, compiled from unpublished manuscripts and other sources, by C. H. Parrish. Louisville, KY: Mayes Print Co., 1915. Available at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Library.


Golden Jubilee of the Baptist Women's State Missionary Convention of Kentucky: the story of fifty years of women's missionary activities including histories of the young people and district conventions, societies and individuals. Louisville, Kentucky: Baptist Women's State Missionary Convention of Kentucky, 1953. Available at University of Kentucky Special Collections Library.
Subjects: Religion & Church Work, Jubilees
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gomez, Hazel E. J. Thompson
The following information comes from In Darkness With God, by A. L. Gomez-Jefferson. The author's mother was Hazel Gomez (1891- 1983), born in Toledo, OH, the wife of Bishop Joseph Gomez (1890-1979). Bishop Gomez [or Gomes], of the AME Church, was also a civil rights leader and pioneer; he was born in Antigua. Hazel Gomez's maternal grandfather was John Dent, a slave born in Paducah, KY. John escaped from slavery by taking his master's horse and riding to Ohio, a free state, where he met and married [Mt.] Sterling, KY, native Sara Jane Grubb. The Dents had twelve children; one of their daughters, Julia Anne, was Hazel Gomez's mother. On the paternal side of her family, Hazel Gomez's grandfather, George Henry Thompson, was born in 1804 in Madagascar, an island nation off the coast of Africa in the Indian Ocean. His birth name was Hari Orara, but it was changed when he was sold into slavery in Kentucky. He escaped and settled in Philadelphia. In 1826, he married 14 year old Eliza Elizabeth Ford, who was white, and they moved to Canada, where they had eleven children. Their son, George Thompson, was Hazel Gomez's father.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Mt. Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky / Ohio / Madagascar, Africa / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania / Canada

Gomez, Wanti W. [Louis Jones]
Wanti (or Wante) W. Gomez is said to have appeared in Durham, NC, from 'out of nowhere' in 1920. He was first an independent agent with the Mutual Building and Loan Association, and with that major success, he was named director of the company's education department. Gomez left the position and founded the Bankers Fire Insurance Company, which was also a success. Gomez chose a low profile as secretary of the company. Bankers Fire was listed in Best Insurance Reports, vol. 22, 33rd ed., 1922-23, p. 54, wherein Gomez was credited as having several years of insurance business [online at Google Book Search]. In 1924, he pushed for the establishment of the National Negro Finance Corporation within the National Negro Business League. The Finance Corporation was a complete failure in the late 1920s. Gomez was long gone by that time, having disappeared from Durham in 1926 and taking with him assets from his business, Durham Commercial Security Company. He was never heard from again. It was soon learned that Gomez's real name was Louis Jones and he was a fugitive from Kentucky who was wanted for arson. He had left the Bankers Fire Insurance Company in good standing, and Wanti Gomez is still considered one of the major contributors toward the making of Black Wall Street in Durham. For more see Black Business in the New South, by W. B. Weare; Durham County, by J. B. Anderson and Historic Preservation Society of Durham; "Bankers Fire Insurance Company, Durham, N. C., condition December 31, 1921, as shown by statement filed," The Landmark, 04/27/1922, p. 3.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors, Businesses, Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Migration East, Negro Business League
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Durham, North Carolina

Goodloe, Frank, Sr.
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 1984
Goodloe was appointed to the New Castle Board of Trustees in 1975, becoming the city's first African American official. Goodloe was a bus driver for the public schools of Henry County and a member of Washington Lodge #1513. In 1920 he was listed in the U.S. Federal Census living in New Castle with is grandparents, Ed and Anna Diseth. For more see "Mayor, 45 councilmen are black city officials," in the 1978 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report by the Commission on Human Rights, p. 21.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: New Castle, Henry County, Kentucky

Goodlowtown, Goodloetown, or Goodloe (Lexington, KY)
Goodlowtown was a community in itself, established around 1871; by 1887 it had grown to include Gunntown and Bradley Street Bottoms. It was the largest Negro residential area in Lexington. The community was located on bottomland that had been used during the Civil War for mule stalls. The Colored Normal School was located in Goodloetown, with J. G. Hamilson as principal and Miss Mary E. White was a teacher, according to the Lexington City Directory, 1873 and 1874. Today Goodloe is a predominately low-income African American neighborhood partially shielded from view by Thoroughbred Park in downtown Lexington. The area includes portions of DeWeese, Race, Second, Third, Fourth and Fifth Streets. For more see J. Kellogg, "The Formation of Black Residential Areas in Lexington, Kentucky, 1865-1887," The Journal of Southern History, vol. 48, issue 1 (Feb. 1982), pp. 21-52; and P. Hobgood, "Constructing Community: an Exhibition of the Voices of Goodloetown," Kaleidoscope: University of Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship, vol. 4 (2006), pp. 39-44.
Subjects: Communities, Parks, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Goodwin, Leoda E. Lynn
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 2005
Goodwin was born in Paducah, KY, where she graduated from Lincoln High School. When Leoda Lynn was a sophomore in college, her boyfriend and future husband, William Goodwin, encouraged her to enter the new popularity contest that was being held on campus. Goodwin represented her boyfriend's club, A.P.B, a fraternity. She won the title of 1929 Miss Kentucky State [Industrial College for Colored Persons], the first to hold the title. The 75th Anniversary of the event was held in 2004 at the school (now named Kentucky State University). After her marriage, Goodwin returned to college and earned her B.A. in mathematics from Kentucky State University and her M.A. in education from the University of Kentucky. She was a math teacher at old Dunbar High School and Bryan Station High School in Lexington, KY. For more see M. Davis, "Once a Queen, Always a Queen - first Miss Kentucky State has set example for rest to follow," Lexington Herald-Leader, 10/14/2004, p. D2; and Leoda Lynn Goodwin in "Obituaries and Memorials" in the Lexington Herald-Leader, 09/05/2005, City & Region section, p. B3.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Homecoming Queens, Pageants, Contests
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Goodwine, Pamela R.
Birth Year : 1960
In 1999, Judge Pamela Goodwine became the first African American woman appointed to the bench; she was appointed by Governor Paul Patton, and later that year was elected to the position. In 2003, she was the first to be elected Circuit Court Judge in Fayette County and was re-elected in 2006. Judge Goodwine, from Youngstown, Ohio, received her JD from the University of Kentucky in 1994. She was inducted into the University of Kentucky Gatton College of Business and Economics Alumni Hall of Fame in 2002. During her interview on the Renee Shaw show, Judge Goodwine talks about her life with Crohn's disease. For more see Gatton College of Business and Economics Alumni Hall of Fame, University of Kentucky; "A Pledge of Service," Lexington Herald-Leader, 11/28/03, Final Ed., p. B1; and KET's "Connections with Renee Shaw" - #315: Pamela Goodwine.

See photo imge of Judge Pamela Goodwine and additional information at University of Kentucky Gatton College website.
Subjects: Lawyers, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Judges, Appointments by Kentucky Governors
Geographic Region: Youngstown, Ohio / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Gordon, James and Teresa (siblings)
Start Year : 1956
End Year : 1957
September 7, 1956, Mrs. Louise Gordon attempted to register her children for classes at Clay Consolidated School in Webster County, KY, and was turned away by a crowd of 100 or more people. September 10, 1956, Mrs. Gordon again attempted to register her children for school and her car was surrounded and rocked by the crowd that included Mayor Herman Z. Clark. On September 12, 1956, James and Louise Gordon's children, James and Teresa, began attending the previously all white elementary school in Clay, KY. The children were escorted to school by the national guard, and there were hundreds of guardsmen patrolling the school grounds during the day. On the second day of classes, the Gordon children and one white child were the only students in the school, the others had walked out in protest. More than half the teachers did not report to work, and Minvil L. Clark resigned. Clark was a school teacher and he was pastor of the General Baptist Church. In response to the attempt at integrating the school, it was ruled by the Kentucky Attorney General, Jo M. Ferguson, that the Gordon children should be denied admittance to the school because the Webster County Board of Education did not have an integration plan. Ferguson ruled the same applied to Sturgis, Union County, where Negro students attempted to enter the previously all white high school on the first day of classes and were turned away by a mob. To help keep the peace, Governor Happy Chandler had activated the Kentucky National Guard and the State Police. In Clay, KY, the Adjutant General of the National Guard, Major General J. J. B. Williams, was ignoring the news of the Attorney General's decision; until he heard from the governor of Kentucky, he planned to continue to take Mrs. Gordon and her children to and from school. On September 18, 1956, based on the Kentucky Attorney General's ruling, the Union and Webster County school systems voted to officially bar Negro students from their schools. Governor Happy Chandler withdrew the National Guard troops. Louisville NAACP Lawyer, James A. Crumlin, Sr. filed suit against the Sturgis and Clay school systems in the Federal District Court: Gordon, et. al. v. Collins, et. al. and Garnette, et. al. v. Oakley, et. al. The cases were represented by Crumlin and J. Earl Dearing. In 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court had ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation was unconstitutional. In December of 1956, the Sturgis and Clay school systems were directed by U.S. District Judge Henry L. Brooks to submit their desegregation plans by February 4, 1957. Both school systems complied and in September of 1957, Negro students were admitted to the schools. For more see "Kentucky bars two Negroes at Clay School," St. Petersburg Times, 09/14/1956, p.1; "Some teachers join in boycott at Clay School," Louisville Courier-Journal, 09/14/1956, p. 1; Wolfford, D. L., "Resistance on the border: school desegregation in western Kentucky, 1954-1964," Ohio Valley History, vol. 4, issue 2, Summer 2004, pp. 41-62; and J. M. Trowbridge and J. Lemay, Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky Education.

See photo images of the Clay and Sturgis school inegration attempts in Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky Education by J. M. Trowbridge and J. Lemay [.pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Clay, Webster County, Kentucky / Sturgis, Union County, Kentucky

Gordon, Mary Ann Goodlow
Birth Year : 1853
Death Year : 1924
Gordon was born on the Poindexter Plantation in Bourbon County, KY, during slavery. As a free person, Mary Ann Goodlow Gordon and her husband, John Francis Gordon, eventually settled in White Sulphur Springs, Montana. They were the only African American family in the town. John Gordon died in a train wreck around 1895 while on his way to work in the gold fields in Alaska. He died shortly before their sixth and last child was born. The child, [Emmanuel] Taylor Gordon (1893-1971), would become a well-known Negro spiritual singer. Taylor Gordon began his career in vaudeville and later performed with J. Rosamond Johnson in the 1920s and 1930s. For more information see Born to Be, by T. Gordon; and the Emmanuel Taylor Gordon Papers at the Montana Historical Society Research Center.
Subjects: Fathers, Migration West, Mothers, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, 1st African American Families in Town, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky / White Sulphur Springs, Montana

Gordon, Robert L.
Birth Year : 1941
Death Year : 2007
Gordon was born in Lexington, KY, to Alice Gordon Williams and Roscoe Demus. He was a graduate of Edward Waters College and the College of Finger Lakes. He had been a teacher and baseball coach and also played basketball with the Harlem Astronauts. Gordon had also worked for the Ford Motor Company in labor relations and left the company to become president of his own business, Premier Personnel Placement Consultant, Inc. He was a member of President Reagan's Task Force on the Private Sector and was the former Grand Polemarch of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. He was listed as one of the 100 Most Influential Blacks by Ebony magazine. Gordon was Personnel Director of the City of Highland Park, MI, before becoming City Manager of Inkster, MI. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1985-2006; Robert L. Gordon in "Obituaries," Ann Arbor News, 06/15/2007, p. A13; and M. Tippen, "Former City Manager Robert Gordon dies," Journal Newspapers Online, 06/14/2007.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Highland Park and Inkster, Michigan

Gordon, Sheryl E.
In 2006, Gordon was the first woman to be hired as a fraud investigator in the Kentucky Office of Insurance. She joined the division is 2005, and is now a special investigator. Gordon graduated from the Department of Criminal Justice's 365th Law Enforcement Basic Training Academy in 2006, she had earned her undergraduate degree from the University of Louisville in 1989. The training academy is located on the campus of Eastern Kentucky University. The Kentucky Office of Inusrance is an agency within the Public Protection Office. For more see Sheryl E. Gordon on p.324 in Who's Who in Black Louisville, 2nd ed; and "Department of Criminal Justice Training Graduates 20 Recruits," Press Release, 01/26/2006, Justice and Public Safety Cabinet [online].
Subjects: Insurance Companies, Insurance Sales, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gore, Jerry
Birth Year : 1947
Jerry Gore was born in Maysville, KY. An Underground Railroad historian, he is also a founding member of the National Underground Railroad Museum, Inc. and founder of the Freedom Time Company and the Kentucky Underground Railroad Association. He has been a consultant on the history of the Underground Railroad for a number of projects and programs and was featured on the History Channel's "Save Our History: The Underground Railroad." He is the great-great-grandson of Addison White, famous Ohio fugitive of the Underground Railroad. In 2012, Jerry Gore was the recipient of the Carter G. Woodson Memorial Award. For more see Jerry Gore at the Footsteps to Freedom website.

See video with Jerry Gore receiving the 2012 Carter G. Woodson Memorial Award, at the Freedom Time website.
Subjects: Freedom, Historians, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Maysville, Mason County, Kentucky

Goshen, Colonel Ruth
Birth Year : 1824
Death Year : 1889
Colonel Ruth Goshen, a circus employee who was billed as an 8-foot giant, went by many different names: Ruth, Routh, Deruth and Rutherford. His birthplace was also in question until just prior to his death; circus managers would claim that Goshen was born in Jerusalem, or Prussia, or Turkey, or that he was an African American from Kentucky. Neither his names nor birth locations were correct: Goshen was not Arabic nor African American nor Turkish nor Prussian. Nor was he 8 feet tall. Goshen was about 7'6" tall and his real name was Arthur Crowley [Caley]; he was born on the Isle of Man, in the Irish Sea, bordered by England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales. For more see "Colonel Ruth Goshen" in American Sideshow: an encyclopedia of history's most wondrous and curiously strange performers, by M. Hartzman; Arthur Caley, at the A Manx Note Book website; and "The Giant is Dead," The New York Times, 02/14/1889, p. 3.

See photo image of Colonel Ruth Goshen at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Circus, Hoaxes
Geographic Region: Isle of Man, Europe / Kentucky

Gospel Troupers (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1952
The group, referred to as the Gospel Troupers or Troopers, was organized in 1952 with four women and three men. It was thought to be the first all-blind gospel chorus (Mrs. Jane Scott, the pianist-director, was sighted). The group members, who belonged to various churches, performed at festivals, schools, and church events to raise money for various charities in Lexington, KY. Members included Mrs. Jean Searcy Carter, who organized the group; her husband, Garfield Carter; and Hester and George Hanley. For more see "Blind Ky. Choristers Sing Gospel for Charity," in December 18, 1952 issue of Jet, p. 30 [available online with picture of group]; J. Hewlett, "George Hanley, blind musician, singer, dies at 85," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/30/1988, Obituaries section, p. B4; and "Garfield Carter, Fayette vendor, singer dies at 87," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/13/1997, Obituaries section, p. C2. Additional information provided by Margaret Miller of Lexington, KY, daughter of Mrs. Jane Scott.


Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Religion & Church Work, Blind, Visually Impaired
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Goss, William Thompson
Birth Year : 1894
Death Year : 1960
Born in Barren Fork, KY, William T. Goss was a poet, commercial artist and letterer, and a portrait artist. He had had no formal education in art when he attend the Haines Institute in Augusta and studied six months in France. His work was shown beginning in 1931 at various galleries and exhibits in Detroit, MI. According to his draft registration card for WWI, Goss had been employed by the Connecticut Tobacco Company in Somerset, KY, prior to the war. He served in the U.S. Navy. His WWII registration card gives his address as Cincinnati, OH, were Goss was employed at the Wright Aeronautical Company. In 1931, he was living at 1021 S. 15th Street in Toledo, OH, and had sailed to France and returned home six months later aboard the ship "France" on September 23, 1931 [source: New York Passenger List of United States Citizens, U.S. Department of Labor, Immigration Service, S.S. France, September 17-23, 1931]. Upon his return to the States, Goss was employed as a commercial artist at the Chevrolet Motor Company in Detroit [source: Ebony Rhythm: an anthology of contemporary Negro verse by B. M. Murphy]. In 1940, William and Cora Jones Goss lived in Indianapolis, IN, at 2101 Boulevard Place, and both had lived in Detroit, MI in 1935 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The couple married June 1, 1939 in Marion County, IN [source: Marion County Marriage License Record #55548, p.325, ref. book #152]. While in Indanapolis, William T. Goss was self-employed as a portrait artist and he owned a sign shop [source: "William Goss [obituary]" in the Indianapolis Recorder, 02/13/1960, p.9]. William Thompson Goss died 01/30/1960 at the Veteran's Hospital in Cincinnati, OH [source: Ohio Death Certificate #12228]. His services were held at Delaines Funeral Home in Covington, KY, and he was buried in Cincinnati. Pearl Goss (1890-1976), from Covington, KY, is listed as his wife in the obituary. For more see Negro Artists: an illustrated review of their achievements, by Harmon Foundation (1991 reprint edition); and Afro-American Artists. A bio-bibliographical directory, compiled and edited by T. D. Cederholm. Two of Goss' poems, "Man to Man" and "Variety," are on pp.72-73 in Ebony Rhythm by B. M. Murphy.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Military & Veterans, Poets
Geographic Region: Barren Fork, McCreary County, Kentucky / Detroit, Michigan / Cincinnati, Ohio / Indianapolis, Indiana

Gough, John
Birth Year : 1816
Death Year : 1906
Gough had been a slave in Graves County, KY; he moved to Illinois and married Kentucky native Louisa Smith. One of their children, Belle Gough Micheaux (1856-1918), was the mother of Oscar D. Micheaux (1884-1951); Oscar was an author and later established the Micheaux Film and Book Company. He became a producer of films, the first of which was The Homesteader (a silent film). For more on Oscar D. Micheaux see African-Americans in Motion Pictures, the Past and the Present, by Long Island University Library; and The Life and Work of Oscar Micheaux: Pioneer Black Author and Filmmaker, 1884-1951, by E. J. Young.
Subjects: Fathers, Migration North, Grandparents, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Graves County, Kentucky / Illinois

Gough, Louisa Smith
Birth Year : 1833
Death Year : 1913
Gough, the daughter of Louis Hardin and Betty Smith, had been a slave in Graves County, KY. She later moved to Illinois and married Kentucky native John Gough in 1866. One of their children was Belle Gough Micheaux (1856-1918), mother of Oscar D. Micheaux (1884-1951), an author who established the Micheaux Film and Book Company. He became a producer of films, the first of which was The Homesteader (a silent film). For more on Oscar D. Micheaux see The Life and Work of Oscar Micheaux: Pioneer Black Author and Filmmaker, 1884-1951, by E. J. Young.
Subjects: Migration North, Mothers, Movies and Films
Geographic Region: Graves County, Kentucky / Illinois

Gowens, Henry Lytle, Jr.
Birth Year : 1884
Death Year : 1953
Born in Lexington, KY, Henry L. Gowens, Jr. became an ophthalmologist and eye surgeon at the Mercy-Douglass Hospital in Philadelphia and served as president of the Pennsylvania Medical, Dental, and Pharmacy Association. He published several articles, including "Eserin in ophthalmology," Journal of Ophthalmology, Otology and Laryngology, vol. 20, 1914. He was among the first ten African Americans to become a fellow of the American College of Surgeons. He was the husband of Beulah E. Gowens (b.1890) from Philadelphia, PN. The couple bought a home in what had been an all white neighborhood and a suit was filed by a former owner of the home. Judge Curtis Bok of the Common Pleas Court dismissed the suit. Dr. Gowens was the son of Henry L. Gowens, Sr. Prior to his marriage, Dr. Gowens was head of his family, according to the 1910 U.S. Federal Census. The family lived on 13th Street N. in Philadelphia, PN. Henry Gowens, Sr. was a school professor; Dr. Gowens had a private medical practice; his sisters Modina and Virginia were school teachers; and his brother Willard was an artist. All of the family members were born in Kentucky. In 1920, Henry Sr. was a clerk with the U.S. Government, and he, his wife Florence, and daughter Modina were living in Washington, D.C. In 1930, Williard Gowens was also living with the family in D.C. Henry L. Gowens, Jr. was a graduate of Howard University and received his medical degree in 1908 from Hahnemann Medical College [now Drexel University College of Medicine]. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950; see pp.310-311 in Anyplace But Here by A. W. Bontemps and J. Conroy; and "Dr. Henry L. Gowens, Jr.," New York Times, 01/04/1953, p.78.

See photo image of Dr. Henry L. Gowens, Jr. at the "Images from the History of Medicine a the National Library of Medicine.
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care, Migration North, Court Cases, Hospitals and Clinics: Employment, Founders, Ownership, Incidents
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Grace, Leonard [and Ridgewood at Louisville and Jefferson County Children's Home]
Birth Year : 1916
Death Year : 1941
The name Leonard Grace would probably have never been mentioned in the newspapers had he not died at a young age during a boxing match that resulted in his opponent being charged with manslaughter. In Kentucky, it was one of the first times that a boxer received the charge of manslaughter for an opponent's death in the boxing ring. Leonard Grace was a lightweight boxer between the ages of 19-25; his exact age is unknown because Leonard Grace had been a ward of the state and his age changed based on who was answering the question. It was not too long after his eighteenth birthday, and a very brief professional boxing career, that Leonard Grace died on November 3, 1941 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death Registrar's No.4804, the last name is misspelled "Gracen"]. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Louisville, KY. His death was due to a subdural hemorrhage pulmonary edema, the result of injuries received during a bout with lightweight boxer Tommy Parker [BoxRec] from Lexington, KY. Leonard Grace went down in the ring at Columbia Gymnasium, his managers could not revive him, and he was pronounced dead on arrival at the City Hospital in Louisville, KY. Tommy Parker was initially charged with manslaughter, but Leonard Grace's death was ruled an accident by a coroner's jury. According to Leonard Grace's incomplete boxing record at the BoxRec website, he had had very few fights, one of which he lost to Johnny Allen [BoxRec] in November of 1938, the fight was scored a KO (knockout). That fight had also taken place at the Columbia Gymnasium in Louisville, KY. Little is known about Leonard Grace's personal life. He is listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census as a 14 year old ward of the Louisville and Jefferson County Children's Home. It is noted that he and his parents were born in Kentucky. The Louisville and Jefferson County Children's Home was a residential institution for dependent and delinquent children [source: "Ormsby Village-Ridgewood" by D. Morgan in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, editor J. E. Kleber, pp.678-679]. Children were placed in the home due to "neglect, ill treatment, delinquency, and undesirable home conditions," they became wards of the state [source: The WPA Guide to Kentucky by the Federal Writers' Project of the Work Projects Administration for the State of Kentucky, pp.349-350]. While at the home, Leonard Grace was a resident in the Ridgewood facility that housed the colored children; the building was located in Lyndon on LaGrange Road. In 1930, Lee B. Jett, Sr. was the superintendent of the home's colored facility, and he supervised 2 teachers, 2 employees, 3 matrons, maid Harriett Benny, and chef Fanny Arnold, all of whom cared for 105 wards and the superintendent's 2 children [source: 1930 U.S. Federal Census]. It is not known how long Leonard Grace was a ward of the Louisville and Jefferson County Children's Home. His parents' names are not known at this time. In 1930, there were 7 other African Americans in Louisville with the last name Grace, and they may or may not have been related. Havng been placed in the Children's Home, it was probably there that Leonard Grace was introduced to boxing, a sport for boys in many orphanages and homes for cildren. In 1940, Leonard Grace lived with John Gordon and Reachel Young, both from Tennessee [source: U.S. Federal Census]; all three lived on Magazine Street in Louisville. John Gordon worked with the WPA building streets. The following year, Leonard Grace died. On Leonard Grace's death certificate, John Gordon was the informant and he wrote "unknown" in the space for parents. In 1941, as written on the death certificate, John Gordon and Leonard Grace both lived at 1415 S. Third Street in Louisville. In 1939, Leonard Grace had been employed as a porter for the Taystee Bread Co. located at 1222 W. Liberty Street [source: p.668 in Caron's Louisville (Kentucky) City Directory 1939]. At the time of his death, Leonard Grace was said to be 20 years old on his death certificate; 21 years old according to the newspaper article announcing his death; 25 years old according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census; and 19 years old according to the 1940 U.S. Federal Census. For the announcement of Leonard Grace's death, see the last paragraph in the column "It Happened in Kentucky," Kentucky New Era, 11/04/1941, p.4; and the coroner's ruling in "Hit him too hard," Kentucky New Era, 11/18/1941,p.4. For a broader history of boxers who died in the ring, and additional sources, see "Boxing-related deaths" within chapter 2-Data Analysis in the title The Regulation of Boxing by R. G. Rogriguez.  
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing, Orphans and Orphanages in Kentucky, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gragston, Arnold
Birth Year : 1840
Death Year : 1938
Gragston was born Christmas Day on the Jack Tabb Plantation in Mason County, KY. Tabb allowed Gragston and other male slaves to visit nearby farms, and it was while Gragston was out "courtin'" that he received his first offer to become an Underground Railroad conductor by taking a pretty girl across the river to Ripley, OH, where she would be met by other conductors. That was in 1860, and for the next four years Arnold would carry slaves by boat across the Ohio River, making three or four trips a month from Dover (Mason County), KY, to Ripley. All during this time, Gragston remained in slavery, never receiving any kind of payment for helping others to freedom. His days as a conductor ended in 1864, the night he was pursued after returning to the Kentucky side of the river. He dared not return to the Tabb Plantation for fear of being caught; Gragston hid in the woods and fields, sometimes sleeping in the trees and in hay piles. The riverbank was being guarded, so Gragston waited for the right opportunity, then he and his wife slipped across the Ohio River to Ripley. They eventually moved on to Detroit, MI, where they remained as their family grew to include 10 children and 31 grandchildren. For more see Arnold Gragston in the Gutenberg EBook, Slave Narratives, vol. 3, Florida Narratives; and "Bracken County marker to honor abolitionist, slave," Kentucky Post, 06/21/2002.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration North, Underground Railroad: Conductors, Escapes, Organizations, Research
Geographic Region: Dover, Mason County, Kentucky / Ripley, Ohio / Detroit, Michigan

Graham, Derrick
Birth Year : 1958
Born in Frankfort, KY, Derrick Graham has been an educator and, since 2003, an elected state representative (D-Frankfort): he was the first African American to serve the 57th District. Graham is a teacher at Frankfort High School. He was a city commissioner in Frankfort (1992-2000), and a student regent, and later a Board of Regent member at Kentucky State University. He received an endorsement from the Kentucky Education Association during his campaign for the House. Graham is a graduate of Kentucky State University (BA) and Ohio State University (MA). For more see A. Cross, "2003 Kentucky General Assembly: Legislators to watch," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/02/2003, Extra section, p. 09X; Representative Derrick Graham web page; and contact the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Grainger, Porter Parrish
Birth Year : 1891
Porter P. Grainger was a prolific songwriter, a pianist and arranger, and on occasion a singer. He can be heard playing piano on records of noted musicians and singers during the 1920s and 1930s. Porter Grainger was born in Bowling Green, KY, on October 22, 1891; he and his sister Ursula were raised by their grandparents, Patience and Joseph Coleman, in Hickory Flat, Kentucky [sources: 1900 U.S. Federal Census, where the last name is spelled "Granger"; and World War II Draft Registration Card #2841, 1942]. Much has been written about Porter Grainger's musical career, but not much is known about his life prior to 1916. In 1908, Porter and his sister Ursula were living in Bowling Green on State Street; they were among the seven persons with the last name Granger listed on p. 122 of the Bowling Green, Ky. City Directory, 1908, vol. 1. At the time, Porter was a porter at Farnsworth & Stout. By 1912, Porter Grainger was living in Louisville, KY, working as a waiter, and in 1913, his name again spelled as "Granger," he was working as a laborer [sources: p. 518 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, 1912; and p. 537 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, 1913]. On November 7, 1914, Grainger, living in Chicago, married Alies Kieth [source: Cook County, Illinois, Marriage Indexes]. According to All Music Guide to the Blues, edited by V. Bogdanov, et. al., p. 206, Grainger's professional music career started as early as 1916. On his World War I Draft Registration Card #89, dated June 5, 1917, Porter Granger (he spelled his name without an "i") listed his occupation as a composer of songs in Chicago, IL. He was still living in Chicago in 1920, according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1924, he was living in New York where he and Robert Ricketts were partners in Grainger & Ricketts, located at 1547 Broadway [source: p. 1010, Polk's Trow's New York, 1924-25: Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronxs, vol. 134]. Grainger & Ricketts is listed under the heading of "Music Publishers and Dealers" on p. 2727 of R. L. Polk & Co.'s 1925 Trow's New York City Classified Business Directory: Boroughs of Manhattan and Bronx. Grainger also worked for Bessie Smith: in 1928 he was the musical director, composer, and arranger of her musical show, Mississippi Days. He was also the writer of her first released recording, Tain't Nobody's Biz-ness If I Do and Alberta Hunter's Downhearted Blues [source: I Went Down to St. James Infirmary, by R. W. Harwood, pp. 13-20]. Grainger published a number of musical scores and performance scripts. He worked with a number of performers, appearing on recordings such as Fats Waller and His Rhythm, 1926; Ethel Waters, 1938-1939; Edna Hicks,1923; Duke Ellington: the Beginning, 1926-1928; The Duke in Harlem, 1926; and many, many more. In 1929, he was the piano accompanist for singer Mamie Smith in the movie, Jailhouse Blues. In 1940, Porter Grainger was a boarder at the home of Viola Albury on 7th Avenue in New York City [source: U.S. Federal Census]. It is not known when Porter Grainger died; one of his last documents was his 1942 World War II Draft Registration Card. For more listen to the recording of Porter Grainger: in chronological order, 1923-1929, published by RST Records in Vienna, Austria (which has hundreds of other recordings); see the musical score 'Tain't Nobody's Bus'ness If I Do: blues, by Porter Grainger and Everett Robbins, and the many other scores; De Board Meetin: the script and music, by Porter Grainger and Leigh R Whipper; and the Leigh Rollin Whipper Papers at the New York Public Library. Porter Grainger and B. Ricketts were the authors of the musical score How to Sing and Play the Blues Like the Phonograph and Stage Artists, written in 1926.

 

 
See "Mamie Smith - Jail House Blues (1929) .MPG" on YouTube.

 

 

 
Listen to radio broadcast of Billie Holiday singing "T'ain't nobody's business if I do" written by Porter Grainger & Everett Robbins.  

 

 
See photo image of Porter P. Grainger in "I Went Down to the St. James Infirmary" blog dated Monday, March 29, 2010. (see notes below)

*NOTE: Porter Parrish Grainger (also spelled as Granger) should not be confused with Percy Grainger.

*NOTE: Robert Ricketts, partner in Grainger & Ricketts, was born c. 1885 in Ohio and his parents were born in Kentucky [source: 1930 U.S. Federal Census]. Robert Ricketts was African American and is listed as 40 years old in the 1925 New York State Census. Robert Ricketts died November 26, 1936 in Manhattan, NY [source: New York Death Certificate #25601].
Subjects: Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Bowling Green and Hickory Flat, Warren County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / New York, New York

Granson, Milla
Granson, a slave in Kentucky, was taught to read by her owner's children. She secretly taught other slaves to read, which helped some to write passes that led to their freedom. For more see Black Women in America, 2nd ed., vol. 2.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Grant County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Grant County was formed in 1820 from a portion of Pendleton County, and is surrounded by six counties. It is located in north-central, Kentucky, and was named for one or all of the frontiersmen brothers, Samuel Grant, John Grant, and Squire Grant. The county seat is Williamstown, it was incorporated in 1825, named for William Arnold, a native of New Jersey, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War, and builder of the first Grant County courthouse in 1821. The 1820 Grant County population was 278 [heads of households] in the U.S. Federal Census, and it increased to 7,660 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 164 slave owners
  • 452 Black slaves
  • 80 Mulatto slaves
  • 6 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 195 slave owners
  • 500 Black slaves
  • 197 Mulatto slaves
  • 15 free Blacks
  • 12 free Mulattoes [last names Lair, Prudean, and 1 King]
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 331 Blacks
  • 176 Mulattoes
  • About 18 U.S. Colored Troops listed Grant County, Ky, as their birth location.
For more see the Grant County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Grant County, Kentucky by J. B. Conrad; and Grant County, Kentucky Biographies by L. Collins et. al. See photo image and additional information about the Dry ridge Consolidated Colored School at the National Trust for Historic Preservation website.

Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Grant County, Kentucky

Grant, Thomas and Amanda
Birth Year : 1848
Born in Germantown, KY in 1848, Thomas Grant was a member of the U.S. Army Colored Soldiers. According to the U.S. Civil War and Soldier Records and Profiles, Grant enlisted with the U.S. Colored Troops in Lexington, KY, on March 4, 1865. He was stationed in El Paso, TX, in 1870, and at Fort Davis, TX, in 1880. Grant arrived in Tuscon, AZ in 1892, remaining there after he retired from the 10th Cavalry. He was one of the five African American pioneers in the Arizona Territory [Arizona became the 48th state in 1912]. Grant was a stationary engineer and lived on North Main Street in Tucson, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. In 1910, he was employed as a hotel porter, and was the husband of Amanda G. Grant (b.1870 in TX). Amanda's parents were former slaves who were born in Kentucky. Both her daughter, Rita Wellis, and her granddaughter, Christina Wellis, lived with Amanda and Thomas Grant in Tucson. The family lived on West 22nd Street at 11 Avenue. Grant was still alive in 1933 when he was included in J. W. Yancy's thesis on African Americans in Tucson. For more see In the Steps of Esteban: Tucson's African American Heritage, by the University of Arizona Library; and The Negro of Tucson, Past and Present (thesis) by J. W. Yancy.

See photo image with Thomas Grant at the University of Arizona website.
Subjects: Early Settlers, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Germantown, Bracken County, Kentucky / Tucson, Arizona

Grant, Travis "The Machine"
Birth Year : 1950
Travis Grant was born in Clayton, AL, and played basketball at Barbour County High School. He played college ball at Kentucky State University, where he led the team to three consecutive NAIA Championships: 1970, 1971, and 1972. He led the team in scoring his freshman year in 1969. The teams were coached by Lucias Mitchell. ESPN journalist Mary Buckheit referred to Grant as the "most prolific scorer in college basketball history." Grant has won a number of awards and holds the NCAA All-Divisions all-time record for field goals in a career (1,760). He also held NAIA records for Career Points Average (33.4) and is fourth on the NCAA All-Divisions list for total points in a season with 1,304 points. He is 11th for single-season average with 39.5 points in 1972. In a game against Northwood, Travis Grant scored 75 points. He was selected first round, 13th pick, by the Los Angeles Lakers in the 1972 NBA Draft. Grant played for four seasons in both the NBA and the ABA, averaging 15.7 points per game. During the 1973-74 season, he averaged 25.2 points per game while playing for the San Diego Conquistadors. in 2009, Travis Grant was inducted into the Kentucky Athletic Hall of Fame and into the National Collegiate Basketball Hall of Fame in Kansas City, MO. After his basketball career, Grant became a high school teacher and coach, and in 2008 was an assistant principal and athletic director at Stephenson High School in Atlanta, GA. For additional information see "College basketball's all-time scorer lives in obscurity," by M. Buckheit, 02/22/08, at ESPN.com [available online]; Travis Grant at Lakers.com; M. Story, "A man, a machine and a champion - in 1971, KSU's Grant played on arguably the best team in KY," Lexington Herald-Leader, 04/26/2009, Sports section, p. B2; and Travis Grant in Basketball, by D. L. Porter. This entry was submitted by Lacy L. Rice, Jr.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Migration North
Geographic Region: Clayton, Alabama / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Graves County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Graves County is located in far western Kentucky on the Tennessee state line and borders five Kentucky counties. It was formed in 1824 from a portion of Hickman County and is the largest county in the Jackson Purchase Region. The county is named for Benjamin Franklin Graves, born in Virginia, was a soldier who was killed at the Battle of River Raisin during the War of 1812. The county seat is Mayfield, named in 1824 for the major waterway Mayfield Creek, which is supposedly named for George Mayfield from Mississippi, who was shot and died in the creek. In 1830 there was one African American slave owner in Graves County. The 1830 Census for the county showed a population of 380 [heads of households], and that increased to 13,348 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 353 slave owners
  • 1,125 Black slaves
  • 232 Mulatto slaves
  • 1 free Black [Easter Negro]
  • 6 free Mulattoes [last names Maples and Owens]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 566 slave owners
  • 2,309 Black slaves
  • 535 Mulatto Slaves
  • 2 free Blacks
  • 4 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,933 Blacks
  • 328 Mulattoes
  • About 54 U.S. Colored Troops listed Graves County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Graves County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; Graves County, Kentucky, History & Families by Turner Publishing Co.; and Sugar of the Crop by S. Butler.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Graves County, Kentucky

Graves, George L.
Birth Year : 1879
August 1912, George L. Graves was among the six mine employees returning to the United States aboard the ship Seguranca from Veracruz, Mexico [source: List or Manifest of Alien Passengers for the United States Immigration Officer at Port of Arrival, August 2, 1912, p.14]. The ship docked at New York, New York. The men had been working on one of the oil wells in the Veracruz area, and may have returned to the U.S. due to the rebellion against President Francisco I. Madero during the Mexican Revolution. George L. Graves was 33 years old and single, he was born in Harrodsburg, KY. He was one of many Americans who lived in Mexico and were employed by the American-owned oilfield companies. This was prior to the Tampico Affair in 1914 and the invasion of Veracruz by American troops. For more about the American presence in Mexico and the oil industry see The Ecology of Oil by M. I. Santiago; Oil, Banks, and Politics by L. B. Hall; and A. Kahn, "The dynamics of color : mestizaje, racism, and blackness in Veracruz, Mexico" in Shades of Difference by E. N. Glenn.
Subjects: Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Harrodsburg, Mercer County, Kentucky / Mexico

Gray, Anthony, Jr., "Tony"
In April 2007, Anthony Gray, Jr. was sworn in as interim police chief of Danville, KY, the first African American to hold the post. Gray had been the assistant chief of police. April 23, 2012, Gray was named the Chief of the Danville Police Department. He is a graduate of the Department of Criminal Justice Basic Training Class No.240. For more see "Danville: Interim police chief sworn in," Lexington Herald-Leader, 04/02/2007, City&Region section, p. B3; and Anthony Gray Jr. in the column "New Chiefs" on p.7 of Kentucky Law Enforcement, Fall 2012, v.11, no.3.

See photo image of Anthony "Tony" Gray at the City of Danville, KY, Official Website.
Subjects: Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

Gray, James F.
Birth Year : 1860
Death Year : 1926
Born in Versailles, KY, Gray taught school in Russellville, KY. In 1889 he was appointed Gauger by President Harrison; Gray was the first African American appointed to the position in the Collection District. In 1894 he was elected principal at Mayfield, KY, and in 1896 returned to Russellville, where he ran unsuccessfully for postmaster in 1897, and was still a school teacher in Russellville in 1900. The 1910 U.S. Federal Census shows James F. Gray as an employee with the U.S. Internal Revenue Service and he was living in Louisville with his wife Sarah, their son Frank, and stepmother Hannah Gray. In 1920, James Gray operated a grocery store in Louisville, and he and his family lived on 16th Street. For more see Biographical Sketches of Prominent Negro Men and Women of Kentucky, by W. D. Johnson.
Subjects: Businesses, Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Versailles, Woodford County, Kentucky / Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky / Mayfield, Graves County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Gray, Leonard W., Sr.
Birth Year : 1942
Death Year : 2005
Born in Louisville, KY, Leonard W. Gray, Sr. a sales associate, was elected the Representative of the 42nd District (Jefferson County) to the Kentucky General Assembly for 1990-1995. Gray sponsored the bill that made Martin Luther King, Jr. Day a state holiday. He was a graduate of the University of Louisville, having graduated from Central High School in 1960 with his friend, Cassius Clay. In 1995, Gray gave up his seat in the House of Representatives to become Governor Patton's House Liaison. He was Patton's first African American appointee, serving as the minority chairman of Patton's successful 1995 gubernatorial campaign. In August 1996, the personnel records of Gray and two other top staff members were subpoenaed by the Franklin County Grand Jury. Gray testified but was not indicted. He was later named Minority Affairs Director by Patton. For more see "Patton picks legislator as his house liaison, Louisville representative will leave his seat in '96," Lexington Herald-Leader, 11/22/1995; "Patton's aides' personnel records sent to grand jury," Lexington Herald Leader, 08/15/1996; G. Josephstaff, "Ex-legislator, Democratic activist Leonard Gray Sr. dies," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 07/19/2005; or contact the Kentucky Legislative Research Commission.

See photo image of Leonard W. Gray, Sr. with Governor Paul Patton and ETA Director Rose Walton, 10/28/2002, at e-archives.ky.gov.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Legislators, Kentucky, Appointments by Kentucky Governors
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Grayson County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Grayson County, located in the western central region of Kentucky, was established in 1810 from portions of Hardin and Ohio Counties. It was named for William Grayson, who was a lawyer and one of the first two U.S. Senators from Virginia. William Grayson was an aid to George Washington, and Washington was also a early landowner in the Grayson County area. The county seat is Leitchfield, also founded in 1810 and named for David Leitchfield when his widow donated the land for the county seat. The 1810 county census was 357 [heads of households], and it increased to 7,551 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 92 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 72 Mulatto slaves
  • 2 free Blacks [Jesse Fenley and Bill Kelly]
  • 5 free Mulattoes [all with last name Holden]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 97 slave owners
  • 226 Black slaves
  • 125 Mulatto slaves
  • 3 free Blacks [last names Harrel and Lowden]
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 307 Blacks
  • 37 Mulattoes
  • About 9 U.S. Colored Troops listed Grayson County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Grayson County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; see the Grayson Co., KY Black Vital Statistics website submitted by K. Adjodha; and Historical Sketches and Family Histories, Grayson County, Kentucky by the Grayson County Historical Society.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Grayson County, Kentucky

Grear, William A. "Bill"
Birth Year : 1923
Death Year : 2006
Grear was born in Russellville, KY, the son of Oretha Williams Grear and Charles C. Grear. He was the first African American-elected official in Florida: in 1968 Grear was elected city commissioner of the City of Belle Glade. He was elected vice mayor in 1974 and mayor in 1975. Grear was also owner of B and E Rubber Stamps and Trophies. He was a barber and a director of a child development center. He was the husband of Effie Carter Grear, a school teacher and principal of Glades Central High School. For more see Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-2006 ; M. Malek, "Bill Grear, Belle Blade's first Black commissioner, dies at 82," The Palm Beach Post, 08/18/2006, Local section, p.2B; and African American Sites in Florida by K. M. McCarthy.
Subjects: Barbers, Businesses, Education and Educators, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Migration South, Mayors
Geographic Region: Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky / Belle Glade, Florida

"The Great Slave Escape of 1848 Ended in Bracken County"
Start Year : 1848
This article, by John E. Leming, Jr., describes this escape attempt as "the largest single slave uprising in Kentucky history." Patrick Doyle, a white, was the suspected leader of the slave revolt; he was to take the 75 slaves to Ohio, where they would be free. The armed contingent of slaves made its way from Fayette County, KY, to Bracken County, KY, where it was confronted by a group of about 100 white men led by General Lucius Desha of Harrison County, KY. During an exchange of gunfire some of the more than 40 slaves escaped into the woods, but most were captured and jailed, along with Patrick Doyle. Doyle was sentenced to 20 years of hard labor in the state penitentiary, and the slaves were returned to their owners. For more see Leming's article in The Kentucky Explorer, June 2000, pp. 25-29; and American Negro Slave Revolts, by H. Aptheker.
Subjects: Freedom, Rioting, Insurrections, Panics, Protests in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Fayette County, Harrison County, & Bracken County, Kentucky

Green County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Green County, located in south-central Kentucky, is bordered by five counties and was formed in 1792 from portions of Lincoln and Nelson Counties. The county was named for Nathanael Greene, a major general of the American Revolutionary War. The county center was named Glover's Station in 1780, and once the county name became Green, the county seat was named Greensburg. The 1800 Green County population was 6,096, according to the Second Census of Kentucky: 5,257 whites, 836 slaves, and 3 free coloreds. In 1830 there was one free African American slave owner in Green County. The county population increased to 6,353 by 1860, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 430 slave owners
  • 2,504 Black slaves
  • 105 Mulatto slaves
  • 96 free Blacks
  • 2 free Mulattoes [Rilda Cox and Mark Mathews]
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 361 slave owners
  • 2,052 Black slaves
  • 317 Mulatto slaves
  • 94 free Blacks
  • 18 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 1,551 Blacks
  • 382 Mulattoes
  • About 95 U.S. Colored Troops listed Green County, KY, as their birth location.
For more see the Green County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; A History of Green County, Kentucky, 1793-1993 by K. P. Evans; and Green County Black Records by M. Bishop.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky

Green, Elisha W. [Green v. Gould]
Birth Year : 1815
Death Year : 1893
Elisha W. Green was born in Bourbon County, KY. He was a slave of John P. Dobbyns as well as a pastor in Maysville, KY, and Paris, KY. He was allowed regular travel between the two cities, traveling by train and stage, sometimes passing without incident but at other times denied admittance or attacked. After gaining his freedom, Green later had a whitewashing business and learned a number of skills in order to earn income for his family. He led in the building of an all African American community, Claysville, in Paris, KY. For more see A History of Blacks in Kentucky from Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891, by M. B. Lucas; Life of the Rev. Elisha W. Green..., by E. W. Green [available online at UNC Documenting the American South]; and C. L. Davis, "Green v. Gould (1884) and the Construction of Postbellum Race Relations in a Central Kentucky Community," The Register of the Kentucky Historical Society, vol. 105, issue 3 (Summer 2007), pp. 383-416.

See image of Elisha W. Green on frontispiece page of Life of the Rev. Elisha W. Green... by E. W. Green, at Documenting the American South.
Subjects: Businesses, Civic Leaders, Freedom, Religion & Church Work, Railroad, Railway, Trains, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Maysville, Mason County, Kentucky

Green, Emma Cason
Birth Year : 1884
Death Year : 1983
Green, born in North Middletown, KY, was the daughter of James and Rebecca Cason. Her husband was Charles Green, also from Bourbon County. Emma Cason Green attended Kentucky Classical and Business College in North Middletown and later moved to Indiana. A dressmaker who also wrote poetry, she had some of her poems published in Attempting to Express My Thoughts, compiled by J. Curtis. She also wrote the History of the Second Christian Church, North Middletown, Ky. Emma Cason Green has a headstone in the Prescott Pike Cemetery in North Middletown, KY, that gives her birth year as 1886. The Emma Cason Green Papers are housed at the Indiana Historical Society. For more see "Emma Cason Green" in Guide to African-American History Materials in Manuscript Collections at the Indiana Historical Society.
Subjects: Authors, Migration North, Poets
Geographic Region: North Middletown, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Indiana

Green, Jim
Birth Year : 1950
From Eminence, KY, Green was the first African American athlete to graduate from the University of Kentucky. A state high school track champion in the 100, 220 and 440, he attended the university on a track scholarship. His freshman year he won the 100 yard dash in 9.7 seconds in New Orleans during the Super Bowl meet and the 60 yard dash in Detroit during the NCAA indoor meet. Green had hoped to participate in the 1968 Olympics but suffered a hamstring injury. Two of the Olympic sprinters that year were Tommie Smith and John Carlos, African Americans who raised their fists while standing on the awards platform. For more see "Green's Sprinting Helped Pave Way," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/20/98; and M. Maloney, "Sprinter leads Mason-Dixon Hall's first class, Green's legacy began at games," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/03/2005, Sports section, p. B8.
Subjects: Track & Field, Olympics: Athletes, Games, Events
Geographic Region: Eminence, Henry County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Green, Larry W.
Birth Year : 1946
Born in Louisville, KY, Green became the first African American councilman in Elizabethtown, KY, in 1973, as well as the youngest person ever elected to office in the city. He served as a councilman until 1982. Green is the son of Alma Vaughn Green and William R. Green. For more "Mayor, 45 councilmen are black city officials," in Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials [1978], Fifth Report, by the Commission on Human Rights, p. 16; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-2002.
Subjects: First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Elizabethtown, Hardin County, Kentucky

Green, Nancy
Birth Year : 1834
Death Year : 1923
Born a slave in Montgomery County, KY, Nancy Green was the world's first living trademark: she was the original "Aunt Jemima." Green did not develop the pancake mix nor did she own the company or any part of it. Green was first introduced as Aunt Jemima at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. She received a lifetime contract and traveled all over the country promoting Aunt Jemima Pancake Mix until her death in 1923. The pancake company was sold to the Quaker Oats Company in 1925. The image of Nancy Green as Aunt Jemima continued until the 1950s, when there was outspoken criticism. Since that time the image has received a number of upgrades. Nancy Green left Kentucky for Chicago when she was hired as a nurse for the Walker family, whose children grew up to become Chicago Circuit Judge Charles M. Walker and Dr. Samuel Walker. Green was the first African American missionary worker and an organizer of the Olivet Baptist Church, one of the largest African American churches in Chicago. She died in a car accident in 1923. For more see Nancy Green, the original "Aunt Jemima", an African American Registry website; Notable Black American Women. Book III, ed. by J. C. Smith; and "Aunt Jemima, victim of auto," Urbana Daily Courier, 10/27/1923, p. 7 [full-text of article in Illinois Digital Newspaper Collection].

See image of Nancy Green as Aunt Jemima at Wikipedia.
Subjects: Businesses, Freedom, Migration North, Religion & Church Work, Nurses
Geographic Region: Montgomery County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Green, Pearl, and Samuel E. Jackson (policemen)
Start Year : 1945
Two of the early Negro members of the Kentucky Peace Officers' Association were Pearl Green (1892-1966) and his partner, Samuel E. Jackson (1900-1984). Both were police officers in Owensboro, KY, and in 1945, they were the only Negro members of the association. Owensboro was one of the first cities in Kentucky to employ Negro police officers. The Kentucky Peace Officers' Association was formed in 1935 and is Kentucky's oldest professional organization for law enforcement officers. Pearl Green was the husband of Rosalee Green; the Greens lived at 900 Hall Street [source: Polk's Owensboro (Daviess County, KY) City Directory, 1943, p. 131]. Samuel E. Jackson was the husband of Helen Jackson; the Jacksons lived at 625 Hathaway Street [source: Polk's Owensboro (Daviess County, KY) City Directory, 1945, p. 181]. For more see "Visits Naptown," Indianapolis Recorder, 07/28/1945, p. 4; and History of the KPOA at the Kentucky Peace Officers' Association website.
Subjects: Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Green Street Baptist Church [George Wells]
Start Year : 1844
George Wells (1788-1850), was born in Kentucky, and is listed in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census as a free man who is a Baptist minister in Louisville, KY. In 1844, he founded what is today named the Green Street Baptist Church, one of the oldest African American churches in Kentucky. The church was located on First Street in Louisville, KY, and moved to Green Street in 1848. It was first called Second African Church, then Second Colored Church, before being given the present name in 1860. Wells was pastor of the church from 1844-1850. The second minister was Rev. Sneathen, who died in the 1870s, and he was followed by Rev. Gaddie. Today the church is located at 519 E. Gray Street. For more see the Green Street Baptist Church Records in the University of Louisville Libraries Special Collections and Archives; Kentucky Historical Marker #1949, at the Kentucky Historical Society Markers Database; A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas; and History of the United Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of the Mysterious Ten by W. H. Gibson.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Greene, Bryan
Born in Fort Knox, KY, Greene grew up in England. This artist's work is inspired by his wife and four children. Greene's early work included cartoons and movie characters. He is a graduate of Southwestern College and San Diego State University. For more see Designs for Better Giving.com, Bryan Greene.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts
Geographic Region: Fort Knox, Bullitt, Hardin, & Meade Counties, Kentucky / England, Europe

Greene, Harold, Jr.
Greene was the first African American to be appointed to serve as Administrative Assistant to a governor (John Y. Brown in 1980). He is a graduate of Eastern Kentucky University and earned his law degree from the University of Kentucky. He was a former leader of the Lexington Urban League and the Lexington NAACP Chapter. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; and J. Campbell, "Lexington attorney to speak at awards banquet," Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer, 09/07/2004, section C, p. 1.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Lawyers, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Appointments by Kentucky Governors, Urban Leagues
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Greene, Horace Henry
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1986
In 1961, Reverend Horace Henry Greene became the first African American to be elected president of the Louisville Ministerial Association. Green was the pastor of the R. E. Jones Temple Methodist Church in Louisville, KY. In 1966, Rev. Greene became the second African American named to the Lexington Board of Education; he filled the seat of the recently deceased Carl Lynem, who was the first African American named to the Lexington Board of Education. Rev. Greene was also the first African American to run for a Lexington City Commissioner's seat. Green was born in Louisville, KY, the son of Eva Bloomer Green and George Isaac Green. He had served as District Superintendent of the Lexington Conference, 1948-52, and was director of the Wesley Club at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] beginning in 1960. Green was a graduate of Gammon Theological Seminary in Evanston, IL. For more see "Louisville Ministers Name First Negro President," Jet, vol. 20, issue 4 (05/18/1961), p. 45; "Horace Henry Greene" in Biographical Directory of Negro Ministers, by E. L. Williams; "Local minister named to city board," Lexington Herald, 04/21/1966, p.1 [photo included with article]; J. Hewlett, "Minister, civic leader H. H. Greene dies," Lexington Herald-Leader, 08/23/1986, p.B1; and "Horace Henry Greene" by D. Puckett on pp.574-575 in The New History of Shelby County Kentucky.
Subjects: Kentucky African American Churches, Religion & Church Work, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Greenstead, Elizabeth Kay
Greenstead is described as a mulatto servant who lived in Virginia and sued the Col. John Motram estate for her freedom in 1653. She later married the lawyer who handled her case, William Greenstead. They had two sons, John and William. Their descendants include Danville, KY, school Principal William C. Grinstead and Louisville Mayor James F. Grinstead (1845-1921), born in Glasgow, KY. For more on Elizabeth Kay Greenstead see PBS Frontline: The Blurred Racial Lines of Famous Families; and M. H. Guthrie, "Black ancestry shines new light on color," Dayton Daily News, zone 6, p. 4, 01/30/03. See also James Fauntleory Grinstead, and Mayors of Louisville: records, 1870-1909, at the Filson Historical Society.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration West, Mayors
Geographic Region: Virginia / Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Greenup County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Greenup County, located on the northeastern border of Kentucky, was formed in 1803 from a portion of Mason County. It is bordered by the Ohio River and three Kentucky counties. Both the county and the county seat are named Greenup, named for Kentucky Governor Christopher Greenup from Virginia, who was also a veteran of the Revolutionary War. The county seat was incorporated as Greenupsburg in 1818, and the name was changed to Greenup in 1872. The county population was 316 [heads of households] in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census, and it grew to 8,325 by 1860, excluding the slaves. Below are the numbers for the slave owners, slaves, free Blacks, and free Mulattoes for 1850-1870.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 135 slave owners
  • 443 Black slaves
  • 163 Mulatto slaves
  • 44 free Blacks
  • 0 free Mulattoes
1860 Slave Schedule
  • 89 slave owners
  • 248 Black slaves
  • 114 Mulatto slaves
  • 34 free Blacks
  • 13 free Mulattoes
1870 U.S. Federal Census
  • 317 Blacks
  • 144 Mulattoes
  • About 2 U.S. Colored soldiers listed Greenup County, KY as their birth location.
For more see the Greenup County entry in The Kentucky Encyclopedia edited by J. E. Kleber; History of Greenup County, Kentucky by N. M. Biggs and N. L. Mackoy; and Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1834, Chapter 736, p.185, concerning the county levy on all slaves in Greenup County, KY [available online at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J]
Geographic Region: Greenup County, Kentucky

Greenwood Cemetery (Owensboro, KY)
Start Year : 1906
End Year : 1976
In 2006, the Greenwood Cemetery in Owensboro, KY, turned 100 years old. The 16-acre cemetery was established in January 1906 by a group of African American men who purchased the land for $3,000, and in February of that year the group was incorporated as the Greenwood Cemetery Association. The land was paid in full in November 1906, the African American cemetery serving the community for 70 years before burials were ceased in 1976. It contains more than 2,000 graves; the actual number is still being researched. After 1976, the Greenwood Cemetery was abandoned, became overgrown with weeds and was vandalized. Beginning in 1992 the Greenwood Cemetery Restoration Committee, led by Wesley Acton and Emily Holloway, worked to restore the cemetery. Greenwood Cemetery, 1821 Leitchfield Road, Owensboro, KY, by Jerry Long, tells of the history and restoration of the cemetery and includes a list of the gravestones, death certificates, and obituaries from Owensboro newspapers and other sources. The Greenwood Cemetery database of burials, available at the Daviess County Public Library, will continue to be updated; send contributions to Jerry Long in the Kentucky Room of the Daviess County Public Library or to members of the Greenwood Cemetery Restoration Committee. For more information see the following articles in the Owensboro Messenger-Inquirer: K. Lawrence, "Cemetery more crowded than thought," 03/03/2005; and R. B. Jones, "Cemetery project in the works," 12/28/2005. Copies of Greenwood Cemetery, 1821 Leitchfield Road, Owensboro, KY may be purchased from the Greenwood Cemetery Restoration Committee, 3514 Christie Place, Owensboro, KY 42301.
Subjects: Authors, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky

Grevious, Audrey L.
Birth Year : 1930
Born in Lexington, KY, Audrey Grevious was principal of Kentucky Village, a state reformatory school for delinquent boys. She later became president of the Lexington Chapter of the NAACP, during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement. She was also involved in the Lexington Congress of Racial Equity (CORE). Grevious and Julia Lewis helped bring CORE and the NAACP together as a combined front for protests against segregation. Grevious is a graduate of Kentucky State University and Eastern Kentucky University. For more see Audrey Grevious in Living the Story, Film Interviews at the Kentucky Historical Society.

See photo image and additional information about Audrey Grevious at The HistoryMakers website.

Access Interview Read about the Audrey L. Grevious oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People)
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Greyhound Bus Station Waiting Area, Desegregated, Louisville, KY
Start Year : 1953
The beginning of the desegregation of the Greyhound Bus Station waiting rooms in Louisville, KY, took place in 1953 and continued with the activism of Charles Ewbank Tucker, who was a minister, a civil rights activist, and an attorney. The actual challenge began in December of 1953 when William Woodsnell took a seat in the white waiting area of the Louisville Greyhound Bus Station and refused to move. Woodsnell was arrested and charged with disorderly conduct. The next day, Charles E. Tucker, Woodsnell's attorney, took a seat in the white waiting area of the bus station and no one approached him or asked him to move. The Louisville Greyhound Bus Station was the starting point for segregated waiting rooms for passengers heading south aboard Greyhound buses. Though there were states with laws that enforced segregation on buses, there were no such laws in Kentucky. When Charles E. Tucker challenged the practice in Louisville, the Greyhound Bus Company admitted that there was not a company policy on segregated waiting rooms, and the segregation was a local custom. Throughout the South, there were challenges to the laws and the customs of segregation. In 1955, the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) banned segregation on buses in interstate travel, which did not include bus terminals, waiting rooms, restaurants, and bathrooms. In 1961, the ICC issued new rules ending discrimination in interstate travel. For more see "Jim Crow...," Plaindealer, 01/01/1954, p. 1; "Arrest Negro for sitting in white Ky. waiting room," Jet, 12/24/1953, p. 6; heading "Civil Rights," p. 191, second column, last paragraph in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, by J. E. Kleber; The Road to Civil Rights; waiting for the ICC, a U.S. Department of Transportation website; and search the Department of Transportation website for additional information on the desegregation of public transportation in the United States.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Bus Transportation: Employees, Owners, Segregation
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Grider, Katie
Birth Year : 1858
Katie Grider was a 52-year old widow who left Kentucky and lived in Missouri, before settling in the African American town of Brooklyn, Illinois. Free persons and escaped slaves from St. Louis, Missouri, established Brooklyn in 1830 in St. Clair County. In 1910 Grider was a successful businesswoman: the owner of a tavern, restaurant, and boardinghouse. She was one of two persons who owned a restaurant in the town. Grider lived on 8th Street where she operated her business, and according to the 1910 U.S. Federal Census, her 23 year old daughter, Lottie, lived with her. Lottie was born in Missouri. For more see America's first Black town: Brooklyn, Illinois, 1830-1915, by S. K. Cha-Jua; and Guest Viewpoint, B. L. Betts, "Brooklyn's proud past is foundation for future," Belleville News-Democrat, 03/06/2007, Local/National section, p. 4A.
Subjects: Businesses, Communities, Migration North, Migration West
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Missouri / Brooklyn, Illinois

Griffey, Wolford
Birth Year : 1916
Death Year : 1982
Griffey, the son of an Irishman, came to Kentucky from Pennsylvania seeking work in the coal mines. International Harvesters hired him and his two brothers because they could play baseball; all the major coal companies had baseball teams. In 1945, Griffey became the first and only African American foreman in the coal camps around Benham, KY. In 2005, his wife, Lacey Griffey, still lived in the camp-house the couple had purchased from International Harvesters when the mines were closed. For more see the Kentucky Commerce Cabinet press release, "Wolford and Jackie: A tale of two African-American Pioneers: Griffey Was First and Only Black Foreman in Benham Mines," by S. Ramsey, Kentucky Coal Council; and W. Tompkins, "Deep in our soul: coal," Courier-Journal (Louisville), 12/31/1999, Extra section, p. O8M.
Subjects: Baseball, Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills, Migration South
Geographic Region: Pennsylvania / Benham, Harlan County, Kentucky

Griffin, Edna
Birth Year : 1909
Death Year : 2000
Edna Griffin, born in Kentucky and reared in New Hampshire, later moved to Des Moines, Iowa. In 1948 she was refused an ice cream cone in the Katz Drug Store because they did not serve African Americans. Griffin led sit-ins, picketed the drug store, and sued the store owner. She won her civil case and was awarded $1. Griffin went on to found the Iowa Congress for Racial Equality and participated in the March on Washington in 1963. For more see T. Longden, "Edna Griffin," Des Moines Register, 01/28/2001, Metro Iowa Famous Iowans section, p. 1B; and Edna Griffin Papers, a University of Iowa website.

See photo image and additional information about Edna Griffin at "Famous Des Moines Citizens: Edna Griffin, 11/06/2008, at the Living Downtown Des Moines website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Migration North, Migration West, CORE (Congress of Racial Equality)
Geographic Region: Kentucky / New Hampshire / Des Moines, Iowa

Griffin, Emma K.
Birth Year : 1868
In 1900, Emma K. Griffin was one of the 46 African Americans from Kentucky who were living in Portland, OR, according to the U. S. Federal Census. She was born in Frankfort, KY, the daughter of Charles and Louisa Miner. Emma was the wife of Adolphus D. "A. D." Griffin (1867-1916), owner and publisher of the New Age newspaper. The Griffins were married in 1897. A. D. was from Louisiana and had lived in Washington (state), where he was editor of the Spokane Northwest Echo newspaper. While there, he met Emma and her son, Eugene Miner, who was born in 1890 in Washington. In 1910, Emma and her son were living on 21st Street with three lodgers, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Emma is listed as single and head of the house, where she had her hairdressing business. Less than a 1,000 African Americans lived in Portland in 1910, and 52 were from Kentucky. For more on A. D. Griffin see "Editor A. D. Griffin: Envisioning a New Age for Black Oregonians (1896-1907)," by K. Mangun, a paper presented in 2007 to the History Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (AEJMC) [available online at allacademic.com].
Subjects: Cosmetologists, Beauty Shops, Hairdressers, Beauty Supplies, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration West
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Washington / Portland, Oregon

Griffin, James C.
Birth Year : 1933
Death Year : 1994
From Paris, KY, Griffin was the first African American policeman in Frankfort, KY. He had trained at a police school in Lexington, KY. The son of Laurene Rankin, he was a graduate of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] and a Navy veteran. For more see The State Journal (Frankfort, KY), 04/20/61; and "Obituaries," The Kentucky Post, 07/23/1994, News section, p. 8A.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Griffin, Lorena W.
Birth Year : 1892
Griffin was born Lorena Waters. Her first name has been given as Loretta, and her birthplace has been given as Paris, KY. According to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, Lorena Waters was born in Chicago in 1892. She was the wife of William Griffin, Sr., who was from Kentucky. Their son, James S. "Jimmy" Griffin (1917-2002), became the first African American sergeant of the St. Paul, Minnesota, police force in 1955; captain in 1970; and after a discrimination lawsuit, deputy chief in 1972. For more see Jimmy Griffin, one of St. Paul's finest! and Jimmy Griffin, a son of Rondo: a memoir, by J. S. Griffin and K. J. C. McDonald.
Subjects: Mothers
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / St. Paul, Minnesota

Griffin, Mabel and Emma [The Griffin Sisters]
Mabel (born around 1870) and Emma (1873-1918) Griffin were born in Louisville, KY. They were the highly popular vaudeville performers known as the Griffin Sisters who toured throughout the United States, including Alaska, the western tour to California and back, and the southern tour that included Kentucky. They began performing as members of John Isham's Octoroons Company and toured with several other companies before organizing their own theater booking agency in 1913 in Chicago. They had been considered premiere performers and broke theater attendance records while with the Sherman H. Dudley agency, created in 1912 as the first African American operated vaudeville circuit. The Griffin Agency was one of the earliest to be managed by African American women, and they also had a school of vaudeville art. Emma Griffin encourage African American performers to use either the Dudley Agency or the Griffin Agency. The sisters also opened the Alamon Theater in Indianapolis, IN, in April of 1914. They managed the Majestic Theater in Washington, D.C. in June of 1914. The sisters were listed as mulattoes, along with their brother Henry, who was a musician, and their grandmother Mary Montgomery, all in the 1910 U.S. Federal Census when the family lived in Chicago. For more see "The Griffin Sisters" in Biographical Dictionary of Afro-American and African Musicians, by E. Southern; A. Knight, "He paved the way for T.O.B.A.," The Black Perspective in Music, vol. 15, issue 2, pp. 153-181; the ad "S. H. Dudley: The Griffin Sisters," Freeman, 03/08/1913, p.5; see the ad "Griffin Sisters Theatrical Agency," Freeman, 12/20/1913, p.6; see ad "Griffin Sisters Theatrical Agency and School of Vaudeville Art," Broad Axe, 02/07/1914, p.3; "Griffin Sisters open the Alamo," Freeman, 04/25/1914, p.1; "Majestic Theater," Washington Bee, 05/30/1914, p.5; and "Emma Griffin dead," Washington Bee, 09/14/1918, p.4.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Businesses, Migration North, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Washington, D. C.

Griffin, William, Sr.
Birth Year : 1879
From Paris, KY, Griffin was a railroad dining car waiter. He was the husband of Lorena Griffin and the father of James S. "Jimmy" Griffin (1917-2002), who became the first African American sergeant of the St. Paul, Minnesota, police force in 1955; captain in 1970; and after a discrimination lawsuit, deputy chief in 1972. For more see Jimmy Griffin, one of St. Paul's finest!; and Jimmy Griffin, a son of Rondo: a memoir, by J. S. Griffin and K. J. C. McDonald.
Subjects: Fathers, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Paris, Bourbon County, Kentucky / St. Paul, Minnesota

Griffith, Darrell A.
Birth Year : 1958
Darrell A. Griffith was born in Louisville, KY. He was invited to the 1976 Olympic trials as a high school basketball player. As a 6' 4" guard at the University of Louisville, he acquired the nickname "Dr. Dunkenstein," led the school to its 1980 NCAA basketball championship and received the John Wooden Award as the nation's top player. He was drafted by the Utah Jazz and chosen Rookie of the Year for the 1980-1981 season. For more see Darrell Griffith on Basketball-Reference.com; Darrell Griffith in Basketball: a biographical dictionary by D. L. Porter, pp.177-178; and Darrell Griffith on p.392 in The Kentucky Encyclopedia.


Subjects: Basketball, Olympics: Athletes, Games, Events
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Utah

Griffith, George A.
Griffith was one of the first two African Americans to practice law in Kentucky; he received his license in 1871. Griffith, from Owensboro, KY, practiced law in Owensboro and later in Louisville. For more see The Owl: The Newsletter for Employees of the University of Louisville, vol. 17, issue 1 (February 2002), p. 2; and Emancipation: the making of the Black lawyer, 1844-1944, by J. C. Smith, Jr.
Subjects: Lawyers
Geographic Region: Owensboro, Daviess County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Grooms, Leonard S.
Birth Year : 1912
Grooms was born in Hopkinsville, KY, the son of Lizzie Wright Grooms. A pastor and journalist, he was the religious editor at the Hopkinsville Globe Journal for six years. The Hopkinsville Globe Journal was located at 12 8th Street in Hopkinsville, KY [source: The Negro Handbook, 1944]. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

Groves, Junius G.
Birth Year : 1859
Death Year : 1925
Junius Groves was born a slave in Green County, KY, or Louisville, KY. He walked to Kansas City in 1897, where he worked for 40 cents per day. Groves was able to save enough money to purchase a nine acre farm in Edwardsville, KS, which enabled him to later purchase a 500 acre produce farm there. At one time he produced more potatoes than any other farmer in the world, the harvest so large that a private railroad track was built on his land by Union Pacific Railway for shipping the produce. Groves was known as the "Potato King of the World." He also founded the community of Groves Center, KS, in 1913. For more see Junius K. Graves (sic) in The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; and the Junius G. Groves entry on the Kansapedia website, by the Kansas State Historical Society.


Subjects: Agriculturalists, Produce, Businesses, Migration West, Railroad, Railway, Trains
Geographic Region: Green County or Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Kansas City and Edwardsville, Kansas

Grubbs, Albert, Sr.
Birth Year : 1832
Death Year : 1901
Albert Grubbs, Sr. was born in Lexington, KY. He is referred to as one of the pioneers of Sacramento, having arrived in California in 1854, two years after the death of Henry Clay. Grubbs had been the servant of Henry Clay, whom he had accompanied throughout the United States. Grubbs closed Clay's eyes when Clay died. In California, Grubbs was in the laundry and teaming businesses. In 1901, he was bedridden and a lamp tipped over on him. Grubbs, one of the oldest African Americans in Sacramento, was badly burned and, as reported at the time, not expected to survive his injuries. He was the father of Albert Grubbs, Jr., a trusted employee of the Southern Pacific Railroad Company, who received a letter of commendation in 1906. Albert, Jr. had been a drummer boy, and his father had been a member of the Sacramento Zouaves, an African American military company formed to provide military training at the end of the Civil War. Similar companies were formed in other locations in California. Albert Jr.'s son, an electrician who got discouraged by prejudice in the United States, learned Spanish and moved with his wife, Carrie Phelps, who was from Chicago, to Buenos Aires, Argentina. For more see The Negro Trail Blazers of California, by D. L. Beasley; "Sacramento man who was Henry Clay's servant," The Evening Bee, 01/13/1900; "Albert Grubbs terribly burned," The Evening Bee, 10/19/1901: and "Albert Grubbs" in the Obituary section of the Los Angeles Times, 10/31/1901.
Subjects: Migration West, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Sacramento, California / Chicago, Illinois / Buenos Aires, Brazil, South America

Grundy, Chester
Birth Year : 1947
Chester Grundy was born in 1947 in Louisville, KY. He is a 1969 graduate of the University of Kentucky (UK), where, as a student, he helped establish the school's Black Student Union. Grundy had been an administrator with UK for more than 30 years, serving as the director of the Office of African American Student Affairs  and the Martin Luther King, Jr. Cultural Center. He was the Director of Multicultural Student Programming. Over the years, Chester has been a mentor, counselor, role model, and friend, one who clearly recognizes factors outside the classroom that can impact a student's goal to graduate from the University of Kentucky. Chester Grundy also helped establish the nationally recognized UK "Spotlight Jazz Series" and arranged for a number of nationally and internationally renowned speakers to visit the University of Kentucky campus. In the Lexington community, Chester Grundy co-founded the annual Roots and Heritage Festival and the Martin Luther King annual celebration. For more see Chester Grundy on the HistoryMakers website; the Chester Grundy entry in the 1997 Leaders Awards, by the Lane Report; and many articles in local newspapers. Listen to the Chester Grundy sound recording interview in the Blacks in Lexington Oral History Project, 1900-1989 at Special Collections, University of Kentucky Libraries. There is also a sound recording of his interview online at the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society. See L. B. Blackford, "UK lays off Chester Grundy, long-time director of MLK Cultural Center," Lexington Herald-Leader, 06/11/2012, [article online].

Access Interview Read about the Chester Grundy oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records in the SPOKE Database.
Access Interview  Listen to recordings and read transcripts online at Kentucky Historical Society

  See photo image and additional information about Chester Grundy at HistoryMakers


Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Gudgell, Henry
Birth Year : 1826
Death Year : 1895
Gudgell, born a slave in Kentucky, became a blacksmith, coppersmith, silversmith, and a wheelwright. He and his mother went with his father/master, Spence Gudgell, to Livingston County, Missouri, where he carved a walking stick that has also been described as a conjure remedy. The stick, the only surviving work of Gudgell, is at Yale University. For more about the carvings on the cane see B. J. Crouther, "Iconography of a Henry Gudgell Walking Stick," Southeastern College Art Conference Review, vol. 12, issue 3 (1993), pp. 187-191; and see "Missouri Wood Carving," The Afro-American Tradition in Decorative Arts, by J. M. Vlach, Cleveland Museum of Art.
Subjects: Artists, Fine Arts, Migration West, Blacksmiths
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Livingston County, Missouri

Gulley, Rosemarie C.
Birth Year : 1942
Death Year : 1994
Rosemarie C. Gulley, born in Louisville, KY, was the first woman and the youngest person to become executive director of the Independent Voters of Illinois (IVI). The organization was formed in 1942, and encouraged African Americans living in the inner city to vote in regional and state elections. Gulley joined the Chicago staff of IVI in 1965, and advanced to executive director, 1969-1972. She had moved with her family from Louisville to Chicago in 1956. Gulley was a graduate of Roosevelt University. Following her years with IVI, in 1972 she became one of the first African American television reporters in Chicago; Gulley was the consumer and education reporter at WLS-TV until 1979. She was co-host of the television talk show Feminine Franchise and was later named director of community relations. The Feminine Franchise was produced by Theresa Gutierrez, who was also the other co-host of the series. The program was the first weekly feminist television program. Both Gutierrez and Gulley were pioneers in television; Gutierrez was one of the first Hispanic women in television journalism. Gulley left WLS-TV in 1985 to become director of media relations at the Chicago Transit Authority. Rosemarie Gulley was the daughter of Marie S. and Ernest Lee Gulley, Sr. For more see the [Rosemary] C. Gulley entry in Chicago Negro Almanac and Reference Book edited by E. R. Rather; B. Austin, "Rosemarie Gulley - the girl scout promise? I still take it very seriously," Chicago Tribune, 04/19/1987, p.3; and "CTA media director Rosemarie Gulley," Chicago Tribune, 06/24/1994. For more on Theresa Gutierrez see her entry in Feminists Who Changed America, 1963-1975 edited by B. J. Love.
Subjects: Migration North, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Television, Bus Transportation: Employees, Owners, Segregation
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Gunner, Byron
Birth Year : 1858
Byron Gunner, a minister, was husband to Cicely S. Gunner and the father of Francis Gunner Van Dunk, who was born in Lexington, KY. Rev. Gunner was born in Alabama and lived in New York. He issued a call in the Cleveland Advocate (08/12/1916) to all African Americans for the formation of a National Race Congress. He had also addressed the American Missionary Association in 1891 on men of color in the Southern pulpit. Gunner was a pastor in Lexington, KY around 1895. For more see The American Missionary, vol. 45, issue 12, pp. 460-461 [available online by Cornell University Library].

See photo image of Rev. Byron Gunner from Pastor Henry N. Jeter's twenty-five years experience with the Shiloh Baptist Church and her history by Henry N. Jeter, at NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Fathers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Alabama / New York / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Gunner, Cicely S.
Birth Year : 1868
Born Cicely Savery in Alabama, she was the daughter of William Savery, a former slave who co-sponsored the incorporation of Talladega College in Alabama. The Savery Library at Talladega College was named in honor of William Savery. Cicely S. Gunner was the wife of Rev. Byron Gunner and the mother of Francis Van Dunk, who was born in Lexington, KY. Cicely Gunner was a school teacher; she addressed the American Missionary Association in 1893, speaking of her experience as a teacher in the South. The family lived in Lexington, KY, around 1895, and later lived in New York. For more see The American Missionary, vol. 48, issue 1, pp. 54-55 [available online by Cornell University Library]. In other sources Cicely Gunner may be referred to as Mrs. Byron Gunner.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Mothers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Alabama / New York / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Gunner, Mary F.
Birth Year : 1894
Gunner was born in Lexington, KY, and was a graduate of Howard University and Columbia University. A playwright, she was author of The Light of the Women, published by Woman's Press in 1930. Gunner was the first woman to be featured in "Men of the Month" in 1911; the column was run in the Crisis to represent the fitness of the African American race. For more see Southern Black Creative Writers, 1829-1953. Biobibliographies, compiled by M. M. B. Foster; Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; and Creating the Modern Man, by T. Pendergast.
Subjects: Authors
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Guthrie, Robert V.
Birth Year : 1930
Death Year : 2005
A few weeks after Robert V. Guthrie and his twin brother were born, the family moved to Richmond, KY, then to Lexington, KY. His father, P. L. Guthrie, was a former principal of old Dunbar High School. Robert V. Guthrie was a veteran of the Korean War. He earned his undergraduate degree at Florida A&M and then enrolled at the University of Kentucky in 1955, where he received his master's degree in psychology. He earned his doctorate at International University in 1970. He would go on to become one of the most influential African American scholars. Guthrie was the first African American psychologist to place his papers in the National Archives of American Psychology. He is author of numerous books, including Even the Rat Was White; a Historical View of Psychology. Guthrie was the first African American faculty member at San Diego Mesa College. Decades later, he returned to live in San Diego, where he is buried. For more see An 'American psychologist'; and J. Williams, "Robert V. Guthrie, 75; noted psychology educator," San Diego Union-Tribune, 11/12/2005, Obituaries column, p. B6.

See the photo image of Dr. Robert Val Guthrie at the Society for the Psychological Study of Ethnic Minorities website.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Medical Field, Health Care, Migration West, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Richmond, Madison County, Kentucky / Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / San Diego, California

 

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