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Abbington v Board of Education of Louisville (KY)
Start Year : 1940
When the Louisville Board of Education denied the petition for equal pay for African American teachers, a suit was filed by the NAACP on behalf of Vallateen Virginia Dudley Abbington. The case of Abbington v. Board of Education of Louisville was filed on December 5, 1940, in the Federal District Court. Abbington (1907-2003), a native of Indiana, was a school teacher in Louisville at the time. She was one of the African American teachers who received 15% less salary than white teachers. The case, brought by the NAACP, was argued by Thurgood Marshall. The School Board agreed that if Abbington would drop her lawsuit, the discrimination in salaries would cease. The lawsuit was withdrawn, and a retroactive clause in the suit gave African American teachers back pay. The equalization of teacher salaries was a campaign by the NAACP that began in 1936. Abbington v Board of Education of Louisville was the third case for the NAACP, the first such case in Kentucky. Abbington left Louisville and moved to St. Louis, Missouri, where she is remembered as a social worker, civic leader, and civil rights leader. Vallateen Dudley (1907-2003)was born in Indianapolis, IN, the daughter of George (b. in KY) and Annie L. Dudley. For more see Papers of the NAACP, Part 3, The Campaign for Educational Equality: Legal Department and Central Office Records, 1913-1950 / Series B, 1940-1950 / Reel 8; see "Kentucky Cases" in The Negro Handbook 1946-1947, edited by F. Murray; "Alumna, 96, remembered as strong-willed activist," Exemplar (Eastern Michigan University), Winter 2004, Special Annual Report Issue; and "Vallateen Abbington, social worker, civic leader," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 10/19/2003, Metro section, p. D15.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Social Workers, NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), Court Cases
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Abercrumbie, Paul Eric
Birth Year : 1969
Born in Madison County, KY, and raised in Falmouth, KY, Abercrumbie developed the Black Man Think Tank and is the national president of the John D. O'Bryant Think Tank for Black Professionals in Higher Education on Predominantly White Campuses (JDOTT). A professor at the University of Cincinnati (UC), his focus academically and professionally is black males in America. Abercrumbie is also Director of Ethnic Programs and Services at UC. He was voted one of the Outstanding Community Leaders of the World by the U. S. Jaycees. For more see African American Biographies: profiles of 558 current men and women, by W. L. Hawkins.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Migration North
Geographic Region: Falmouth, Pendleton County, Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio

Abernathy, Ronald L.
Birth Year : 1950
Abernathy was born in Louisville, KY, to Ben W. and Juanita Abernathy. He is a graduate of Morehead State University (BA) and Louisiana State University (MA). Abernathy was a teacher at Shawnee High School in Louisville when he received the Teacher of the Year Award and was second in the state for Kentucky High School Coach of the Year, both in 1976. From 1972-1976, he was head basketball coach at the school. He left Kentucky to become an assistant basketball coach at LSU, 1976-1989, the first African American basketball coach hired full-time at the school. For more see Dale Brown's Memoirs from LSU Basketball, by D. Brown; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1980-2006.
Subjects: Basketball, Education and Educators, Migration South
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Baton Rouge, Louisiana

Academic Library Classes, Kentucky, African Americans
Start Year : 1932
End Year : 1940
The first academic library classes for African Americans in Kentucky were taught in 1932 within the unaccredited library department developed by Eliza Atkins at the Louisville Municipal College for Negroes in Louisville, KY [source: Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones]. The department was established by the Municipal College in partnership with the Louisville Western Colored Branch Library, and the classes existed off and on from 1932 to about 1940 (in 1951 the Municipal College merged with the University of Louisville). The Western Colored Branch Library had been home to the first library training program specifically for Negroes, 1912-1931. The training program was attended by public library employees in the South. The new program in 1932 was a more scholarly effort in the training of Negro librarians within a college framework. In 1933, Virginia Lacy arrived at the Municipal College and assisted Eliza Atkins in teaching the library classes. The program had barely gotten off the ground when Eliza Atkins left the Municipal College in 1936 and in 1940 became the first African American to earn a Ph.D. in library science and the first African American dean of a library school. Virginia Lacy left the Municipal College in 1938; she became the second African American to earn a Ph.D. in library science and the second African American dean of a library school. In 1938, Virginia Lacy left Kentucky at the exact time when Negro candidates for teaching certificates could also qualify for teacher-librarian certification [source: p. 92 in Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones]. The Louisville Municipal College was approved by the Division of Teacher Training and Certification to be a training center for Negro school teachers and teacher-librarians. The classes were also to suffice for Negro public library employees who were seeking the qualifications the new law mandated for public librarians. Classes were held at the Louisville Municipal College, Western Colored Branch Library, and Eastern Colored Branch Library. From 1938-1940, classes were also offered at Kentucky State College (now Kentucky State University). "During the summer session of 1938 there was introduced a technical course in Library Science for the training of special and teacher librarians in the Negro high schools of the state."- - [source: Ten Year Report of Kentucky State College - 1929-1939, pp. 48-49]. The State Department of Education required 18 credit hours for certification. Too few students enrolled in the library classes at Kentucky State College; therefore, the school began referring applicants to Fisk University in Tennessee for a four year undergraduate major in library science.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Adair County (KY) Slaves, Free Blacks, and Free Mulattoes, 1850-1870
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1870
Adair County, named for General John Adair, is located near the Tennessee border in south-central Kentucky. The county was developed in 1801 from a portion of Green County, KY. General John Adair was born in South Carolina and came to Kentucky in 1786. He was a U.S. Senator in 1805, served as a Kentucky Legislator, and was the Governor of Kentucky 1820-1824. He was a U.S. Representative 1831-1833. Once Adair County was established, there were 800 persons [heads of households] counted in the 1810 U.S. Federal Census. In 1830, there was one African American slave owner in the county. There were 8,000 people counted in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census, excluding slaves. Below are the number of slave owners, slaves, and free Blacks and Mulattoes from the 1850-1870 census records.

1850 Slave Schedule

  • 486 slave owners
  • 1,886 Black slaves
  • 239 Mulatto slaves
  • 108 free Blacks
  • 1 free Mulattoes
With the country moving closer to the beginning of the Civil War, there were still about 8,000 people in Adair County, according to the 1860 U.S. Federal Census (minus the slaves). The number of slaves and slave owners had decreased, as had the number of free Blacks. The number of persons listed as Mulatto had increased.

1860 Slave Schedule
  • 341 slave owners
  • 1,342 Black slaves
  • 260 Mulatto slaves
  • 20 free Blacks
  • 40 free Mulattoes
Five years after the Civil War and the freeing of Kentucky slaves with the ratification of the 13th Amendment, the numbers had not drastically changed when the 1870 U.S. Federal Census was completed:
  • 1,783 Blacks (including Parker Hiram Jackman)
  • 32 Mulattoes
  • About 35 U.S. Colored Troops of the Civil War had reported that they were born in Adair County, KY.
For more see "Adair County" and "John Adair" in The Kentucky Encyclopedia; Historical Sketches of Kentucky, by L. Collins [available at Google Books]; and Notes on Adair County, Kentucky, by J. A. Steele and M. C. Watson.
Subjects: Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C]
Geographic Region: Adair County, Kentucky

Adam (Boone slave)
Start Year : 1773
Adam was one of the slaves who came to Kentucky in 1773 with Daniel Boone, his brother, Squire, and their families. Adam was with the group of men who were sent out for provisions. The men were attacked by Indians, and Adam survived by hiding out on a creek bank. He returned to tell of the killings, including that of Boone's son, James. For more see A History of Blacks in Kentucky from Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891, by M. B. Lucas.
Subjects: Early Settlers
Geographic Region: Kentucky

Adam (slave of Justice G. Robertson)
Start Year : 1862
In the fall of 1862, during the Civil War, Colonel William L. Utley of the 22nd Wisconsin Volunteers was in Kentucky when a small Negro boy named Adam sought refuge in his camp. Adam was a runaway slave about 15 or 16 years old; he was small for his size and has been described as a crippled dwarf. Around his neck was welded a collar with eight inch spikes. The collar was removed, and Adam was cared for and employed in the camp. He had been there but a short time when his owner, former Chief Justice George Robertson (1790-1874), arrived to claim Adam as his property. Robertson was well known throughout Kentucky: he practiced law in Lexington and had been a Kentucky Representative, an Associate Justice of the Kentucky Court of Appeals, and a law professor at Transylvania University in Lexington. He would become a justice of the Court of Appeals in 1864. In spite of his prominence in Kentucky, when Justice Robertson arrived to claim Adam, Colonel Utley cited the article of war that would allow Adam to leave with Robertson on his own; however, Adam could not be forced to leave with Robertson, who left the camp empty handed. Both Utley and Robertson appealed to President Lincoln to help resolve the matter, but the President did not take either side and refused to get involved with the dispute. Justice Robertson proclaimed that an injustice had taken place, and he gave public speeches and wrote letters to newspapers stating his case. Colonel Utley was sent word that he would never leave Kentucky with Robertson's slave. As the 22nd Wisconsin Volunteers were marching through Louisville, KY, Colonel Utley warned the citizens that he intended to take Adam and all other refugees in their company, and if the townspeople attempted to attack them as they had other regiments with refugees, then the 22nd Wisconsin would follow orders to shoot to kill and the town would be burned to the ground. The 22nd Wisconsin marched through Louisville with loaded weapons and bayonets. Adam and another escaped slave were at the head of the line. There were no attacks from the townspeople. Colonel Utley, from Racine, Wisconsin, took Adam to Wisconsin, where he settled in Waukesha as a free person. The collar he had worn into Utley's camp was put on display in the Racine post office. Justice Robertson filed a civil suit in Kentucky against Utley for Adam's value, $908.06. The Kentucky newspapers carried story after story about the bold theft of Justice Robertson's slave. Prior to the settlement of the matter, and in an unrelated march, Utley was taken prisoner in Spring Hill, TN, by Confederates, and the matter of the stolen slave was all but forgotten. After the war and after all slaves had been freed, Justice Robertson still wanted to be paid for the value of his slave, $908.06, plus costs of $26.40. Robertson's lawsuit was brought to the Circuit Court of Wisconsin in 1868, and Utley was ordered to pay Robertson the total sum. In turn, Utley filed a claim with the United States Congress for reimbursement, and in 1873, the Senate voted in favor of the reimbursement and passed it on to the House for approval. Colonel Utley was reimbursed in full. For more see "Claim for the value of a Kentucky slave," Daily Evening Bulletin, 02/20/1873, issue 116, Col. B; and "Colonel William [F.] Utley and Adam the African American Slave," by Kevin Dier-Zimmel [online at ancestry.com community website].
Subjects: Freedom, Migration West, Military & Veterans, Court Cases
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Racine and Waukesha, Wisconsin

Adams, Charles "Cane"
Adams was a musician who invented the 'walking cane flute,' a flute combined with a walking cane. He recorded with the Kentucky Jug Band/Phillip's Louisville Jug Band in Chicago in 1930. Adams' playing may also be heard on the recording Clifford Hayes & the Louisville Jug Bands, Volume 4. For more see Charles 'Cane' Adams in The Unsung Musicians of Early Jazz and Blues [.pdf], by R. Schneider.
Subjects: Inventors, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Adams, Cyrus Field
Birth Year : 1858
Death Year : 1942
Cyrus Field Adams

By Reinette F. Jones

05/08/2016

 

Cyrus F. Adams, born in Louisville, KY, was an author, a historian, a teacher, a newspaper man, a linguist, a businessman, a dedicated Republican, and a civil rights advocate who used the newspaper to speak out against racism and prejudices. He also served as the Assistant Register of the U.S. Treasury. Cyrus Adams was a teacher as early as 1879, when he taught at the Western Colored School [source: p.75 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville]. Cyrus was the brother of J. Q. Adams, with whom he assisted in the management of the Bulletin newspaper in Louisville, KY. The newspaper existed from 1879-1885. The brothers went on to manage newspapers in several other cities. Cyrus and John Q. Adams were two of the four children of Henry Adams (born in Georgia) and Margaret P. Corbin Adams (born in Virginia). Everyone in the family is listed as mulatto in the 1870 Census, and the household included Nancy Adams, age 64, and Mary Adams, age 60, both of whom were born in Georgia. Cyrus Adams had been a slave, his former owner's name, which may be German, is given on Cyrus' Freedman's Bank Record application dated December 23, 1867 [source: record in Ancestry.com]. The application also has a description of Cyrus' complexion, noted as "very bright."

 

In June of 1884, Cyrus F. Adams applied for a passport for travel to Europe, and Felix W. Sweeny vouched for Adam's loyalty to the U.S. and his travel intentions [source: U.S. Passport Application in Ancestry.com]. Cyrus' birth date on the application is give as 18 July 1858. His international travel plans would materialize later in his life, though, Cyrus F. Adams would leave Kentucky for brief stays in cities such as St. Paul, MN, Washington, D.C., and Chicago. It was in Chicago, IL, where Cyrus F. Adams would put down more permanent roots and become a teacher and a newspaper publisher. In 1888, he assisted his brother John Q. Adams with the distribution of the The Appeal newspaper that had been established in St. Paul, MN; Cyrus was the editor and manager of The Appeal newspaper operation in Chicago. The newspaper would become the most-read African American newspaper in Chicago during the late 1800s. After the turn of the century, the popularity of the newspaper began to decline, and the Chicago office of The Appeal newspaper closed in 1913 [sources: Freedom's Ballot by M. Garb, chapter 2: Setting Agendas / Demanding Rights, and the Black Press, pp.49-83; The Southern Argus, 12/31/1891, p.1, col.1, paragraph 10; Western Appeal, a mnopedia.org website; and The Appeal newspaper was popular in 20th Century Black America, aaregistry.org website].

 

While he was managing the newspaper office in Chicago in 1888, Cyrus F. Adams was also a lecturer and a teacher. He is listed in the city directory as a teacher who was boarding at 2974 Dearborn Street [source: p.117 in The Richardson and Boyton Company, The Lakeside Annual Directory of the City of Chicago 1888]. He was known for his ability to speak fluent German, and his ability to teach German to adults in the classroom. In 1888, Cyrus F. Adams offered a six-week course in German language: reading, writing, and speaking [source: Fannie Barrier Williams: crossing the borders of region and race by W. A. Hendricks, p.55]. The German class met for four hours a day, five days a week. At the end of the six-week session, a reading was held at Lincoln Hall, hosted by Professor Cyrus F. Adams. He had also held German classes in Washington, D.C. in 1887, and in Louisville, KY in 1884 [source: "Cyrus F. Adams," Washington Bee, 05/28/1887, p.3; and "General news in brief," The State Journal (Harrisburg, PA), 06/14/1884, p.1, col.7, paragraph 8].

 

Cyrus F. Adams had big aspirations for moving ahead and going abroad using his linguistic skills. In addition to being able to speak fluent German, he also spoke fluent Spanish and other languages. In 1897, with very good recommendations, Cyrus F. Adams sought to become the first African American named U.S. Minister to Bolivia, South America [source: B. R. Justesen, "African-American consuls abroad, 1897-1909," Foreign Service Journal, September 2004, pp.72-76 ~ online at DocSlide]. But the time was not right for such a move and Cyrus F. Adams was denied the position. Charles Henry James Taylor had also sought to be the first African American named to a diplomatic appointment in Bolivia during the second term (1893-1897) of Democrat President Grover Cleveland. Taylor had served as the U.S. Minister to Liberia, Africa during President Cleveland's first term (1885-1889), and though he was selected to head the U.S. Mission to Bolivia, the U.S. Senate vetoed the move, and in consolation, Taylor was given the government job of Recorder of Deeds for the District of Columbia (D.C.). A few years later, when Cyrus F. Adams sought to become the U.S. Minister to Bolivia during Republican President William McKinley's term (1897-1901), there was still the fear and opposition to naming an African American diplomat to a white country. The McKinley administration considered Bolivia a white country.

 

In spite of the setback, Cyrus F. Adams continued to be a staunch Republican with aspirations to advance as far as possible in Washing, D.C., at the same time, he was a dedicated newspaperman. Around 1900, he maintained a home in Chicago while also living in Washing, D.C. As early as 1888, he is listed in the Chicago city directory, and his name continued to be listed in the directory up to the 1947 South-West Street Guide published by the Chicago City Directory, Inc. Cyrus F. Adams always lived and worked in the Dearborn Street area of Chicago, and in 1947, he lived at 542 Dearborn. Meanwhile, in Washington, D. C., in the 1910 Census, Cyrus F. Adams is listed as a lodger at the home of Daniel A. Murray. Born free in Baltimore, Maryland, Daniel A. P. Murray was an assistant to the Librarian of Congress, which was a government job [source: Library of Congress website]. Cyrus F. Adams, who was single, also held a government job. He had been employed in Washington, D.C. since at least 1901, at a salary of $2,250 as the Assistant Register in the U.S. Treasury Office [source: p.89 in the Official Register of the United States, Containing a List of the Officers and Employees in the Civil, Military, and Naval Service, July 1, 1901, Volume 1]. Cyrus F. Adams had been living in Chicago when he got the job as Assistant Register at the U.S. Treasury, the appointment was made by Republican President Theodore Roosevelt. While in Washing D. C., Cyrus F. Adams was named to a number of committees and attended functions given at the White House. In 1905, he was named to the General Committee in charge of the Inauguration Ceremonies for President Theodore Roosevelt who had been elected for a second term [source: "Committees in Charge of Inauguration Ceremonies," The Washington Post, 03/04/1905, p.5]. Cyrus F. Adams was on the Republican National Committee during the planning of the Inaugural Ceremonies in 1905 [source: "Inaugural Day music," The Washington Post, 01/26/1905, p.2]. In 1907, Cyrus, along with his brother and sister-in-law, John Q. and Mrs. Adams, all were in attendance at the Reception for Judges [source: "Reception to Judges: President and Mrs. Roosevelt greet the judiciary," The Washington Post, 01/18/1907, pp.1 & 12]. Cyrus F. Adams continued to be listed as the Assistant Register at the U.S. Treasury, in both the official register and the city directories [sources: p.37 in Official Register: persons in the civil, military, and naval service of the United States, and list of vessels, 1911, Volume I, Directory; and  p.105 in 56th Year of Boyd's Directory of the District of Columbia 1914 ~ (published after Cyrus F. Adams' resignation in 1912)].

 

Also in 1905, Cyrus F. Adams was elected president of the newly formed Washington Philatelic Society [sources: "Philatelists organize," The Washington Post, 12/12/1905, p.3; and Washington Stamp Collection Club website]. The purpose of the society was to "encourage and promote the collection of all kinds of postage stamps and postal cards, and to meet at given intervals for the discussion of questions relating thereto." Cyrus F. Adams was re-elected as president of the society the following year [source: "Stamp collectors elect," The Washington Post, 12/12/1906, p.11]. In addition to stamp collecting, Cyrus F. Adams was a civil rights activist and a historian who documented the activities of civil rights organizations and the life of selected African American men. In 1902, he wrote the book The National Afro-American Council, Organized 1898: a history etc.; Cyrus F. Adams was secretary of the Council. That same year he wrote "Col. William Pledger," an article in the Colored American Magazine, June 1902," and he wrote "George L. Knox: his life and work," Colored American Magazine, October 1902. The following year he wrote the article "The Afro-American Council, the story of its organization -- What it stands for -- Its personnel," Colored American Magazine, March 1903.  In 1912, he authored the book title The Republican Party and the Afro-American: a book of facts and figures [available full-text online at archive.org]. His other organization work included being elected President of the National Afro-American Press Association in July of 1903 (the organization's first conference had been held in Louisville in 1880) [sources: Along the Color Line: explorations in the Black experience by A. Meier and D. L. Lewis]. Cyrus F. Lewis also served as the transportation agent of the National Negro Business League. 

 

Cyrus F. Adams' was loyal to the Republican Party, which lead to his resignation as Assistant Register in 1912. He was leaving to work on Republican President William H. Taft's re-election campaign. When President Taft first came into office in 1909, he had kept Cyrus F. Adams as Assistant Register until 1912. President Taft asked Cyrus F. Adams to resign his post and assist with the Taft re-election campaign, and there was a promise of future civil service employment. The request was a ploy by President Taft to get Cyrus F. Adams out of the U.S. Treasury Office, because President Taft had promised the Assistant Register's position to another African American supporter from Arkansas who had shown loyalty to the Republican Party and to President Taft [source: Racism in the Nation's Service: government workers and the color line in Woodrow Wilson's America by E. S. Yellin]. After the election, in July of 1913, Cyrus F. Adams received a civil service job in the Chicago Customs House, thanks to President Taft, who, as it turned out, lost the election to Democrat Woodrow Wilson [source: Catalogue of the Public Documents of the 63rd Congress, July 1, 1911 to June 30, 1913, Accounts Committee - Adams, p.5 ~ online at Google Books]. When President Wilson came into office, he replaced the Republican employees who had served during the Taft administration. John Skelton Williams, a southern segregationist who served as President Wilson's Comptroller of the Currency, ordered an investigation of Cyrus F. Adam's record as Assistant Register. It was an attempt to attack Cyrus F. Adams' career and his success as a black man. The result of the investigation was a supposed rumor from 1911 that Cyrus F. Adams had had an improper relationship with a white woman named Violet McKee. Cyrus F. Adams survived the accusations and kept his job at the Chicago Customs House. This was not the first time that Cyrus F. Adams had had to fight off rumors. In 1907, he was accused of passing for white in order to get and keep his job as Assistant Register in the U.S. Treasury [source: "Cyrus Field Adams not passing for white," Cleveland Journal, 06/22/1907, p.1 [clipping online at the African-American Experience in Ohio].   

 

Once back in Chicago full-time, Cyrus F. Adams continued as a shareholder (5 shares) of stock in the Washington Railway & Electric Co. [source: House Documents, 63rd Congress, 3rd Session, December 7, 1914-March 4, 1915, v.107, issue 6892, Document No.1545, "Washington Railway & Electric Co.," p.4 ~ online at Google Books]. In November of 1914, Cyrus F. Adams again applied for a passport [source: U.S. Passport Application in Ancestry.com]. He gave his permanent address as Chicago. IL. and his occupation was Inspector of Customs. He applied for a passport in preparation for a pleasure tour of Cuba, Colombia, Panama, Jamaica, and Central America. The tour was only one of many for Cyrus F. Adams who continue to frequently travel to Central and South America, and to Europe, until about 1931. His name was among the returning passengers aboard the ship Fort St. George, sailing from Trinidad, B.W.I [British West Indies] on March 19, 1931, and arriving in New York, NY, USA, March 28, 1931 [source: Form 630, U.S. Department of Labor Immigration Service, Page 2, List of United States Citizens ~ in Ancestry.com]. Cyrus F. Adams' name is on the passenger list, he was 72 years and 8 months old.

 

On July 28, 1938, Cyrus Field Adams made a life claim with the U.S. Social Security Office [source: U.S. Social Security Applications and Claims Index in Ancestry.com]. A life claim is when an applicant applies for disability or retirement benefits. On the application, Cyrus F. Adams birth date is given as 13 September 1878; his actual birth date was 18 July 1858. There is a death record for Cyrus Field Adams in the Manitoba (Canada) Death Index, his birth date is given as 25 August 1857, and his death date is given as 18 February 1942. According to the death record at the Manitoba Vital Statistic website, Cyrus Field Adams died in the city of Winnipeg.

 

  See photo image of Cyrus F. Adams in the office of The Appeal newspaper in Chicago, IL. c.1888-1913.  Image in the New York Public Library Digital Collections.

 
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Historians, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration North, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Washington, D. C. / Bolivia, South America / Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada

Adams, Florence V. "Frankie"
Birth Year : 1902
Death Year : 1979
Florence Adams, born in Danville, KY, was a professor at the Atlanta University School of Social Work, the first social work program accredited for African Americans. Adams was a professor at the school from 1931-1964. She had attended 1st-8th grade at Bate School, and was a high school and college graduate of Knoxville College. Her work with the YWCA started while she was  in Knoxville. With the encouragement of her friend, Frances Williams, Frankie Adams completed her master's degree at the New York School of Social Work in 1927 [source: Black Women Oral History Project, "Interview with Frankie Adams," April 20 and 28, 1977, pp.101-121]. From New York, Adams moved to Chicago to become an industrial secretary at the YWCA. She left Chicago in1931 to join the Atlanta School of Social Work. In 2000, the Atlanta University School of Social Work was renamed the Whitney M. Young, Jr. School of Social Work. Florence Adams and Whitney Young, Jr. were social work comrades and Kentucky natives. They co-authored Some Pioneers in Social Work: brief sketches; student work book (1957). Adams also influenced community organization and group work on the national level. She was author of Women in Industry (1929), Soulcraft: Sketches on Negro-White Relations Designed to Encourage Friendship, (1944) and The Reflections of Florence Victoria Adams, a history of the Atlanta University School of Social Work (published posthumously in 1981). She also wrote many articles and was editor of Black and White Magazine. The Frankie V. Adams Collection is in the Atlanta University Center Archives. Florence "Frankie" Adams is buried in the Hilldale Cemetery in Danville, KY. She was the daughter of James and Minnie Trumbo Adams, the youngest of their eight children. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1950 and In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., edited by M. M. Spradling.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Social Workers, Migration South, YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky / Atlanta, Georgia

Adams, Henry
Birth Year : 1802
Death Year : 1873
Henry Adams was a Baptist leader in Louisville, KY, where he established the first African American Church. He also set up a school for African American children; the school survived while other schools established for African Americans by white ministers were being destroyed. Rev. Adams was born in Georgia according to the 1870 U.S. Census. He was the father of John Quincy "J. Q." Adams and Cyrus F. Adams. For more see Life Behind a Veil, by G. C. Wright; "Rev. Henry Adams" on pp.196-197 in Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky from Slavery to Segregation, 1760-1891, by M. B. Lucas.


  See photo image of Rev. Henry Adams in the Golden Jubilee of the General Association of Colored Baptists in Kentucky, at the NYPL Digital Gallery.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Education and Educators, Fathers, Kentucky African American Churches, Migration North, Religion & Church Work, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Georgia / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Adams, Herbert L.
Birth Year : 1914
Death Year : 1996
In 1973, Adams, a plumber, was the first African American elected to office in Lancaster and Garrard County, KY. He was the son of George W. and Mary A. Cunningham Adams. Herbert Adams was a veteran of WWII. For more see "Mayor, 45 councilmen are black city officials," in the 1978 Kentucky Directory of Black Elected Officials, Fifth Report, by the Commission on Human Rights, pp. 14-15; and "Herbert L. Adams" in Kentucky Obituaries, Danville Advocate-Messenger, 13 May 1996 through 31 December 1996 [online .pdf].
Subjects: First City Employees & Officials (1960s Civil Rights Campaign), Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Plumbers
Geographic Region: Lancaster, Garrard County, Kentucky

Adams, John Quincy "J.Q."
Birth Year : 1848
Death Year : 1922
John Quincy Adams was born in Louisville, KY. In 1879, Adams established the Bulletin as a weekly newspaper in Louisville. He served as president of the American Press Association (the African American press organization). In 1886, he left Louisville to join the staff of the Western Appeal in St. Paul, Minnesota, assuming ownership of the newspaper within a few months. Adam's career also included his position as Engrossing Clerk of the Arkansas Senate. He was also a school teacher in both Kentucky and Arkansas. He was a civil rights activist and served as an officer in the National Afro-American Council. Adams was a graduate of Oberlin College. He was a charter member of the Gopher Lodge No.105, Improved Benevolent Protective Order of Elks of the World. He was the son of Henry Adams and Margaret P. Corbin Adams. J. Q. Adams died September 3, 1922, after being struck by an automobile while waiting to board a street car. He was the husband of Ella B. Smith, and they had four children. For more see Dictionary of American Negro Biography, by R. W. Logan & M. R. Winston; D. V. Taylor, "John Quincy Adams: St. Paul editor and Black leader," Minnesota History, vol.43, issue 8 (Winter, 1973), pp.282-296; and for a history of J. Q. Adams career see, "Crowds throng to Adam's rites fill Pilgrim Baptist Church to capacity Elks conduct services," The Appeal, 09/16/1922, p.1.

See photo image and additional information on John Quincy Adams at African American Registry website.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Migration West, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Saint Paul, Minnesota / Arkansas

Adams, John Tyler "J.T."
Birth Year : 1911
J. T. Adams was born in Morganfield, KY. His father taught him to play guitar when he was 11 years old. Adams later moved to Indianapolis, Indiana, where he played at parties and local clubs. He recorded with Mr. Shirley Griffith on the Bluesville label in 1951. Some of his songs were "A" Jump, Bright Street Jump, Indiana Avenue Blues, and Naptown Boogie. For more see Blues Who's Who, by S. Harris.
Subjects: Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Morganfield, Union County, Kentucky / Indianapolis, Indiana

Adams, Mary A. Henderson
Mary Ann Henderson was the first African American to earn a degree while attending the University of Kentucky. Fall 1949, she enrolled in the College of Education and completed her master's degree in 1950 [source: University of Kentucky Eighty-Third Annual Commencement Exercises, Nineteen Hundred Fifty, p.46]. Henderson had earned a B.A. degree at Kentucky State College (now Kentucky State University) during the time that the University of Kentucky was segregated. As a result of Lyman T. Johnson's lawsuit, the University of Kentucky became desegregated in 1949, and Mary Ann Henderson was one of the more than 30 African American students to enroll for classes in the summer of 1949.  All of the African American students who enrolled in 1949 were graduate students or they were enrolled in a professional program. African American undergraduates were allowed to enroll in 1954. Mary A. Henderson was a school teacher in Cynthiana, KY, and in Lexington, KY, and she retired from teaching in 1989. In celebration of the success of Lyman T. Johnson's lawsuit, Mary Ann Henderson Adams received a 2006 Torch Bearer Award [source: "Recognition of African American Women at the University of Kentucky," p.1].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Adams, Mary and Maria [Dutrieuille]
Mary and Maria Adams were sisters from Kentucky. In 1875 Maria moved to Fort Abraham Lincoln in Dakota Territory to join Mary, who worked for the family of Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Custer. Mary was a cook and Maria was hired as a maid. They were later joined by their younger sister Karlene and their cousin Nancy Mucks, both from Kentucky. There is an ongoing debate as to whether Mary or Maria (or neither) was in camp with Custer the day before the Battle of Little Big Horn, and if she overheard Custer being given verbal orders by General Terry, instructing him to use his own judgment and do what he thought best should he strike the Indian trail. In 1878, in Bismarck of Dakota Territory, a notarized statement was taken from Mary as to what she had overheard at the camp, opening the door to speculation that Custer had not disobeyed orders. Other sources say that it was actually Maria who was in the camp. Though, letters written by Custer named Mary as his cook in the camp, while Lieutenant Charles L. Gurley reported that Mary was at the house and opened the door when he brought the news of the death of Lieutenant-Colonel Custer and his men. In 1873, Mary had come from Elizabethtown, KY, to the Dakota Territory with Custer and his regiment (part of the 7th Cavalry). Custer and the regiment had been ordered to Kentucky after the Battle of Washita in 1871. After about a year and a half, they moved on to Fort Abraham Lincoln in the Dakota Territory. Mary Adams accompanied Custer, as his cook, when he was on military expositions away from the fort. After Custer's death at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876, Mary and Maria Adams left Fort Abraham Lincoln. They moved to Montana where Mary died in 1879, she was born in 1849. According to author J. S. Manion, Mary and Maria were probably born in Lexington, KY. In 1880, Maria was working as a laundress when she met and married John Lambert "Duke" Dutrieuille, a barber in Benton who owned his own shop. Duke died in 1911, and Maria moved with their two children, Frank and Marie, to Great Falls, Montana. Maria Adams Dutrieuille died in 1939, she was born around 1852, according to the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. For more on the Dutrieuille family in Montana see Small Collection 1584 at the Montana Historical Society Research Center, and in the Photo Archives are pictures of Duke and Maria Dutrieuille (Collection PAc 80-23). See also the online article about the Dutrieuilles at the bottom of the Montana History Wiki; and "Club Woman: Marie Dutrieuille Ellis," pp.126-128, in chapter 7 by P. Riley in African American Women Confront the West, 1600-2000 edited by Q. Taylor and S. A. W. Moore. For more on the debate as to whether Mary Adams was in camp with Lieutenant-Colonel George A. Custer just prior to the Battle of Little Big Horn, see Custer Legends by L. A. Frost; Archaeology, History, and Custer's Last Battle: the Little Big Horn reexamined by R. A. Fox, Jr.; Custer and the Little Big Horn: a psychobiographical inquiry by C. K. Hofling; and General Terry's Last Statement to Custer: new evidence on the Mary Adams affidavit by J. S. Manion.
Subjects: Bakers, Cooks and Chefs, Migration West, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Elizabethtown, Hardin County, Kentucky / Fort Abraham Lincoln, Dakota Territory / Fort Benton and Great Falls, Montana

Adams, William T.
Birth Year : 1912
Death Year : 1974
When the second African American firehouse in Louisville, KY, opened in 1937, Adams was among the first group of firemen. In 1939 he was promoted to lieutenant, and in 1941 he became a captain. Adams would become the first African American put in charge of a predominantly white company in Louisville. He was named assistant chief in 1967. For more see B. M. Tyler, "William T. Adams (1912-1974): African-American firefighter, Louisville, Kentucky," Filson Club History Quarterly, vol. 73, issue 3, pp. 284-293. See photo image of William T. Adams on p.46 in African-American Life in Louisville by B. M. Tyler [at Google Books]

Subjects: Firefighters
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Adamstown (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1870
End Year : 1949
The community was placed at the bottom of a hill on what was the edge of Lexington, KY, in the 1870s. By 1880 there were 65 African American families in the community. Adamstown was on Adams Street, located near what is today Euclid Avenue. The neighborhood was removed in preparation for the building of the University of Kentucky's (UK) Memorial Coliseum in 1949-1950. Quoted in an Atlanta newspaper, UK Coach Adolph Rupp remembered seeing the community when he first arrived on campus in 1930; he counted 55 homes. For more see J. Kellogg, "The Formation of Black Residential Areas in Lexington, Kentucky, 1865-1887," The Journal of Southern History, vol. 48, issue 1 (Feb. 1982), pp. 21-52; D. Kindred, "Memories of the old master revived," The Atlanta Journal and The Atlanta Constitution, 04/02/1985, Sports section, p. C4; and reference to Adamstown removal in B. L. Mastin, "Home is where the art is[:] Mason, 71, uses skills creatively at his house," Lexington Herald-Leader, 03/04/1995, Lifestyle section, p. 10.
Subjects: Communities
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Advance-Courier (newspaper)
Start Year : 1885
End Year : 1886
The Advance-Courier newspaper was founded in Lexington, KY in December of 1885 [source: "The Race in general," Cleveland Gazette, 12/12/1885, p.1, paragraph 16]. It was probably a very short-lived weekly publication that identified as Independent in terms of politics. The newspaper articles were straight forward and did not mince words. The Advance-Courier was one of the exchange newspapers with the Washington Bee [source: "We welcome our exchange," Washington Bee, 12/19/1885]. Knowledge of the Advance-Courier comes from references about the newspaper in articles printed in a couple of African American newspapers in other states [source: "The Advance-Courier of Lexington," Cleveland Gazette, 01/30/1886, p.2]. Also, the Advance-Courier is listed in the 1886 issue of The Edwin Alden Co.'s American Newspaper Catalogue, p.122 [online at Google Books]. The founder and/or editor of the Advance-Courier was not identified in any of the available sources, but the writing style is very much like that of William D. Johnson, founder and editor of The Standard: fearless, forceful, uncompromising, and bold [source: for an example, see the article "Peter H. Clark," Cleveland Gazette, 12/19/1885, p.2]. William D. Johnson founded The Standard in 1892. The Advance-Courier was first printed seven years earlier. No issues of the Advance Courier have been located at this time.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

The African American Ball (Lexington, KY)
Start Year : 1994
The 1st Annual African American Ball was presented as a charity event in January 1994 and has since been held every year. It is the largest African American ball in the state; more than 6,000 guests have attended the affair over the years. The ball is a black tie event with art, entertainment, fashion, and music all in one night. Proceeds benefit the African American Forum Endowment Fund of the Blue Grass Community Foundation. For more see the African American Forum, Inc. and the Lexington Herald-Leader's annual article about the ball.
Subjects: Balls, Promenades, Socials
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Blacksmiths in Kentucky
Start Year : 1880
A discussion of the number of African American blacksmiths in the U.S. can be found in the Negroes in the United States (1904), by W. E. B. DuBois, pp. 63-64 [available full-text at Google Book Search]. DuBois noted that there were 10,988 African American blacksmiths in 1890; the numbers had decreased to 10,100 by the year 1900. The total was moving toward that of 1880 when the U.S. Federal Census listed 8,130 African American blacksmiths, of which 642 had been born in Kentucky and 521 lived in Kentucky.
Subjects: Blacksmiths
Geographic Region: Kentucky

The African American Borah Family
Start Year : 1810
In 1810, the Borah Family moved from Pennsylvania to Butler County, KY, led by the great great grandfather of Idaho Senator William Edgar Borah (1865-1940) and his eight sons. The family slaves, who also carried the last name Borah, were the ancestors of African American musician Harry Edison. Edison's great grandmother, Mariah Borah (born between 1810 and 1812, died 1876), was born in Ohio County, KY. Her mother's last name was Rogers. Mariah may have been the slave of Jacob Borah. She was later owned by George M. Borah in Butler County. Mariah had several children with Jesse Barnes [or Brookins or Brokins], a freeman from Maryland who had settled in Butler County prior to the end of slavery. It is believed that Jesse was at one time enslaved and migrated to Kentucky with the Barnes Family and then later freed. All of Jesse and Mariah's children carried the last name Borah because their mother was enslaved and carried the last name Borah, and the same applied to the children. Two of their daughters were Ellen and Julia Borah, one of whom was the mother of McDonald Porter. Their son, Larkin Borah, was the father of Katherine Meryl Borah Edison, who was the mother of Harry Edison. All information about the African American Borah family was submitted by Denyce Peyton. For more about the Borah family from Pennsylvania, see "Wisconsin at Washington," The Oshkosh Northwestern, 04/04/1936, p. 18: and Borah, by M. C. McKenna.
Subjects: Genealogy, History, Grandparents
Geographic Region: Pennsylvania / Butler County and Ohio County, Kentucky

African American Boxers in Kentucky, Photographs
Start Year : 1945
End Year : 1950
Within the John C. Wyatt Lexington Herald-Leader Collection are photographs of many competitive African American boxers who participated in the Herald-Leader (Lexington, KY) Golden Gloves tournaments, including Pierre Jackson and other Kentucky State University boxers. The photographs are of the late 1940s-1950 tournaments. There are 460 images from the Golden Gloves series, 1948-1950 and around 100 other Golden Gloves-related photos through the 1950s. Many of these images are of African American boxers. Contact the Special Collections Research Center at (859) 257-8611 for an appointment to view the collection, for copies of the photographs and copyright information, or to learn more about the photographic collection.

 

 

See the 1950 Lexington Herald-Leader Golden Gloves Tourney Champions in UKnowledge. Photo from the John C. Wyatt Lexington Herald-Leader photographs.

 
Subjects: Boxers, Boxing, Photographers, Photographs
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Business District (Danville, KY)
Death Year : 1973
Located on Second Street, between Main and Walnut Streets in Danville, KY, the African American business district thrived for over 100 years. The area was razed by Urban Renewal in 1973. A Kentucky Historical Marker notes how valued the district was to the African American community of Danville and nearby areas. For more see the Kentucky Historical Marker Database #1958.
Subjects: Businesses
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

African American Cemeteries Online - Kentucky
Subjects: Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Comic Book and Action Figure Hero Collection [Frank X Walker]
In 2014, the exhibit titled "We Wear the Mask: Black Superheroes Through the Ages" opened at the Lyric Cultural Arts Gallery and Museum in Lexington, KY. The exhibit is on display September 6, 2014 through January 5, 2015. All items in the exhibit belong to Frank X Walker (NKAA entry), and the exhibit represents only a portion of his overall collection. The size of the exhibit has been a surprise to visitors, most of whom know little or nothing about the many African American superheroes and superheroines in comic books, or the action figures and posters. Frank X Walker's collection is one of the largest personal collections of its kind in Kentucky and the United States; it is a serious venture he started almost 30 years ago. "Over 300 black action figures (and a few other non-white characters like Bruce Lee), 1,000 plus comic books and graphic novels featuring black characters, professionally framed posters, and original art including a 5 foot tall caped crusader carved by Lavon Van Williams makes up the bulk of Frank X Walker's private collection that also includes original paintings, African masks, musical instruments and stools, ethnic sculptures, and books that focus on positive representations of blacks and other people of color." - - [source: Frank X Walker, via Facebook chat, 10/01/2014]. For more about the collection, contact Frank X Walker at the University of Kentucky. 

 

  See "Top 15 Greatest Black Superheroes" on YouTube.

 

   See 10 Black Female Superheroes (Heroines)

 
Subjects: Collectibles, Other
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Communities in Warren County, KY
Sunnyside, Freeport, and Oakland were three African American communities in Warren County, KY, developed after the Civil War. In 2001, the city of Oakland was awarded a grant from the African American Heritage Commission to complete the study of the community Sunnyside. The resulting report, Writ Upon the Landscape: an architectural survey of the Sunnyside Community, reveals that the African American section of Sunnyside grew to the point that it merged with the white section of Sunnyside. There are presently 53 buildings and the Loving Union CME Church and its cemetery. The community also had a one room schoolhouse with grades 1-8 that was torn down in 1948. Sunnyside is located 5 miles southwest of Freeport, an African American community that had a two-room schoolhouse, Woodland School. One room held grades 1-3 and the other grades 4-8; the school was closed after integration, and the building was used as a restaurant and for social entertainment. The Mt. Zion Baptist Church, established in 1870, is still in use. The communities of Freeport and Oakland were separated by a railroad track, with Freeport on the north side. Mrs. Virgie M. Edwards was a teacher at the School in 1916; she was a member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. The names of other Oakland teachers are listed in the KNEA Journal from 1916-1935 [available online]. For more see Transpark: a collapse of dreams, by the City of Oakland, Kentucky; and the following articles from the News section of the Daily News - J. Dooley, "Oakland gets grant to fund study - work will cover history, heritage of Sunnyside," 07/26/2001; A. Carmichael, "Historic Oakland mill being dismantled - lumber will be used by famed Nashville-based builder," 08/30,2003; A. Harvey, "Black History: woman remembers Freeport's heyday," 02/22/2004; A. Carmichael, "A lifetime of teaching - Warren County woman has passion for education," 08/01/2005; and J. Niesse, "Freeport endangered by transpark project," Letter section, 04/25/2001.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Sunnyside, Freeport, Oakland, Warren County, Kentucky

African American County Extension Agents and Home Demonstration Agents, Kentucky
Start Year : 1914
End Year : 1950
Below are the names of African American county extension agents and home demonstration agents in Kentucky from 1918-1950. The names come from the minutes of the University of Kentucky (UK) Board of Trustees (available online full-text at the Explore UK website). The agents were hired at the UK Agricultural Experiment Station. It was the Hatch Act of 1887 [info] that established and funded agricultural experiment stations at land grant schools with a college of agriculture in each state. The land-grant schools were founded by the Morrill Act of 1862 [info]. For Kentucky, the institution that fit all the criteria was the University of Kentucky; it was a land-grant school with a College of Agriculture, and would therefore have the state agricultural experiment station. Throughout the country, agricultural experiment stations would become cooperative extension services with funding from the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 [info]. After much debating, the Smith-Lever Act allowed states to decide which land-grant college or colleges would administer the state's Smith-Lever funds that would establish extension systems. There had been a compromise because of the protest from southern states that did not want the extension system to be housed at African American land grant schools. And though there was an African American land grant school in Kentucky, Kentucky State College (now Kentucky State University), for the state of Kentucky, the administrator of the Smith-Lever funds would be the University of Kentucky; therefore, allowing UK to oversee the hiring of agents for the extension system. Funding from the Capper-Ketcham Act of 1924 was to further develop the Smith-Lever Act with extension work in agriculture for men and boys, and also with home economics for women and girls, for example 4-H Clubs and Future Farmers of America [info]. In Kentucky, the 4-H Clubs was segregated with the Rural Youth Conference for Negroes held at Kentucky State College (now Kentucky State University) [source: see "Black Participation" within Kentucky 4-H History website]. In 1935 the Bankhead-Jones Act increased federal funding to the land-grant schools for agriculture and mechanical arts [info]. The extension service had hired county agents, men who traveled throughout their assigned regions working mostly with male farmers providing the latest industry information related to agriculture business and family farming. Other workers were home demonstration agents, women who worked mostly with women and girls on the farm to contribute to the health and happiness of farm family members through food production (gardening) and preservation (canning), and other home economy activities. Within the agricultural experiment station in Kentucky, the agents' duties were divided by sex, and there was further division by race; African American agents, both men and women, were hired to work with African American families. Though the University of Kentucky student body would not start to desegregate until 1949, this did not apply to the hiring of African Americans who had been employed starting in the latter 1800s as janitors, maids, cooks, and other service employees and as performers at entertainment events. It was during WWI that African Americans men were first hired as county agents and, it was in 1914 that African American women were hired as home demonstration agents in Kentucky. For more information see the Thomas P. Cooper Papers, Markets to Morris, A. J. 00061, Box 27, File: Negroes and Kentucky Agriculture, 1939-1946. More specifically, see within the file the source sheet titled "Negro Club Work in Kentucky Negro 4-H Club in Kentucky in 1942"; the booklet titled Agricultural Extension Services Among Negroes in the South by Doxey A. Wilkerson; and the sheet titled "Negro 4-H Club Work [1943].

 

1914

 1918

  • L. Garvin  - (Colored) Emergency Assistant County Agent - Mercer County - July 1, 1918 - one year contract - $100 per month - ($66 2/3 per month paid by Emergency Fund) - p.4

1920

  • Hattie Peoples - Colored Home Demonstration Agent - Madison County - June 16, 1920 - 6 1/2 months contract - $75 per month - p.23
  •  L. B. Jett - (Colored) County Agent - Mercer County - June 16, 1920 - 6 1/2 months contract - $100 per month - p.23

1923

  • F. D. Wharton - County Agent (Ext Colored People) - Shelby County - May 2, 1923-May1, 1924 - $100 per month - p.9

1925

  • F. D. Wharton - Continuation - County Agent for Colored Farmers - Shelby County - September 1, 1925-December 31, 1925 - $108 1/3 per month - p.10

1932

  • H. A. Laine - Continuation - (Colored) County Agent - Madison County - April 1, 1932-May 31, 1932 - $83 1/3 per month - p.8

1937

  • Henry A. Laine - Negro County Agent - Jessamine County - July 1, 1937-June 30, 1938 - $1,100 per year - Bankhead Funds and Offset to Federal Funds - p.86
  • John H. Finch - Negro County Agent - Warren County - July 1, 1937-June 30, 1938 - $1,000 per year - Bankhead Funds - p.83
  • Runyon Story - Negro County Agent - Christian County - July 1, 1937-June 30, 1938 - $1,000 per year - Bankhead Funds - p.89

1938

  • Rachel Lee Davis - Assistant Colored Home Demonstration Agent - Fulton County - September 1, 1937-June 30, 1938 - $1,200 per year - Bankhead Fund - p.80
  • Hattie Robert Bethea - Colored Home Demonstration Agent - Fulton-Hickman Counties - July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 - $100 per month - Capper-Ketcham Funds - p.58
  • Rachel Lee Davis - Colored Home Demonstration Agent - Christian County - July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 - $100 per month - Capper-Ketcham Funds - p.58
  • John H. Finch - Continuation Colored County Agent - Warren County - July 1 1938-June 30, 1939 - $83.33 1/3 per month - Smith-Lever Funds - p.65
  • Henry A. Laine - Continuation Negro County Agent - Jessamine County - July 1, 1938-June 30, 1939 - $91.66 2/3 per month - Smith-Lever Funds - p.68
  • Runyon Story - Negro County Agent - Christian County - July 1, 1937-June 30, 1939 - $91.66 2/3 per month - Federal Supplementary Funds ($100 increase on College) - p.72

1943

  • James Harris - (Colored) County Agent - Christian County - Salary Adjustment - March 1, 1943 - p.64

1944

  • Louis [J]. Duncan, Jr. - Assistant County Agent (Negro) - Christian-Todd Counties - June 14, 1944-June 30, 1944 - p.40 

Subjects: Agriculturalists, Agriculture, Produce
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Families and Heritage in Garrard County [oral histories]
Start Year : 2010
The following was taken from the description at the "Pass the Word" website. "Oral History interviews about the historical presence, accomplishments and contributions of African American families in Garrard County. Interviewees include current and former residents of the county. Communities discussed are Lancaster, Bryantsville, White Oak, Herrington Lake, Davistown, Boones Creek, Flatwoods, Pain Lick and Buckey/Scotts Fork."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky

African American Family History Resources (Fayette County, KY)
Website of the Kentucky Comprehensive Genealogy Database Project.
Subjects: Genealogy, History
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Farmers Oral History Project (Kentucky)
Start Year : 1991
End Year : 1992
The following information comes from the description in the SPOKE Database. "This project contains interviews concerning the experiences of African American farmers and their families in Kentucky. Topics include sharecropping, tobacco, cattle, women's roles on the farm, farm techniques, dairy farming, tenant farming, education, segregation."

 

Access Interview Read about the African American farmers oral history interviews available at the University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History, item records are in the SPOKE Database.

 

*For more information on African American farmers in Kentucky see "Upside down from the word go": Kentucky's black farmers speak out on the issue of land loss (thesis) by W. J. Wright.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Felony/Voter Disenfranchisement
The Kentucky Constitution, section 145, bars a person with a felony conviction from voting for the rest of the individual's life whether the full sentence has been completed or not. In reference to African Americans, Kentucky has the highest disenfranchisement rate in the nation. A request to have voting rights restored begins with the individual submitting an application to the Kentucky Governor requesting an executive pardon for reinstatement of voting rights. It is the Governor's decision as to whether the voting rights are restored or not. For more see J. Shugarts, "Felons' disenfranchisement mostly a matter of geography," Republican-American, 01/25/2009," Local News section, p. 1A; "African Americans and the Criminal Justice System" on pp. 20-21 in The State of African Americans in Kentucky, by the Kentucky Commission on Human Rights [available online .pdf]; and Felony Disenfranchisement in the Commonwealth of Kentucky, a report of the League of Women Voters of Kentucky [available online .pdf]. See also Determinants of College Students' Opinions Towards Felon Voting Rights: an exploratory study (dissertation) by B. C. Dawson Edwards. 
Subjects: Voting Rights, Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Heritage Center, Inc. (Franklin, KY)
Start Year : 1994
The African American Heritage Center, Inc. is located at 500 Jefferson Street, and the mail address is P. O. Box 353, Franklin, KY 42135. See the African American Heritage Center website for the history of the facility, photos, and additional contact information.


Subjects: Genealogy, History
Geographic Region: Franklin, Simpson County, Kentucky

"African American Heritage Guide: history, art & entertainment," Lexington, KY
Start Year : 2010
The African American Heritage Guide was published by the Isaac Scott Hathaway Museum, Inc. in Lexington, KY, and funded in part by the Lexington Convention and Visitors Bureau. Included are 14 historic districts that may be viewed on a walking or driving tour. The majority of the districts are profiled in the publication, along with a map on the center pages. The latter pages contain horse racing history, including brief biographies of trainers and jockeys, cemetery entries, rural community entries, and information on public art and public events. The booklet also provides a very informative overview of the individuals who owned the homes and businesses featured in the publication. The African American Heritage Guide is available at the Isaac Scott Hathaway Museum. See also M. Davis, "Booklet full of black history - Heritage Guide painstakingly researched," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/11/2010, City/Region section, p. A3. Copies of the African American Heritage Guide are available at the University of Kentucky Libraries.

Additional information provided by Yvonne Giles:


Subjects: Communities, Genealogy, History, Historians, Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, Betting, & The Derby, Undertakers, Cemeteries, Coroners, & Obituaries
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Heritage in Bowling Green and Warren County, Kentucky (FA 509) [oral histories]
Start Year : 1997
End Year : 2000
The following information comes from the bibliographic record for African American Heritage in Bowling Green and Warren County, Kentucky (FA 509): "This collection contains tape recorded interviews conducted by Maxine Ray and Theresa Lee. The interviews deal with the heritage of African Americans in Bowling Green and Warren County. This project was sponsored by a grant from the Kentucky Oral History Commission." The collection has 3 boxes, 56 items, consisting of cassette tapes, donor forms and index. All items are available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

African American Heritage in Southern Hart County, Kentucky [oral histories]
Start Year : 2002
End Year : 2004
The following information comes from the description at the "Pass the Words" website. "Oral History collection consisting of interviews with African American residents of southern Hart County, predominately Horse Cave. Interviews covered topics of early African American settlements in the area as well as the dynamics of segregation and integration within the county. Also interviews about residents' experiences in the Civil Rights Movement. Original collection held at Kentucky Historical Society. Access copies available at KHS. Authorization must by granted by KHS se or publish by any means the archival material to which KHS holds copyright."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

African American Heritage of Simpson County Oral History Project 
Start Year : 1997
Subjects from the "Pass the Word" database record for the African American Heritage of Simpson County Oral History Project. "Discrimination, Farmers, Farming, Gospel music, Integration, Ku Klux Klan (1915-), Race relations, School integration, Schools, Segregation, Slavery, Slaves, Teachers"

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.

Discrimination, Farmers, Farming, Gospel music, Integration, Ku Klux Klan (1915-), Race relations, School integration, Schools, Segregation, Slavery, Slaves, Teachers - See more at: http://passtheword.ky.gov/collection/african-american-heritage-simpson-county-oral-history-project#sthash.tZpZKnzB.dpuf

Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

The African American Herndons from Simpson County, KY
Start Year : 1852
The following information was submitted by Gayla Coates, Archives Librarian at the Simpson County Kentucky Archives. Melford, Solomon, Bob, and Amy were the slaves of James Herndon in Simpson County, KY. In 1852, they were all to be freed when James Herndon's will was probated. The will stipulated that the slaves were to be freed if they agreed to go live in Liberia, Africa; otherwise, they were to remain in bondage to a member of James Herndon's family. Robert Herndon (b. 1814) and Melford D. Herndon (b. 1819) sailed to Liberia in 1854 aboard the ship Sophia Walker. Solomon Herndon (b. 1811) left aboard the ship Elvira Owen in 1856. In Monrovia, Liberia, Melford Herndon attended the Day's Hope mission school where he learned to read and write. He became a missionary among the Bassa people. During the American Civil War, his salary for his missionary work was discontinued. Melford returned to the U.S. and was able to secure assistance for the mission in Liberia. He also brought two of his sons to Liberia. While in the U.S., he was ordained a minister at the First African Baptist Church in Philadelphia. Herndon also collected $2,000 to build a school and meeting house for the Bassa people. He returned to Liberia in 1865 and continued his work without a salary. In 1869, Melford Herndon left his brother in charge of the school in Liberia and again returned to the U.S. for additional fund-raising and to locate his other four children. In 1873, Melford Herndon was back in Herndonville, Liberia. He would again return to the U.S., bringing with him ten Africans who would become students at Lincoln University in Pennsylvania. When he returned to Liberia, he brought along his sister, Mrs. Julia Lewis, from Kentucky. They sailed on the ship Liberia, which was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Colonization Society. For more see G. Coates, "Melford D. Herndon: Freed Slave and Missionary to Liberia," Jailhouse Journal, vol. 18, issue 2 (04/2009), p. 22. [The Simpson County Historical Society is housed in the old jail, thus the name of its journal.]
Subjects: Education and Educators, Freedom, Liberia, Liberian Presidents & Diplomats, Religion & Church Work, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky / Monrovia and Herndonville, Liberia, Africa

African American History at UK Libraries' Special Collections Research Center
The University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center includes items pertaining to the history of African Americans in Kentucky. The collections are available in the M.I. King Building. See the Special Collections Research Center web page for additional information on borrowing, hours, and staff contact information. See also the research guide, African American Primary Resources in the Special Collections Research Center.

 
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: University of Kentucky, Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Horsemen, Articles in Kentucky Newspapers
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1952
The horse industry in Kentucky has generated billions of dollars for the state. Within Kentucky's historical newspapers are the names of African American jockeys, trainers, and other horsemen who contributed to that industry. Their names can be found in relation to winning, losing, success, marriage, injury, death, crime, or some combination of each and all. While there are a lot of articles, they represent only a small portion of the total names; the majority of the men's names were never in print until they died, after which, it may or may not have been mentioned that they were part of the horse industry. To date, there is not a source that gives all the names and only a few are mentioned in books. It is the more famous individuals with recent books dedicated to their lives. In old newspapers, it was these same indivuduals who had articles written about them in sections of the papers other than the "Colored Notes." A real show of success or acceptance was not having it mentioned in the article that the man was colored. Then, around 1970, local newspapers started to do away with the practice of "Colored Notes" and mentioning the race of African Americans. Some newspapers made the change gradually, and for others, it was a very slow transition. This entry includes only a few of the names of horsemen found in Kentucky historical newspapers, from 1879-1952. This entry is meant to highlight the use of newspaper sources for filling in the gaps about the lives and deaths of Kentucky's African American horsemen. Note also that the articles give an indication of how the individual horsemen may have been regarded in terms of notoriety. For future research, suggested search terms for historical newspaper articles about African American horsemen are colored and Negro combined with Kentucky and other terms such as jockey, trainer, trotter, and horseman

 

 

NAME

OCCUPATION

WORKED FOR

CITATION

NOTES

Louis Augustus (b.1874)

Horseman

  

The Evening Bulletin, 01/10/1890, p.1

From Harrodsburg, KY, 15-16 years old. Left thigh fractured in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

Dudley Allen (1845-1911)

Trainer

 

Leader,   10/23/1911, p.12

Death Notice.

Tom Bacon (-1899)

Trainer

 

Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 10/13/1899, p.1

Death Notice.

Lloyd Baxter (b.1873)

Horseman

 

The Hickman Courier, 01/13/1890, p.1

From Frankfort, KY, 16-17 years old. Braised back in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

Frank Bayless (-1892)

Jockey

 

Leader, 01/14/1906, p.7

Death Notice.

Tom Britton (1870-1901)

Jockey

 

Leader, 08/08/1892, p.2

Injured in race.

French Brooks (1856-1943)

Trainer

E. F. Clay

The Bourbon News, 03/08/1910, p.8

Delivered filly to John E. Madden.

Edward Dudley Brown "Brown Dick" (1850-1906)

Jockey, Trainer, Race Horse Owner

 

The Paducah Sun, 05/11/1906, p.2

Death Notice.

John Brown (b.1857)

Horseman

 

Leader, 12/17/1911, p.4

Wife threw a going away party for him.

Hiram Burns (1876-1952)

Saddle Horse Rider, Trainer of Trotters

 

Herald-Leader, 09/07/1952, p.3

Death Notice. Died in Georgetown, KY.

Jim Burnside (-1891)

Trainer

 

Semi-weekly Interior Journal (Stanford), 07/31/1891, p.1

Death Notice.  Died from drinking too much bad whisky, according to the coroner's inquest.

Ed Caldwell (1863-1912)

Trainer

 

Leader, 02/19/1912, p.7

Death Notice.

R. E. Campbell (1859-1919)

Trainer, Race Horse Owner

E. J. Baldwin

The Evening Bulletin (Maysville), 08/13/1889, p.3

Owner of the horse Protection, winner of the Junior Champion Stakes at Monmouth Park.

Anderson Carr (1864-1912)

Horseman

 

Semi-weekly Interior Journal (Stanford), 10/20/1893,   p.1

From Stanford, KY. While in Danville, managed to regain control of his runaway horse and buggy.

Harold M. Childs (1863-1941)

Trainer, Trotters & Harness Horses

Ben F. White / Assistant with Charles Marvin for Joseph W. Bailey

Herald-Leader, 01/12/1941, p.11; & 01/10/1941, p.7

Death Notice. Iowa native who lived in Lexington. He died in Iowa City, Iowa.

Sanford Chinn (b.1889)

Jockey

 

Leader, 09/03/1907, p.7

Participated in race at Colored Fair, September 10-14, 1907.

John T. Clay (1859-1934)

Jockey, Trainer

 

The Evening Bulletin (Maysville), 06/14/1894,   p.3

Intended to file $10,000 lawsuit in Lexington against L&N Railroad because he was put out of the Smoking Car under the Separate Coach Law. The article mentions that Clay was almost white and had been allowed to ride in the Smoking Car when he boarded the train in Illinois.

Harry Colston

Trainer, Race Horse Owner

Harper

The South Kentuckian (Hopkinsville), 11/11/1879, p.2

Owner of Irish King, winner of Stallion Stake in Louisville, and won first in his class at the National Fair in Washington, D.C.

William Crawford (-1883)

Trainer

Speak's Stables

Semi-weekly Bourbon News, 12/21/1883, p.1

Death Notice. Died suddenly from heart disease.

James Crutcher (-1896)

Jockey

 

Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 04/28/1896, p.4

Death Notice. From Lexington. Killed in an accident on a train in Lebanon Junction, KY.

George Darnaby (1887-1940)

Horseman

C. V. Whitney

Leader, 09/18/1940, p.17

Death Notice.

Charles Decemberly

Trainer

 

Leader, 09/25/1952, p.17

Worked in Mt. Olivet, KY.

Green Dunham (b.1833)

Jockey

 

The Hickman Courier, 11/10/1899, p.4

16 year old from Richmond, KY, accidently drank concentrated lye thinking it was whisky.

Walter Eldridge (1900-1940)

Trainer

Ben White

Leader, 11/21/1940, p.17

Death Notice.

Walt Fletcher (b.1859)

Trainer

 

Daily Public Ledger (Maysville), 10/29/1904, p.1

Lost control of his horse and cart on Market Street in Maysville and crashed into the buggy of Miss Ellen Kirk.

Ben Forrest (1877-1931)

Trainer

 

Leader, 08/24/1931, p.12

Death Notice.

Chester Frakes (b.1888)

Trainer

Catesby Woodford, Bourbon County & John Ireland, Lexington

The Bourbon News, 11/10/1911, p.4

From Bourbon County, KY. Married widow of James "Soup" Perkins, Frankie Perkins.

Robert Garner (b.1865)

Horseman

 

Leader, 11/20/1911, p.8

Wife died, Sallie Garner

Frank Givens (b.1876) [misspelled as Givenson]

Horseman

 

The Hickman Courier, 01/13/1890, p.1

From Covington, KY. Received cuts in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City. 

Fred Gordon (1915-1940)

Horseman

 

Leader, 10/28/1940, p.11

Death Notice. From Maddoxtown.

Morris Green (1871-1890)

Horseman

 

The Evening Bulletin (Maysville),   01/10/1890, p.1

Death Notice. From Frankfort, KY. Killed in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

Pat Green, Sr. (1842-1907)

Trainer

R. R. Pepper & others

The Frankfort Roundabout, 01/19/1907, p.5

Death Notice.

Hamilton [misspelled as Mamilton]

Jockey

Matt Allen, Hearst Stables

The Climax (Richmond, KY), 01/16/1889, p.2

Signed to ride for Hearst Stables at 106 pounds at $6,000 for the season.

Pearl Harris

Jockey

 

The Climax (Richmond, KY), 12/30/1896

From Paris, KY. Accidentally blew his hand off with a cannon firecracker.

John Hathaway(-1905)

Jockey

 

The Hazel Green Herald, 01/05/1905, p.1

Death Notice. Hanged in Winchester, KY, for the murder of his ex-girlfriend Etta Thomas. First legal hanging in Clark County since 1851.

P. L. Hensley (1858-1926)

Trainer

 

The Mt. Sterling Advocate, 03/16/ 1922, p.1

Assisting in preparations at the Montgomery County Fairgrounds race track.

George Hurley

Horseman

 

The Evening Bulletin (Maysville),   01/10/1890, p.1

From Cynthiana, KY. Broken arm in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

Thomas M. Irvin (1865-1949)

Trainer

 

Leader, 04/15/1930, p.17

Wife died, Maggie Irvin.

Alexander Jones (1863-1924)

Trainer

George Stoll

Leader, 05/16/1913, p.11

Wife died, Mary Lilliard Jones.

James R. Jones "Dutch" (1875-1950)

Horseman

 

 

Leader, 04/24/1950, p.14

Death Notice.

John Johnson (-1931)

Horseman

Harrye Payne Whitney

Leader, 06/24/1931, p.14

Death Notice. From Lexington. Died in New York

Lucien Johnson (1876-1937)

Trainer

 

The Bourbon News, 09/30/1919, p.1

Heroic deed to save a child.

Alexander Kelly

Trainer

Dr. McMillan

The Bourbon News, 07/03/1883, p.1

Trained a blind horse that worked better with an open bridle than a blind bridle.

George Keys (1882-1932)

Horseman

Hal Price Headley

Leader, 05/16/1932, p.11

Death Notice.

Howard Lee (1857-1915)

Horseman

 

Leader, 01/04/1915, p.3

Death Notice.

Marshall Lilly

Trainer, Jockey, Exerciser

Greentree Stable of Mrs. Payne Whitney / Worked with Brown Dick

Leader, 10/30/1931, p.6

Father worked for James A. Grinstead.

Henry Mack (1853-1906)

Trainer

 

Leader, 10/28/1906, p.2

Death Notice.

James E. Medley (1887-1940)

Conditioned Horses, Break & Train Trotters

Castleton Farm

Leader, 10/22/1940, p.13

Death Notice.

Robert Miller

Horseman

 

Leader, 02/04/1912, p.6

Mother died, Susan Nelson.

Isaac Murphy (1861-1896)

Jockey, Thoroughbred Owner

Ehret Stable; Self Employed

Leader, 07/14/1892, p.3; The Evening Bulletin, 05/15/1891

Half owner of the horse Kingman a derby winner in Louisville.

Alfred Neil (-1896)

Jockey

Baldwin Stable

Daily Public Ledger (Maysville),   05/04/1896, p.2

Death Notice. Alfred Neil was killed in Louisville by Louis Drake who was a white horse trainer for Hankins and Johnson.

Noah

Jockey

 

The Hazel Green Herald, 10/24/1895, p.1

From Hazel Green, KY. Victorious at the Hazel Green Fair Race.

Norman (-1893)

Trainer

 

Daily Public Ledger (Maysville), 04/05/1893,   p.1

Death Notice. From Frankfort. Shot and killed by William Gray. 

Will F. Overton

Race-rider

From Chicago

Leader, 09/21/1891, p.5

In town to wed Lucy Britton, sister to jockey Tom Britton.

Frank Perkins (1871-1900)

Train Thoroughbreds

 

The Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/09/1900, p.6; and Daily   Public Ledger (Maysville),   05/07/1901, p.2

Death Notice. Brother of Soup Perkins. Killed by Thomas Christian who was given a life sentence.

William Perkins (1879-1927)

Trainer & Jockey

 

Herald (Lexington), 04/19/1927, p.1

Death Notice. Brother of Soup Perkins.

"Snow"

Jockey

 

The Paducah Evening Sun, 10/09/1909, p.6

Said to be overweight, "Snow," a colored jockey, was allowed to participate in the Paducah Fair and Races. He rode the horse Enrica and a stir was caused in the bookies camp.

James Pulley (1877-1940)

Horseman

 

Leader, 11/11/1940, p.11

Death Notice.

Harry Ray

Jockey

 

The Climax (Richmond, KY), 07/15/1896, p.4

Cleared of stealing a diamond ring from Pearl Britton - - Lexington, KY.

Lem Snyder [misspelled as Sydner]

Trainer

 

The Mt. Sterling Advocate,   03/16/1922, p.1

Assisting in preparations at the Montgomery County Fairgrounds race track.

James Stone (-1893)

Jockey


   

The Evening Bulletin (Maysville),   04/27/1889, p.1

Tried for the death of New York bartender Henry Miller.

Archie Strange

Trotting Horse Trainer

 

Leader, 07/06/1911, p.9

Mother died, Harriet Strange.

Cassius Clay “Cash” Tankersley (1866-1886)

Jockey for Barak G. Thomas

 

The Big Sandy News, 06/03/1886, p.4

Death Notice. Died after being thrown from horse at Latonia Track.

William Taylor

Horseman

 

The Evening Bulletin (Maysville),   01/10/1890, p.1

From Covington, KY. Broken arm in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

William H. Thomas (-1890)

Horseman

 

The Evening Bulletin (Maysville),   01/10/1890, p.1

Death Notice. From Cynthiana, KY. Killed in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

Harry Thompson

Horseman

 

Leader, 04/02/1928, p.12

Death Notice.

Lewis Thompson

Horseman

 

The Hickman Courier, 01/13/1890, p.1

From Harrodsburg, KY. Fractured bone in foot in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

John Todd (-1908)

Jockey

Talbott Brothers

The Bourbon News, 07/10/1908, p.8

Death Notice. 14 year old jockey from Paris, KY, died of tubercula meningitis in Cincinnati, OH. {Death Certificate says he   was 16 years old.}

John H. Washington

Horseman

 

The Hickman Courier, 01/13/1890, p.1

From Spring Station, KY. Bruised in train collision in St. Louis, MO, while helping to transport race horses from Latonia to Kansas City.

William Walker (1860-1933)

Jockey; Race Horse Betting

 

The Climax (Richmond, KY),   12/11/1889, p.2

Won big at betting.

Edward Walls "Shorty" (1893-1940)

Horseman

C. Van Dusen

Leader, 10/22/1940, p.13

Death Notice.

Willis Wheeler (1875-1940)

Horseman

 

Leader, 10/12/1940, p.10; and Leader, 11/15/1912, p.12

Death Notice. Death Notice for wife, Amelia Wheeler.

H. S. Williams "Shack" (1860-1913)

Horseman

 

Leader, 01/12/1913, p.2

Death Notice.

Isaac Williams (1880-1930)

Trainer

 

Leader, 09/25/1930, p.17

Death Notice.

Ansell Williamson (b.1810)

Trainer

 

Leader, 11/23/1914, p.3

Father of Mrs. Mary A. Cohn, wife of Hamilton Cohn.

Ed Willis (1870-1930)

Trainer and superintendent

Patchen Wilkes Farm / R. P. Pepper in Frankfort

Leader, 03/10/1914, p.8; & Leader, 12/06/1930, p.8

Resigned from Patchen Wilkes. Death Notice.

Jimmy Winkfield (1882-1974)

Jockey

Russia and Poland

Leader, 06/07/1904, p.7; The Citizen (Berea), 06/09/1904, p.3

Jockey in Russia. "Colored Jockey Won Derby" [Warsaw Derby in Poland].


Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, Betting, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Jockeys in Lexington, KY, 1893
Start Year : 1893
The following names of African American jockeys comes from the title Directory of African Americans in Lexington, KY, 1893 by D. Y. Wilkinson.

  • Albert Boyer at 16 Ellerslie Avenue
  • Thomas Britton at E. Short Street
  • Clarence Clark at 81 Thomas Street
  • Ansal Conn at 411 Market Street
  • Charles Graham at 112 Corral Street
  • John Porter at 83 Thomas Street

Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, Betting, & The Derby
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Librarians, Kentucky
Kentucky was the first state in the South to have trained African American librarians and was also the first to have a library training program for African American librarians (1912-1931) [located at the Louisville Western Colored Branch Library]. The highest number of African American librarians (self-identified) employed in Kentucky was recorded in 1980, estimated at 161. The lowest estimate was 4, in the year 2000. For more see the Bureau of the Census 2000 EEO Data Files; 1980 EEO Data Files at the Kentucky State Data Center; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Library Directors
Go to African American Library Directors in the USA
Geographic Region: United States

African American Library Employees, WPA, NYA, & Kentucky, 1940
Start Year : 1940
Though Louisville, KY, had been a leader in the training of Negro librarians beginning in 1912, by 1940 those efforts had come to an end. The training program at the Louisville Western Branch Library ended in 1931. Also gone were the 1932 library training program started by Eliza Atkins [Gleason] at the Louisville Municipal College and the 1936 state training agency housed at the Municipal College for the training of Negro library employees [source: Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones, pp. 94-95]. The continuation of the Western Branch library training program at Hampton Institute Library School ended in 1939 [now Hampton University]. The Atlanta University library school would open in 1941 [now Clark Atlanta University]. In 1940 President Franklin D. Roosevelt was reelected, the country was still experiencing the Great Depression with record unemployment, and in Europe, it was the second year of what would become known as World War II. Employment was hard to come by, including library jobs, though Louisville was still the one location in Kentucky that offered the most employment opportunities for Negro librarians and library employees, which included teens and young adult library assistants who were hired via the National Youth Administration (NYA). Some of the adult librarians and library assistants were hired via the Work Projects Administration. Changes had taken place with the federal programs by 1940; the NYA, a New Deal program created during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's first term, was no longer a part of the WPA; it moved to the Federal Security Agency with the passage of the Reorganization Act of 1939. Also in 1939, the Works Progress Administration was renamed the Work Projects Administration; both were referred to as the WPA. The WPA was a New Deal agency (a federal assistance program) that employed mostly men for public works projects. The WPA Library projects mostly hired women. The library projects were sponsored by the public library commissions or boards of education in the participating states. There was a qualified workforce in Kentucky: the Negro librarians were some of the most educated women in the state and the race. Below are the names, education levels, and additional information about African Americans in and from Kentucky who were employed as librarians and library assistants in 1940; WPA and NYA workers are indicated. - - [sources: 1940 U.S. Federal Census; Wilson Bulletin for Librarians, April 1938; and Library Extension Under the WPA, by E. B. Stanford]. [See also NKAA entries for the National Youth Administration (Kentucky), Colored Libraries, and African American Schools].

 

NYA=National Youth Administration

WPA=Work Projects Administration

 

Anna Allen (b. 1924), daughter of Booker Z. and Viola Allen / completed 8th grade / Lancaster, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Anne Anderson (b. 1907), wife of Charles W. Anderson, Jr. / completed 4th year of college / Frankfort, KY / Librarian, Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]

Alice Baker (b. 1924), daughter of Lone and Nellie Baker / completed 9th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Beulah Bolan (b. 1891), widow / completed 2nd year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public school

Gwendolyn Blakley (b. 1918), daughter of William and Martha Blakley / completed 3rd year of college / Chicago, IL (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, reading project

Lorella Bradford (b. 1917), grandniece of Charles Batts / completed 3rd year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, college

Jesse M. Brashear (b. 1922), daughter of John W. and Fanny Brashear / completed 9th grade / Hardin County, KY / Library Assistant, school

Frances Bush (b. 1909), daughter of Brize and Nettie Bush / completed 1st year of college / Cincinnati, OH (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public library

Sallie Churchville (b. 1904), single / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Minnie Cooper (b. 1884), widow / completed 3rd year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, public library

James Cowherd (b. 1916), son of Lee and Stella Cowherd / completed 12th grade / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, NYA Literary Project

Bessie Crenshaw (b. 1920), daughter of Samuel and Bessie Crenshaw / completed 1st year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Anna Dell (b. 1896), divorced / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public school

Julius Dickerson (b. 1909), divorced / completed 3rd year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA, public library

Thelma Dunlap (b. 1923), daughter of Johnie Ross / completed 11th grade / Paducah, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Gertrude Durett (b. 1911), single / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, Toy Library

Clara Frank (b. 1902), single / completed 10th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA

Sophia Freeman (b. 1898), widow / completed 12 grade / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, high school

Thelma P. Froman (b. 1923), daughter of John Des and Minnie Froman / completed 11th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Wyetta Gilmore (b. 1906), married / completed 4th year of college / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public library

Vivian Glass (b. 1904), divorced / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, public library

Lillian C. Hall (b. 1891), wife of John Wesley Hall / completed 4th year of college / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, Attucks High School

Willa Hall (b. 1918), daughter of Bessie and Gabie Hall / completed 1st year of college / Indianapolis, IN (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, NYA Project

Margaret Hampton (b. 1916), single / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Rachel D. Harris (b. 1869), widow / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Beatrice Hatchett (b. 1921), daughter of Elisha Hatchett / completed 12th grade / Henderson, KY / Library Assistant, school work program

Hattie Hays(b. 1886), widow / completed 12th grade / Fulton County, KY / Librarian, school project

Robert Jackson (b. 1911), husband of Naomi Jackson / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA Recreation Center

Marjorie Johnson (b. 1906), married / completed 6th year of college / Paducah, KY / Librarian, school

Mary Jones (b. 1919), single / completed 10th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA Library

Cordelia Knight (b. 1920), daughter of Patrick and Emma Knight / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, Municipal College Library

Naomi Lattimore (b. 1904), wife of John A. C. Lattimore / completed 5th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Illinois) / Librarian, public and college libraries

Hariett Lawson (b. 1907), single / completed 4th year of college / Gary, Indiana (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public school

Evelyn Lewis (b. 1914), single / completed 1st year of college / Chicago, IL (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, WPA Project

Pearl Lewis (b. 1890), widowed / completed 8th grade / Letcher County, KY / Librarian, WPA Office

Charlotte Lytte (b. 1913), single / completed 12th grade / Springfield, OH (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public college

Eva Mallory (b. 1901), wife of Robert A. Mallory / completed 1st year of college / Minneapolis, MN (born in Kentucky) / Librarian

Esther Maray (b. 1920), daughter of Caroline Maray / completed 12th grade / Cleveland, OH (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, NYA

Charles Marrs (b. 1917), son of Charles and Julia Marrs / completed 12th grade / Chicago, IL (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, public library

Ruth McCoy (b. 1916), single / completed 4th year of college / New Orleans, LA (born in Kentucky) / Library Assistant, university

Elnora McIntyre Muir (b. 1886), married / completed 5th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Tennessee) / Library Assistant, public library

Mamie Melton (b. 1897), widowed / completed 8th grade / Washington, PA (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, neighborhood house

Carolyn E. Mundy (b. 1908), wife of John Mundy / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Tennessee) / Librarian, public school

Mary Myall (b. 1907), single / completed 4th year of college / Xenia, OH (born in Kentucky) / Librarian, university library

Hugh Osborne, Jr. (b. 1919), married / completed 4th year of college / Paducah, KY (born in Alabama) / Librarian, judge's office

Hugh Osbourne (b. 1919), single / completed 7th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Alabama) / Law Librarian, Court of Appeals

Alice Parker (b. 1912), married / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, WPA

Noverta Peoples (b. 1922), daughter of John B. and Leana N. Peoples / completed 11th grade / Paducah, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Lizzie Pierce (b. 1882), wife of B. L. Pierce / completed 11th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, public library

Pruline Pigeon (b. 1910), wife of Barbee Pigeon / completed 8th grade / Indianapolis, IN / Librarian, WPA

Lizzie S. Price (b. 1878), wife of Henry M. Price / completed 2nd year of college / Louisville, KY / Librarian, free public library

Elmarie Robinson (b. 1911), single / completed 11th grade / Covington, KY / Librarian, public school

Rose Sellers (b. 1921), daughter of Oliver P. and Mary Sellers / completed 1st year of college / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Georgia Shipley (b. 1921), daughter of Lovie and Jerry Shipley / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, library project

Gertrude Silves (b. 1902), widow / completed 3rd grade / Louisville, KY / Librarian, Ribhi (sp) Library

Bessie R. Stone (b. 1917), married / completed 5th year of college / Frankfort, KY / Library Assistant, Kentucky State College for Negroes [now Kentucky State University]

Lee Ella Watkins (b. 1918), daughter of Virginia Watkins / completed 12th grade / Louisville, KY / Library Assistant, NYA

Bruce Weaver (b. 1917), single / completed 2nd year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Indiana) / Library Assistant, school library

Garnett Witherspoon (b. 1911), wife of James Witherspoon / completed 2nd year of college / Paducah, KY (born in Illinois) / Librarian, college

Thelma Yancey (b. 1914), single / completed 4th year of college / Lexington, KY (born in Montana) / Librarian, college

Hortense H. Young (b. 1904), wife of Coleman Milton Young II / completed 4th year of college / Louisville, KY (born in Texas) / Librarian, Municipal College Library

Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Migration North, Women's Groups and Organizations, Works Progress Administration (WPA) / Work Projects Adminstration (WPA), National Youth Administration (NYA)
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Miners and Migrants: the Eastern Kentucky Social Club
By T. E. Wagner and P. J. Obermiller - African American coal miners in Eastern Kentucky. For more see African American miners and migrants: the Eastern Kentucky Social Club is available at the University of Kentucky Libraries.
Subjects: Miners, Mines, & Steel Mills
Geographic Region: Kentucky (Eastern Kentucky)

African American Musicians and Singers, Berea College Digital Collection [online]
Start Year : 1939
The Berea College Digital Collection, Sound Archives includes online sound recordings of artists such as the "Six Bits of Rhythm Jug Band," "Barnyard Boys String Band of Jefferson County," "Bluegrass Quartet of Richmond," and others. There is a range of music genres: gospel, hymns, folk, bluegrass, and more. To browse the selections, search using the terms African American and music, or search by name, geographic location, and song title.  Contact the Berea College Library for assistance or additional information.

 

Access Interview Listen to Steam Boat Bill; Railroad Bill by Etta Baker on guitar, recorded at the Berea College Celebration of Traditional Music 10-28-83.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers
Geographic Region: Berea, Madison County, Kentucky

African American Oral History Collection, University of Louisville Digital Archives [online]
Access InterviewThe African American collection is the first oral history collection the University of Louisville Digital Archives made available online. It covers the history of African Americans in Louisville, KY. The selections consist of audio recordings with full transcripts. See more about the collection for additional information.
Subjects: Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Performer at Louisville (Colored) Sängerfest
Start Year : 1881
Sängerfest (or singer's festival) is a German cultural festival, first held in the United States in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1849. [Also spelled as Säengerfest.] In 1866 a festival was held in Louisville, KY; the New York Times reported it was to be the largest festival ever in the U.S. In 1881 there was a festival held at the Grand Opera House in Louisville, and included Amelia Tilghman, an African American singer, teacher, journalist, poet, and composer. Tilghman had a leading role, she was the prima donna soprano of the Sängerfest. There was objection from some Colored citizens of Louisville because the German term "Säengerfest" had been used by newspapers to name their 1881 Grand Union musical festival. The committee members of the 1881 Louisville Colored Säengerfest were William H. Gibson, president; H. C. Weeden, secretary, and N. R. Hapen, musical director. Hundreds of singers were expected to perform. For more see The Encyclopedia Britannica: a dictionary of arts, sciences, literature, and general information, volume VI, by H. Chisholm (1910) [available online via Google Book Search]; "The Louisville Sangerfest," New York Times, 07/20/1866, p. 5; Amelia Tilghman in Piano Music by Black women composers, by H. Walker-Hill; The Music of Black Americans: a history, by E. Southern; "Louisville Saengerfest," People's Advocate, 01/29/1881, p.1; and "Louisville item. The Saengerfest," People's Advocate, 05/14/1881, p.2.
Subjects: Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Physicians in Kentucky
Start Year : 1800
End Year : 1920
The names of more than 100 African American physicians in and from Kentucky are listed in the 2011 edition of the Biographical Dictionary of American Physicians of African Ancestry, 1800-1920, by G. R. Beckford. Regarding Kentucky, the physicians were either born here, attended the Louisville National Medical College or practiced medicine in one of the 32 Kentucky cities listed in the geographical index. Listed within the dictionary are persons such as Dr. Charles William Bibb (1884-1959), from Allensville, KY, who graduated from Meharry Medical School [now Meharry Medical College] and was a gynecologist and staff surgeon at Chicago Hospital. Bibb had a medical practice in Allensville before he moved to Chicago, where he had a medical practice for almost 45 years [source: "Dr. Charles W. Bibb," Jet, 10/29/1959, p. 16]. Also included in the dictionary is Dr. Simon James Watkins (1861-1948), from Courtland, AL, an 1891 Meharry Medical School graduate who was the first African American physician in Covington, KY,; he practiced medicine in Covington from 1891-1946 and was a dentist, physician, and surgeon [source: T. H. H. Harris, " Watkins, Simon J." on p. 940 in the Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, by Tenkotte and Claypool]. One other physician listed in the dictionary is Dr. Mary Irene Browne, born in 1886 in Washington, D.C., a 1910 graduate of Meharry Medical School who practiced medicine in Williamsburg and Kensee, KY. While in Kentucky, Dr. Browne lived in Depot with her sister, Jane Alice Browne Bond, who was a school teacher and the wife of James M. Bond [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census].
Subjects: Medical Field, Health Care
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Allensville, Todd County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Courtland, Alabama / Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Washington, D.C. / Williamsburg, Kensee, and Depot, Whitley County, Kentucky

African American Police Women (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1922
Mrs. Fanny R. Givens and Patsy Sloan, both African Americans, were two of the four women police officers hired by the Louisville Police Department in 1930. The other two hires were Pearl Boston and Agnes L. Castle, both of whom were white. The local newspaper reported the four women to be the first hired on the Louisville police force, which was incorrect. Alice Dunlap had been hired in 1921, and in 1922, Bertha P. Whedbee was the first African American woman hired. When the new administration came into office at City Hall in 1938, Givens, Sloan, Boston, and Castle were relieved of their duties. For more see the Louisville Division of Police by M. O. Childress, Sr.; and The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan. See photo image of Fanny R. Givens at Zeta Phi Beta Sorority, Inc. Great Lakes Region website.

Subjects: Corrections and Police
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Schools - Catlettsburg Colored Common School District (Boyd County, KY)
Start Year : 1873
End Year : 1944
The Catlettsburg Colored Common School District was established by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873. The district included the area beginning at the Ohio River at the mouth of Horse Branch. There was a poll tax on every male 18 years old or older within the district, and widows with children were also taxed. The tax was not to exceed $2. Students attending the school had to live in the specified district and be at least 5 years old and not over 25 years old. In 1887, the school term was five months. An African American minister, the Reverend John R. Cox of the AME Church, was the first truant officer in Catlettsburg. Cox was a former slave born in Catlettsburg in 1852. The school district existed for 38 years before an act was established in 1912 to repeal the act that had established the Colored Common School District in Catlettsburg. Four Colored families were counted in Catlettsburg in the 1910 U.S. Federal Census, most of whom did not have children. The number of children had more than doubled by 1920; Miss Agnes H. Lockwood was the school teacher in 1923; and in 1925, there was a school census of 20 school age children for the one colored school that had one teacher [sources: U.S. Federal Census; Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.66;and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.69]. The Colored school district in Cattletsburg may have been discontinued, but the colored school of Catlettsburg operated as part of the Ashland Colored school system. In the 1937 Polk's Catlettsburg City Directory, Daisy Keeton is listed as principal of the Catlettsburg Colored School at 170 E. Panola Hill. The school was still listed in the directory as late as 1944. For more see "Chapter 653" in the 1873 Acts Passed at the...session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth, pp. 193-194 [full-text available at Google Book Search]; and Common School Laws of Kentucky: 1922, by the Kentucky Department of Education. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Catlettsburg, Boyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools - Colored Superintendents at Kentucky Public Schools, 1925
Start Year : 1925
Below are the names of the colored superintendents listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory for the school year July 1, 1925 to June 30, 1926. The publication is one of the earliest school directories for the state. For the county schools, the superintendents were white and each one served all (black and white) schools in a given county system. In 1925, there were a few colored superintendents hired by the city and independent graded school systems for the colored schools. See also the NKAA entries for African American Schools.

Colored Superintendents in Kentucky 1925
SUPERINTENDENTS CITY SCHOOLS
P. More Hopkinsville
R. D. Roman Earlington
T. C. B. Williams Franklin
G. T. Halliburton Hickman
- Lebanon
Silas E. Dean Murray
J. A. Hays Princeton
J. W. Roberts Shelbyville
   
SUPERINTENDENTS INDEPENDENT GRADED SCHOOLS
B. B. Smith Lynch Mines
J. Neil Burnside Whitesburg

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky: Hopkinsville, Christian County / Earlington, Hopkins County / Franklin, Simpson County / Hickman, Fulton County / Lebanon, Marion County / Murray, Calloway County / Princeton, Caldwell County / Shelbyville, Shelby County / Lynch Mines, Harlan Co

African American Schools - Kentucky, 1866
Start Year : 1866
In 1866, there was a new law for the benefit of the Negroes and Mulattoes of the Commonwealth; all taxes from these persons were set aside in a separate fund, one half to support Negro and Mulatto paupers, and one half for the education of the children. There were 13 schools counted in December of 1866, they were included in the publication of the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864 [see below]. The schools had been under-counted; a large majority of the colored schools had not been reported to the Commissioner of Common Schools, because the schools were not part of the Common School system, and the commissioners had procrastinated in establishing common schools for colored children. As stated in the annual report, there were 41,804 colored children between the ages of six and twenty in Kentucky, and 9,995 of those children lived in one of the 12 counties reported as having a colored school. The Colored Fund held $5,656.01 (as of March 1867), one half of which went to the colored schools and one half was used to care for paupers. It was expected that the following year, there would be a more accurate count of the colored schools.

  • Bracken County - 1 school
  • Clinton County - 1 school
  • Estill County - 1 school
  • Fayette County - 1 school
  • Greenup County - 1 school
  • Harrison County - 1 school
  • Hopkins County - 1 school
  • Jefferson County - 2 schools
  • Laurel County - 1 school
  • Logan County - 1 school
  • Madison County - 1 school
  • Mercer County - 1 school
For more information see "Chapter 636" on pp.231-232, and "Colored Schools" on pp.22-23 of the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. See NKAA Database entries African American Schools.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools - Kentucky, 1886
Start Year : 1886
The Colored School System covered about 112 of the 120 counties. Many of the colored schools were actually school sessions being held for three to five months in colored churches. There was not sufficient revenue from the property taxes of African Americans to afford but a few new school buildings. School superintendents filed reports that included information about the condition of the facilities, enrollment and student attendance, and the qualifications of teachers. A driving force behind the development and continuation of a colored school was the community. It was not uncommon for schools to be opened, moved, or discontinued without the knowledge of the school superintendent. There were superintendents who did not submit a separate report about the colored schools, or there may be a statement about the colored schools in the annual report for the white schools. The following list comes from the "Colored Schools. A digest of the Epistolary Reports of County Superintendents," found within the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887. The total number of schools/districts was not available for every county. See also the NKAA Dabatase entries African American Schools.

  • Adair County
  • Barren County
  • Bath County - 8 districts with 1 school each
  • Boone County
  • Bourbon County - 24 schools
  • Boyd County - 2 districts
  • Boyle County
  • Breathitt County - 2 districts
  • Breckinridge County
  • Bullitt County - 7 districts
  • Butler County - 7 schools
  • Calloway County - 8 districts
  • Carroll County - more than 3 districts
  • Casey County - 5 schools
  • Christian County
  • Clark County - 11 schools
  • Clay County - 4 districts
  • Crittenden County
  • Cumberland County - 8 districts
  • Daviess County - 4 schools
  • Edmonson County - 4 schools
  • Fayette County
  • Fleming County - 6 districts, school held in churches
  • Franklin County
  • Fulton County - 11 districts, 1 school in a church
  • Grant County - 4 districts
  • Graves County - 16 districts
  • Green County - 17 districts
  • Harlan County
  • Hardin County
  • Harrison County
  • Hart County - 10 districts
  • Hopkins County - 18 districts
  • Jessamine County
  • Larue County
  • Laurel County
  • Lawrence County - 2 schools
  • Lee County - 2 schools, 1 in a church
  • Lewis County - 1 school in a church in Vanceburg
  • Lincoln County - 16 districts
  • Logan County - 21 teachers, many schools taught in church buildings
  • Lyon County - 11 districts
  • Madison County - 27 districts
  • Magoffin County - 1 school
  • Mason County
  • Marshall County - 3 districts
  • McCracken County - no school houses, 3 or 4 schools doing good
  • McLean County - 5 districts, most schools held in church buildings
  • Meade County
  • Menifee County - 1 school
  • Mercer County
  • Metcalfe County - 7 districts
  • Monroe County - 5 schools
  • Montgomery County
  • Muhlenberg County - the schools are at a stand-still
  • Ohio County - 11 districts, 11 schools
  • Oldham County
  • Owen County
  • Pendleton County - 3 districts
  • Powell County - 3 schools
  • Pulaski County - 6 schools
  • Robertson County - 2 schools
  • Rockcastle County - 2 schools, one in Brodhead
  • Scott County - 1 school, school held in rented building
  • Shelby County - 13 districts
  • Simpson County - 10 districts
  • Spencer County
  • Taylor County
  • Trigg County - 3 districts
  • Union County - 9 districts, 6 with schools
  • Warren County
  • Washington County
  • Wayne County
  • Wolfe - 1 district
  • Woodford County

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools - Moonlight Schools, Kentucky
Start Year : 1911
End Year : 1920
The Moonlight Schools were night schools for adults; the sessions were held within school houses in rural communities. The first moonlight school sessions were held in 1911 in Rowan County, KY. The idea and execution of night school for adults was the brainchild of Cora Wilson Stewart, an experienced education leader who crusaded against illiteracy. [More information and her biography can be found at Guide to Cora Wilson Stewart Papers, 1900-1940 in the Kentucky Digital Library]. Moonlight Schools were soon opened throughout the United States in county areas and within cities. There were at least 15 Colored Moonlight Schools in Kentucky by 1915, with the best schools located in Maysville, Winchester, Mount Sterling, and Paris; Mercer County held a Moonlight School in every colored school district [source: p. 49 in Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. See also the 1919 Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, a collection of booklets within the Cora Wilson Stewart Papers, 1900-1940, Box 65. The booklets include the locations of some of the Colored Moonlight Schools and the names of the teachers. The collection is held at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center. See also NKAA entries for African American Schools.

  • Allen County (in Scottsville at Zion School)
  • Barren County (Union Hill)
  • Clark County (Winchester)
  • Daviess County (in Owensboro at Western Colored School, teacher A. O. Guthrie, 12 students)
  • Green County (three schools: in Ote, teacher Mrs. Fannie Hoskins; in Gresham, teacher Miss Lilliows Thurman; in Whitewood, teacher Mrs. Sallie B. Graves)
  • Hopkinsville (Christian County)
  • LaRue County (in Buffalo, KY, teacher Bessie Ford, 12 students)
  • Maysville (Mason County)
  • Mercer County
  • Monroe County
  • Mt. Sterling (Montgomery County)
  • Paris (Bourbon County)
  • Simpson County (in Franklin, teachers Gertrude Mahin, Iola Ryons, and Bessie Lawrence, 68 students enrolled)
  • Campbellsville (in Taylor County, teacher Mrs. G. E. Philpott) [source: "Mrs. G. E. Philpott...," Freeman, 02/13/1915, p. 3].

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools: African American Education in South Central Kentucky, 1920–1960 - Oral History Collection by Joseph Carl Ruff (FA166)
Start Year : 1993
The following information is taken from the descriptive inventory. "This project, “African American Education in South Central Kentucky, 1920 – 1960”, was conducted by Joseph Carl Ruff, and includes 26 interviews with African Americans who were students, teachers and/or administrators in segregated schools in south central Kentucky. Their first-hand accounts provide a unique perspective on the evolution of the education of African Americans in the region. Each interview reflects the determination of a people to overcome the obstacles created by a flawed doctrine, ‘separate but equal’, to achieve success, and for many of the interviewees, to become community leaders as teachers and school administrators. This project was funded by a grant from the Kentucky Oral History Commission." The collection is available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: South Central, Kentucky

African American Schools and Students in Kentucky (Photographs), Kentucky Digital Library
Start Year : 1901
Photographs of "Colored" and "Negro" schools and students are available online within the Kentucky Digital Library - Images section. Student body photographs include Bracktown 1901, Briar Hill 1901, and Burdine 1921. For more see the Kentucky Digital Library - Images. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Bracktown and Briar Hill, Fayette County, Kentucky / Burdine (Jenkins), Letcher County, Kentucky

African American Schools and Students Photographs, KDLA Electronic Records Archives
End Year : 1900
Below are links to some of the pictures of students and colored schools in Kentucky, found online within the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives. The pictures were taken in the 1880s-1890s. Contact KDLA for additional information about the photographs and the schools.


Colored District No. 3, 8


Colored District No. 2, 80


Colored District No. 1, 79 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools and Teachers in Kentucky, 1929
Start Year : 1929
In 1929, Harvey C. Russell, Sr. found that the higher education institutions in Kentucky were at a low state of teacher preparation for the state's colored high schools. The findings are included in Russell's thesis The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools of Kentucky, for a Master of Arts in Education at the University of Cincinnati. In his thesis, Russell focused on public high schools, but noted that there were 61 colored high schools of all types in Kentucky: 36 city controlled, 23 county controlled, and 2 state controlled. There were 204 teachers. The number of colored high schools had more than doubled over a 10 year period and student enrollment had increased by 170 percent. There were 31 four year approved high schools within 28 counties and all but three had less than 100 students. The Rosenwald Fund had provided for 10 libraries. Among the public high schools, 56% of the teachers were college graduates and "the state has drawn heavily upon educational institutions in other states." [quote from Chapter VI, p.68, item 7.] Below are the names of the higher education institutions with graduates who were teachers at the colored high schools in Kentucky during the 1928-29 school term, as listed in Table XI, pp.46-46a, in The Training of the Teachers in the Colored High Schools in Kentucky by Harvey C. Russell, Sr.

Training institutions in Kentucky attended by colored teachers (26%):

Training institutions in other states attended by colored teachers (74%):

Tennessee
  • Fisk University
  • Lane College
  • Knoxville College
  • Tennessee State College
Ohio
  • Wilberforce University
  • Ohio State University
  • Ohio University
  • Miami University
Washington, D.C.
  • Howard University
Indiana
  • Indiana University
  • Terre Haute Teacher College
Illinois
  • University of Chicago
  • Northwestern University
  • Illinois State Normal
  • University of Illinois
  • Chicago Business College
Georgia
  • Atlanta University
  • Clark University
  • Morris Brown University
Pennsylvania
  • Lincoln University
  • Cheney Normal
Virginia
  • Hampton Institute
Alabama
  • Tuskegee Institute
Oklahoma
  • Langston University
Michigan
  • Ypsilanti Normal
New York
  • Columbia University
  • Pratt Institute
Florida
  • Florida State College
Massachusetts
  • Smith College
Nebraska
  • University of Nebraska
North Carolina
  • John C. Smith University

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, Freedmen Schools - Kentucky, 1866-1870
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1870
The establishment (and support) of schools by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands from 1866-1870 was the first major, statewide effort to provide education for African Americans in Kentucky. There were more than 200 freedmen schools in Kentucky, including American Missionary Association Schools that were supported by the Bureau. The support was extended to schools that held classes in churches and rented buildings. In areas where the schools were not welcomed, the buildings were destroyed and/or the teachers were run out of town. In most of the cities where the schools were established, they were the first schools for African Americans. There were day schools, night schools, and Sabbath schools for both children and adults. Prior to the arrival of the Bureau, there were about 35 colored schools with 58 colored teachers in Kentucky. The students paid a subscription fee. For those schools supported by the Bureau, the majority of the school teachers were white women, some from northern states and associated with the American Missionary Association. The history of the overall effort, successes and failures, and the names of cities where schools were located, are all included in the [secondary source] Semi-annual Report on Schools for Freedmen: numbers 1-10, January 1866-July 1870, by J. W. Alvord. The title is available full-text online at Google Books. See also the entries for African American Schools in the NKAA Database. See also The Race to Educate: African American resistance to educational segregation in Kentucky, 1865-1910 (dissertation) by T. L. Bradley.

 

Freedmen Schools in Kentucky @ FamilySearch.org

 

The list of Freedmen Schools in Kentucky, April 1866-July 1870, is available online at FamilySearch.org. The spread sheets has the names of the city/town where the school was located, when the school opened, who sponsored the school, races and names of teachers, number of students, and information about the buildings. There are over 250 images of records [the primary sources] pertaining to Kentucky. For access to the records for other states click here." Be sure to take a look at the link for "Education Division." [source: "United States, Freedmen's Bureau, Records of the Superintendent of Education and of the Division of Education, 1865-1872." Images. FamilySearch. http://FamilySearch.org : 14 June 2016. Citing multiple NARA microfilm publications. Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, 1969-1978.]
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools, High Schools - Eastern Kentucky, 1948
Start Year : 1948
In 1948, William T. Gilbert completed his thesis, The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky, for a Master of Arts degree at Indiana University. A Kentucky school law mandated that all school districts provide 12 grades of segregated school for both races. For many of the eastern counties with few colored students (who lived in scattered locations throughout the county), the law presented a challenge. There were 16 approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky from 1918-1940, and two of the schools had been dropped: enrollment was too small at Manchester, and the Vicco school was consolidated with the Hazard school system. The high school classes ranged in size from six students in Pineville to 288 students in Lynch. There were 46 high school teachers, all college graduates. Below is a list of the high school names from p. 25 of Gilbert's thesis, and below that, from p. 90, a list of the institutions from which the high school teachers graduated.

Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools:

  • Lincoln [not Liberty]
Middlesboro
  • Roland-Hayes
Pineville
  • B. T. Washington
Ashland
  • Palmer-Dunbar
Wheelwright
  • Benham
Benham
  • Rosenwald
Harlan
  • Lynch
Lynch
  • Rosenwald
Barbourville
  • London
London
  • Dunham
Jenkins
  • Fee
Maysville
  • Liberty
Hazard
  • Perry Cline
Pikeville
  • Somerset
Somerset



Eastern Kentucky Negro High Schools: Institutions from which the High School Teachers Graduated:

  • Kentucky State

25
  • Tennessee State

4
  • Knoxville College

3
  • Wilberforce University

3
  • Clark University

2
  • Tuskegee Institute

2
  • Fisk University

1
  • Hampton Institute

1
  • West Virginia State

1
  • Ohio State

1
  • Atlanta University

1
  • University of Cincinnati

1
  • Louisville Municipal

1

Subjects: Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Eastern Kentucky

African American Schools in Adair County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Adair County, KY; Kittie Miller was the teacher in Columbia [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There continued to be colored schools according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 30th, 1886 and June 30th, 1887, pp.68 & 123. There are references to the schools in William G. Aaron's thesis History of Education in Adair County, Kentucky. By 1895, there were 13 colored schools, 5 in log buildings, and 8 in frame buildings [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.194-197]. The average attendance was more than 300 students taught by 13 teachers 1895-96, and 14 teachers 1896-97. In 1912, the Columbia Colored School was taught by Parker Jackman; he had been teaching since shortly after the end of the Civil War and was one of the first African American teachers in Adair County and Russell County. There were as many as 14 colored schools in Adair County, but the number decreased to 10 by 1933 [Aaron, p.112]. In 1917, bids were accepted for the building of a colored school in Kelleyville [source: "Notice," Adair County News, 07/25/1917, p.4]. In 1920, bids were accepted for the building of the Elroy Colored School in District G, Division 2 [source: "To Contractors," Adair County News, 01/28/1920, p.4]. In 1921, the colored teachers earned between $65-$75 per month, and in 1931, they earned between $44-$56 per month [Aaron, p.86]. Attendance ranged from 384 students in 1901 to 161 students in 1931 [Aaron, p.89]. The Columbia County High School for colored students opened in 1925; the school was funded by the County Board of Education and cost $3,800 [Aaron, p.107]. There was also the Rosenwald School built on Taylor Street and named Jackman High in honor of Parker Jackman. There were 10 high school students for the 1931-32 term. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Adair County were R. L. Dowery, Arena Duvall, Mares Grider, Sottie Harris, Pabla Hughes, Viven Johnson, Bessie Lasley, Mollie Lasley, Stephen Samuel, Nina Mae Vaughan, Ida White, Paralee White, and Ora Lee Willis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Integration of the schools in Adair County occured in 1956 after parents of Negro studens filed a lawsuit via the NAACP (James A. Crumlin, Sr.), [sources: "Court orders Adair Board to end segregation, Leader, 12/01/1955; and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.41].

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Columbia School
  • Jackman High School
  • Kelleyville School
  • Elroy School
  • Knifley #2 School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]
  • Montpelier School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]
  • Pellyton #2 School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.839]

  See photo image of Columbia School c.1926 on p.73 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1923 by The Kentucky Heritage Council.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Adair County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Allen County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1962
As early as 1874, there were five colored school districts in Allen County, KY, and two of them had schools that were in operation when the common school report was published in 1876 [source: Legislative Document No. 2: Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of the State of Kentucky for the fiscal years ending Oct. 10, 1874, and October 10, 1875, pp. 173-172]. Jesse M. Hudson was a school teacher in Scottsville, KY, (according to the list on p. 30 of the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916). There were at least five colored school teachers in Allen County, KY, in 1919, when the County Illiteracy Agent, Elizabeth Baker, secured their pledge for a Moonlight School [source: Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, Allen County, KY]. The colored Moonlight School was held at the Zion School in Scottsville. There was also a county colored school in Maynard, it was a Rosenwald School built next to the Caney Fork Baptist Church around 1922. The school was closed in 1933 when the Allen County colored schools were merged with the colored city school in Scottsville. A photo of the Maynard School and additional history is available at the Flickr site by Kenny Browning. The teachers mentioned at the Flickr site are Garnett Holder, Jessie Hudson, Clara Whitney, Sarah Hughes, and Nintha Shipley Ponds. Other Scottsville school teachers mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal are Miss Lottie M. Hughes, Miss Lucy V. Lee, and Mrs. Chlora B. Whitney (all in the April 18-21, 1923 issue). The Negro teachers in Allen County listed in the 1940 U.S. Federal Census were Nintha Ponds, principal of the Maynard School, and Geannie P. Smith at the Scottsville School. The Scottsville Independent schools were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Zion School
  • Maynard School
  • Moonlight School
  • Scottsville School 

See a photo of the Maynard Colored School, a Flickr site by Kenny Browning.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Allen County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Anderson County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
There were colored schools in Anderson County, KY prior to the year 1900 and the exact date of the first colored school is not known. In 1880, 21 year old John Trunt(sp) was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as a school teacher who lived in the East District of Lawrenceburg, but there is no indication as to where the school was located. Trunt(sp) was a boarder with the John Penny family. {Trunt may not be the correct spelling of the last name, it is difficult to read the handwriting of the census taker}. There were still colored schools in Anderson County in 1895, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...for the two years beginning July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, there were five districts, each with one school that was taught five months per year. Three of the school buildings were frame structures, and the other two schools were taught in churches or other buildings. The colored schools were under the county system. There were six teachers and an average of 113 students attending school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were still five districts with five schools and six teachers [source: Biennial Report...beginning July 1, 1899 and ending June 30,1901]. One of the schools was taught more than five months. In 1901, there were four school buildings, one made of log and three frame structures, and the fifth school was taught in a church, or rented building, or in the teacher's home. The average attendance was 169 students for the school year 1899-1900, and the teachers earned an average of $46.61 per month. There was an average attendance of 135 students from 1900-1901, and the teachers earned an average of $41.55 per month. For both years, the Negro teachers earned more than the white teachers. There was one student from Anderson County who graduated from the State Normal School for Colored Persons for the scholastic year 1900 and 1901 [now Kentucky State University]. In 1916, there were two teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916: Mary W. Coleman [known as Mrs. Wally], p.26; and J. C. Diggs, p.27. By 1926, Raymond I. Pleasant had replaced J. C. Diggs and the Lawrenceburg Colored School was located in the Grove, it was Pleasant's first teaching job and he would become principal of the school. His wife, Catherine Utterback Pleasant taught at the Georgetown School in Anderson County, the school was in the African American community of Georgetown located off Lock Road in the area known today as the Georgetown School Road. Catherine and Raymond Pleasant are listed in the History and Families, Anderson County, Kentucky, by Turner Publishing, p.139. By 1935, William Coleman was a teacher and would become principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, v.6, no.1, p.52]. Prior to his arrival, Raymond I. Pleasant and Mary Coleman had added an unaccredited 2 year high school to the Lawrenceburg Colored School and there were 3 students [sources: Turner Pub., p.136; and KNEA Journal, Feb. 1931, v.1, no.3, p.11, and v.2, no.1, p.24]. William and Mary Coleman continued the unaccredited high school department, though in 1936, the school was still referred to as a city elementary school [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1936, p.40]. Mrs. Lorelia C. Spencer was a teacher at the school in 1938 and she was principal of the high school department [source: KNEA Journal, v.9, no.1-2, p.52, and v.9, no.3, p.14]. According to historian Gary Brown, it was also in 1938 when the Lawrenceburg Colored School in the Grove burnt down and the new school was built on Lincoln Street. W. M. Thomas was a teacher at the school, and he left in 1939 to become principal of the Knob City High School in Russellville, KY [source: KNEA Journal, Jan.-Feb 1940, v.10, no.2, p.34]. L. L. Owens was principal of the Lawrenceburg Colored School in 1940 [source: KNEA Journal, October-November 1940, v.11, no.1, p.32]. Mrs. C. B. Daily was principal in 1945 [source: KNEA Journal, April-May 1945, v.16, no.2-3, p.29]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Anderson County were William Coleman, Catherine Pleasant, and L. L. Owens [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, William M. Coleman was principal of the junior high grades of the Lawrenceburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, March 1949, p.19]. The Anderson County colored schools were consolidated around 1950 and students from the county were bused to the Lawrenceburg Colored School on Lincoln Street. William M. Coleman would again be named principal of the school. There was never an accredited high school for Negro children in Anderson County and the unaccredited high school department at the Lawrenceburg Colored School were dropped in 1945. According to Lawrenceburg resident Ethel Thurman and historian Gary Brown, Anderson County paid for Negro high school students in Lawrenceburg to be bused to Lincoln Institute in Shelby County and to Simmons High School in Versailles, and there were a few students bused to the old Dunbar High School in Lexington. The Anderson County Schools began to integrate in 1963 when Negro high school students were given the option of attending the white high school in Lawrenceburg, or Lincoln Institute, or the high school in Versailles. According to historian Gary Brown, the following year, all other grades were integrated, and Robert Bird was the Superintendent of Schools. For this entry, assistance with geographic locations and names, the names of teachers, and school integration information were also provided by Jane Jones and Cathy L. Green.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Georgetown School
  • Lawrenceburg School (burnt in 1938)
  • Lawrenceburg School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Anderson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ballard County, KY
Start Year : 1888
End Year : 1962
In 1888, there were eight colored schools in Ballard County, KY, according to author William H. Baldree in his thesis, History of Education in Ballard County, p. 41. The schools were said to be in poor condition. In 1916, R. H. Johnson of Wickliffe was a school teacher in Ballard County [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1923, the teachers were Miss. Pauline Herron of La Center, Mrs. Iola Carruthers of Barlow, Miss Ophelia M. Durrell in La Center, and Miss Sault Reeves of Wickliffe [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.55, 57, 62, & 72]. Mrs. Early Lee Harris, Mrs. Callie Tounley, and Mr. Dave Williams were the school teachers at Kevil in 1927 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 20-23, 1927, pp.47, 61, & 63]. Author Baldree got a more favorable report about the colored schools in 1931 when he interviewed County Superintendent V. W. Wallis. There were six frame school buildings and seven teachers for the 137 children attending the schools [p. 60]. The schools were supported by the state and the Julius Rosenwald Fund. There were no colored high schools in Ballard County in 1931; 12 students were attending high school in another county. The following year, there was a high school, Ballard County High, and Loretta Spencer was hired as the principal. Shortly after Spencer arrived at the school, the building was burnt down. Spencer successfully campaigned for funding to build a new school, and she received assistance from the Slater Fund and from the Parent-Teachers Association. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ballard County were Modena Crice and Tallie Townley [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Ballard Memorial High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.100.

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Wickliffe School
  • Barlow School
  • La Center School
  • Kevil School
  • Ballard County High
  • Central School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Bandana School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Bethel School
  • Lovelaceville School
  • Robinsontown School

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ballard County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Barbourville and Knox County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
As early as 1895, there were 6 colored schools in Knox County, KY, and the schools were in session for 5 months of each year with one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.479-483]. The average attendance was 195 for 1895-96, and 141 for 1896-97. The Barbourville Colored School was taught by Zuetta Minor in 1907 and by Prof. Edward Kirtley in 1908 [source: "Colored School," Mountain Advocate, 12/25/1908, p. 1]. The seven colored schools in Knox County, KY, included the new brick school building in Barbourville, and there were plans to combine two of the school districts [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1905-1907, pp. 135-137]. In 1910, the Barbourville School, considered a county school, had 35 students on the first day of classes; Mary Dee Robinson was the teacher [source: "Colored School Opens," Mountain Advocate, 07/15/1910, p. 3]. The Bertha Colored School held its commencement in January of 1910. Miss Laura Gibson had been the school teacher for two years [source: "Commencement: Colored School of Bertha," Mountain Advocate, 01/14/1910, p. 3]. Gibson lived in Emanuel [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p. 59]. The Barbourville schools had been overseen by a white school board until 1921, when the Board of Council of the City of Barbourville ordained that the white school have a white board of education, and the colored school have a colored board of education [source: "Ordinance," Mountain Advocate, 09/16/1921, p. 4]. In 1940, R. H. Thompson was principal of the Rosenwald High School in Barbourville [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, October-November 1940, p. 32]. The Negro teachers in Knox County in 1940 were Benjamin F. Brown, Grace Etter, Laura Gibson, and Horace J. Neal [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Miss Laura Gibson retired from teaching at Barbourville Independent in 1942 [source: "Honor to whom honor is due," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, November-December 1942, p. 7]. The Barbourville Independent Schools were first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.438.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Barbourville Independent School
  • Barbourville School
  • Bertha School
  • Emanuel School
  • Rosenwald High School
  • Rosenwald Elementary School

  See photo image of teacher and basketball students at Rosenwald Elementary School in 1950 on p. 94 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Knox County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Barren County, KY
Start Year : 1875
End Year : 1957
According to Richard Alsup Palmore's thesis, History of Education of Barren County, Kentucky, p. 109, "In the early history of Negro schools in Barren County it was difficult to maintain the schools. There were no school buildings and practically no funds with which to provide buildings. Salaries for teachers were extremely low and there were no qualified teachers." Palmore got his information from the 1875 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, by R. H. Collins. The school teachers in 1880 were Vina Woods and Hardy O. Jones in Glasgow; and Samuel Nuckols in Roseville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In spite of the poor condition of the schools, there continued to be colored schools in Barren County; they are mentioned in the 1886 superintendent's report. The schools were still in poor condition in 1891; most of the schools were held in churches [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, vol. 2, by Lucas and Wright, p. 108]. From 1892-1918, there were more than 20 colored schools in Barren County, with a high of 27 schools from 1892-1894, and a low of 18 schools in 1918 [Palmore, pp. 110-111]. In 1911, there was also a Colored Moonlight School at Union Hill [see the NKAA entry for Moonlight Schools]. Glasgow Colored School was considered the best colored school in the county; there was a graded school and instruction in high school subjects along with instruction in home economics and manual training [Palmore, p. 116]. A male principal oversaw four female teachers. The Glasgow Colored School had the only high school for Negroes in Barren County. Another school mentioned in Palmore's thesis, on p. 117, is The Ratliff Industrial Institute, an independent secondary school that was supported and managed by the Colored people of Glasgow. The school was established in 1926 and closed around 1931. The Negro teachers in Barren County in 1940 were Clara Anderson, Margaret Anderson, Queva Barlow, Irene I. Brents, Artanzie Britt, Susie Lee Curry, Green V. Curry, Clara C. Farmer, George Mitchell, Mary Lucy Murrell, Richard Sewell, Willa Southers, Luska Twyman, and John Moss Wood [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, were the Caverna Independent Schools, 1957-58, listed on p.615. Below is a list of colored schools in Barren County that includes those schools listed by Sandi Gorin on the Kentucky African Americans Griots website and the schools listed on p. 212 of the Barren County Heritage: a pictorial history of Barren County, Kentucky, compiled by the South Central Kentucky Historical and Genealogical Society, Inc. and edited by C. E. Goode and W. L. Gardner, Jr. For more information about the colored schools, students and teachers of Barren County, see Barren County African-American Schools by Sandi Gorin at the Kentucky African Americans Griots website; the Ralph Bunch Community Center Oral History Project (FA455) at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives: there are ten interviews with African Americans who attended the segregated Ralph Bunche School in Glasgow, Kentucky; and the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.211-215.

  • Moonlight School
  • Glasgow School
  • Ratliff Industrial Institute
  • Bakers School
  • Boyds Creek School
  • Georgetown School
  • Rocky Hill School
  • Hiseville District
  • Jacksonville District
  • Shady Glen District
  • Harlow's Chapel District
  • Walton Academy District
  • Pleasant Oak Ridge District
  • Horse Well (Little Kettle) District
  • Cave City District
  • Glasgow Junction District
  • Gum Springs (Slash) District
  • Buck Creek District
  • Lucas District
  • Statenfield (Buck) District
  • Chestnut Ridge District
  • Poplar Grove (Black Hill) District
  • Paynesville District
  • Pleasant Union District
  • Oak Grove District
  • Boyd's Creek District
  • Queen's Chapel (White's Chapel) District
  • Bristletown District
  • Duke District
  • Beckton District
  • Henrytown District
  • Temple Hill District
  • Baptist Normal School
  • Park City School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Ralph Bunch School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.840]
  • Horse Cave Elementary and High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.419]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Barren County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bath County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Bath County, KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census, Elijah Grigsby was the teacher in Owingsville and Walace Smith was the teacher in Sharpsburg. By 1886, there were eight colored schools in Bath County, KY [source: NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886], and in 1897, there were ten schools, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky...July 1, 1895 and ending June 30, 1897, pp.216-219. All were rural elementary schools under the county school system. The schools were in session for nine months, and there were nine frame school houses and one made of logs. There were 11 school teachers, two of whom were female, and the Owingsville school teacher was M. C. Lasswell. In 1897, the average monthly salary for the female teachers was $32.91, and the wages of the male teachers was an average of $31.84 per month. The average attendance was 152 students in 1897, and four students graduated (from 8th grade). The number of colored schools had declined by 1925, there were six schools with seven teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and the numbers had declined again by the 1936-37 school term when there were four teachers, and there were three teachers during the 1940-41 term. The names of teachers at the Owingsville School can be found in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal for the years 1925-1941. The Negro teachers in Bath County in 1940 were Carrie L. Clemons, Alice Dotson, Everrett Jones, and Anna M. Jones [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following information comes from the Bath County News-Outlook newspaper. The newspaper copies and the research were provided by the Bath County Memorial Library in Owingsville, KY. -- In 1953, there were 32 students enrolled in the Owingsville Colored School, and 75 students at the Bethel and Sharpsburg colored schools [article: "1500 are enrolled in county schools," 09/10/1953, p.1]. Mrs. Nannie M. Powell was the teacher at the Owingsville Colored School as early as 1953, and Mrs. Carie Lee Clemmons and Mrs. Mary F. Williams were the teachers at Sharpsburg Colored School [article: "Owingsville School," 09/03/1953]. Beginning in 1958, Mrs. Clemmons and Frank C. LaPrelle were the teachers at the Sharpsburg Colored School [articles: "Teachers placed," 04/30/1958; "Bath County schools to open Monday, August 29," 08/25/1960; and "County schools start Sept. 7, teacher list is announced," 07/26/1962]. In 1954, it was recommended that contractual arrangements be made for Negro high school students to attend the Negro high schools in adjacent counties or Lincoln Institute in Shelby County [article: "Negro schools," 02/18/1954]. The Owingsville Colored School on Harrisburg Street was the last one-room school house in Bath County, the school had students in grades 1-8 [article: photo caption "One big family," 01/12/1961], the school building was sold to George Harris for $1,555 in 1963 [article: photo caption "'Little Red Schoolhouse' auctioned to high bidder," 10/24/1963]. The Sharpsburg Colored School property was on the south side of Montgomery Street in Sharpsburg, and was to be sold at public auction after the Owingsville Colored School was sold [article: "5 Surplus schools go under auction hammer," 10/10/1963]. -- There was never a high school for Negro students in Bath County. The schools in Bath County were integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Owingsville School
  • Sharpsburg School
  • Bethel School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bath County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bell County, KY
Start Year : 1892
End Year : 1956
According to journalist C. J. Harte, the first colored school in Middlesboro, KY, was established in 1892 and continued until 1907 [source: Harte, C. J., "Coming home, Lincoln School 100th Anniversary," The Middlesboro Daily News, 2008, front page]. Early on, the school was known as Middlesboro Colored School, and it is mentioned in the 1901 superintendent's report [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1899-June 1901]. This Colored School was replaced by the newly erected Lincoln School in 1907. The Lincoln school continued until 1964 when the Middlesboro school systems were integrated. But long before integration, in 1921, the Middlesboro public schools' system expansion made provisions for a new school for the Negroes [source: History of Bell County Kentucky by H. H. Fuson]. In other parts of the county, in Pineville, John Moore led in the lawsuit against the city, demanding that the Pineville provide for the education of all colored children. The case of the City of Pineville et. al. v. John Moore et. al. was decided in the Court of Appeals of Kentucky in February of 1921. In 1925, there were 7 colored schools in Bell County; 4 teachers in the Middlesboro colored elementary school and 2 in the high school; and 2 teachers in the Pineville colored elementary school and 1 in the high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67-69]. Almost 15 years later, according to author H. H. Fuson, during the 1939-40 school term, there were three colored schools in Bell County, KY. One of the schools was Straight Creek Colored School and the school building was still standing in 1985 [source: "Classifieds Work, Tract No.II," The Daily News, 07/04/1985, p.4]. Straight Creek and the Pineville Independent Schools were the first schools in Bell County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.420]. In 1939, the Pineville Colored School had grades 1-12 with four teachers, 110 students, and Alvantus Gibson was principal. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Bell County were Thelma Baughan, Earl Baughan, Maxine Baughan, Odessa Baughan, Mattie Belle Bryant, Oneil Bernas, John M. Burnside, Maud Colman, Alvantus Gibson, Hattie Hazely, M. C. McKenney, Evelyn Miller, Kayla Miller, Helen Michael, Frank Smith, Leddis Smith, and Nina Thompson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1948, there were six high school students in the Roland-Hayes School in Pineville [source: William T. Gilbert's thesis titled The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky]. According to Gilbert, the school for high school students in Middlesboro was named Lincoln [misnamed as Liberty in source], and the school in Pineville was named Roland-Hayes. The teachers at the Pineville school and the Middlesboro school are mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Lincoln School (Middlesboro, 1907-1964)
  • Middlesboro School (1892-1907)
  • Pineville School
  • Roland-Hayes School (Pineville)
  • Straight Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boone County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
There was at least one school in Boone County in 1880; Melisse Clore was the teacher in Florence, KY according to the U.S. Federal Census. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature passed an act for the benefit of the colored schools in Petersburg, KY, granting that lots 172 and 173 be used for schools for the colored children. The lots had belonged to Samuel Yowell, who died without any heirs in 1872 and the property was taken over by the state. Petersburg is an unincorporated community in Boone County, KY. It is not known if a school house was ever built on the lots. In 1883, the African Americans in Florence, KY, had a picnic benefit for their school [source: Boone County Recorder, 05/30/1883]. In 1894, the Hopewell Baptist Church in Beaverlick was also used as a school [source: Mr. Robert Lett, "Hopewell Baptist Church," former website at the Boone County Public Library]. By 1886, there were 9 colored schools in Boone County with an average attendance of a little over 100 students taught by 8 teachers 1895-96, and 9 teachers 1896-97 [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.222-226]. In 1891, the school superintendent had complained that the schools were poorly financed and there were no school buildings amongst the three districts and the school sessions were held in churches [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, v.2 by G. C. Wright, p.108]. In 1895, there were nine districts and the schools were still being held in church buildings. In 1911, the average salary for the teachers was $42.31 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911, p.48]. Blanche Robinson was a teacher in Boone County in 1935, and Wallace Strader was the principal of Boone County High School, located in Burlington, KY, in 1937 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal - October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.21 and January-February, 1937, pp.14 & 16]. In 1954, there were 11 students in the Burlington Colored School, and there were two students attending Lincoln Institute, their tuition was paid by the school board ["Walton-Verona parents vote integration now," Louisville Courier Journal 07/09/1954 - online at nkyviews.com]. There was also a colored school in Idlewild. Most of the schools in Boone County were listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.420.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Boone County High School
  • Burlington School
  • Idlewild School
  • Hopewell Baptist Church School
  • Florence School
  • Beaver Lick School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Walton School

See photo image of colored school near Idlewild at the Northern Kentucky Views website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boone County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boyd County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the earliest schools for African Americans in Boyd County was the American Missionary Association School, which was supported by the U. S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The school was established between 1866-1870. The Catlettsburg Colored Common School District was established by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873 [source: Common School Laws of Kentucky: 1922 by the Kentucky Department of Education]. The colored school in Ashland was established in 1874. According to W. B. Jackson in his thesis, the colored school districts were established in 1874; there were no school houses, yet school classes were held for two months at an unspecified location in Catlettsburg and in Ashland [source: The History of Education in Boyd County, by W. B. Jackson, pp. 56-60 & 128-133]. The following comes from W. B. Jackson's thesis: In 1877, there were 99 students in the two colored schools with an average attendance of 100%. There were two male teachers who earned $18.63 per month. The school records for the Ashland colored school start with the year 1881 when the school classes were held in the Methodist Church on Central Avenue. The school was supported by donations from the African American community. The teacher's salary had increased to $20-$25 per month. There were three African American trustees who were appointed by the County Commissioner of Education. Both the Catlettsburg and Ashland colored schools operated independently until about 1894 when the schools came under the City Board of Education. William Reynolds was the school principal at Ashland, and there was one teacher. The school classes were held in a rented building at the corner of Fourteenth Street and Winchester Avenue. A school building was later built at Nineteenth Street and Greenup Avenue. In 1903, a new brick building, Booker T. Washington School, was constructed in Ashland at Seventh Street and Central Avenue, with J. J. Rogers as principal. The teacher was Effie Carter, who was joined by a second teacher. The Booker T. Washington School and the Catlettsburg School had grades 1-8. The two school districts were merged in 1912 when the Acts of 1912 by the Kentucky Legislature established the act to repeal the act that had established the Colored Common School District in Catlettsburg. The district was dissolved, but the school continued. In 1922, Principal Rogers, at Booker T. Washington School, was replaced by C. B. Nuchols, who had been a teacher at the Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes. Nuchols added an industrial department to the Booker T. Washington School, along with a two year high school. In order to accommodate the new courses, two additional rooms were added to the Booker T. Washington School in 1923, and two more teachers were hired. The first high school graduation was held in 1925. Catlettsburg students in the 8th grade could go on to high school at Ashland at a cost of $30 per semester. In 1927, a teacher/football coach/voice teacher was hired at the Booker T. Washington School. In 1931, the two year high school became a four year high school, one of the 16 approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky [see NKAA entry High Schools, Eastern Kentucky, 1948]. There were 179 students at the Booker T. Washington School in 1932, and 28 of the students were in high school. The school staff members were C. B. Nuchols, principal; J. H. Cooper, teacher and coach; Emma B. Horton, teacher; Georgia B. Richmond, teacher; R. W. Ross, teacher; and Sue M. Thomas, teacher and home economics instructor. In 1932, a modern school building was constructed in Catlettsburg on the east side of the city. There were 18 students the first year. Mrs. Daisy Keeton was the teacher, and she was succeeded by Willa Lee Preston. [See also the NKAA entry Catlettsburg Colored Common School District.] The Negro teachers in Boyd County in 1940 were Decora Asher, John D. Cooper, Helen L. Daniels, Robert W. Ross, Sue Thomas, and Alice Thomas [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421, were Ashland Independent Schools at Bayless, Crabbe, Means, Wylie, Ashland Sr. High, and Holy Family. The Boyd County schools were fully integrated in 1962.

  • American Missionary School supported by the Bureau
  • Catlettsburg School
  • Methodist Church School
  • Ashland School
  • Booker T. Washington School
     

     See photo image of Booker T. Washington school and additional information on p. 104 in Images of America: Ashland, by J. Powers and T. Baldridge.


     See Kentucky Historical Marker for Ashland Booker T. Washington School, a Waymarking.com website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Boyle County, KY
Start Year : 1837
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least four colored schools in Boyle County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. According to William F. Russell's thesis, The History of Education of Boyle County, pp. 217-221, Willis Russell taught the first colored school in Danville, located in a frame house on Green Street (around 1837); a second school on Green Street was taught by Gib Doram. There were also schools taught at the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Baptist Churches. There was also a private school that cost $2.00 per month. The colored schools in Boyle County were counted in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In 1881, John W. Bate came to Danville and took over teaching at what had been the Danville Freedmen School [source: Russell thesis, pp. 218 & 228]. The school house was described as a "barn-like frame structure" that was replaced by a brick school building in 1912. The school was under the county school system until 1892 when it was placed under the newly established city school system; all other colored schools remained under the county system. During the 1920s, the Danville Colored School had over 400 students in grades 1-12 taught by 12 teachers, four of whom taught the high school classes [source: Russell thesis, pp. 219-221]. High school students were bused to the school from Lancaster and Stanford, KY. In the county school system, from 1880-1881, there were seven colored schools reported by the county commissioner of schools [source: Russell thesis, pp. 208-210, & 227]. Four of the teachers were Martha Tadlock, Robert Turner, Lizzie Green, and James Hughes [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. The schools had one room with one teacher. More county schools opened after 1881 and there were 12 in 1895, with 11 schools taught for five months and 1 school taught for more than five months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.236-239]. One school was held in a log building and the others were held in frame buildings. There were 15 teachers 1895-96, and 16 teachers 1896-97. The highest average attendance for the two year period was 633 sudents in 1895. In 1900, the highest average attendance for all schools in Boyle County was 1,009 students [source: Russell thesis]. By 1925, the high school had been renamed Bate High School, it was a Class 1 school, and J. W. Bate was the principal and one of the four high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.39 & 69]. By 1928 many of the elementary schools had been discontinued and there were only six in the county and one in Danville. Another school that had been established in 1885, for colored deaf children, was within the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb, located in Danville [see NKAA entry Early Schools for Negro Deaf and Blind Children]. The colored school for the deaf was actually a department, it opened on February 2, 1885, with eight pupils, Morris T. Long as teacher and supervisor, and his wife, Nannie R. Long was the matron [source: Russell thesis, pp. 149-155]. In 1929, the instructors were Mrs. Mary Fosdick and A. D. Martin. Between 1885 and 1929, there were never more than 16 students in the *colored department. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Boyle County were Margaret Andrews, Lucill Bennifield, Lillian Caldwill, Sophia Craig, Lala M. Dele, Gerogia Dannaher, Malinda Doneghy, Horase Epperson, John Fisher, Florence Ingram, Maggie E. Jones, Susie Lich, Ella M. Marshall, Eliza Mitchell, Elizabeth Parr, Jesse Raach, Sanford Raach, Frances Richardson, Zula Sanders, Gertrude Sledd, Sara Sutka, and Earnest Wofford [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421, were Danville High School and The Kentucky School for the Deaf. The Danville schools were fully integrated in 1964.

  • Danville Freedmen School
  • Bate School
  • Danville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Parksville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Shelby City Freedmen School
  • Danville School #1 on Green Street (Willis Russell)
  • Danville School #2 on Green Street
  • Methodist Church School
  • Presbyterian Church School
  • Baptist Church School
  • Stony Point School
  • Wilsonville School
  • Perryville School
  • Zion Hill School
  • Atoka School
  • Junction City School
  • Colored Department of the Kentucky Asylum for the Tuition of the Deaf and Dumb

*See the Biennial Reports of the Kentucky Institute for Deaf Mutes, 1887-1903 for more information about the Colored Department.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Deaf and Hearing Impaired, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Boyle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bracken County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866, there was one colored school in Bracken County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. This was probably the American Missionary Association School in Augusta that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1880, Zebedee Frazier was a school teacher in Brooksville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1912-13 school term, there were 73 Colored children enrolled in school in Bracken County [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p.110]. Mrs. Nettie H. Grant was the school teacher at the Augusta School in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.60]. High school students were bused to the high school in Maysville, KY, and their tuition was paid by the Augusta Board of Education. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Bracken County was Anna L. Hinton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Two schools in Bracken County were noted as integrated in the Kenucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.421: Bracken County High and Germantown School.

  • American Missionary Association School in Augusta, supported by the Bureau
  • Augusta School
  • Brooksville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bracken County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Breathitt County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
In 1886, there were two colored schools in Breathitt County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1907, there was one colored school with 100 children, the school was located in Jackson [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. According to McClure's Magazine, October 1922, v.54, no.8, p.17, the Breathitt County inter-racial committee secured three acres of land and built a school for the Negroes of Jackson. During the 1930-31 school term, the colored school had an enrollment of 27 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.51]. There is also mention of the colored school in Jackson on pp.6-7 in the report titled "Education - Jackson City Schools," a WPA document written sometime around the 1938-39 school term [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Breathitt County Education]. The school was a two classroom room frame building that was in bad condition, the school building was old, it was located on the west slope side of Yo Hill. One room was sometimes used as a gymnasium and was fitted for basketball. There were also two small dressing rooms and a small room that had been used as a kitchen, workshop, library and store room. The school had grades 1-8 taught by Mrs. Katheryn Gatewood. Outside the school was a playground of hard packed red clay about 50 x 50 feet. There were also two outside toilets, one for the boys and one for the girls. In a 1940 letter from the Breathitt County Board of Education, written to the Kentucky Writer's Project, it was reported that that there were 49 Negro children in the city and 7 in the county [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Breathitt County Education, Letter from Marie R. Turner, County Superintendent, Breathitt County Board of Education, pp.1-2]. The county school system did not have a colored school, but rather paid tuition to the city school board for the county students who attended the Jackson colored school. According to the title Breathitt County by S. D. Bowling, p.54, the elementary Rosenwald School in Jackson was located on Hurst Lane. The Rosenwald School probably replaced the former school because there continued to be only one colored school in Jackson. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Breathitt County was Katheryn Gatewood [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Breathitt County. The Breathitt County Schools are noted as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.402.

  • Colored School
  • Jackson School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Breathitt County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Breckinridge County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least two Freemen Schools in Breckinridge County, one in Cloverport and one in Hardinsburg [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1867, a Colored School in Breckinridge County was burned on December 24 [source: Index to Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the United States, 1871, p.49]. In 1880, Stark Bradford was the school teacher in Hardinsburg; W. H. Talbot was the teacher in Bewleyville; and Ada Willis was the teacher in Stephensport [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1895-97, there were 14 colored schools in Breckinridge County and all were in session for 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.248-252]. The average attendance was 339 students for both school terms, and they were taught by 16 teachers. By 1907 there were eleven colored schools reported by the school superintendent, Joel H. Pile [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, p.99]. Included in the list below are the county schools that existed in 1909 and 1910 [source: "County Board of Education," The Breckinridge News, 01/27/1909, p.3; and "Governor Willson...," The Breckinridge News, 03/02/1910, p.5]. The Class 3 colored high school was located in Hardinsburg in 1925, W. C. Jackson was principal, and the school had 1 teacher and 10 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-26, p.40]. In 1933, Breckinridge County student Nora A. Poole came in 10th place at the spelling contest directed by G. H. Brown of Louisville during the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Conference [source: "Fifth General Session," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1933, vol.4, issue 1, pp.8-9]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Breckinridge County were Hazel Beard in Hardinsburg, and Chester Luney, Jens E. Miller, and Orlie Scoth in Irvington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as "integrated and white" in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.422, were Breckinridge County High School and Irvington School.

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Stephensport School
  • Bewleyville School
  • Cloverport School
  • Cloverport Freedmen School
  • Colored Graded School (city)
  • Colored Normal School
  • Garfield School
  • Gleandeane School
  • Hardinsburg Freedmen School
  • Hardinsburg School
  • Irvington School
  • McQuady School
  • Robards School

Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Breckinridge County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Bullitt County, KY
Start Year : 1827
End Year : 1956
According to author Daniel Buxton*, in his article, "African American Education in Bullitt County," schools for African Americans were attempted as early as 1827. Other early schools in Bullitt County were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, from 1866-1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools - Kentucky]. The schools were not welcomed; the teacher at the Shepherdsville Freedmen School was threatened, the Noble School was burnt down in 1867, and the schools held in churches resulted in the churches being burnt down. In spite of the resistance that was encountered, there were still colored schools in Bullitt County, with eight schools in 1880 [source: Ockerman, p. 127], and the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction noted seven colored districts in the county. In 1890, the industrial school, Eckstein Norton University, opened in Cane Springs. The school was founded by William J. Simmons and Charles H. Parrish, Sr. both of whom would become president of the school. Louisville and Nashville Railroad (L&N Railroad) gave $3,000 toward the development of the school, and in return the school was named for Eckstein Norton, a banker and president of the Louisville and Nashville Railroad [source: The History of Education in Bullitt County, by H. N. Ockerman, pp. 76-96]. The school was situated along the Bardstown Branch of the L&N Railroad on 75 acres of land that had been purchased from Austin Speed. L&N Railroad built a station [Lotus, KY] just for the students and school personnel. There were seven buildings on the campus: the main building, a brick structure, and six frame buildings that were used as dormitories, a printing office, a laundry, and a blacksmith shop. There was a primary department, grades 1-5; a training department, grades 6-8; a normal and preparatory department, grades 9-12; and the college department, which offered a Bachelor of Arts degree and a Bachelor of Sciences degree. In 1911, Eckstein Norton University merged with Lincoln Institute, and the Eckstein Norton campus was closed in 1912. The school had awarded 189 bachelor's degrees. During the 12 years that Eckstein Norton existed, there were still seven colored public schools in Bullitt County, including the Copera Hollow School mentioned in the article by Daniel Buxton. After the closing of Eckstein Norton, the Bullitt County Board of Education established a contract with Lincoln Institute for the education of high school students. According to Buxton, the number of county public colored schools was six by 1905, reduced to four schools by 1910. According to Ockerman [p. 127], three colored school districts were eliminated in 1913. Another school opened around 1922: Central Christian Institute, owned by the Christian Woman's Board of Missions of the Disciples of Christ United Missionary Society; that school closed in 1927. It had been one of the five schools in Bullitt County for African Americans, along with Shepherdsville Colored School, Lebanon Junction Colored School, Mt. Washington Colored School, and Bowman Valley Colored School, which opened around 1916. All of the public colored schools were taught by African American women teachers; in 1908 their average monthly salary was $26.14 [source: Ockerman, p. 115]. Many of the county public schools were consolidated beginning in 1922, and in 1932 Bowman Valley Colored School became the only school for African American children. The school building was located between Shepherdsville and Bardstown Junction. In 1940, Henry Owens was listed as the Negro school teacher in Bullitt County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1947, the teachers were Miss Maggie Owens and Miss Mattie Owens [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, (March-April, 1947), p. 27]. The schools of Bullitt County began to integrate in 1956 with Lebanon Junction, Mount Washington, St. Aloysius, and St. Benedict [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.422.

  • Shepherdsville Freedmen School [teacher threatened]
  • Noble School supported by the Bureau [burnt down in 1867]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [church was burnt down]
  • Church School supported by the Bureau [2nd church burnt down]
  • Colored School Districts (8)
  • Eckstein Norton University (1890-1912)
  • Copera Hollow School
  • Shepherdsville School
  • Lebanon Junction School
  • Mt. Washington School
  • Bowman Valley School
  • Central Christian Institute (c.1922-1927)

   See the photo images of schools and students at the Bullitt County History website.

*Note: The article "African American Education in Bullitt County" by Daniel Buxton is a well researched article that includes the names of teachers at the various schools, photo images, and a list of references, all available online at the Bullitt County History website.

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bullitt County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Butler County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1886, there were seven colored schools in Butler County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1896, Ulysses S. Porter was a school teacher in one of the schools [source: Fascinating story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan, p.441]. W. M. Johnson was the school teacher in Morgantown in 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.31]. In 1925, there were three colored schools in Butler County, each with one teacher, and there was a total of 94 students at the three schools. [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67-69]. All of the colored schools were elementary schools under the county school board, and in 1927, a fourth school was opened [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.63]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Butler County; tuition was paid for students to attended the colored high school of their choice, which included the High Street High School in Bowling Green, and at least one student, Theresa Crabtree Bell, attended St. Joseph High School (Catholic) in Bowling Green [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]. In 1929, Ada M. Porter was the teacher at the Morgantown Colored School, and in 1937, she was the principal of the school [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 17-20, 1929, p.52, and October-November 1937, p.55]. In 1940, Ada Porter was listed in the U.S. Federal Census as the only Negro teacher in Butler County, though there was also a teacher at the Sugar Grove School that was in operation in 1940. All of the Butler County schools are listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, pp.844-845.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Morgantown School (closed 1960)
  • Sugar Grove School (closed 1951)
  • Rochester School (school closed in 1939, building sold in 1940) [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]
  • Woodbury School (school closed prior to 1938) [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]
  • Boston School (may have never opened) [source: African-American Life in Butler County, Kentucky by R. G. Givens, p.70-71]

 

  See photo image of students and school in Sugar Grove, KY at the Old Family Photo Album website by Wm. R. Jones.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Butler County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Caldwell County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1962
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a freedmen school in Princeton, KY [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen School]. There are several photo images of colored schools in Caldwell County, taken during the 1880s-1890s. The images are within the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives, and includes the schools in Chapel Hill, Freedonia, Princeton, and Walnut Grove. Ella O'Hara was the school teacher at the Princeton Colored School in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 13 colored schools in Caldwell County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.262-266]. There were 16 teachers and an average attendance of more than 650 students. The teachers' average monthly wages were $42.24 for 1895-96, and $34.72 for 1896-97. The colored school in Princeton was one of the few in Kentucky to have a Colored superintendent in 1925 [see NKAA entry Colored Superintendents]. During the school term, there were four colored schools in the county, with five teachers and 547 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67 & 69]. There were also four elementary schools in Princeton, and Princeton High School, all with a total of 264 students. The high school was later named Dotson High School. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Randall Acton, William Cridder, Henry Crow, Willie Crutchfield, Lula Mae Grinter, Lula Hampton, Annie Scott King, and Joanita McNary, all at Princeton; and Ollie Barber at Freedonia. The St. Paul School in Princeton is listed in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63 as the first school in Caldwell County to become integrated. The public high schools started to integrate in 1963 [source: Patricia George interview in the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society website].

  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Freedmen School supported by the Bureau
  • Princeton School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives] / later Dotson School
  • Chapel Hill School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Freedonia School (1926-1948, image at westernkyhistory.org website]
  • Walnut Grove School [image in KDLA Electronic Records Archives]
  • Dotson School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.845]

See photo image of Caldwell County colored school and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
See 2nd photo image of Chapel Hill School and students - KDLA Electronic Records Archives
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Caldwell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Calloway County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
In 1886, there were eight colored school districts in Calloway County, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, school year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.125. In 1895, there were 6 colored schools and in 1896, there were 7 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.267-271]. The schools were in session 5 months of each year. Two of the schools were held in log buildings and the remainder were held in frame structures. The average attendance was 169 students taught by 7 teachers 1895-96, and 195 students taught by 8 teachers 1896-97. The colored schools are also mentioned in Waylan F. Rayburn's thesis History of Education in Calloway County, Kentucky. On p.49 of Rayburn's thesis, there is a breakdown by year, 1892-1917, the value of the school houses and grounds, and the furniture and apparatuses. In 1925, there were three colored schools in the county and one in the city, each school had one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. The Negro teachers in 1940 were Ruth Keys, Ione Finsley, Madge Green, Elizabeth King, Jessee McGeehee Jr., Sarah Sleet, and Fanny Willis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1941, there were two colored schools in the county, still with one teacher at each school, and in Murray, there was a graded school and a high school [source Rayburn, p.60]. In 1946, the three colored schools are identified as Buffalo Graded School, Murray Graded School, and Douglass High School [source: "Schools in Calloway County (Graded and High Schools)" a one page unpublished document in the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 4, File: Calloway County Education]. During the 1956-57 school term, the Almo High School and the Murray High Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.422-423].

  • Colored schools (8)
  • Buffalo School
  • Murray School
  • Douglass School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Calloway County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Campbell County, KY
Start Year : 1873
End Year : 1955
Within Mary Lee Caldwell's thesis, History of Education of Campbell County, KY, p.44, it was stated that all African Americans in Campbell County lived in Newport, which was not entirely true. African Americans also lived in Ft. Thomas, Alexandria, and Dayton. The African American children from these communities attended the colored school in Newport. The school was established around 1873 and Elizabeth Hudson was the teacher [source: History of the Public Schools of Newport, Kentucky by James L. Cobb]. The school was located in a cottage near Saratoga Street and Washington Avenue. In 1880, the colored teachers in Campbell County were Emma Dyonne in Highland; and Annie Henderson, Lulu Henderson, and Minnie Mosby in Newport [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Campell County was one of the few counties to not have any data for the colored schools in the commmon school report statistics within the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.272-275. There continued to be very little or no statistical data in each of the biennial reports for the colored schools into the early 1900s, though there was one or more colored schools in Campbell County, KY in the late 1800s and early 1900s. In 1916, the teachers were Emma J. Blanton, W. S. Blanton, A. J. Cox, and L. A. Ellis [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25-27 & 39]. In 1936 the school was placed under the independent graded districts [source: Caldwell, p.45], by which time the school had been moved to Southgate Street, and the school was named Southgate Colored School. In 1941, there were 131 students taught by four teachers for grades 2-8, and first grade was taught at Corinthian Baptist Church in Newport. There was also a three-year high school from 1901- 1920, and it was taught by one teacher. After 1920, the Newport Board of Education provided the high school students with transportation and tuition to William Grant Colored High School in Covington, KY. The Southgate School was closed in 1955 when the Campbell County Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.206.

  • Newport School
  • Highland School
  • Southgate School
  • Corinthian Baptist Church School
  • Southgate High School (1901-1920)

See photo image of the Southgate school [near bottom of page] at Nothern Kentucky Views website.

See photo image of students and additional information about Southgate School at rootsweb. 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Campbell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carlisle County, KY
Start Year : 1899
End Year : 1962
In 1899, there were three colored school districts in Carlisle County, KY, and one was located in Bardwell [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1, 1899-June 30, 1901]. The teachers earned an average of $33 per month in 1900, and there were 66 students attending the three schools in 1901. There were still three colored elementary schools in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. There continued to be three colored schools for several decades until the Negro population in Carlisle County began to decrease, and in 1955, there was one colored school with 15 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.206]. There was not a high school for Negro students in Carlisle County. In 1961, Mrs. Harriett W. Crawford was the teacher at the Negro school in Bardwell, the school had grades 1-8 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.846]. The following school year, the Bardwell schools and the Carlisle County High School were integrated [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.107]. See photo image of Bardwell Colored School on p.5 of The Carlisle Weekly, 09/02/2003.

  • Colored Schools (3)
  • Bardwell School 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carlisle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carroll County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
When R. W. Bevarly was completing his master's thesis in 1936, articles about the colored schools of Carroll County in 1879 were located in the Carrollton Democrat newspaper; the colored school at Liberty Station was attended by children in the day and by adults at night; in Carrollton, Maggie Woods was the teacher [source: History of Education in Carroll County by R. W. Bevarly, p.66]. There were three schools in 1880, the teachers were Ady Pack in Ghent, and Maggie Woods in Carrollton and Prestonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1881 there were 226 students in the four colored schools [source: Bevarly, p.50]. In 1882 there were 268 students in the schools located in Carrollton, Ghent, Above Ghent, and Liberty Station [source: Bevarly, p.51]. There were five colored school districts in 1885: No.1 Carrollton, No.2. Ghent, No.3 Lynan Craigs, No.4 Sanders, and No.5 Worthville [source: Bevarly, p.30]. All of the schools were under the county school board with the largest colored school in Carrollton and James K. Polk was the teacher. Polk was a graduate of Gaines High School in Cincinnati, OH [source: Bevarly, p.66]. He taught at the colored school for one year and was replaced by J. E. Jackson, and in 1889 Jackson was replaced by Fred W. Burch, also a graduate of Gaines High School. There continued to be five colored schools in Carroll County until 1900 when there was six, and by 1933, there were two [source: Bevarly, p.94]. Dunbar Colored School, in Carrollton, was a brick building and was under the city school board, Bessie Whitacker was the teacher and had a monthly salary of $69, while her husband Dudley Whitacker had a salary of $75 for teaching at the Ghent Colored School that was held in a rented building that was in poor condition [source: Bevarly, p.94]. After WWII, a new colored school building was constructed in Ghent and it served as the county school for all African American children. There was never a colored high school in Carroll County, and the city and the county provided transportation for high school students attending Lincoln Institute [source: A History of Carroll County, Kentucky: containing facts before and after 1754 by M. A. Gentry, p.53]. The school systems of Carroll County began to integrate in the 1960s, starting with the first grade students [source: "Schools due to integrate at Carrollton," Louisville Courier-Journal, 04/22/1961]. The schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, were the Carrollton Elementary and High School on p.846.

  • Carrollton School
  • Prestonville School
  • Dunbar School
  • Ghent School
  • Above Gent School
  • Lynan Craigs School
  • Sanders School
  • Worthville School
  • Liberty Station School

See photo image of Dunbar Colored School, Hawkins and Ninth Street, at the Carrollton Schools website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Carroll County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Carter County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1956
For many decades there was only one colored school in Carter County, KY, beginning as early as 1874 when the Grayson colored school was mentioned in volume 1 of History of Kentucky by L. Collins and R. Collins. In 1886, the colored school was included in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.166. There was not a school building; the school was held in a church and had an average attendance of 20 students. The school still existed in 1891 and was still held in a church, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, four scholastic years ended June 30, 1891, p.166 [online at Google Books]. In 1906, there were two colored schools, and by 1908, the two colored school districts (two schools) had been consolidated [source: History of Education in Carter County by D. W. Qualls pp.65 & 85]. Between 1890 and 1930, the student enrollment fluctuated from a high of 35 to a low of 16 [source: History of Education in Carter County, pp.94-95]. The school teacher did not have a college education, but was state certified for the years 1916-1919. The students were in grades 1-7; there was not a colored high school in Carter County. W. R. Calloway was the teacher at the Grayson Colored School until 1922 [source: "Grayson," The Bourbon News, 07/21/1922, p.7]. With the continued decrease in the number of colored school children, Qualls stated in his thesis that there would soon be no need for a colored school in Carter Count; however, there continued to be one colored school listed for Carter County in the Kentucky Public School Directory from 1925-1949. The first school to be listed as "integrated & white" was the Prichard School in Grayson [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.424]. The Gregoryville School is listed in the 1961-62 directory as a Negro school on Rt. 1 in Grahn.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Grayson School
  • Gregoryville School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.847]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grayson, Carter County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Casey County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1958
In 1880 there were four colored school districts in Casey County, KY, with two schools and 190 students on the enrollment list [source: History of Education in Casey County, Kentucky, Lloyd Bryant Cox, p.111]. In 1885, there were five colored schools [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1896, pp.295-298]. The average attendance was 80 students 1895-96, and 113 students 1896-97. In 1890, there were still five colored schools, each with one teacher, and there were 94 students on the enrollment list. There were six schools during the 1901 and 1902 school terms [source: Cox, p.112]. By 1914, there were two schools, one in Liberty and one in Indian Creek, and by 1931, there was an average attendance of 23 students for both schools [source: Cox, p.113-114]. High school students from Casey County went to the colored high school in Stanford, KY. In 1936, there was one colored school in the county [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1936-37, p.41]. Beginning in 1957, there were no colored schools listed for Casey County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.620. The following year, the Liberty Independent Schools were first to be listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.996].

 

 

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Liberty School
  • Indian Creek School

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Casey County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Christian County, KY
Start Year : 1845
End Year : 1952
Between 1845 and 1856, 40 school districts were sketched in Christian County, KY, by Enoch A. Brown, the County School Commissioner (who was white), according to Claybron W. Merriweather's, "Hopkinsville Colored Schools," pp. 293-295 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham. After the Civil War, the number of districts were increased from 40 to 84 by G. A. Champlin, the new commissioner. Between 1866-1870, there was a Freedmen School in Hopkinsville [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. By 1881 there were 41 colored school districts with 23 schools, most of which were log buildings in poor condition. The Booker T. Washington Colored School was located on 2nd Street in Hopkinsville. In 1884, G. A. Champlin wrote "The Colored Schools," an essay that appeared on p. 252 in Counties of Christian and Trigg, Kentucky. According to Champlin, the first colored common schools in 1875 were located within five school districts, and there were 500 school-age children counted in the colored school census. The schools were a result of the Kentucky Colored School Law, which provided the bare minimum of school funding from taxes and fines collected from colored people. Similar information about the colored schools during the year 1876 was included in Charles J. Petrie's thesis, The History of Education in Christian County, pp.93-98. According to Petrie, the County Commissioner's report showed that there were only two teachers in the colored schools, and prior to 1881, most of the colored schools were not free and the best schools were located in Hopkinsville. The Booker T. Washington School was constructed in 1882, a two story frame structure, and in 1930 a third story was added [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County, Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, p. 11]. By 1889, there were 55 teachers at the colored schools, the male teachers earned an average of $44.76 and the female teachers earned an average of $35.70 [Petrie, p.96]. The leaders of the Christian County Colored Teachers Association in 1891 were Ephraim Poston, president; T. C. Woosley, vice president; Miss Augusta Brewer, secretary; T. S. Gaines, assistant secretary; and P. A. Hamby, treasurer [Petrie, p. 98]. In 1899 there were 54 colored school districts [source: Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/23/1899, p. 5], one of which was Crofton Colored School with teacher George Robinson [source: "Crime of Cain," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/31/1899, p. 1]. In 1890, A. H. Payne was principal of the Colored school in Hopkinsville and there were six teachers [Petrie, pp.135]. The school was considered the best colored school in the county, it operated within the common school system with a nine month term and with a Colored school board. In 1908, the school was placed under the white school board and supported by Negro property taxes [Petrie, p.122]. The school held grades 1-8 in a two-story building on E. Second Street. In 1912, the school was moved back under the county system and two years of high school were added. The trustees were Edward M. Glass, Frank Boyd, and Ned Turner. Julien Colored School was also a county school [source: Dr. Stanley Dean," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 04/17/1906, p. 8]. Teacher Nina Anglin was removed from the Lafayette Colored School in 1906, and she filed suit against the superintendent and the trustees [source: "Circuit court," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 10/25/1906, p. 1]. The Clarksville Colored School was one of three schools to receive an improved chemical fire extinguisher in 1910 [source: "Here and there," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/30/1910, p. 4]. The number of school districts had increased from 52 in 1890 to 54 in 1900, then to 75 in 1910 [Petrie, p. 132]. There was an average attendance of 2,034 students in 1909 [Petrie, p. 134]. Attucks High School was built in 1916 at First and Vine Streets and the school had the first four-year high school for Negroes in Hopkinsville [Petrie, p. 183]. The early principals were L. A. Posey, J. W. Bell, P. Moore, and B. E. Perkins [Kentucky Education Collection (KEC), Series 1, pp. 11-12]. The county school system contracted with the city school board for students to attend Attucks High School [KEC, Series 1, p. 9]. In 1939, the Attucks High School had 227 students, 11 teachers, and 35 students graduated [Petrie, p. 188]. The Male & Female College in Hopkinsville, KY, opened in 1883 [now Hopkinsville College of the Bible]. In 1896 there were 70 colored teachers in the county schools [source: "Colored institute this week," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 08/18/1896, p. 1]. During the 1911 election of colored trustees, Peter Postell and Lucian Dade were re-elected, and George Leavell became the newly elected trustee [source: "The Colored election," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 05/09/1911, p. 8]. In 1909, a colored graded school and high school were opened in Pembroke, and the school served as a training school for teachers up to 1924 [Petrie, p. 122]. In 1914, the legality of the staff election for the Pembroke Colored School was called into question, and the finding was in favor of the school [source: 2nd paragraph of "Railroad case begun," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 06/06/1914, p. 1]. In 1924, the Pembroke School was moved back to the county administration and the school's two-year high school course continued until 1929. The high school was re-established in 1936 and operated under the independent graded school system with one or two teachers and 20-25 students. At the end of 1911, the colored school house near Sinking Fork was burned by an incendiary [source: "Suspicious fire," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/07/1911, p. 8]. In 1912, Ephraim Poston had almost completed the school census of colored children and found that there were 1,396 students, which was 188 more students than had been incorrectly counted the previous year, all of which meant that the schools would receive about $800 more from the state [sources: "Colored school census," 05/11/1912, p. 5, and "1411 Colored children," 05/18/1912, p. 4, both articles in the Hopkinsville Kentuckian]. It was expressed in Petrie's thesis that the school census for colored children may have been "padded" [p.132]. The Zion Colored School was destroyed by fire in 1916, the fire started by a stranger in town who went by the name of Katherine Denton. She was badly burned and later died from her injuries [source: "Woman died Thursday," Hopkinsville Kentuckian, 12/02/1916, p. 1]. In 1928, there were five male teachers and 51 female teachers in the colored schools, and in 1937, the average attendance was 1,055 students [Petrie, pp. 178 & 180]. The names of other colored schools in Christian County, KY, can be found on pp. 292-293 in A History of Christian County, Kentucky, from Oxcart to Airplane, by C. M. Meacham, who was also editor of the Hopkinsville Kentuckian newspaper. There is also a list of the schools and the names of the head teacher/principal during the 1938-39 school term, all on p.23 of Christian County Education by Mrs. Mamie Hanbery, 11/14/1938, within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 5, File: Christian County. In 1940, there were at least 90 Negro teachers in the schools of Christian County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The names of the schools, including those that held classes in churches, are listed below. A later school, the Fort Campbell Dependent School, was the first school in Christian County to be listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory (1952-53, p.418) as having both white and colored students, though the term "integrated" was not used. The second school to be listed with students of both races was in the 1954-55 directory, the SS. Peter and Paul School, a parochial school in Hopkinsville [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1954-55, p.563]. Both schools are listed as integrated in the 1956-57 directory. All of the schools in Christian County are listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, pp. 101-102.

  • Attucks High School
  • Banneker School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 848]
  • Barkers Mill School
  • Beech Grove School
  • Booker T. Washington School
  • Blue Springs School [photo image, p. 12, Rosenwald Schools]
  • Brent Shop School
  • Canton Heights School
  • Carver School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p. 848]
  • Caskey School
  • Cedar Bluff School
  • Center Point School
  • Chopped Hickory School
  • Clarksville School
  • Crofton School
  • Dyers Chapel School
  • Durretts Avenue School
  • Elmo School
  • Edgefield School
  • Fairview School
  • Forks of Road School
  • Foston's Chapel School
  • Gainesville School
  • Garrettsburg School
  • Gee School
  • Gracey School
  • Hensleytown School
  • Herndon School
  • Hopkinsville Freedmen School
  • Hopkinsville School
  • Julien School
  • Kelly School
  • Kentucky Trade Institute Automotive Mechanics for Colored Men [source: "Announcing the opening of the Kentucky Trade...," Kentucky New Era, 08/24/1949, p. 10]
  • Lafayette School
  • Male & Female College
  • Massies Chapel School
  • Moonlight School
  • McClain's Chapel School
  • Mt. Herman School
  • Mt. Vernon School
  • New Zion School
  • Oak Grove School
  • Pee Dee School
  • Pleasant Green School
  • Pleasant Grove School
  • Pleasant Hill School
  • Pembroke School
  • Reeves Chapel School
  • Salem School
  • Sinking Fork School
  • Spring Hill School
  • Walnut Grove School
  • West Union School
  • White Oak Grove School
  • Zion Hope School

 

See the image of Attucks High School on postcard at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center.

 
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Kentucky African American Churches, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Christian County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clark County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
According to the personal interviews conducted by Fred Allen Engle for his 1928 education thesis, there were some slaves who received an education in Clark County, KY. The slaves were taught by their owners, Judge Charles Stephen French, Mrs. Telitha Clay, Laura Bramlett, Mrs. Josephine Peterson Rogers and Mr. Samuel Rogers, and Philip B. Winn [source: The History of Education of Clark County (thesis) by F. A. Engle, pp. 28-29]. Engle also notes that, in 1866, at the first colored school in Clark County, (located in Winchester), classes were held in a rented building; it was the only colored school in the county for a few years. The teacher was Mrs. Amanda Faulkner [source: Engle, p. 43]. In 1869, the Freedman's Bureau provided funding for a new school building that was constructed on a lot at the corner of Broadway and Wall Streets; the land was secured from money raised by the African American community. The school was built by Kirkpatrick Brothers, a plumbing business [source: Engle,p. 43], and by the time the building was completed, the school teacher, Mrs. Amanda Faulkner, had died of tuberculosis and was replaced by John C. Hubbard. The new school was referred to as a Freedmen School [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The school term was four months and was extended to nine months, and there would later be three African American trustees who oversaw the school: J. T. Taul, Dan Baker, and M. M. Bell [source: Engle, p. 117]. Other city schools included a log school building at the corner of Maple and Washington Streets and a third colored school at No.24 Second Street [source: Engle, pp. 43-44]. In addition to Mrs. Amanda Faulkner and John C. Hubbard, the first colored teachers in Winchester were George Cary, Miss Delilah Culbertson, Miss Malinda Smith, Miss Sue Henry, and James S. Hathaway. School teacher George Cary had replaced John C. Hubbard; Cary was from Canada and was remembered for his brilliance and for greatly increasing the enrollment and attendance at the Freemen School. A disagreement of some sort arose between George Cary and members of the African American community, resulting in the construction of the Washington Street Colored School with Miss Delilah Culbertson as the teacher. Culbertson was later replaced by Miss Melinda Smith, who was replaced by Miss Sue Henry in 1877. George Cary left the Freedman School in 1882 and was replaced by James S. Hathaway and Miss Sue Henry. During this period, colored schools were begun in the county; one of the first was located at Howard's Creek around 1870, a log building later replaced by a frame building [source: Engle, p. 29]. The following quotation comes from the 1884 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, p. 28: "Some of the districts depend on their churches as school-rooms. Immediate wants: School-houses and smaller districts." The report contains a discrepancy as to the number of school-aged children in Clark County [source: 1884 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Colored. Table II. p. XXVII]: 967 children between the ages of six and 20 were reported to the auditors by the assessors for 1885; 1,628 children reported to the superintendent for 1885; there was a difference of 661 children. "Schools were taught in every colored district except one; there the house was not completed in time for school. Teachers were comparatively well-qualified. A majority were educated at Berea College, in the adjoining county." -- [source: Engle, p. 22]. In 1886, 11 colored schools were located in Clark County, KY, according the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. The schools were supported by taxes, subscription fees, and donations [source: Engle, p. 30]. Additional information about the Freedmen School and the names of the teachers and principals can be found on p. 45 of The History of Education of Clark County (thesis), by F. A. Engle. In 1893, there were 15 colored school districts in the county with an average attendance of 575 students, and half the schools were still being taught in churches and other buildings. In the 1880s there was a disagreement: the African American community spoke out about the condition of the city colored schools, which resulted in all of the colored school buildings being closed. According to author F. A Engle (p. 118), in response to the closing of the schools, the African American community opened a new school in an old laundry building at the corner of Washington and Oliver Streets, and Mrs. G. S. Benton, a teacher and Berea College graduate, opened a school in her home on Third Street. Mrs. Benton had been the school principal at the Freedmen School. The interim schools continued until a bond issue was successfully voted into action by the city for a new colored school building on Oliver Street. The Oliver Street Colored School opened in 1892 and closed in 1969. The first principal, Mrs. G. S. Benton, was replaced the following year by J. H. Mingo, a graduate of the Chandler School in Lexington. The teachers were Miss C. N. Willis, Miss Flora Z. Barbee, Miss Willie Woodford, Mrs. Nettie David and Mrs. Julia A. Benton. In 1894, Principal Mingo was replaced by James H. Garvin. Within the Oliver Street School, the students were taught music, cooking, sewing, shoe making, brick laying, and business and literary courses [source: "The Colored School," Winchester News, 10/12/1908, p. 3]. Both Prof. Garvin and his wife, Lillie B. Garvin, were school teachers. Prof. Garvin was principal at the school for 24 years, retiring in 1918 [source: "Education," The Crisis, March 1918, vol. 15, no. 5, p. 215]. Stanley R. "Fess" Williams was a teacher at the school around 1917-18 [source: WWI Draft Regisration Card, 1917-18]. The Oliver Street Colored School contained grades 1-12. Early pictures of the Oliver Street Colored School are on pp. 123-124 of The History of Education of Clark County (thesis), by F. A. Engle. Another school, the Clark County Moonlight Colored School, was first held in 1915; considered one of the four best Moonlight Schools for Negroes in Kentucky, it had an enrollment of 203 students [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. The colored school in Indian Fields was taught by Maggie Kidd in 1919 [source: Day By Day County Illiteracy Agent's Record Book, Fanny Curry - Clark County Agent, 07/01/1919]. In 1924, there was a Rosenwald School in Jouett's Creek; a photograph of the school can be seen on p. 13 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [online .pdf]. In 1928 the Freedmen School building was still standing; it was used as a manual training shop for the city colored school [source: Engle, p. 29]. A picture of the school building is on p. 125 of The History of Education of Clark County(thesis), by F. A. Engle. The Negro teachers in Clark County in 1940 were Howard Allen, Howard Buckner, Juanita Callery, James Callery, Julia Colerane, Elizabethe B. Curry, Jennie Didlick, Lula Diggs, Minnie Downey, Lettie P. Green, Mildred E. Henderson, Lillian Holmes, Katherine K. January, Eshter Laine, Mary Miller, Chalmer Owens, Missouri Quisenberry, Letilla Rannels, James Ray, Mary Robinson, Charles F. Sloan, Fannie Sloan, Vivian Taylor, and Marie Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Oliver Street High School was closed in 1956, and in 1957 the Clark County high schools began to integrate. The remainder of the Oliver Street School continued until 1969.

  • Slaves educated by owners
  • Colored School (1866)
  • Winchester Freedmen School (Broadway and Wall Streets)
  • Maple & Washington Street School
  • Second Street School
  • Howard's Creek School
  • Colored Schools (1884)
  • Washington & Oliver Street School
  • Mrs. G. S. Benton's School
  • Indian Fields School
  • Moonlight School
  • Oliver Street School 
  • Jouett's Creek School (photo image, p. 13, Rosenwald)

 

  See photo images of Oliver High School athletic teams in Winchester, KY, in Explore UK - Images.

 

  See photo images of Negro school in Winchester, KY, in Explore UK - Images

 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clark County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clay County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
In 1886, there were four colored school districts in Clay County, KY [see African American Schools, 1886]. There were five colored schools in 1897; two of the school houses were made of log and three were frame buildings [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.308-311]. There was one teacher at each school, a little more than 200 total students were enrolled in the schools, and about half attended school on a regular basis. By 1901, there were six colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-June 1901, p.198]. In 1923, Mrs. Mattie A. Clarke was the school teacher at the Manchester Colored School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. By 1925, the number of colored schools had been reduced to three schools with five teachers and 129 students, and two years later, there was only the one colored school in Manchester with two teachers and 74 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67, and 1927-1928, p.63]. By 1932, there were three teachers. In 1940, one of the Negro teachers was Margaret Drake [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Unlike many counties, the number of Negro children enrolled in the colored school did not continue to decline in Clay County. During the 1955-56 school term, there were 123 students and four teachers. In 1961, the school had grades 1-8, still with four teachers, and the head teacher/principal was William Croley [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.849]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Clay County, KY. The Clay County High School was integrated during the 1962-63 school term, and the Manchester elementary schools started to integrate during the 1964-65 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, pp.109-108, and 1964-65, p.94].

  • Colored Schools (6)
  • Manchester School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clay County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Clinton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
There was one colored school in Clinton County, KY in 1866, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. Between 1895 and 1897, there were two colored schools in Clinton County, one school was constructed of logs and the other was a frame building [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.312-316]. There was one teacher at each school and the schools were in session for five months. During the 1896-97 school term there was an average attendance of 52 students. During the 1925-1926 school term, there was one school with one teacher and 10 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. The school continued with one teacher and around nine students into the 1950s. There was no high school for Negro children in Clinton County, KY. During the 1956-57 school term the Clinton County Schools were listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, though the colored school was listed until the 1957-58 school term. The Albany Independent School also was integrated during the 1957-58 school year.

  • Colored Schools (2)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Clinton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Crittenden County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
In 1880, 20 year old Belle Clark, and James Johnson were school teachers in Marion, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1890, Lollie Bingham was the school teacher at the Marion Colored School. There were two school districts, and Simpson Colored School was led by Adella Pippin. In 1894, there were eight colored school districts in Crittenden County, Ky; there had been nine districts, but no.9 was merged into no.6. A new school district had been added in southwest Marion in 1894. The school house was to be built on the farm of A. H. Cardin; he had donated the land and was to pay half the cost of constructing a school building. The trustees were Sam Parmer, John Hatcher, and William Braddock. In 1895, the Marion Colored School had 166 students, 33 more than the previous year. By 1933, there were two colored schools in Crittenden County, according to John S. Brown in his thesis titled History of Education of Crittenden County, Kentucky, p.58. The school in Marion was under the city school system, and there was a school in the county. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Cirttenden County included Verna Cofield and Laura Mitchell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The colored school in the county continued until the 1946-47 school term when there were only five students enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.634]. The schools in the city of Marion began to integrate during the 1956-57 school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.425]. For more see "The Marion Colored School...," Crittenden Press, 05/09/1895, p.3; "For the school year ending June 30, 1894," Crittenden Press, 03/01/1894, p.3; "The colored school opened Monday," Crittenden Press, 09/11/1890, p.1; "Marion had two colored school districts." Crittenden Press, 09/18/1890, p.1; and "A colored school district...," Crittenden Press, 01/11/1894, p.3.

  • Cardin School
  • Marion School
  • Colored Schools No.1-9
  • Simpson School
  • Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.850]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marion, Crittenden County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Cumberland County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1959
Record of the first colored school in Cumberland County was for the school built by white citizens in Burkesville, KY, between 1866-1870. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1870, Mag Taylor was the school teacher [see NKAA entry Migration from Canada to Kentucky]. Taylor was from Canada and lived with the Owsley family in Burkesville [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were six colored school districts in Cumberland County [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. One of the schools was located in Marrowbone, today within the Marrowbone Historic District. Other colored schools were located in Bakerton, Beech Grove, Burkesville, Clay Lick Bottom, Coe, and Lawson's Bottom [source: History of Cumberland County by J. W. Wells]. John E. Burbridge (1867-1914), from Adair County, was the school teacher at the Burkesville Colored School for several years, until his death in 1914 [sources: "Last week we wrote a notice of the death of John Burbridge..." The Adair County News, 06/03/1914, p.1; and Kentucky Death Certificate, File No. 12587]. In 1923, the school teachers were J. M. and Kate Alexander at Burkesville; Miss Stella Baker at Waterview; Mrs. Flora V. Allen at Leslie; Thomas E. Cox at Black Ferry; Mrs. Eliza Ellington at Marrowbone; Mr. W. J. Lawson and Miss Susie Lee Scott at Bakerton [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.49, 50, 55, 57, 66, & 74]. The number of colored schools would decrease to where there was only the one in Burkesville. There was not a high school for Negro children in Cumberland County. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Cumberland County included Thomas Campbell and Eliza Ellington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Cumberland County Schools began to integrate during the 1959-60 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.784], and the Cumberland County High School was noted as integrated the following school year. John W. Burbridge was principal of the Burkesville Negro School, grades 1-8, and both the school and the principal are listed in the Kentucky School Directory up to the 1966-67 school term.

  • Burkesville Freedmen School
  • Burkesville School
  • Marrowbone School
  • Bakerton School
  • Beech Grove School
  • Clay Lick Bottom School
  • Coe School
  • Lawson's Bottom School
  • Waterview School
  • Leslie School
  • Black Ferry School

See photo image of Marrowbone Colored School by Bill Macintire, a Picasa web album.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Cumberland County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Daviess County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866-1870, there was a Freedmen School in Owensboro, KY, the building was made of brick [see NKAA entry for African American Freedmen Schools]. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. In 1868, the Negro Educational Convention was held in Owensboro and Marshall W. Taylor was named president of the organization [see NKAA entry for Negro Educational Convention]. Brothers, Charlie Jackson and William Jackson were teachers in the colored schools in 1880 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There were four colored schools in Daviess County in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. One of the schools was located in Owensboro as early as 1883 when Edward Claybrook and others successfully sued the City of Owensboro to desegregate the use of the public school funds [see NKAA entry Claybrook v Owensboro]. Though there were only four schools, there were at least 19 colored school districts. In 1885, school had been held for the entire school term in District 19, but no report of the school had been forwarded to the Superintendent of Public Instruction; therefore, no school funds were provided from the treasury to pay the teacher. The teacher's salary was paid by four members of the community: Park Haynes, Robert Wilson, J. W. Montgomery, and Washington French [source: volume 2 of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1885, Chapter 1090, pp.623-624]. The men were reimbursed the $40.30 by an act passed by the Kentucky General Assembly on May 4, 1886. During the school years 1899-1900, and 1900-1901, there were still 19 colored school districts, and the number of colored schools had increased to 14, and the schools were in session less than five months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1,1889-June 30, 1901]. The average attendance was between 336 and 441 students. The Negro teachers earned an average salary of $29.00 per month. There was one student from Daviess County who graduated from the State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University]. In 1916, there were at least 28 colored school teachers in Owensboro, including Samuel L. Barker, Birdie Bohler, Lula Coleman, Madeline Elliot, A. O. Guthrie, S. R. Guthrie, Virginia Herald, L. O. Hathaway, Ethel Helm, A. M. Lee, Bertha Lee, Rida McMicken, Edith Moorman, Myrtle Moorman, Hattie Richardson, Robinson, Lula Valentine, M. J. Wheatley, R. F. White, Theresa Wilhite, and Leona Willingham [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.24-39]. In 1919, there were 12 students enrolled in the Moonlight Colored School held at the Western School house in Owensboro and A. O. Guthrie was the teacher [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1925, there were 10 colored schools in Daviess County, and there were 12 elementary teachers and 5 high school teachers in the Owensboro colored schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. Mrs. Ella H. Jackson and Miss Sadie Jackson were the school teachers at the Whitesville Colored School in 1924; Mrs. Ella H. Jackson was the teacher in 1925 and 1928; and Miss R. G. Stone was the teacher 1926 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.54; April 22-25, 1925, p.63; April 21-24, 1926, p.58; and April 18-21, 1928, p.44]. Mrs. Edna Ford Howard was the teacher at the Maceo Colored School as early as 1916; along with Ella M. Hawes in 1923; Mrs. J. Francis Wilson, 1923-1924; Miss Arbella McCreary in 1925; and a host of other teachers up through 1938 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.30; April 18-21, 1923, p.61, p.63, & p.80; April 23-26, 1924, p.67; April 22-25, 1925, p.67; April 18-21, 1928, p.44; and March-April, 1938, p.4]. Mrs. Ana G. Johnson was the teacher at the Utica Colored School in 1924, and Mrs. Elizabeth Brannon, Miss Theodore Jackson, and Miss Evie Tinsley in 1925, and Miss Alma May in 1927 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.54; April 22-25, 1925, p.51, p.64; p.79; and April 20-23, 1927, p.53]. Samuel L. Barker was the principal of Western High School in 1934, and he had also been a teacher and principal at Dunbar School. In 1940, two Sisters of Charity of Nazareth opened the Catholic Colored High School at the corner of 5th and Plum Streets in Owensboro [source: The Roman Catholic Diocese of Owensboro, Kentucky by Turner Pub.], and the school also had elementary grades. The Negro teachers in Daviess County in 1940 were Inez Agnew, Lanetta M. Baker, Camille Berkley, Mary Lucille Burns, Vitula Clement, Mattie F. Coffey, Marilyn Crowe, Sedalia Crowe, Emma V. Earl, Emma Edwards, Mary Lee Fisher, Jessie T. Gatewood, Viola Gordon, Lee Oma Hathaway, Martina Hicks, Jessie Howard, Rosina Hunt, Rida V. McMickans, Taylor T. Murray, Joe Perkins, Sue Pape, William Robinson, Elsie M. Robinson, Christine R. Smith, James E. Thruston, Merle L. Thruston, Edward R. Tinsley, and E. Wilder [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The St. Mary of the Woods School in Daviess County is listed on p.208 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56 as having both white and colored students, though the term integration is not used. The first listing of integrated schools in Daviess County is on pp.425-426 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57: Masonville School, St. Mary of the Woods School, both in Daviess County, and Owensboro High School, and Owensboro Technical High School.

 

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Dunbar School
  • Western School
  • Western High School
  • Whitesville School
  • Maceo School
  • Utica School
  • Catholic High School (Blessed Sacrament)
  • Carver School, Daviess County [source: Kentucky Public Directory, 1938-39, p.39]
  • Colored Consolidated, Daviess County [source: Kentucky Public Directory, 1937-38, p.49]
  • Moonlight School



 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Daviess County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Earlington, KY (Hopkins County)
Start Year : 1891
End Year : 1964
Earlington Colored School was open as early as 1891; it was mentioned in a special report, "Masons Made - Mass Meetings - Visitors." Freeman, 02/28/1891, p.6. The school reopened for the year in September of 1892 [source: "School opens," Bee, 09/08/1892, p.6]. In 1894, A. R. Bailey was principal and J. E. Todd was his assistant [source: Bee, 03/22/1894, p.3]. The Colored school was located in District 7, there were 158 students enrolled with an attendance of 126, and the school was in session for nine months. In 1895, C. W. Merriweather was the assistant principal of the school. J. W. Bell was the principal in 1911 [source: "Prof. J. W. Bell...," Bee, 07/18/1911, p.5]. He was still the principal in 1920 when there were 14 students in Earlington High School (grades 9 and 10), according to author H. Ardis Simons' thesis, The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky. From 1923 to 1941, the principals were Edward Dean, W. E. Strader, T. W. Austin, R. R. Buckner, Theodore Daly, W. B. Edwards, Austin Edwards, and S. S. Morris. The school still existed in the late 1940s and is mentioned in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal.  As early as 1938, the school was named  J. W. Million [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-1938, p.46]; the elementary school had 5 teachers and the high school had 4 teachers. The J. W. Million School was listed as a Negro school in the Kentucky School Directory right up to the last issue of the publication that indicated race [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65, p.105.], and all other schools in Hopkins County, except the Earlington Elementary school for whites, are listed as integrated. See also NKAA Database entry African American Schools in Madisonville and Hopkins County, KY.

  • Earlington Colored School
  • J. W. Million School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Earlington, Hopkins County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Edmonson County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1963
As early as 1886, there were four colored schools in Edmonson County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1899-1901, there were five colored school districts in Edmonson County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899 - June 1901, and the Negro teachers earned an average monthly salary of $24.49 for the school year 1899-1900, and $21.69 for the school year 1900-1901. The average attendance at the colored schools during the 1906-1907 school term was 61 students [source: Biennial report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907]. There were still 4 colored elementary schools in Edmonson County in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. Mrs. Zemmie Bransford was the school teacher at the Mammoth Cave Colored School in 1924 and was joined by Mrs. Alice C. Garvin in 1925 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.70; and April 22-25, 1925, p.58 and p.84]. Mr. M. W. Bransford was a teacher at the school in 1927 [April 20-23, 1927, p.38]. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Edmonson County was William S. Coleman [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The last colored school in Edmonson County was Icy Sink in Smiths Grove, the teacher was Mrs. Mattie P. Starks, and there were 17 students [source: Kentucky School Directory,1962-63, p.112]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Edmonson County, the county board of education paid to have the students transported to High Street High School in Bowling Green, KY. The Edmonson County schools integrated during the 1963-64 school term [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.105].

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Mammoth Cave School
  • Icy Sink School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Edmonson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Elliott County, KY
There is not a record of a colored school or Negro students in Elliott County, KY [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory; Kentucky School Directory; Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. It is unclear if the children attended school with the white children, or attended the colored schools in a nearby county, or there were other arrangements. In the 1870 U.S. Federal Census, there were seven Collins children between the ages of 5 and 17, and two Howard children ages 10 and 7, all in Elliott County. In 1880, there was one African American child of school age; in 1900 there were five Leadenham children of school age; and in 1920 there were four children of school age.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Elliott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Estill County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
There was one colored school in Estill County, KY, for the year 1866, as reported in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. There was still one elementary colored school in Irvine during the 1905-07 school terms, with an average of 13-15 students, and the Negro teachers earned an average of $24.30 per month for 1906-07, and an average of $24.00 per month for 1905-06 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905-June 1907]. Mr. L. R. Diggs and Mrs. Nora Park were teachers at the colored school in 1924 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.49 & p.70]. In 1925, there were 25 students in the colored school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.69]. The school enrolled students from the county and the city, and there was one teacher. Mrs. Nancy Covington was the teacher in 1935 [source: KNEA Journal, v.6, no.1, p.52]. There were years when less than 10 children were enrolled in the school. During the 1955-56 school term, there were four students, and during the 1956-57 term, the Irvine Independent Schools integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.209; and 1956-57, p.426].

  • Irvin School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Estill County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Fleming County, KY
Start Year : 1884
End Year : 1956
As early as 1884, there were colored schools in Fleming County, KY, when the Kentucky General Assembly passed an act to support the schools with fines and forfeitures from the courts [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, v.1, Chapter 356, pp.652-653]. In 1886 there were six colored school districts in Fleming County, the schools were held in churches [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. During the 1909-10 school term, there were 241 students in the colored schools, grades 1-8 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction in Kentucky, 1909-1911, Part I, p.14]. The average monthly salaries for the Negro teachers during the 1911-12 school term was $67 for the male teachers, which was the highest salary in the county, and $39.91 for the female teachers, which was the lowest salary in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, p.47], and there were at least 6 colored schools [p.56], and the colored high school was located in Flemingsburg, it was rated as a 2nd class high school [p.330]. In 1923, the six Fleming County teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, were Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Adams in Flemingsburg [p.49], Miss Bertha Brown in Flemingsburg [p.52], Mr. Abel N. Hewitt in Shurburne [p.62]; Mrs. Alma Iles in Flemingsburg [p.63]; and Mr. E. L. Moore in Flemingsburg [p.69]. In 1925, there were three colored elementary schools and one high school, with a total of seven teachers, two of whom taught in the high school, all in the rural area of Fleming County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. Three of the teachers were listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925: Mrs. Romania Flournoy in Nepton [p.58]; Mr. E. L. Moore in Flemingsburg [p.70]; and Miss Emma L. Walker in Flemingsburg [p.80]. In 1936, there were two colored elementary schools, one in Nepton and one in Flemingsburg, both listed on p.39 in A Study of School Attendance Areas in Fleming County, Kentucky by the Department of Education , Frankfort, KY, 11/01/1936 [within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 15]. The Nepton School had one teacher and the Flemingsburg School had three teachers. The colored high school was closed by 1936 and the students attended the colored high school in Maysville, KY [A Study, pp.24-25]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Fleming County were Lucy Herrington, Blossom Lee Martin, and Wardell White [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1955, there were still two colored schools in Fleming County with 57 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.210]. The Fleming County High School was integrated in 1956 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.427], and the city schools began to integrate in 1959 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1959-60, p.786]. After the schools integrated, there was a a court case that went before the Kentucky Court of Appeals in 1964 to determine the rightful owners of the property where a colored school had been located, for more see "Fleming County Board of Education et. al., Appellants, v. Martha V. Anna Hall, Widow, et. al, Appellees."

  • Colored Schools (6)
  • Shurburne School
  • Nepton School
  • Flemingsburg School
  • Flemingsburg High School (closed in 1936)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Fleming County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Floyd County, KY
End Year : 1956
The first school for African Americans in Floyd County was taught in a church, though the year is not given in Chalmer H. Frazier's thesis. There would later be a colored grade school in Wheelwright. There were 3 colored elementary schools in Floyd County in 1925, with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The following year, there were 4 colored schools and 4 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.81]. The Palmer-Dunbar Colored High School, in Wheelwright, was organized in 1936; the school was named in part for Palmer Hall, the school superintendent. By 1939, the high school offered four years of study. W. T. Gilbert was principal, and there were three teachers, one of whom was Mrs. Mannie N. Wilson. There were 41 students in the high school [source: The History of Education of Floyd County, Kentucky (thesis), by Chalmer Haynes Frazier]. In 1940, there were 5 Negro teachers in Wheelwright according to the U.S. Federal Census: Gera Kaywood, Lillie Beele Daw, Gladys Edwards, Sarah Moran, and Mary A. Reed. In 1956, two schools in Floyd County were listed as "white & integrated," Betsy Lane and Wheelwright [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.427-428]. 

  • Church School
  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Wheelwright School
  • Palmer-Dunbar School

 

   See 1946 photo image of children playing at the Wheelwright Colored School, Kentucky Digital Library.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Floyd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Frankfort and Franklin County, KY
Start Year : 1820
End Year : 1956
According to author Marion B. Lucas, there was a day school for Black children in Frankfort, KY as early as 1820, a grammar school was established in 1859, and there were five schools in Franklin County prior to 1900 [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky, pp.141, 144, & 266]. That total may include the Freedmen School in Frankfort that was constructed between 1866 and 1870, and supervised by the Bishop of the Episcopal Church [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1871, Mattie E. Anderson opened the Frankfort Female High School, using her own money. The school trained students to become teachers. In 1880 the teachers at the colored schools were Martha Dillon, Lizzie Hocker, Mittie Johnson, Sarah Smith, and Reuben Washington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. A colored high school was located on Clinton Street in the 1880s, and in 1907, the Board of Education had an addition built onto the school for the teaching of domestic science: cooking, sewing, and general housekeeping. The school principal was W. H. Mayo and the teachers were Winnie A. Scott, Margaret E. Gray, Bianca Parker, Sadie M. Kirby, Katie Smith, Virginia M. Madison, Julia M. Spencer, Lettye A. Williams, Martha E. Williams, Charity A. Boyd, and Annie L. Fairs. In 1887, State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University] opened to train teachers. In 1892, George Halleck was over the colored night school in Frankfort [source: "Public school teachers," Frankfort Roundabout, 07/08/1892, p.4]. In 1895, there were 8 colored schools in Franklin County with one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1896, pp.361-365]. The average attendance was 262 students for the 1895-96 session, and 224 students for the 1896-97 session. In 1925, there were 2 colored elementary schools in the county, and the colored schools in Frankfort had 9 teachers in the elementary grades and 5 high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.67 & 69]. By 1940, Franklin County had one of the highest number of Negro educators in the state of Kentucky: Ludye Anderson, Walter Anderson, David Bradford, Stenson Broadus, Louella Bush, Henry A. Keene, Mack Carmichael, Nancy Carter, H. E. Cheaney, Hubert B. Crouch, Virginia Falls, Aneta Fields, Ben D. Fruch, Howard Jason, Anne J. Heartwell, Yvonne Jackson, William Jones, Ralph Lee, J. J. Mark, Arletter McGoodwin, Manson Melton, Malcolm Perkins, Alexis Richards, Harold Smith, Robert Whiter, Bettie H. White, Violet Wilson, and Charlotte Wilson, all at Kentucky State College for Negroes [now Kentucky State University]; Lawrence Hitcher at Kentucky State Model School; Samara Hurd, Sue Tyler, and John Tyler, all at the Feeble-Minded Institute; and A. Elinton Bishop, Etta Blanton, W. S. Blanton, Katie H. Brown, Ota Case, Laura F. Chase, Mary Collins, Murray Conda, Dorothy Gay, Grace Grevious, Abaline Hays, James W. Henry, Mary C. Holmes, Clarence S. Johnson, Dorothy Jones, Asberry Jones, Lucy Jones, Annie Scott King, Emma E. Lindsay, Grace Morton, LaBlanche Nelly, Mary Peay, Florence Roberts, Marie Robertson, Ethel Robertson, Eugene Raines, Patty L. Simpson, Bessie R. Stone, Leota Thomas, Lula Ward, Cornelin Warren, Mary O. Warren, Roberta H. Wilson, and Arnold Wright, all educators in Frankfort and Franklin County [source: U.S. Federal Census].  For more see "Improvement of Colored School," The Frankfort Roundabout, 01/12/1907, p.3; "The commencement of the High School for girls..." The Frankfort Roundabout, 07/04/1891, p.6; and "Colored School," The Frankfort Roundabout, 06/22/1907, p.4. In 1948, the Kentucky Training Home was first listed as having "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1948-49, p.683]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.428, were Bridgeport, Elkhorn, Frankfort High, Kentucky Training Home, and Good Shepherd. 

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Clinton Street High School (1882-1928 - Replaced by Mayo Underwood School)
  • County Schools No.1-5
  • Day School
  • Female High School
  • Frankfort School
  • Frankfort School [Freedmen School under Bishop of Episcopal Church]
  • Frankfort Night School
  • Mayo Underwood School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • State Normal School for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University]
  • Kentucky State Model School
  • State Feeble-Minded Institute (Colored Division)

See photocopy image of Frankfort School on p.13 in Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].

See photo image of Clinton Street School [1880s-1890s] in the Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives [KDLA] Electronic Records Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Fulton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1958
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a colored school in Hickman, KY, the school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. In 1880, the teachers  in Fulton County were James Chochran at Johnsons, and Nannie Johnston at Hickman [source: U. S. Federal Census]. In 1887, Steve L. Brooks founded the Brook's Chapel School. He was the school teacher, as well as the pastor of Brook's Chapel. The school was burned by Night Riders in the 1920's, and afterward, classes were held in the chapel. Today Brooks Chapel Baptist Church is located at 230 Brooks Chapel Road in Fulton, KY. A picture of the Brook's Chapel School and the students, taken in 1888, is on p.13 in Fulton by E. R. Jones. There were other African American schools and teachers in Fulton County, they are listed below [source: "Fulton County School Census 1898," The Hickman Courier, 05/27/1898, p.3]. In 1890, the Kentucky General Assembly authorized the payment of $127.28 to teacher Mrs. Daisy E. Harvey. The Fulton County Superintendent had refused to pay Harvey her salary because she had missed the teachers' civil government exam due to an illness in her family. Harvey was a teacher in Colored common school district number six in Fulton County. For more see Chapter 64, pp.110-11 of the Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1890]. In 1895, there were 8 colored schools in Fulton County, KY [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.366-370]. The average attendance was 245 students in 1895-96 taught by 11 teachers, and 251 students in 1896-97 taught by 10 teachers. From 1899 to 1901 the average attendance at the Fulton County Colored Schools was 261 to 271 students, and the teachers earned an average monthly salary between $33.81 and $36.12 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1899-June 1901, pp.63, 426 & 454]. There were three teachers that taught in the districts that held classes for at least five months. The Colored common school graduates for July 1897- July 1900 were Aida Williner, William Thompson, Mary Plumer, Beatrice Nichols, Roy Atwood b.1883 (brother to Rufus Atwood), Ora McCutchen, Alvin Barksdale b.1884, D. H. Anderson, Ernest Henry Nichols, Lou Anna Lauderdale b.1886, Blanche Lee Atwood b.1885 (sister to Rufus Atwood), Pinky Lee Alexander, Nannie Milner, Disune Smith, and Lillian Metta Wright. Beginning In 1910, the Fulton Colored School was the only location in Kentucky that served as a Traveling Library Station for African Americans [source: see p.6 of the Bulletin, vol.1 by the Kentucky Library Extension Division at Google Book Search; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky by R. F. Jones]. In 1911, J. L. Northington was the custodian of the collection. The first high school for African Americans, built in 1905, was the result of fund raising by D. H. Anderson. The high school was located in Hickman [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.61]. Hickman School was one of the few in Kentucky to have an African American superintendent in 1925, his name was G. T. Halliburton, he was the father of Cecil D. Halliburton [see the NKAA entry for Colored School Superintendents]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Fulton County were Hattie Beltra, Mary Compton, J. D. Compton, Annie Gale, A. W. Green, Bessie A. Green, Elizabeth Moore, Lydia Moore, Plumer Nichols, Allie D. Wilson, Blanche Iralda Wilson, T. Essa Williams, and Ada Yates, all in Hickman; Ledora Kove, Ruth Jones, and Angie Tucker, all in Fulton; and James N. Milliner, Lauis Uplham, and Beatrice Uplham, all in Fulton County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school to be listed as integrated was Fulton High School on p.1000 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59.

  • Johnsons School
  • Hickman School
  • Brooks Chapel School
  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Alexander District
  • Bowden District
  • Cayce District
  • Fulton District
  • Sassafras Ridge District
  • Sharp or Maddox District
  • Upshaw or Lynch District
  • Phillips School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • Riverview School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]
  • Milton School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.855]

  See photo image of Elder Steven Lee Brooks on p.13 in Fulton by E. R. Jones.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Fulton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Gallatin County, KY
Start Year : 1869
End Year : 1957
In 1869 there were two colored schools in Warsaw, KY, and one of the schools was established by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools in Kentucky]. There was a school in the Parkridge community and according to author Anderson Bell Moore, the school was a log building "erected by free[d] slaves and southern sympathizers." [source: History of Education in Gallatin County Kentucky by A. B. Moore, p.49]. The teacher was Rev. J. P. Maxwell who taught at the Warsaw school for two winters [source: The Sons of Allen by H. Talbert, p.97] The other school was first located upstairs in the Methodist Church, the school did not have a name, and the teacher, Mr. Sim Craig, was a Yale University graduate who taught the students Latin and geometry [source: Moore, p.52]. The tuition was $3 per month. There would later be a colored school building in Warsaw. In 1880, the teachers at the Warsaw Schools were William T. Brassfield and Jennie Smith, and the teachers at Sparta School were Julia Colman and Gertrude Harris [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1892, there were four Negro districts with three teachers at two schools [source: Moore, p.51]; 1895-97 there were 4 colored schools, each with one teacher, and an average attendance between 135 and 158 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.371-374]; and in 1900 the average attendance was 68 students [source: Moore, p.52]. In 1908, there were two colored schools with one teacher at each school [source: Moore, pp.62 & 63]. In 1935, the Parkridge and Warsaw Schools were consolidated into one school in Warsaw and transportation was provided for the students [source: Moore, p.71]. Annetta Warren was the Negro school teacher in 1940, according to the U.S. Federal Census. There was not a colored high school in Gallatin County. The first school to be listed as integrated in Gallatin County, was the Gallatin County High School and Elementary School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.624].

  • Parkridge School
  • Methodist Church School
  • Warsaw Schools (2)
  • Sparta School
  • Colored Schools (4)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Gallatin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Garrard County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
According to author Richard D. Sears, there was a freemen's school in Garrard County, KY in 1869, conducted by Berea student Angus Burleigh. This may be the same school that was established between 1866 and 1870; an American Missionary Association School in Lancaster [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, Joseph Chavis was a school teacher in Brandy Springs; and Samuel Logan was the teacher at Bryantsville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 14 colored schools in Garrard County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.376-379].  The average attendance was 431 and there were 15 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 426 students and 16 teachers during the 1896-97 school term. The teachers' average monthly wages were $45.28 for males and $46.00 for females, during 1895-96; and $37.40 for males and $30.50 for females during 1896-97. In 1898, L. A. Leavell was removed as head of the Lancaster Colored School, and replaced by R. W. Fletcher who was assisted by Miss Willie B. Lackey. In 1900, James A. White was principal of the Lancaster Colored School and the teachers were Miss Mary V. Richey and Miss Willie B. Lackey. The school year closing exercises were held at the courthouse and E. M. Embry gave the address for the graduation held for five students who completed the common school course. E. M. Embry was an African American lawyer in Richmond, KY, and editor of the Rambler newspaper. In 1906, H. E. Murrell was the teacher at the Lancaster Colored School. The school building had burned years ago and the school was held in a location that limited the number of students. The new school was located on Totten Avenue. In 1912, there were 152 students enrolled in the Lancaster Colored School. The principal was J. H. Burns and the teachers were Dora Beverly of Alabama and Isabel Overstreet of Lancaster. In 1923, the teacher at the Marcellus School was Mr. George Gaines [source: "K. N. E. A. Enrollment, 1923," Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.59]. Prior to 1924, students who wanted to go to high school had to pay the tuition to attend at Bate High School in Danville or some other city, so parents petitioned the school board for a colored high school [source: Tommie Merritt oral history interview, #810H72, History of Garrard County Schools, at Eastern Kentucky University Oral History Collection]. In 1925, there was a colored high school in Lancaster; J. P. Griffey was the principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. It was a Class 3 high school with one teacher and 9 girl students. Lancaster High School, later known as Mason High School (1950), opened in 1939 in Duncantown, and there were two teachers for the 56 students and the school was within the Lancaster Independent School System [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.501]; Mrs. Tommie F. Merritt was a teacher at the school and served as principal from 1944 until the Garrard County schools were integrated in 1964. The Negro teachers in Garrard County in 1940 were Henry Kincaid, Susie Letcher, Lilly B.Mason, Cabel Merritt, Charles Payne, Carl M. Peters, Virginia Peters, and William Smith [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Closing of Colored School," Central Record, 05/11/1906, p.1; "Colored School closes," Central Record, 04/26/1912, p.1; "The Colored School," Central Record, 03/01/1900, p.1; "Change in Colored School," Central Record, 01/07/1898, p.1; see p.65 in Garrard County by R. M. Fox; A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91;

  • Freemen School
  • Lancaster American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Boone's Creek School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Brandy Springs School
  • Bryantsville School
  • Davistown School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Flatwoods School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Lancaster School
  • Lowell School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • Marcellus School
  • Mason School
  • Scott's Fork School in Buckeye [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]
  • White Oak School [source: A Proposed Program for the Reorganization of the Garrard County Schools (thesis) by Colonel Hammonds]


See the 1938 photo image of the Lancaster Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Garrard County, Kentucky: Lancaster

African American Schools in Grant County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Grant County, KY; the teacher was Peter Farwell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The date of the first Negro school report in Grant County is said to be 1881 according to Samuel Elmore King's 1934 thesis titled A History of Education in Grant County, Kentucky, p.61. There was one school and one school district located in Dry Ridge [source: King, p.65]. There was a school census of 100 Negro children. One of the colored schools was located in Williamstown in 1891, the teacher was Miss Grace Lewis [source: "The Williamstown Colored School," Williamstown Courier, 01/19/1891, last page]. By 1892, there were five colored schools and two were taught in school houses [source: King, p.62]. In 1895, there were four school districts [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky , pp.380-383]. All of the schools were held in frame buildings. There was an average attendance of 84 students 1895-96, and 74 students 1896-97. There was 1 teacher at each school. The number of school districts was reduced to three by 1905, and a County Institute for Colored Teachers was held in Grant County in 1907-1908 [source: King, p.64]. There would be only the one colored school in Dry Ridge by 1934, and Zadah Thompson was the teacher [source: King, p.89]. The Dry Ridge Consolidated Colored School was restored as a project of the Northern Kentucky African-American Task Force and the building opened in June of 2011 as the Grant County Black History Museum [source: N. Jameson, "White woman's passion leads to black history museum," Associated Baptist Press, 06/20/2011]. The museum was burned down by an unknown arsonist in October 2012 [source: "Arson destroys Black History Museum in Grant County," kypost.com, 10/15/2012]. The first school to be listed as integrated in Grant County schools was the Williamstown Independent School in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.428.

  • Colored Schools (5)
  • Dry Ridge School
  • Williamstown School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grant County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Graves County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1956
Prior to the end of slavery, there were no colored schools in Graves County, KY, according to the thesis of Hubert H. Mills, The History of Education of Graves County, p.64, and there were very few slave owners who taught their slaves reading, writing, and arithmetic. An early school was attempted by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870, the freedmen were beaten and whipped, and the teacher was run out of town [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The first colored schools and capita for Negro students came in 1875, followed by the first school report in 1879 [source: Mills, p.65-66]. There were 12 county school districts with 11 schools that were in session for two months with an average of 276 students who attend the schools on a regular basis. There were 7 log school buildings, 3 frame, and 1 box, with 10 male teachers and 2 female teachers. The male teachers' salaries were $18.68 per month and the female teachers earned $15.67 per month. In 1880, the teachers were Mary Boone, Sandy H. Slayam, and Andrew Carman [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1922, both the male and female teachers were earning $81.90 per month, and in 1937, they were earning $85.51 per month [source: Mills, p.79]. The highest number of colored schools in Graves County was 20 in 1905; 18 frame buildings and two log buildings [source: Mills, p.67]. In the city of Mayfield, in 1908, two elementary schools were established for Negro children, one in east Mayfield and one in southwest Mayfield. In 1917, the two schools were merged and a high school was added [source: Mills, p.147]. A new school had been constructed in 1917, in preparation for the school merger; the building was a two-story brick structure with 12 rooms and located on eight acres of land in southeast Mayfield. The school was named Dunbar Colored School. The building cost $35,000 of which $1,600 was contributed by the Rosenwald Fund. In 1927, a gymnasium and auditorium were constructed in a separate building and was financed by a $40,000 bond issue voted on by the people of Mayfield. In 1928, Dunbar Colored School had an enrollment of 89% of the elementary school-age, Negro, children in the city of Mayfield.  This was one of the highest enrollment percentages of African American elementary students in the state of Kentucky. The students were taught by five teachers, all of whom met the requirement of two years of normal school training and two years of teaching experience. There were 86 students in the high school in 1928, and four graduated. From 1917-1928, there were 31 total graduates from Dunbar Colored High School, and half of the graduates had gone on to college [source: Mills, p.146]. The high school students were taught by four teachers, one of whom was the principal, and all met the requirement of a college degree and two years of teaching experience. The grade school teachers earned an average salary of $70 per month; high school teachers earned $85 per month; and the principal earned $125 per month [source: Mills, pp.145-146]. There were 12 colored schools in the county in 1928, and nine of the schools had male teachers and three with female teachers. The school term was seven months. The newest county school building had been constructed 1926 in Water Valley and the Rosenwald Fund contributed $400 toward the cost of construction. Hickory Colored School was built in 1925. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Graves County were Christine Crawford, Asbury Dawson, Artice England, Henry T. Frazell, Mary Anna Frizzell, George Hale, Jesse K. Killebrew, Salene Murphy, Ruby Sapp, Henry H. Schofield, Brady M. Schofield, Fredrick E. Stiger, Ocala Taylor, Bonnie Taylor, Inez C. Utterback, Myra Williams, and Verna Word [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Mayfield High School for whites was the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429]. 

  • Colored Schools (20)
  • Dunbar School
  • Hickory School
  • Mayfield Schools (2)
  • Water Valley School
  • Pleasant Hill School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.856]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Graves County

African American Schools in Grayson County, KY
Start Year : 1877
End Year : 1956
In 1940, the available records indicated that the first colored school in Grayson County, KY, was located in Leitchfield, according to the thesis of E. E. McMullin, History of Education in Grayson County, p.79. There is mention of the school on p.293 in Collin's Historical Sketches of Kentucky. History of Kentucky, published in 1877. There were never more than three colored schools in Grayson County. There was never a colored high school in Grayson County. In 1901, there were two colored schools [source: McMullin, p.54]. During the 1895-97 school terms, there were four schools, each with one teacher, and three of the schools were taught for five months: the average attendance was 102 students the first year, and 86 students the second year [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.390-393]. In 1908, there were three colored schools, one each in Leitchfield, Grayson Springs, and Caneyville [source: McMullin, p.126]. By 1940, there was only the one colored school in Leitchfield which had been under the county until 1934 [source: McMullin, p.79]. There were 18 students and the teacher was Miss Annie Clements [source: McMullin, p.79] and, in 1945 she was Mrs. Annie C. Johnson and still the Leitchfield Colored School teacher [source: KNEA Journal, v.16, April-May 1945, no.2-3, p.29]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429, were the Leitchfield Independent Grade and High Schools.

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Leitchfield School
  • Grayson Springs School
  • Caneyville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Grayson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Green County, KY
Start Year : 1812
End Year : 1956
In 1812, there was a slave school in Greensburg, KY, operated by a slave named Joe, the school was forced to close [see NKAA entry for Slave School in Greensburg, KY]. In 1880, the teachers were Henry Hazell and Unice White [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1893, Green County, KY had 14 colored school districts with 14 schools, 9 made of logs and 5 that were frame, and 270 regular students who were taught by 13 Negro teachers, according to the thesis of Thomas Franklin Hamilton, The History of Education in Green County, pp.55-58. There had been as many as 17, one room, one teacher, colored schools in Green County [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. The first colored teachers institute was held n 1885 with 15 teachers in attendance [source: Hamilton, pp.97 & 101]. By 1893, the Negro teachers had more college credit hours and more teaching experience, and they were paid a higher monthly salary than white teachers in Green County [source: Hamilton, pp.58 &76-77]. In 1919, there were three Colored Moonlight Schools, one each held in the colored schools in Ote, Gresham, and Whitewood [see NKAA entry for African American Moonlight Schools]. There would continue to be 14-15 colored schools until the Negro population in Green County started to decline, and in 1942 there nine colored schools, grades 1-8 [source: Hamilton, p.98]. The school teachers were Florida M. Blackburn, Anna D. Calhoun, Extell F. Curry, Mrs. Extell F. Curry, Lettie J. Curry, Mrs. Ulyses Golder, Ada J. Groves, Fannie M. Curry Ivery, and Lana William [source: Hamilton, p.100]. With the decline in the number of colored schools, the students who had been attending school in Hazel Ridge were transported to the school in Summersville, and the students at Liletown were transported to a colored school in Metcalfe County. There was never a colored high school in Green County; there were contracts with colored high schools in surrounding counties for the instruction of Negro students from Green County [source: Hamilton, p.98-99]. Transporting and boarding students in homes in nearby counties was a hardship and costly, and few Negro students from Green County attended high school. In response, the Green County Board of Education formed an agreement with the Campbellsville Board of Education for the teaching of Negro high school students in Campbellsville. Transportation was provided to and from the school, and in 1941-42, there were 22 high school students in Green County, and 25 students the following school year. The Negro teachers in Green County in 1940 included Lettie Curry and A. Golder [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Green County schools started to integrated in 1955 with the Greensburg High School for whites [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429].

 

  • Slave School by Joe
  • Hazel Ridge School
  • Summersville School
  • Liletown School
  • Ote School
  • Gresham School
  • Whitewood School [A. S. Hampton teacher 1893]
  • Greensburg School
  • Pleasant Run School
  • Pleasant Hill School
  • Owen's Ridge School
  • Mt. Moriah School
  • Meadow Creek School
  • Little Pitman School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Cidar Top School
  • Moonlight Schools (3)
  • Summersville School #2 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.857]

 

  See photo image of Greensburg Colored School and historical maker at the flickr site by The Feedman.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Green County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Greenup County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the earliest known colored schools in Greenup County, KY, was in session in 1866, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1866]. The first colored school districts in Greenup County were established in 1874, per capita funding for the students came about in 1875, and in 1876 the city of Greenup had 1 school district with 73 students, and in Fulton there were 2 school districts with 54 students, all according to The History of Education in Greenup County, Kentucky by Benjamin F. Kidwell, pp.45 & 62-63. The school teachers were hired from up north, and were consider unprepared for teaching in the colored schools. By 1891, there was a school in Wurtland, and the two school districts in Fulton no longer existed. During the 1895-1897 school terms, there were two colored schools in Greenup County with one teacher at each school, and the schools had an average attendance of 37-38 students, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.400-403. The Wurtland School was merged into the Greenup School in 1911 [source: Kidwell, pp.158-160]. The Greenup and Wurtland colored schools had had an all time high of 51 students in 1891, and by 1928, when there was only the Greenup Colored School, there were 27 students. The decrease in students was said to be due to Negro families leaving the area for work in the mines in Ohio and West Virginia. The Greenup Colored School was referred to as School Number A, and during the 1928-29 school term, there was one teacher and 57 students [source: Kidwell, p.159]. In 1930, Martin W. Nelson was the school janitor [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1936, Sallie Churchill was the school teacher in the Greenup Colored School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.43]. There was not a high school for Negro children in Greenup County.  Greenup High School for whites was first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.429.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Greenup County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hancock County, KY
Start Year : 1887
End Year : 1956
In 1887, there was "a bill for the benefit of Hawesville colored school in Hancock county."--[source: Journal of the House of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1887, p.1210]. In 1895, Hancock County had four colored districts with one school in each district and one teacher at each school, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.404-407. Two of the schools were made of log and two were frame buildings. The schools were taught for five months, and there were a total of 101 students 1895-96, and 133 students 1896-97. In 1918, the charter for one of the Hawesville colored schools was repealed; the colored schools were consolidated [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1918, p.406]. By 1925, there were two colored elementary schools [source:Kentucky Public School Directory, p.67]. Mrs. Mary B. Perkins was a teacher in 1928, she lived in Lewisport, and Mrs. Carrie J. Poole was the teacher in Hawesville [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, pp.51 & 52]. In 1930, there were 42 students regularly attending the two colored schools in Hancock County, and two high school students were attending school elsewhere [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.64]. In 1940 the Negro teacher in Hancock County was Mary B. Perkins [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1944, there were 34 children enrolled in the one colored school in Lewisport, and there were 13 high school students attending school elsewhere [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1944-1945, p.359]. During the 1956 school term, the Hawesville and Lewisport Schools began to integrate [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.430].

  • Colored Schools (4)
  • Hawesville School
  • Lewisport School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hancock County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hardin County, KY
Start Year : 1867
End Year : 1956
The first colored school in Hardin County, KY, is thought to have been located in Elizabethtown in 1867, according to the thesis of Hubert W. Comer, History of Education in Hardin County, p.74-75. The school term was three months and there was an average attendance of 45 students. The teachers' average monthly salary in 1893 was $26, and by 1908, the average salary was $37. The first school may or may not be the same school that existed in 1869, referred to as the African School of Elizabethtown by author Lottie Offett Robinson in The Bond-Washington Story, on p.28. The African School was a subscription school and members of the African American community had purchased a lot to build a school house at the corner of Lincoln and Kennedy Avenue. Another school mentioned in Robinson's book, was run by Reverend George W. Bowling (b.1849 in VA), classes were held in a two room cabin on Dixie Avenue [source: Robinson, p.28]. Another school, District A School, came under the county jurisdiction, but was located in town [source: Robinson, p.36]. In the county area, there were 11 colored schools in 1880, and that would increase to an all time high of 15 schools with 17 teachers in 1893 [source: Comer, p.76]. The number of county schools had decreased by 1908 to 10 schools with 11 teachers. The average attendance was about 50% of the overall colored school student census. Two of the county colored schools were located in Glendale [source: Robinson, p.57]. There was also the West Point Colored Independent School, grades 1-8. In 1933, the county teachers' average monthly salary was $82.30, and in 1935, there were four teachers with an average salary of $85.36 [source: Comer, p.114-115]. The only colored high school in Hardin County was located in Elizabethtown, it was named East Side High School [source: Robinson, p.40]. The school opened in 1921 with a two year curriculum, and became a four year high school in 1926 [source: Comer, p.115]. There were four teachers and 31 students. Two years later, the high school was renamed Bond-Washington High School in honor of James M. Bond and Booker T. Washington [source: Robinson, p.40]. The high school was attended by African American students within the entire Hardin County area, and those in LaRue County who paid tuition, and those from Ft. Knox whose tuition was paid by the military. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Hardin County were Ethel R. Lomax, Mary L. Martin, Sadie M. Rend, John B. Robinson, Mary S. Smith, and Bessie Thompson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Ft. Knox Reservation School (private), later listed as the Ft. Knox Dependent School, was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1948-49, p.685. The Ft. Knox Dependent School was also among the first four schools in Hardin County to be listed as integrated in 1956, the other three were Elizabethtown High School, Elizabethtown Catholic High School, and the West Point Independent Schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.430.  Also, the Glendale School, Sonora School, and Vine Grove School were listed as "white & integrated." See also Educating rural African Americans in pre-brown decision America: one-room school education in Hardin county, Kentucky 1941-1954 by E. J. Hill

  • Colored County Schools (15)
  • African School
  • Reverend Bowling's School
  • District A School
  • Glendale Schools (2)
  • East Side High School
  • Bond-Washington High School
  • West Point Independent School

See photo image of West Point Colored School on p.20 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 (.pdf).

See photo image of dilapidated West Point Colored Independent School at the flickr site by Steph M. Clark.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hardin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Harlan County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1961
In 1890, there were two colored schools in Harlan County, KY, with 70 students, according to the thesis of Lottie McCoy, History of Education in Harlan County, Kentucky, p.118. In the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, Harlan County is included in the list of counties that had a colored school [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. From 1918-1919, there were only three Negro teachers in the county school system, and in Camp No.3, the coal mine superintendent had set aside an old building to be used as a school for the 12 Negro children [source: see the section "Negro Schools," pp.357-358 in the M. B. Ellis article, "Children of the Kentucky coal fields," The American Child, v.1, May 1919-February 1920]. In Lynch, there was a colored school held in temporary quarters and classes were conducted by two teachers. The colored school in Benham was held in an old church with an average attendance of 65 students, though there were 135 Negro children of school age. During the 1918-1919 school term, there were six children in the 8th grade at the Benham Colored School. Plans were discussed for a $6,000 brick school house to be built with a playground. In 1919, Rosenwald funds were available and a colored school was built in Harlan that had a class B high school, there were four teachers and 240 students [source: McCoy, p.118]. In 1923 a school was built by the U. S. Coal and Coke Company and leased to the Lynch Colored Common Graded School District [source: R. Creech, "Historical marker honors Lynch Colored School," Harlan Daily Enterprise, 2003]. The Lynch Colored School had 567 students, 13 teachers, and the school had a four year high school with a class B rating [source: McCoy, p.118]. The high school was attended by students from both Lynch and Benham. The school was considered the best colored school in southeastern Kentucky, and many of the teachers were graduates of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. The Lynch mines schools system was one of the few to have a colored school superintendent, B. B. Smith [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Other colored schools in Harlan County were located in Closplint, Verda, Shields, Louellen, Kildav, Coxton, Tway, Liggett, Benham, Yancey, Black Mountain [source: McCoy, p.118]. All of the colored schools were under Lela Virginia Becker, the first colored school supervisor in Harlan County. The Benham, Harlan, and Lynch high schools were among the approved Negro high schools in eastern Kentucky between 1918-1940, and Lynch Colored High School had the highest number of students [see NKAA entry African American High Schools, Eastern Kentucky, 1948]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Harlan County were Vivian Baker, William Boyant, Georgia Bradshaw, Vivian Breedlove, Edward E. Brewer, Julius Burrell, Helen Carroll, Ben Caise, John V. Coleman, Alma Dallas, Judith Davis, T. Leory Davis, Lydia Gray, S. Henry Hagnes, Mary P. Houston, Mary L. Jackson, Lillian King, Alberta Leavis, L. C. McCrery, Ruth Mathews, Lorene McClinnick, Lovey Mitchell, Franklin Moore, Hannah Moore, Alice Parsons, Joseph Perry, Ercell Powell, Addie G. Reed, Johnnie M. Riggins, Sanford Scott, Mary Sheabe, Edythe Spencer, Henrietta Sweat, Geneva Tapp, Virginia Tichenor, Johnnie B. Ware, Mary J. Williams, Clara Woolfork, Johnnie Wood, William M. Wood, Jessie Howard, and Jennie B. Hall [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Harlan County Area Vocational School was the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 859.

  • Harlan School
  • Lynch School
  • Closplint School
  • Verda School
  • Shields School
  • Louellen School
  • Kildav School
  • Coxton School
  • Tway School
  • Liggett School
  • Benham School
  • Yancey School
  • Black Mountain School
  • Evarts School  [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.859]
  • West Main (Lynch) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.860]
  • Camp Number 1 School (Lynch) [source: Steve Andriga Oral History recording #1986OH275 at UK Libraries Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History]
  • Camp Number 3 School (Lynch)

 

  See photo image of Harlan (Colored) Negro School, in Explore UK.

   See 2nd photo of Harlan Negro School, in Explore UK.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Harlan County, Kentucky.

African American Schools in Harrison County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
According to the 1866 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, there was a colored school in Harrison County in 1866. It may have been one of the two schools in Cynthiana that were funded by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. A history of the colored schools was found in the Harrison County Historical Society files and reprinted in the Harrison Heritage News, with editing by William A. Penn. The original author is unknown. According to the article, it was thought that the first colored school in Harrison County opened in 1868 and was the beginning of formal education for African Americans in the county. The school was located on the "Commons" near the river [source: History of Education in Harrison County, by Mrs. H. E. Young, p.115]. According to the article in the Harrison Heritage News, a second school was located on Water Street. In 1870, a colored school was constructed in Cynthiana by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, and in December of 1869, there was an American Missionary Society (AMS) school [source: Tenth Semi-annual Report on Schools for Freedmen, July 1, 1870, by J. W. Alvord]. A teacher at the American Missionary Society School in Cythiana was C. C. Vaughn, from Virginia. Vaughn was at the school for two years and left in 1870 to continue his education at Berea College [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.104-105]. The schools were independently managed, and it was after 1875 that the colored schools came under the Harrison County Board of Education [source: History of Education in Harrison County, pp.32-33]. In 1880, the school teachers were Laura Brown in Leesburg; Janie Harding, Ella Asberry, and Frank Howard in Cynthiana [source: U.S Federal Census]. In 1885, there were nine colored school districts with eight schools. The teachers were from Xenia, OH. In 1892, there were 11 colored school districts with 11 common schools, and the school terms lasted for 3 months (2 schools), 4 months (2 schools), 5 months (5 schools), and more than 5 months (2 schools) [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1892, p.357-361]. Three of the school buildings were made of log, seven were frame structures, and 1 was made of brick. There were 1,165 school age children, of which 602 were enrolled in the colored common schools and they were taught by 13 teachers. In 1890, there was an all time high of 14 teachers in the colored elementary schools [source: History of Education in Harrison County, p.70]. In 1893, a new colored school was opened, bringing the total number of schools to 12; ten of the schools were taught for 5 months, and two were taught for more than 5 months. All but one of the schools was located in the county. Beginning in 1895, the colored schools were in session for nine months [source: History of Education in Harrison County, p.121]. By 1908, there were eight colored school teachers. The city school, Cynthiana Colored School, had three teachers, and was soon overcrowded. In 1921, the Board of Education purchased the old hospital in Cynthiana, had the building remodeled, the name Cynthiana Colored School changed to Banneker School, and two years of high school were added to the curriculum [source: History of Education in Harrison County, pp.116-124]. Mr. Newsom was principal. At the end of the school term in 1925, there were 150 students enrolled in Banneker School. The teachers earned a little more than $400 annual salary and the principal earned $1,000. By 1926, the number of colored teachers had decreased to 5, and the reason given was due the decrease in the African American population in Harrison County. The first high school graduation took place in 1928 [source: Harrison Heritage News]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Harrison County were Ernest Alexandria, Jessie Crawford, Vivian David, May H. Fields, James F. Hillard, Ethel L. Jones, and Lucindia Lewis [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1956, the first schools in Harrison County to be listed as integrated were Buena Vista, Connersville, Harrison County High School, Oddville, Renaker, and Cynthiana High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.431]. For more see "African American Education in Harrison County," Harrison Heritage News, vol. 6, issue 2, February 2005 [available online]; and Welcome to Harrison County, KYGenWeb [online]. 

  • Banneker School, 1921-1963
  • Cynthiana American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Cynthiana Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Cynthiana School, ?-1921
  • Leesburg School
  • Water Street School


See photo images in Cynthiana by M. B. Kennerly, pp.51-55, via Google Books.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Cynthiana, Harrison County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hart County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were two colored schools in Hart County, KY, a freedmen school in Munfordville and one in Woodsonville. The schools were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. There were two districts with colored common schools in 1875, when the school commissioner failed to report the schools to the Superintendent of Public Instruction and no appropriations were made from the public fund, thus the school commissioner had to pay $36 for the 146 students and he was later reimbursed [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1875, v.2, Chapter 798, pp.575-576]. The Halltown Colored School opened around 1878 and closed in 1953, according to the marker outside the school house that was restored by the Mt. Gilboa Baptist Church; it was the last one room colored school in Hart County. In 1880, Maria Cox was a school teacher in Hardyville, along with John W. Harlow who was also a preacher, and in 1900 Lettia Rowe was a school teacher in Priceville [sources: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1886, Hart County had 10 colored school districts [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. Two years later, there were 15 colored schools: 12 schools held for 5 months; 2 schools held for three months; and no teacher was found for the school in the smallest district [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1888, pp.185-187]. During the 1901-02 school term the Negro teachers earned an average monthly salary of $31.56, and during the 1902-03 term they earned an average of $29.67 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1901-June 1903, p.354]. In 1925, there were 10 colored elementary schools in Hart County, each with one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. During the 1932-1933 school term, a 3rd class high school was added to the Horse Cave Colored School and there were 15 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.49]. In the 1940 U.S. Census, the following Hart County teachers were included: Verd R. A. Butler; Henrietta G. Best; Newton S. Thomas in Horse Cave; Miss Mae Willie Wood in Munfordville; and Gladys Woodson. Newton S. Thomas was the school principal at Horse Cave Colored School from 1937-1957, he was also the basketball coach [source: Kentucky Civil Rights Oral History Project, Interview with Newton Thomas, May 28, 2002, Conducted by Betsy Brinson .pdf]. When Thomas arrived at the school, there were grades 1-12 with 128 students taught by 6 teachers and Thomas taught the high school with one other teacher. In 1955, Carter Dowling in Munfordville was the largest colored elementary school in Hart County, with 195 students and 5 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.214]. The Memorial High School and Munfordville High School began to integrate during the 1956-57 school term according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, pp.627-628.

  • Colored Schools (15)
  • Munfordville Freedmen School
  • Woodsonville Freedmen School
  • Hardyville School
  • Priceville School
  • Horse Cave School
  • Halltown School
  • Carter Dowling School

See photo image of Halltown Colored School and the marker at the flickr site by The Freedman.

See photo images of students of the Horse Cave Colored School, at the Horse Cave Stories website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hart County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Henderson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a school in Henderson County, KY, that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. The school didn't last: the teachers were threatened and run out of town [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. There was a colored school in Cairo in the early 1870s [source: Starling, p. 378], and Dr. Pickney Thompson is credited as the author of the 1871 act that created a colored school in the city of Henderson, KY [source: History of Henderson County, Kentucky, by E. L. Starling, p. 719]. The act was amended in 1872 because of a wording error, "...be so amended as to read between the ages of six and twenty years, instead of between the ages of sixteen and twenty years..." -- [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1871, Chapter 112, p. 194]. The trustees of the school were all white: Dr. Pickney Thompson, H. S. Park, A. F. Parker, Jacob Held Jr., and Y. E. Allison [source: History of Education in Henderson County, Kentucky, by Hal E. Dudley, pp. 91-92]. A school house was built on the lot located at the corner of First and Alves Streets; the lot was purchased by the Trustees. Classes started September 2, 1872, and Samuel Harris, who was also white, was the superintendent and one of the teachers. He was assisted by Mrs. E. P. Thompson, an African American, who resigned after three months. She was replaced by Mrs. Mary W. Letcher, also African American; she had been a school teacher in Henderson County since before the 1871 colored school opened in the town of Henderson. Both Mary Letcher and William W. Gilchrist were two of the African American teachers in Henderson County as early as 1870, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Teacher John Mason had also been employed as the Henderson colored school superintendent in 1874, and his wife Martha was the assistant teacher [source: Dudley, p. 92]. There were 145 students attending the school [source: Dudley, p. 93]. The Masons were from Louisville, KY, and had been teachers at Runkle Institute in Paducah, KY. Runkle Institute was one of the early schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. Four years after the Masons arrived in Henderson, KY, in 1878 another room was added to the Henderson colored school and Miss Virgie D. Harris, a graduate of the school, was added to the teaching staff. In 1880, the teachers listed in the census were Mary Letcher, Addy Letcher, Elija Ash, John K. Mason, and William H. Hall who lived at the home of Aaron Cabell. During the 1882-83 school term, another addition was made to the Henderson colored school, and there were four teachers: the Masons, Miss Alice B. Moting, and William H. Hall. Two other schools in Henderson were the High Street School built in 1881 and the Alves Street School, which was built in 1889; a colored high school was established on the third floor of the Alves Street School [source: Dudley, p. 93]. The county colored schools were developed after 1871, and in the year 1880 there were 16 colored schools, and in 1892 there were 37 [source: Dudley, p. 121]. By 1908, there were 663 students enrolled in the Henderson County colored schools [source: Dudley, p. 93]. In 1916, the expected attendance at the Anthoston Colored School was 19 [source: Library of Congress, PPOC]. In 1935, the number of county colored schools had decreased to 15 one-room schools and a three-room school. [source: Dudley, p. 177]. The school in Corydon had three teachers, and there was also a two-year high school. The new Douglass High School, built in 1931-32 on the corner of Alvasia and Clay Streets, was in the city of Henderson and served as the high school for all the other colored schools in Henderson County [source: Dudley, pp. 177 & 155]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Henderson County were Annette C. Brown, Martha Bunch, Adella Cabell, Geneva Caldwell, Henry Ellis Cheaney, Thelma Clark, Jolene Collins, Anna Mae Dixon, Fannie Dixon, William Dixon, Adella Early, Laura Early, Hazel M. Fellows, Nellie Garland, Edward Gloss, Rosa C. Green, Ella Hill, Lorenza D. Jones, Herbert Kirkwood, O'Herl Laugley, Shelton Laugley, Florence LaVette, Eugene Mundy, Helen Neeley, Willa M. Reeder, Albert W. Settle, Tommie Soper, Walter H. Story, Mary Sweatt, Pasey Taylor, Lee Thomson, Lorene Towler, Flora A. J. Walker, and Willa Mae West [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1951, G. Brisco Houston was principal of the Henderson County Consolidated Schools [source: "Notes on district officers," KNEA Journal, vol. 22, no. 2, p. 6 (online at Kentucky Digital Library)]. In 1956, the first schools to be listed as integrated were Weaverton, Central Grade School, and Seventh Street Grade School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p. 431].

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (37)
  • Henderson School
  • Eighth Street School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1933-34, p. 46]
  • High Street School
  • Alves Street School
  • Douglass High School
  • Cairo School
  • Anthoston School
  • Corydon School
  • Henderson County Consolidated Schools
  • Henderson County Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-38, p. 45]
  • J. Boyd School [see p. 23 in Kentucky Historic Schools Survey, by R. Kennedy and C. Johnson]
  • Scuffletown School [see p. 23 in Kentucky Historic Schools Survey, by R. Kennedy and C. Johnson]
  • St. Clement's Mission School - The church grew out of Sunday afternoon Sunday School held at a home with teachers Mary Jane Gaines and Charlotte Lyne. The mission was established in 1887 by Rt. Rev. Thomas U. Dudley, and the lot was given and the building was funded by Mrs. Virginia Barnett Gibbs so that a day school could be added. Rev. Churchill Eastin was the first priest in charge of the mission [sources: "Churches" a sheet in File: Henderson County - Education, Box 16, of the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center; and Journal of Proceedings of the 63 Annual Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the Diocese of Kentucky, May 20-22, 1891].

 

  

See photo images of the Anthoston Colored School and students. The images are within the Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Online Catalog [PPOC].

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Henderson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Henry County, KY
Start Year : 1871
End Year : 1956
From 1871-1875, Elijah P. Marrs taught at a colored school in New Castle, KY, the school was in session from January-June of each year [source: Life and History of the Reverend Elijah P. Marrs, pp.88-108]. Other Negro teachers at the colored schools were Ben Booker at Jericho, George Ecton at New Castle, John Styles at Eminence, and Ada Straws at Pleasureville [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, the New Castle School was opened by the Church of Christ; the property where the school stood was purchased in 1884 and the church constructed the school two years later [source: Churches of Christ by J. T. Brown, pp.173-174]. Dr. J. M. Mainwaring was the teacher for one year. T. August Reid was the school president the following year and continued up to 1892 when the school closed. From 1895-1897, Henry County had 10 colored school districts with one school in each district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.434-438]. The schools had an average attendance of 342 students with 12 teachers, 1895-96, and an average of 371 students with 13 teachers, 1896-97. A few years later, during the 1910-11 school term, there were 410 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent, p.111]. Mrs. Essie Gaskins was the teacher at the Campbellsburg School in 1916 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.28 (NOT Campbellsville)]; along with Elizabeth Jenkins [p.30] and A. L. McKane [p.31] at New Castle; Olivia A. Long [p.32] and R. D. Roman [p.35] at Eminence; and Lula M. Willis [p.38] at Pleasureville. By 1925, there were 6 colored elementary schools with 8 teachers and 326 students enrolled in the rural schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. Five years later, the colored school in Eminence had an average attendance of 76 students in the elementary grades, taught by 2 women teachers who earned total salaries of $978, and there was a Class III high school with three students taught by one male teacher who earned a total salary of $704 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.67]. The Negro teachers in Henry county in 1940 were Nannie M. Armstrong, Hattie Clackson, and Louis Spradling [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Both the county and city schools in Henry County remained segregated until integration began at the Eminence High School for whites during the 1956-57 school term, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.432.

  • New Castle Colored School [taught by Elijah P. Marrs, 1875]
  • New Castle School [Church of Christ, 1886-1892]
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Jericho School
  • Campbellsburg School
  • New Castle School
  • Eminence School
  • Pleasureville School
  • King Street School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.628]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Henry County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Hickman County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Between 1866 and 1870 there was a Freedmen School in Columbus, KY, [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. Six Hickman County colored schools are included in the title Hickman County, Kentucky, One Room Schools by LaDonna Latham. The schools are listed below. In 1880, Myra Ashley was a teacher at the Clinton School, and George E. Nall, from Alabama, was a teacher at the Columbus School [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 10 colored schools in Hickman County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.439-443. The average attendance was over 450 students taught by 13 teachers. Beginning in 1911, the Clinton colored school served as a traveling library station, and there was a second station for African Americans in Columbus, both in Hickman County [source: Kentucky Library Commission, Biennial Report, 1910-1929]. A new brick school house was completed in 1915 for the colored students in Clinton, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1915]. In 1928, there were seven teachers in the Hickman County colored schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, April 18-21, 1928, p. 25]. There were nine teachers during the 1933-34 school term, two of whom had two years of college and four had one year of college, and there were two new school buildings constructed in the county for the colored children [source: History of Education in Hickman County, Kentucky (thesis), by V. A. Jackson, pp. 121 & 127]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Hickman County were Emma Kane, Georgia Cromwell, Christine Dorrel, Lena Harper, Edgar Jones Jr., Laculia Jones, Vera Rash, and Harriett Webb [source: U.S. Federal Census].  In 1947, the Hickman County school teachers listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 18, issue 2, p. 28, were Mrs. Christine Cole, Mrs. Vivian Jones, Grant Martin Jr., Mrs. Melvan Martin, and Mrs. Susie M. Powell. The first school to be listed as integrated was Hickman County High School on p.114 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Clinton School
  • Columbus Freedmen School held in rented school house
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Columbus School
  • Hailwell School
  • Hayes School
  • Moscow School
  • Oakton School
  • Springhill School
  • Wolf Island School
  • Kane School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Sunshine Hill School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hickman County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Jackson County, KY
Start Year : 1882
The Pine Grove College in Jackson County, KY, was founded by Berea College in 1882. It was an integrated school. Colored and white children had been attending the same school even before Pine Grove College was established. There is not a record of a colored public school in Jackson County, KY [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory; Kentucky School Directory; Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky; and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. Jackson County was established in 1860, and according to the U.S. Federal Census, in 1870 there were six African American children between the ages of 5 and 10, they lived in Horse Lick and Coyle. In 1900, there were nine African American children between the ages of 10 and 18, they lived in Horse Lick and Pond Creek. It is not known when Pine Grove College closed. In the 1940 U.S. Census, there are no African American children of school age.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jackson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Jessamine County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1963
One of the earliest African American schools in Jessamine County, KY, was Arial Academy, founded in 1868 at what had been Camp Nelson then renamed Arial. The school was funded by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands (see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools). Ariel Academy was open to both girls and boys, then became an all girls school. The school was renamed Camp Nelson Academy, and in 1871, it became Fee Memorial Institute, organized by Rev. John G. Fee about a mile from the national cemetery on Danville Pike, according to the thesis of James Edward Nankivell, The History of Education of Jessamine County, pp.111-121. The school had an independent board of trustees before it was turned over to the Presbyterian Church. There were 12 acres of land, a three story framed dormitory, and a school building. The school contained grades 1-8, and any continuing students went to Berea College for high school. The three teachers earned between $10-$12 per month, with free room and board. In 1904, Berea College was segregated. Fee Memorial Institute continued with grades 1-8, until 1916 when a normal school training program for teachers was added, and the graduate students would do their practice teaching at Fee Memorial Institute. In 1924, fifteen acres of land was purchased on the eastern border of Nicholasville and a new brick school house was constructed. The cost was $10 per month, per student, for room and board. In addition to Fee Memorial Institute, a second colored school in Jessamine County was established in 1873 in Sulphur Well [source: Nankivell, p.121]. By 1880, there were seven colored school districts in the county: three with frame school houses, districts 5-7; school was held in a tent in district 4; and there were no school houses in districts 1-3. The tuition was between 60 cents and $2.28 per three months of instruction [source: Nankivell, p.122]. The Nicholasville school had the lowest attendance with 11 students, and the Lee and Hervytown Schools had the highest attendance with 30 students. All of the teachers were males, and they earned between $12-$27.68 per month. In 1888, a Colored Teachers Institute was organized [source: Nankivell, p.123-127]. By 1890, there was a school house in all of the colored school districts [source: Nankivell, p.128]. In 1891, there were four more schools, and there would be as many as 12 colored school districts before the number was reduced to seven by 1927. All of the schools, except the one in Nicholasville, were under the county board of education and had grades 1-8 [source: Nankivell, pp.130-134]. The Nicholasville school was under the city board of education and had grades 1-8 and a two year high school program. A new school building was constructed in 1930. A private school, Keene Industrial Institute, was opened in 1900 by Prof. W. H. Parker [see NKAA entry for Keene Industrial Institute]. The school was moved to Beattyville in 1903. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Jessamine County were Mattie M. Byrd, John C. Caldwell, Mattie D. Crutcher, Bettie M. Frye, Emma J. Guyon [Emma Jean Guyn Miller], Roberta Miller, Albert Myers, Cecil Payne, L. Payne, Molly Payne, Elna Pitts, Weldon Smothers, and Sadie Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Jessamine County were integrated in 1963 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.121]. See also Effect of Desegregation on Academic Ahievement of Negro Students of Jessamine County, Kentucky (thesis) by Eugene Martin Rasmussen.

  • Arial Academy
  • Camp Nelson Academy
  • Fee Memorial Institute
  • Sulphur Well - District 6 (frame school house)
  • Nicholasville School - District 1 (no school house)
  • Hervytown School - District 2 (no school house)
  • Keene School - District 3 (no school house)
  • Lee School - District 4 (school held in a tent)
  • Camp Nelson School - District 5 (box structured school)
  • Marble Creek School - District 7 (frame school house)
  • Troutman School - District 8
  • Troy School - District 9
  • Hickman School - District 10
  • Clear Creek School - District 11
  • Wilmore School [source: R. G. Harden, "Rosenwald-Dunbar 50th Anniversary Reunion," July 18, 2013, p.4  - copy provided by Hallie Miller]
  • Vineyard School [source: Carrie Mae Burdette Oral History Interview at University of Kentucky Louie B. Nunn Center for Oral History.] [source: Hallie B. Miller - "Weldon Smothers was a teacher at the Vineyard School."]
  • Keene Industrial Institute
  • Rosenwald-Dunbar School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jessamine County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Johnson County, KY
Start Year : 1927
End Year : 1956
There is not a record of colored schools or Negro children in Johnson County, KY, prior to 1927 [sources: Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. Though the children are not listed in the education reports, in 1870, there were at least five Negro children between the ages of 5 and 18, and in 1920, there were fifteen [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The children may have attended school in a nearby county. It would be several more years before there was a report of one colored elementary school in Johnson County with 12 students and one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.63] The school was located in Van Leer. The next report is of one colored student on p.51 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1934-35. A little more than two decades later, the Mayo State Vocational School in Paintsville is listed as having both white and colored students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory,1955-56, p.218]. The term "integration" is not used until the following year in reference to Mayo State Vocational School in Paintsville and Our Lady of the Mountains School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.436]. The Mayo State Vocational School continued to be listed consistently as the integrated school in Johnson County.

  • Van Leer School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Johnson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Kenton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were schools for African Americans held in churches in Kenton County, KY, and there were schools led by the American Missionary Association and a Freedmen School that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. After the Freedmen's Bureau left Kentucky, the Covington Board of Education hired the first African American teacher in 1873, she was paid $30 per month according to the thesis of Howard H. Mills, A History of Education of Covington, Kentucky, p.65. Classes started the first Monday of September in the Second District School on Greer Street. The school had been used by white students up until 1871. Several years later, in 1879, the African American school had grown considerably, there was an average attendance of 173 students who were instructed by the principal and two teachers [source: Mills, p.72]. In 1880, the teachers in Covington were Edward Trail from Kentucky, amd John S. McLeod and Della Williams from Ohio [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was also a teacher at the school in Milldale, in 1883 there was a search for a new teacher [see NKAA entry for Milldale Colored School]. In Covington, the colored school was moved to the southside of 7th Street between Scott and Madison Streets [source: William's Covington and Newport Directory,1882, p.15], it was named 7th Street Colored School and Samuel R. Singer was the principal [source: William's, p.134]. Clara B. Grandstaff, from Cincinnati, was a teacher at the school [source: William's, p.65] along with Minnie Moore who was also from Cincinnati [source: William's, p.107]. In 1884, Andrew Jackson was the janitor at the school [source: William's, 1884, p.95]. A new school building for the 7th Street Colored School was completed in 1888 [source: B. L. Nordheim, Echoes of the Past]. By 1893, there was an average attendance of 287 students taught by nine teachers: Samuel R. Singer, Principal; Minnie Moore; Lillian Armstrong; Tillie Young; Laura A. Tray; Mary E. Allen; Annie Price; Charles Haggard; and Edwin H. Ball [source: Mills, p.82]. A woman teacher taught high school classes beginning in 1895, the program was named William Grant High School. William Grant (info at nky.com) was a Kentucky Legislator from Covington who had followed through on his promise of an African American public school in exchange for the African American vote in 1876. The first William Grant High School graduation was held June 21, 1889, with two graduates, Annie E. Price Hood and Mary E. Allen [source: "Lincoln-Grant School" by T. H. H. Harris in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky, pp.552-554]. Both graduates had been elementary school teachers at the 7th Street Colored School.  In 1909, the city of Latonia was annexed to Covington and the Lincoln Colored School in Latonia was merged with the 7th Street Colored School in Covington, and the combined school was named Lincoln-Grant School, while the high school kept the name William Grant [source: "William L. Grant" by T. H. H. Harris on p.413 in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky]. The number of school age children increased to 44 high school students and 360 students in the elementary grades [source: Mills, p.103]. In 1914, the night high school was established in Covington for students who had completed 8th grade and were at least 14 years old [source: Mills, p.107]. In the colored night school, students were taught basic English and arithmetic. By 1924, within the colored day school, there were 519 students with a teaching faculty of 4 high school teachers and 18 elementary teachers [source: Mills, p.114]. The number of students would outgrown the size of the building, and in 1928, a bond was issued and passed with $250,000 approved for the building of a new colored school on Greenup Street, to be completed by September of 1930 [source: Mills, p.117]. The plans had to be changed due to the down turn in the economy and the school was completed in 1932. [For an early history of the William Grant School see "History of the School" on pp.1 and 2 of The Lincoln-Grant Herald, v.1, no.1, January 1913.] Another colored school in Covington was the United Bible School at 801 Russell Avenue, it opened around 1940 and is listed in William's Covington (Kenton Co., Ky) City Directory. In 1943, J. M. Gillian was the teacher at this school [source: Williams, p.411]. There was also a school for African American children in Elsmere, KY, Wilkins Heights. The head teacher was Rosella F. Porterfield who is recognized for encouraging the integration of Elsmere schools in 1955. Dunbar School was also located in Elsmere at 421 Spring Street with Thomas R. Lewis as the teacher 1936-1939 [source: William's Elsmere Directory for 1936-37, p.599, and for 1938-39, p.562]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Kenton County, KY, were Roscoe C. Baught, Martha Bishop, Alberta E. Booker, William Craig, Maggie Fisher, Nathan Fleming, Eliza W. Gooch, William Hargraves, Elenora Henderson, Etta L. Hundley, Jewell Jackson, James H. Johnson Sr., May Fortes Kelly, Coleman Kelly, Laura E. Lewis, Mamie Memy, Ella Mitchell, Nan Mae Orben(?), Paul Redden, Chester A. Rice, Ednice Simpson, Melvin W. Walker, Catherine Williams, and Clarence Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Kenton County schools that began to integrate in 1956 were Kenton Elementary, Simon Kenton High School, La Salette Academy, Covington Catholic High School, Elsmere Elementary, Erlanger Elementary, Lloyd Memorial High School, and St. Henry Grade School and High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.436-437]. St. Henry High School, La Salette Academy, Covington Catholic High School, and Northern Kentucky State Vocational School, had all been listed as having "white and colored" students during the 1955-56 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.219]. See also The Life and Legacy of Lincoln-Grant School, Covington, Kentucky, 1866-1976 by J. M. Walton.

  • Church Schools
  • American Missionary Association Schools
  • Freedmen School
  • Second District School
  • 7th Street School
  • Lincoln Colored School in Latonia
  • Lincoln-Grant School in Covington
  • William Grant High School
  • Milldale School
  • United Bible School
  • Wilkins Heights in Elsmere
  • Dunbar School in Elsmere
  • Our Savior [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.868]


See photo image of the 7th Street Colored School and additional information at the Greater Cincinnati Memory Project website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Kenton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Knott County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
Knott County, KY, was formed in 1884. From 1885-1887, there were no colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1886 and 1887]. Ten years later, there was a report of one colored school district with one school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.474-477]. The school was taught for five months by one teacher. There was an enrollment of 37 students and the average attendance was 12. In 1925, there was still the one school with one teacher and with 83 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1925, p.67]. Two years later, there were two colored schools, each with one teacher, and a total of 57 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.81]. July 1, 1930- June 30, 1931, Knott County was one of twelve counties to receive aid from the Rosenwald Fund for the extension of the school term to 8 months; $58 was received for the colored schools at Breeding Creek and Yellow Creek [source: "Counties Aided on the Extension of Terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.11, no. 2, January 1932, p.27]. In 1936, there were still 2 Negro teachers in Knott County, and they were members of the 7th District Negro Education Association [source: "District Education Association of the K. N. E. A.," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.7, no.1, October-November, 1936, p.57]. By 1955, the Yellow Creek School was closed and there were 38 students enrolled in Breeding Creek Colored School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.219]. Carr Creek High School for whites began to integrate the following year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.437]. The elementary grades continued to be segregated until 1963 when the Knott County School Board came under federal court order [U.S. District Judge Mac Swinford] to integrate the schools [source: "Knott County Board told to integrate," Park City Daily News (Bowling Green, KY), 09/12/1963, p.9 - article online]. The lawsuit was filed by 14 Negro students who had been denied enrollment at the Carr Creek Elementary School for white children, the case was represented by attorney James A. Crumlin. Godloe Adams was the only Negro teacher in the county, he taught at the Breeding Creek School for Negro children, which had 11 students, grades 1-6.

  • Breeding Creek School
  • Yellow Creek School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Court Cases, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Knott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Larue County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
In 1880, Molly Clagett was a teacher in the colored school in Hodgenville, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There is a paragraph written about the colored schools in Larue County, KY, on page 72 in the 1885-1887 Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky. By 1895, there were 4 colored schools, and the following year, there were 5 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.484-487]. Each of the schools had one teacher. The school term was five months and all the buildings were frame structures. The average student attendance was 106 in 1895-96, and 113 in 1896-97. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School held in the school house in Buffalo, KY, the teacher was Bessie Ford, and there were 12 students [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. Some of the teachers at the colored schools are listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal: B. H. Larke in Hodgenville (1916, p.31); Miss Lucile Curle in Upton (1928, p.37); Rev. Claud and Mrs. Cecilia Taylor in Hodgensville (1929, p.55); and Mr. Amos Lasley in Hodgensville (1935, p.58). There was not a high school for Negro students, the students attended Bond-Washington High School in Hardin County. Below are the names of the colored schools that were in Larue County, KY, [sources: Old Schools in LaRue County by Edward Benningfield, and the 1914-1915 Census of LaRue County Schools (Colored Schools) by L. L. Salsman and C. L. Owens]. The Negro teachers in Larue County in 1940 were Lucy Curle, Meaner Hughes, Amos Lasley, Cecil Lasley, Omer Lasley, Mabel Lasley, and Ollie Lasley [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Buffalo, Hodgenville, and Magnolia, were listed as white and integrate in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.436. It would take several years of effort for all of the schools in Larue County to be desegregated in 1967.

  • Buffalo School
  • Hodgenville School
  • Knob School
  • Lincoln Springs School
  • Lyons Station School
  • Moonlight School in Buffalo
  • Orrender School
  • Upton School
  • Siberia School
  • Georgetown School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.870]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Larue County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Laurel County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
The one colored school in Laurel County was included in the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. By 1880, there were two colored schools, according to the thesis of John Milburn Taylor, History of Education in Laurel County, Kentucky, p.140. One school was located in London and the other was in East Bernstadt. The school term for the colored schools was two months and there were 62 students enrolled in the schools. In 1895, there were three colored school districts, each with one school [source: Taylor, p.115]. The two female Negro teachers earned the highest monthly salary of all teachers: white males $33.74, colored male $41.12; white females $39.99, colored females $45.90 [source: Taylor, p.117]. A new school opened in London in 1900, and in Altamont in 1901 [source: Taylor, p.140]. The Altamont School closed in 1909. There were five teachers at the colored schools in 1900, and they earned an average of $37.85 per month. With the closing of the Altamont School, the county was left with four teachers for an average of 104 regularly attending students. By 1925, the average attendance was 71 students, the East Bernstadt School was closed, and one of the schools in London had closed [source: Taylor, p.141]. The school closings left only the one colored school in London. Two years later a two year high school was added to that school, and there was a library with 90 books. There was one teacher for all ten grades. The school term was eight months, and the teacher earned $816 for the term. In 1931, the teacher's salary was increased to $914, and the library had 365 books. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Laurel County were Steven Griffin, Emily S. Williams, Orange Yokley, and Raytha Yokley. In 1955, London High School was listed as having white and colored students, on p.220 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The following year, the first school to be listed as integrated was Sue Bennet College Trade School on p.438 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57

  • Colored School
  • London School
  • London School (2nd school)
  • East Bernstadt School
  • Altamont School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Laurel County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lawrence County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Education for African Americans in Lawrence County, KY, began after the Civil War. The early schools were held in the homes of ministers and by sympathetic whites, according to John E. Elkins in his thesis, The History of Education of Lawrence County. "Later Negro teachers were secured and the school was conducted in the church." --[source: Elkins, p.101]. In 1886, there were two colored schools in Lawrence County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887. At some point after 1887, there was only the one school in Louisa [source: Elkins, p.101]. Though the school was located in Louisa, it came under the county school system. In 1900, the teacher's salary was $28.79 per month, and the student enrollment was 45. There were 44 students in 1916, and by 1935, there were 30 students. The first colored school building was constructed in 1923, it was a one-room frame building that cost about $1,500, of which $800 was received from the Julius Rosenwald Fund and the remainder was paid by the Lawrence County Board of Education. Grades 1-8 were taught at the school. In 1933, the school teacher was Mrs. Bertha Murphy who was a graduate of Kentucky Institute for Colored Persons [now Kentucky State University] and her salary was $84 per month. There was not a colored high school in Lawrence County; the county board of education paid $50 per year for Negro high school students from Lawrence County to attend Booker T. Washington High School in Ashland, KY. In 1935, there were four students who traveled each school day from Lawrence County to attend high school in Ashland. The Louisa Elementary and High School were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.438.

  • Early Church Schools
  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Louisa School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lawrence County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lee County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1961
In 1880, Carter Lightfoot was a teacher at the colored school in Lee County, KY [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Five years later, during the 1885-86 school term, there were two colored schools, one was held in a church and the other in a log building [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. There is a paragraph written about the schools on p. 72 of the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, school-year ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, pp.499-502]. The average attendance at the colored schools was 45 students for 1885-86, and 37 for 1886-87. In 1903, the Beattyville Industrial Institute opened; the school had previously been located in Keene, KY, and was named Keene Industrial Institute. By 1915, there was one colored school in Lee County [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1913-1915, p.38]. Mr. G. A. Chandler was the school teacher in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.54]. During the 1927-1928 school term, there was again 2 colored elementary schools in Lee County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.63]. The schools had one male teacher and one female teacher, and the teachers earned a total salary of $608, and the average attendance for both schools was 30 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory,1930-1931, p.74]. There would again be only one colored school in Lee County in 1939 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1939-40, p.508]. In 1940, Lena Lightfoot was the only Negro teacher in Lee County who was listed in the U.S. Federal Census. In 1948, the Green Hill School and the teacher, Mrs. L. E. Embry, held membership in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.17, no.2, pp.26 & 27]. The first school to be listed as integrated was Lee County High School on p.872 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62.


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lee County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Leslie County, KY
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1943
There was only one colored school in Leslie County, KY, and it existed as early as 1883, when H. C. Napier, the school commissioner, failed to report that there were 11 colored children attending school in the county [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, 1883, chapter 405, p.731]. As a result of the oversight, the Superintendent of Public Instruction authorized that $15.40 be withdrawn from the common school fund and be paid to the teacher of the Leslie County colored school, approved March 17, 1884. Eleven years later, there was still one colored school in Leslie County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.504-507. There was one teacher for an average of 31 students 1895-96, and for 33 students 1896-97. In 1925, there were 12 students in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The listing for a colored school in Leslie County came and went in the 1930s; on p.51 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1935-36 there is a listing of one school, but there was not listing for 1936-37, though the one school was listed again starting on p.51 in the 1937-38 directory and continuing until the 1942-43 directory. The school was not listed in the 1943-44 directory. During the year 1943, the Asher v Huffman case went before the Kentucky Court of Appeals in an attempt to allow Bruce Asher to attend the Leslie County School for white children, rather than forcing him to attend a colored school. There were 2 Negro students counted in Leslie County as late as 1958, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1011, and there were no schools in the county listed as integrated prior to 1965 according to the 1964-65 directory.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Leslie County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Letcher County, KY
Start Year : 1911
End Year : 1963
In 1911, the Whitesburg Colored Graded School held its commencement March 23 and March 24 [source: "Whitesburg Colored School closes with entertainment," Mountain Advocate, 03/31/1911, p.1]. The school teachers were Miss S. P. Lewis of Fairfield, and Ellen B. Adams of Barbourville. The Whitesburg Colored School was one of the few in kentucky to have a colored superintendent, J. Neil Burnside [see the NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Fleming Colored School was located in Letcher County [source: Mountain Eagle, 02/04/1960 and 09/05/1963, school mentioned in articles titled "County School Financial Statement"]. Burdine Colored School was part of the Jenkins Independent School System of Negro Schools located in Jenkins, Burdine, and Dunham. According to the 1939 thesis by Frances Rolston, the colored schools in the Jenkins School System were developed due to the influx of Negro coal miners working for Consolidated Coal Company. The first Jenkins Colored School was established in 1916 with one teacher and 58 students. In 1928 there were 528 students in the colored schools in Letcher County. During the 1936-37 school year, there were 374 students in 3 schools. The end of school year report included Fleming one room school with one teacher and 36 students; Carbon Glow one room school with one teacher and 25 students; and Haymond two room school with two teachers and 70 students. For a number of years, Dunham Colored High School, under the Jenkins School System, was the only high school for African Americans in Letcher County. Tom Biggs Colored School was located in McRoberts, KY. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Letcher County were Camilla Elliott, Alfred Greenwood, Mattie Greenwood, M. L. Jackson, Blanche McSwain, Clemintine Masby, William Mudd, Marion Nelson, Marie Price, William Stovall, and Clara Whitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more information see the thesis History of Education in Letcher County, Kentucky by F. Rolston. The first school in Letcher County to be listed as integrated was St. George, a Jenkins Independent school on p.128 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Burdine School
  • Carbon Glow School
  • Dunham School
  • Fleming Neon School
  • Haymond School
  • Jenkins School
  • Tom Briggs School in McRoberts
  • Whitesburg Graded School


See the 1921 photo image of the Burdine school children, Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Letcher County, Kentucky: Burdine, Carbon Glow, Dunham, Fleming, Haymond, Jenkins, McRoberts, Whitesburg

African American Schools in Lewis County, KY
Start Year : 1885
End Year : 1959
In 1885, there was one colored school in Vanceburg, KY, the school was held in a church [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. At times, there were two colored schools, one in each of the colored districts, though the County Superintendent was not always able to verify that the schools were in session, and he wrote that the majority of the colored students did not go to school on a regular basis [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1885-1887, p.128 and pp.193-194]. By 1895, there were two schools with an average attendance of 19 students 1895-96, and an average of 11 students 1896-97 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.513-516]. There was one teacher at each school. The average attendance was about the same for the next several years. The average salaries for the teachers were $33.66 from 1909-10, and $33.08 from 1910-1911 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1909-11, p.49 and p.151]. By 1925, there was one colored school in Lewis County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67]. The Lewis County Schools started to integrate during the 1959-60 school term, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.799, and Indian School was the first to be named as integrated in the 1961-62 directory, p.874.

  • Colored Schools (2)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lewis County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lexington and Fayette County, KY
Start Year : 1798
End Year : 1956
Often mentioned as one of the early schools for African Americans in Lexington, was a school taught by a white man from Tennessee around 1830. But an even earlier school was a Sunday school taught in 1798 at the old home of Colonel Patterson on High Street [source provided by Yvonne Giles: "A Sunday School," Kentucky Gazette, 10/16/1798, p.3. col.2]. Between 1866 and 1870, there were at least four schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see the NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1867 two of the schools in Lexington were Howard School on Church St and Mitchell & Talbott School on Upper Street. In 1867, the Independent African Church School had been opened by Rev. Frederick Braxton, and H. C. Marrs left the colored school in Lagrange, KY, to teach at Braxton's school in Lexington [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116]. In 1880 the colored teachers in Lexington and Fayette County were C. J. Braxton at South Elkhorn (son of Rev. Frederick Braxton); William Jackson at Briar Hill; John Jackson at Sandersville; George Newman; and in Lexington there was Chapman Mourse; Annie Warde; S. Jane Washington, who was teaching prior to the Civil War and had her own school; Mary B. Hawkins; Louisa McMillan; J. A. Ross; Ella Ross; Julia Shows; Lou Simpson; Lucy W. Smith; Ada Trotter; Sarah M. Turner; and Emily O. Warfield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first commencement for the Fayette County colored schools was held at the courthouse on June 1, 1894 [source: Programme: 1st Commencement of Fayette County Colored Schools]. The graduates were Cora B. Simpson, Coleman Greene, Sallie Coleman, Mary Greene, all from Uttingertown School. Frank Byrd and Bessie J. Cooper graduated from Fort Spring School. G. S. Johnson, Green Seals, Garfield Sanders, and Claude W. Strider were all graduates from Cadentown School. In 1896, there were 16 colored schools in Fayette County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.347-351]. Five of the schools were held for five months and 11 of the schools were in session for more than five months. One of the schools was a training school for colored teachers. The average attendance at all of the schools was 1,011 students who were taught by 16 teachers (one teacher at each school). The teachers' average monthly pay was $70 for male teachers and $52 for female teachers.  In 1925, the colored high school was located at Dunbar School in Lexington and W. H. Fouse was the principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.39]. The school was rated an "A" high school. The Maddoxtown School was a county training school for teachers, L. W. Taylor was the principal [p.65]. In 1925, there were four teachers who taught at the Maddoxtown training school which had a 4 year high school. The teachers' average salary was $1,088 for a nine month term; it was the highest average salary of all the teachers at the colored training schools in Kentucky.  The supervisor of the industrial teachers in Fayette County in 1925 was Mrs. E. Birdie Taylor [p.66]. In 1925, there were 13 colored elementary schools in Fayette County, with 1 high school, all taught by 18 teachers [p.67]. In Lexington, there were 39 elementary teachers and 15 high school teachers [p.69]. By 1932, there were high schools at Douglas School, rated an "A" high school with 5 teachers; at Russell School, an unrated high school with 7 teachers; and at Dunbar School, rated an "A" high school with 13 teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-33, p.45]. In 1940, there were 113 Negro teachers in Fayette County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, there were two schools listed as having white and colored students: Kentucky Village and University School, both state schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, pp.209-210]. The following year, there were several schools listed as integrated: Athens-Shelby, Briar Hill, Bryan Station (integrated & white), Clays Mill, Kenwick, Lafayette Sr. High, Linlee, Russell Cave, Yates, Kentucky Village, Ashland, Henry Clay, Johnson, Lexington Jr., and Lexington Catholic High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.426-427].

City Schools

  • Bethesda Normal and Industrial school - [established by Rev. O. L. Murphy on the corner of Alford and Smith Streets - source: Lexington Leader, 12/04/1906, p.1, c.2] - provided by Y. Giles
  •  Canadian and Ohio Industrial School - [opened at Colored Methodist Church at Race and Corral Streets - source: Lexington Leader, 08/31/1907, p.1. c.2] - provided by Y. Giles
  • Carver School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.853]
  • Chandler Normal School [photo]
  • Christian Church School (on 4th Street, became Mitchell & Talbert School)
  • Colored Industrial School (Negro WCTU)
  • Colored School No. 2
  • Colored School No. 3
  • Constitution Street School
  • Corral Street Normal (1868), supported by the American Missionary Association - [source: Congressional Serial Set, Executive Documents of the House, 2nd Session of 46th Congress, 1879-'80, v.2, Education no.1, part 5, v.3, p.80 (online in Google Books)]
  • Douglass School
  • Dunbar School
  • Forest Hill School
  • Fourth Street School
  • Independent African Church School (Frederick Braxton entry in NKAA)
  • Jane Washington School (on 2nd Street, opened prior to the U.S. Civil War) (supported by Lawyer Andrew Bush)
  • Ladies of the Episcopal Church School [source: Kentucky Gazette, 12/28/1867, p.3]
  • Lexington Freedmen School
  • Lexington High School (supported by the Freedmen's Bureau)
  • Lexington Polytechnic Institute [source: Kentucky Leader, 0/15/1894, p.7]
  • Lexington Sabbath School (established by the Episcopal Church & supported by the Freedmen's Bureau)
  • Lower Street School (1883)
  • Patterson Street School
  • Mitchell & Talbott School [Mrs. E. Belle Mitchell-Jackson and Mrs. Talbert]
  • Pleasant Green Church School (closed around 1876, and reopened as Patterson St. School)
  • Russell School No. 1
  • St. Andrew's Colored Episcopal Parochial School [source: Lexington Daily Transcript, 02/01/1891, p.7]
  • St. Peter Claver School
  • St. John's School (opened 1888) [source: Lexington Daily Press, 06/18/1889, p.4]
  • Sunday School (1798)
  • Booker T. Washington School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.853]

 

County Schools

 

For more see The Education of the Negro Prior to 1861 by C. G. Woodson; Maydwell's Lexington City Directory 1867; Emerson and Dark's Lexington Directory 1898-9; "Colored school location," Leader, 08/10/1883, p.1; "Colored county schools," Leader, 09/06/1903, p.3 and other articles in the Lexington Leader newspaper between 1895-1911; and Educational History of the Negroes of Lexington (thesis) by William Henry Fouse, which includes information on teacher  S. Jane Washington. See Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky 1917-1932 by A. Turley-Adams, Kentucky Heritage Council and Kentucky African American Heritage Commission. See also Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.106-107 & 111-114].

 


  See 1929 photo image of students in the lunch line at Maddoxtown Colored School at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lincoln County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Crab Orchard, KY [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. It was one of the early schools for African Americans in Lincoln County. There were two colored schools in 1875, according to the thesis of Morris B. Vaughn titled History of Education in Lincoln County, Kentucky, p.123. There were 12 schools In 1880; 13 schools in 1881; 16 schools in 1887 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky]; and in 1902 there were 17 colored schools in Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.123]. In 1880, the teachers at the colored schools were Emily Gogins in Hustonville; Belle Graham at Turnersville; and Ester Kincaid in Walnut [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1931, several of the schools had been consolidated and there were nine colored graded schools in the county. The consolidated schools were located in Stanford, Halls Gap, Hustonville, and McKinney. According to the title Lincoln County, Kentucky by Turner Publishing Company, p.121, the first colored school house in Crab Orchard, KY, was thought to have been built behind First Baptist Church on Cedar Street around 1890. The first school bus was thought to be the one used to transfer students from Cedar Ridge to the Crab Orchard Color School [see p.130]. The next school building was constructed in 1924 on Highway 150. The third building was constructed in 1937 by the Second Christian Church, located on Cedar Street, the school was off to the side and behind the church. Within the same title, on p.124, there is mention of a Colored School in District A in 1897, located in Stanford, KY. There had been a colored school in Stanford as early as 1879, it was established by the African American community that had also hired a teacher who graduated from Berea [source: "Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/06/1879, p.3]. The teachers hiring included a school examination, followed by a parade and a festival [source: "The Colored School," Interior Journal, 06/13/1879, p.2]. In 1925, Lincoln High School in Stanford was a Class 3 school with one teacher and 16 students, and W. D. Tardif was the school principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. Another school, McKinney Polytechnic Institute, opened in 1911 with three students from Iowa [source: "The McKinney Polytechnic Institute...," Stanford Interior Journal, 11/10/1911, p.1]. During the 1930s, the high school students in Stanford were bused to Bate High School in Danville; there had been a high school within Stanford School up to the 1930-31 school term, but it was deemed to be more cost efficient to bus the 22 students to Danville. The Lincoln County Board of Education paid Bate High School $5 per month for the instruction of the high school students from Lincoln County [source: Vaughn, p.124]. The Logantown School and Hubble School were merged with the Stanford School. According to the Handbook of Kentucky by the Kentucky Bureau of Agriculture for 1906-1907, p.515, there were 17 colored school districts in Lincoln County. In 1909, School No.16, located in Preachersville, was merged with the school in Walnut Flat [source: "Preachersville," Interior Journal, 06/25/1909, p.1]. The colored school in Hubble was located on Cherry Street, the building was sold in 1914 [source: "Hubble," Interior Journal, 03/13/1914, p.2]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Lincoln County were Katie Coulter, Joe A. Gaines, Mary T. Good, Houston Graves, Thelma Graves, Susie Harris, Estella Jarmon, Elizabeth Perkins, Florence Stepp, Cordelia Wood, and Maggie Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school in Lincoln County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62 was Crab Orchard High School on p.875.

  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Crab Orchard Freedmen School
  • Crab Orchard School
  • Halls Gap School
  • Hustonville School
  • Hubble School
  • Logantown School
  • Lincoln School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-61, p.874]
  • McKinney School
  • McKinney Polytechnic Institute
  • No. 16, Preachersville School
  • Stanford School [including a high school, name changed to Lincoln]
  • Tunersville School
  • Walnut Flat School

 See photo image of the Crab Orchard Colored School on Cedar Street, built in 1937, a Flikr website by Road Trip.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lincoln County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Livingston County, KY
Start Year : 1879
End Year : 1961
There were colored schools in Livingston County as early as 1879 when the county clerk collected 95 cents and the sheriff's office collect $135.95, both for the Colored School Fund, and funds were withdrawn for the Negro teachers total pay of $108.96 [source: Auditor's Report, School Fund - Colored, p.135, p.138, and p.149 in the 1879/1881 Biennial Report of the Auditor of Public Accounts of Kentucky - online at Google Books]. In 1895, there were 6 colored schools in Livingston County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.523-527]. The average attendance was 125 students 1895-96 and taught by 7 teachers, and 138 students 1896-97 taught by 6 teachers. Male teachers' average monthly pay was $42.00 during 1895-96, and $26.78 during 1896-97.  Female teachers' average monthly pay was $25.50 during 1895-96, and $20.34 during 1896-97.  By 1905, there were still six colored schools, one in each district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1905-1907, p.343]. In 1910, the trustees of the Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, took its case against school superintendent Charles Ferguson to the Kentucky Court of Appeals. The trustees, who won the appeal, were fighting to share in the 1909 school tax Livingston County received from the Illinois Central Railroad Company [source: "Commonwealth, for use of Trustees of Grand Rivers Colored Common School District C, v. Ferguson et. al." in The Southwestern Reporter, v.128, June 8-July 6, 1910, pp.95-96 - online at Google Books]. At one point in time, there were as many as seven colored school districts according to the title Livingston County, Kentucky, p.114. The colored schools were listed as sub-district schools, A, B, C, D, E, F, and Beach Hill. In 1925, there were five colored schools in Livingston County with a total of 116 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67], and two years later, there were four colored schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.81]. The Negro teacher in Livingston County in 1940 was Clara N. Moore [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Livingston County schools started to integrate in 1961 with Livingston Center High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875].


See photo image of colored school in Smithland, KY, at Explore UK.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Livingston County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Logan County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
The colored school in Logan County, KY, was one of the 13 counted in the 1866 publication titled Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, for the School Year Ending December 31, 1864. Between 1866 and 1870, there was to be a colored school established in Auburn and supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, but the plans were scrapped due to a mob's reaction. In spite of the opposition, by 1872, there was an African American school in Russellville, KY, the teacher was C. C. Vaughn [Cornelius C. Vaughn, 1847-1923; Kentucky Certificate of Death Registered No. 93]. Vaughn, who was born in Virginia, was a Berea College graduate and he had been a school teacher in Cynthiana, KY [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.104-105]. C. C. Vaughn would remain in Russellville for more than 50 years; he was a leader in the community and he was in charge of the public education of Negroes in Russellville. In 1879, there were 26 colored school districts in Logan County, according to the thesis of Charles Thomas Canon, History of Education in Logan County, p.43. The enrollment and attendance records, if they ever existed, were no longer available when Canon completed his thesis in 1929. However, records from 1881 showed that there were 18 log house buildings and 9 frame houses [source: Canon, pp.47-48]. In 1880, the colored teachers in Logan County were Carry Smith in Adairville; Lewis Temple, James F. Gray, and Carl C. Vaughn in Russellville; and William Turner in Keysburg [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were 21 teachers in the colored schools in Logan County, and many of the schools were taught in churches [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. By 1901, there were 9 log house schools and 16 frame schools [source: Canon, p.92]. In 1917, the number of log house schools had decreased to 2 and there were 21 frame schools. Between 1917 and 1932, Logan County would have more Rosenwald structures than any other Kentucky county; there were 8 schools and a library [see NKAA entry for Rosenwald Schools]. The school in Adairville was supported by the Jeanes Fund and had a two year high school that was attended by 8 students in 1925 (Logan County Trade School), and there were 155 elementary students [source: Canon, pp.66-68]. The county school system would pay the tuition of students who wanted to attend Russellville City High School, a four year high school. The highest attendance at the Logan County colored schools was 1,049 for the school terms in 1904 and 1905 [source, Canon, pp.93-94]. In 1925, Margaret Holland was the county supervising industrial teacher in Adairville, she served for 7 months [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. By 1927, the attendance had decreased to 459. In 1930, the colored school in Knob City was taught by John Cooper [see M. Morrow, "The History of Russellville's Uncovered Cabin," News Democrat Leader, 03/04/2009, Opinions section, p.A4 [available online]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Logan County were Lee Butler, Jonella Dickerson, Alice Dunnigan, Vera H. Eidson, Helen First, Elisa Funt, Anna King, Heddy B. Lewis, Mattie McReynold, Frank Orndorff, Stella Ernestine Procter, Alice Ruth Procter, John William Roberts, Edwin Smith, Nannie Sweatt, Katherine Turner, James P. Walker, and George H. Wards [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, pp.439-440, were Russellville High School and Sacred Heart. The schools listed as "white & integrated" were Adairville, Auburn, Lewisburg, and Olmstead.

 

  • Colored Schools (27)
  • Adairville School
  • Adairville Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Auburn Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Johntown Training School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.875]
  • Keysburg School
  • Knob City School
  • Logan County Trade School [Principal A. M. Todd - source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926]
  • Russellville School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Logan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Louisville and Jefferson County, KY
Start Year : 1827
End Year : 1956
Some of the earliest schools for African Americans in Louisville, KY were established in the 1820s. In 1865, there were 7 colored schools with 12 teachers and 730 students [source: H. C. Burnett and H. S. Foote, "From Kentucky (4th paragraph)," New York Times, 07/23/1865, p.5]. There were at least three schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In the 1870s there were at least 15 schools. The first high school for African Americans in Kentucky was located in Louisville in 1873 and was mentioned in several leading newspapers in the United States [source: "The First Colored high school in Kentucky," The New York Times, 10/09/1873, p.1]. In 1880, there were more African American teachers in Louisville and Jefferson County than any other Kentucky town/city or county. The Jefferson County and Louisville teachers in 1880 were Silas Adams, Bell Alexander, Lucy Booker, Sallie Bowman, Thomas Brown, Albert Burgess, Isaac Caldwell, John Collins, Addie Couisins(?), M. F. Cox, L. C. Cox, Lucy Duvall, James Gray, Allen W. Henson, Martha Johnson, William A. Kenzie, W. P. Lewis, Mary Meed, Clarence M. Miller, Isidora Miller, William T. Peyton, Elizabeth Smiley, Mary S. Spradling, Mamie Sublett, Joseph Taylor, John Thomas, Frank Thomas, Tilda Walker, Anna Walker, Jenney Wise, E. C. Wood Sr., Silas Adams, Ada Bedford, Martha Buckner, Virginia Burks, Louretta Carter, Joseph M. Ferguson, Daniel Gaddy, Nancy Hickman, Mack McKinley, I. M. Maxwell, Eliza Jane Mitchell, Elizabeth Morris, Lizzie Patterson, Charles Preston, Mary Robeson, Larry Scott, Nellie Slaughter, Rebecca Smith, and Martha Webster [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1895, there were 23 colored schools and 22 teachers in the public school systems in Louisville and Jefferson County, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.457-461. {The number of schools, students, and teachers were undercounted by the superintendent.} The average attendance was 905 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 651 students during the 1896-97 school term. In 1925, there were 13 elementary schools in Jefferson County with 20 teachers, and in Louisville there were 155 elementary teachers and 32 high school teachers [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 & p.69]. In 1940, there were more than 400 Negro teachers in Louisville and Jefferson County [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Schools listed as having "white & colored" students in 1955 were Kentucky School for the Blind and St. Agnes [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]. The first schools to be listed as integrated are on pp. 432-436 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57: a total of 88 schools were noted as integrated, 17 schools in the Jefferson County School system, and 71 schools in the Louisville Independent School system.

 

  • Bannecker School
  • Bond School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • California School
  • Central School
  • Colored High School
  • Colored Normal School
  • Convent of the Good Shepherd - 518 S. 8th Street**
  • Cotter School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Frederick Douglas School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.49]
  • Dunbar School
  • DuValle Jr. High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Eastern School
  • Eight Ward School
  • Ely Normal School supported by the Bureau
  • Forest School (Anchorage) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.862]
  • Highland Park School
  • Immaculate Heart of Mary School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.218]
  • Industrial School of Know Mission for Colored Children - [founded in 1886, located at 1122 Madison Street, Louisville, KY, conducted by the Women's Missionary Society of the Presbytery of Louisville, KY]*
  • Industrial School of Reform, Colored Girls Building
  • Alexander Ingram School (Jeffersontown) [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.862]
  • Jacobs School (Harrods Creek)
  • Jeffersontown School
  • Jackson Street School
  • Kentucky Conference High School [source: The Christian Recorder, 10/02/1869 - - “…a preparatory school to Wilberforce University. …”]
  • Lincoln School
  • Louisville Christian Bible School - [opened in 1873 by W. H. Hopson, conducted by P. H. Morse for four years, school was an experiment] - - The Apostolic Times, 09/18/1873, p.4, col.s 2-3
  • Louisville Free Kindergarten Association, Colored Normal Department
  • Louisville Teacher Training School
  • Madison Street School
  • Maiden Lane School
  • Main Street School
  • Moore School
  • Newburg School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.70]
  • Orell School [source: Principal A. L. Garvin's Letter and correspondence within Dargan House collection (online) at Indiana University]
  • Parkland School
  • Pearl Street School
  • William H. Perry School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.217]
  • Portland School
  • Portland Freedmen School
  • Ridgewood School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.216]
  • Shelby Street School
  • South Louisville School
  • Special for Boys School [Prima F. Washington, Principal, school located at 13th and Liberty, source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.51]
  • St. Augustine School - 1314 W. Broadway**
  • St. Mark's High School - [incorporated in 1867 by trustees Rev. B. B. Smith, Joseph S. Atwell, N. B. Rogers, Jesse Meriwether, and John C. Towels, and as ex-officio, the Bishop of the Episcopal Church, school operated under the auspices of the Episcopal Church] - - Approved March 8, 1867, Chapter 1806, "An Act to Incorporate St. Mark's High School" in Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, 1867, v.II, pp.342-343.
  • St. Peter Claver - 532 Lampton Street**
  • Jane Grey Cannon Swisshelm School (1838)
  • Talbert School
  • Taylor School
  • Twelfth Ward School
  • Twenty-ninth Street School
  • Twenty-seventh and Cedar Streets School
  • Virginia Avenue School
  • Booker T. Washington School
  • Western School
  • Western Girls' High School
  • Wheatley School
  • Wilson Street School
  • Young School

 

See image of the Industrial School of Reform, Colored Girls Building, from Weeden's History of the Colored People of Louisville, at NYPL Digital Gallery.

 

For additional information about the early Colored schools in Louisville, see the entry "African American Education" in the Encyclopedia of Louisville, by J. E. Kleber; and see the references to "colored schools" within chapter 17 in volume 2 of History of the Ohio Falls Cities and Their Counties by L. A. Williams & Co.


Sources: *see Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1896-1897, p.765; for more on the Industrial School of Know Mission for Colored Children in Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 18, 0000UA129, File: Negro Schools. Located in the University of Kentucky Special Collections; **see "Mailing List: Catholic City Schools - 1935-1936" by the Diocese of Louisville, in Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 18, 0000UA129, File: Negro Schools. Located at the University of Kentucky Special Collections; see "Don't forget the date," Courier-Journal, 08/20/1906, p.2; "Teachers and their salaries," Courier-Journal, 05/28/1909, p.6; Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, 1909 and 1911; see the NKAA entry Early School in Louisville, KY; see photocopy image of South Park School in Jefferson County on p.30 at Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf]; and see the Kentucky Public School Directory. See also "Still I rise!" Public discourse surrounding the development of public schools for African Americans in Louisville, Kentucky, 1862 – 1872 by M. B. Robinson (dissertation).

 

Read about the oral history interviews on the 1975 first cross-district racial integration plan for Louisville schools: 1) Interview with Lyman  T. Johnson, February 29th, 1980, and 2) Interview with Judge James Gordon, March 12th, 1980.  
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Jefferson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Lyon County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, there were at least two colored schools in Lyon County, KY. William M. Smith was the teacher in Eddyville, and William Silvie was the teacher in Parkersville, both according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1886, the county had 11 colored school districts, with most of the school sessions held in churches [see the NKAA entry African American Schools 1886]. In 1895 another colored school district was added, bringing the total to 12 colored schools with seven log buildings and three frame buildings; nothing was mentioned about the other two school buildings in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp. 532-535. There was one teacher at each school with the average attendance of more than 250 students for all 12 schools each school term. From 1899-1903, there was one student from Lyon County, KY, studying at the Normal School for Colored Persons in Frankfort, KY [source: Biennial Report, 1899-1901, p. 144, and 1901-1903, p. 81]. The average attendance at the Lyon County colored schools fluctuated from year to year; during the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance was 200 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 407]. The teachers' average monthly salary was $27.00 in 1906 [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p. 431], and in 1910, $45.55 for male teachers and $34.58 for female teachers [source: Biennial Report, 1909-1911, p. 151]. There was a school in the African American community of Kansas in Lyon County, and pictures of the school children and what is thought to be the remains of the school house can be viewed at a Flickr site by The Nite Tripper. In 1916, Lucy Bond and R. H. Bond were the school teachers at the Eddyville colored school [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 25]. In 1925, there were seven colored schools in Lyon County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. In 1940, there were at least three Negro teachers in Lyon County: William Henderson in Eddyville; Christine Holland in Eddyville; and James Mathew in Kuttawa [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1962-63 school term, the Lyon County Elementary School in Eddyville became the first integrated school in Lyon County [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p. 140].

  • Parkersville School
  • Eddyville School
  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Kuttawa School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Oakland School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 876]
  • Kansas School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Lyon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Madison County, KY
Start Year : 1825
End Year : 1956
In his master's thesis, History of Education in Madison County, Robert E. Little wrote that in the first quarter of the 1800s, slave owner Green Clay taught his Negro overseers to read and write [p.42]. Also according to Little, it was around 1850 that slave owner Cabell Chenault built a school on his property for his slaves [p.42]. Chenault and his daughter taught at the school. It was in 1866 that the first public colored school was held in Madison County with as many as 34 students [sources: History of Education in Madison County, p.43; the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Education in Kentucky; and the NKAA entry African American Schools - Kentucky, 1866]. According to author Richard D. Sears, John H. Jackson taught a school class in Madison County in 1868, and Cornelius C. Vaughn taught at a freedmen's school in Richmond in 1870 [source: A Utopian Experiment in Kentucky by R. D. Sears, p.91]. There were several colored schools in Madison County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, the teachers in Madison County were William Crawford, Elizabeth Crawford, Mary E. Crawford, and Milley Crawford, all in Glade, KY; Belle Bleston in Richmond; and  John Harper in Kirksville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1880 to 1881, there were 14 colored schools and 14 teachers [Little, p.44], the schools were taught in churches and rented buildings, and there were only two or three colored school buildings [Little, p.45]. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature approved the Act that would allow Samuel Watts, Sydney Campbell, and Madison Tevis to build a school house for colored children in District 12, on land given to them by W. C. Peyton, which was less than a mile from the white school Silver Creek Academy also known as the Blythe School [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Regular Session - November 1881, v.II, Chapter 1327, p.878]. According to Little, in 1886, there were 27 colored schools [Little, p.172]. In 1888, there were still 27 colored school districts in Madison County, KY [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky for the school year ending June 30, 1886 and for the school year ending June 30, 1887]. There were as many as 34 colored schools in 1893 and in 1897 [Little, p.172], and the highest attendance was during the 1893-94 school term with 975 students [Little, p.174]. In 1903, there was a colored school in Berea [source: "Berea and vicinity," The Citizen, 11/26/1903, p.6; and the Joshua Crenshaw Report on the Berea Colored School 1905-06]. Within the Black American Series title, Berea and Madison County by J. G. Burnside, there are pictures of former students, teachers, and principals at Madison County colored schools. The pictures were taken prior to school desegregation in Bobtown, Farristown, Middletown, Peytontown, and Richmond. Also included are students and faculty at Berea College prior to segregation in 1904. Other Colored schools in Madison County in 1912 were Concord School, Richmond City School, Valley View School, and Calloway Creek School [source: "Graduation Diplomas," Richmond Climax, 02/07/1912, p.4]. During the school year 1932-33, there were 14 colored schools in Madison County [Little, p.172-173]. The Madison County Board of Education paid $4 per month, per county high school student who attended Richmond Colored High School; there was not a colored high school in the county. In 1940, the teachers in Madison County were Elizabeth Bates, Robert Blythe, Lena Blythe, Willie Campbell, Warfield B. Campbell, Bessie Covington, Nancy Blythe Deatherage, Millie Embry, McMagustar Estell, Principal Margaret Fletcher, Jarman Haynes, Bessie Irvine, Ms. Charles M. Irvine, R. H. Jackson, R. L. Johnson, Roanna Maupin, Cabal Merritt, Andrew Miller, Jarnie Moran, George W. Parks, Rev. F. H. Shipes, Katherine Taylor, Anna Turner, Georgie Walker, Julia A. Walker, Aritha White, Dorothy White, Hazel White, Maggie B. Wilson, and Estella Yates [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.440, were Central High School, and Foundation School (Private), and Madison-Model High School was listed as white & integrated. The Madison County schools were fully integrated in 1963.

*Corrections made to the spelling of teachers' names with information provided by Sharyn Mitchell, Research Services Specialist at Berea College, 03/2016.

 

  • Green Clay Slave School
  • Chenault Slave School
  • Colored Schools (34)
  • Berea College Foundation School [also referred to as Pasco School, records at Berea College Archives]
  • Berea Freedmen School
  • Bobtown School
  • Brassfield School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Calloway Creek School
  • Concord School
  • Farristown School
  • Glade School
  • Grapevine School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.876]
  • Kingston American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Kirksville School
  • Middletown Consolidated School
  • Peytontown School
  • Richmond American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Richmond Freedmen School
  • Richmond High School
  • Valley View School 

Subjects: Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Madison County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Madisonville and Hopkins County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1957
According to the 1866 Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, there was one colored school in Hopkins County. In 1880 there were several more schools and the teachers in Nebo were G. B. Barnett and Albert Morrow; Elsie Cooper was in Madisonville; and Mary O'Bryan was in Kitchen [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1888, there were 18 colored school districts [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. March 26, 1888, the Kentucky General Assembly approved an act for the city of Madisonville to establish a system of public schools for Colored children [source: Chapter 689, pp.472-475, Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Passed, Regular Session, v.2, 1888]. The system was to cover all points one mile from the center of the city, and the school district covered two miles out. The act outlined the structure of a Colored school board which would be responsible for the hiring of the teachers, the curriculum, and the operation of the school. Colored children only, between the ages of 6-20, would be allowed to attend the schools. The first school trustees were John R. Ross, George H. Speed, Alex Mitcheson, Ephraim Porter, and Edward Nisbet. A poll tax was to be collected from Colored property owners for the building of a school. A second poll tax was to be levied against the Colored male, head of households to pay the teachers' salaries and other expenses. The Earlington Colored School opened in 1891. The Atkinson Literary and Industrial College opened in 1892 in Madisonville. The Zion High School was located in Madisonville in 1893 [source: "Mrs. Celia Dunlap visited the Zion High School at Madisonville...," Bee, 02/23/1893, p.2]. In 1895, there were 24 colored schools in Hopkins County with 27 teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.444-448]. The average attendance was 940 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 850 students during the 1896-97 school term. Clarence Timberlake was superintendent of Colored schools in 1918, according to the Proceedings and Reports for the Year Ending 1918 by the John F. Slater Fund. Teachers and principals of the Madisonville Colored Schools are listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal (KNEA Journal), 1916-1950. In 1925, there were 9 elementary schools in the Hopkins County school system; and there were 6 elementary teachers and 3 high school teachers in Earlington; and 8 elementary teachers and 2 high school teachers in Madisonville [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.67 and p.69]. On the cover of the KNEA Journal, dated January-February 1933, vol.3, issue 2, is a picture of the newly built Rosenwald High School in Madisonville. William E. Lee was the principal of the 10 room school, which had an industrial department with brick-laying, mechanical drawing, and home economics. Other principals of the Madisonville Colored School from 1922 to 1941 were Nora B. Ross and Pearl M. Patton [source: The History of Education in Hopkins County, Kentucky by H. Ardis Simons]. The Negro teachers in Hopkins County in 1940 were Nettie M. Bass at Nortonville; Agnes Brasher at Dawson Springs; Laura Frazier, Grace G. Howard, Ida M. King, Lester Mimms, and Georgie B. Orton, all in Earlington; Mayme Parker, Vesta Pollard, Vader Pritchett, Nora Ross, Grace Noel Smith, Anna Lou Smith, Frances Talbert, Juanita Talley, Thomas J. Wheeler, Helen Noel, Mabel Lester, Mary Lovan, John Grace, Ruth Harvey, Alma Chambers, Rose J. Blythe, Ora B. Clements, and Ola Crowley, all in Madisonville [source: U.S. Federal Census].  See also the NKAA entry African American Schools in Earlington, KY. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Dawson Springs elementary and high school that had been for white students, on p.629 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58.

  • Colored Schools (24)
  • Atkinson Literary and Industrial College
  • Branch Street School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Dawson Springs School
  • Earlington School
  • Kitchen School
  • Madisonville School
  • J. W. Million School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Nebo Schools (2)
  • Nortonville School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.861]
  • Rosenwald High School
  • Zion High School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Hopkins County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Magoffin County, KY
Start Year : 1881
End Year : 1941
There was never more than one colored school in Magoffin County, KY, according to author Edgar W. Bailey in his thesis, History of Education in Magoffin County, pp. 34-35, 64-66. In 1881, there were 25 colored students in the school, and $14.50 was appropriated to the school by the state. The school was mentioned in the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. For some years the school was taught in one section of Magoffin County for half a school term, and then taught in another section of the county for the latter half of the school term. The school had elementary grades only and was supported by the state for the most part, with very little local support. There was never a colored high school in Magoffin County. Author Bailey explains that the, "Negro population is very sparse in the county. The colored census is gradually decreasing." --p.67. Between 1884 and 1931, the highest number of colored students who attended school was in 1902 with 17 students. The lowest number was 3, for the years 1914-16 and 1917-18. The teachers' average salary ranged from a low of $19.77 during the 1896-97 term, to a high of $36.75 during the 1911-12 school term. In 1925, there were no data for the colored school in Magoffin County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926. By 1930, there was again one school listed with an average attendance of 9 students taught by one teacher who earned $518 for the school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p.78]. In 1935, Mr. Erin Patrick, in Gullett, was one the three teachers in Magoffin County, according to the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.45 & p.61. In 1938, there were still three Negro teachers in Magoffin County, according to the "1938 K.N.E.A. Membership by counties" in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1938, v.9, no.1-2, p.54]. The three teachers continued to be noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory until the 1941-42 directory. The first school in Magoffin County to be listed as integrated was the Kentucky Mountain Gospel Crusade School, on p.120 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65.

  •  Colored School

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Magoffin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Marion County, KY
Start Year : 1824
End Year : 1956
Around 1824, Father Nerinckx, a Catholic priest and educator in Kentucky, started a Negro sisterhood in Loretto, KY, that in the long run was to provide a teaching sisterhood for the education of the colored race [source: The Growth and Development of the Catholic School System in the United States, by Rev. J. A. Burns, pp.232-233]. Several Negro children were adopted and educated, and in May of 1824, three of the girls were admitted to the religious veil. Father Nerinckx died a few months later and the project ended. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freemen School in Lebanon, Ky [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1869, the trustees of what was referred to as the African School of Lebanon, KY, were Senaca Wade, John McElroy, and Allen G. Drake; the trustees exchanged a lot of land with John Goggin, and the new land was thought to be a better location for the future colored school house [source: Acts of the General Assembly of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Adjourned Session 1869, chapter 1634, pp.539.540]. The Lebanon School for Colored Children was opened in 1872 by the Sisters of Loretto [source: Loretto: annals of the century by A. C. Minogue, p.236]. In 1880, Ella Maskes was the school teacher at the Lebanon Colored School [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There was a colored school in Raywick in 1888, but without a building or a teacher, and the school trustees did not accept the offer of a Sister from the Loretto Convent [source: Ten Years a Priest by Rev. John Culleton]. It took until January of 1890 for an agreement to be formed between the school trustees and Rev. Culleton; the colored school would be turned over to the Catholic Church and Rev. Culleton would see that a school house would be built in Raywick and a teacher from Ohio, Ms. Anna Culliton, would teach the school with one of the Sisters from the Loretto Convent [p.65]. It was agreed that until the colored school was completed, the Negro children would be taught in an unused room in the white school house. In response, The Louisville Times newspaper accused Rev. Culleton of ordering Negroes in Raywick to take charge of half the St. Martha School for white children. The new colored school building in Raywick opened during the spring of 1890. In 1894, the Poplar Corner School was constructed by the Marion County Board of Education, according to the history provided Ken Bell on his website Bells Chapel Restoration Project, August 2007. Ken Bell's aunt, Cleo Bell Spalding, was a teacher at the school. From 1895-1897, there were 13 colored schools in Marion County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.545-548]. Most of the schools were in session for 5 months. Though there were over 1,000 Negro children counted in the school census, the average attendance was 293 for 1895-96, and 286 for 1896-97. The schools were taught by 13-14 teachers each year. The average salary for 1895-96 was $50.72 for male teachers and $32.61 for female teachers, and the following school year, the salaries were $49.11 for males and $23.04 for females. The colored common schools graduates (grade 8) for the years 1897-1901, were Walker Roberts, Daniel Burton, Charles Johnson, Early Ray, James B. Maxwell, and Annie Carter [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1899-1901, p.66]. In 1916, Ms. Emma Rice, J. W. Roberts, and Ms. Georgia Thomas were the teachers at the Lebanon Colored Schools [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.34 & 36]. Also around 1916, there were two Catholic colored schools, St. Francis Xavier School in Raywick with 67 students and one teacher, and St. Charles School in St. Mary with 65 students and one teacher [source:Negro Education: a study of private and higher schools for Colored People in the United States, Department of the Inferior, Bureau of Education, Bulletin 1916, No. 39, V.II, p.278]. In 1925, there were 6 colored schools in Marion County, and 3 elementary schools and one high school in Lebanon [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-69]. The principal of the high school was J. B. Sterrett, and it was an A (accredited) school with five teachers and 143 students [Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.62]. In 1932, Ms. Nettie Lee Hughes was principal of the new Rosenwald School built in Lebanon, KY, the school was featured on the cover of the KNEA Journal, October-November 1932, v.3, no.1. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Marion County were Helen P. Foster, Mary D. Henderson, Mary E. Lancaster, Lelia R. Lyons, and Mary Smth [source: U.S. Federal Census]. St. Augustine School was the first in Marion County to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.440.

  • Sisterhood of Loretto - Negro Sisterhood School
  • Freedmen School
  • African School
  • Raywick School (pre-1890)
  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Lebanon School
  • Lebanon School for Colored Children (Sisters of Loretto)
  • St. Augustin Ladies' Academy in Lebanon [source: Progress of a Race, p.640]
  • St. Francis Xavier School
  • St. Charles School
  • St. Mary School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.877]
  • St Monica School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.223]
  • Rosenwald School
  • Banks Chapel / School
  • Poplar Corner School / Bells Chapel

See photo image of the Banks Chapel AME Zion Church / School at The Freedman flickr site.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marion County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Marshall County, KY
Start Year : 1874
End Year : 1928
The colored school districts in Marshall County, KY, were established in 1866, but with no schools until 1874, which was the only year that the two schools were open according to the thesis of Tullus Chambers, History of Education in Marshall County, p.39. The reason given for the closing of the schools was that there were too few students. Though attendance may have been low, there were more than a few Negro children in the county; according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were more than 100 Negro children in Marshall County between 5 and 18 years old in 1870 and in 1880. In 1886, there were still 3 colored school districts [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. There is a photo image online of the Walnut Grove, No.2 Colored School, the picture was taken between the 1880s and 1890s [source: Kentucky Department for Libraries and Archives Electronic Records Archives]. There were still more than 100 Negro children of school age in Marshall County in 1900, according to the census records, but the numbers would be greatly reduced as Negroes left Marshall County for other locations. The last colored school is listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory for 1927-1928, p.64; it was a county school with eight students and one teacher. In 1935, Tullus Chambers noted that there were only 5 Negro children in Marshall County, and the prior year, one of the children had attended the colored school in McCracken County because there was no longer a colored school in Marshall County [p.57]. The child's tuition had been paid by the Marshall County Board of Education. There was only one child of school age listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census and none in the 1940 Census. In 1938, there was a colored school at the Negro Village Site in Gilbertsville, KY; the school was part of he African American community that had been established by the Tennessee Valley Authority for work on the Kentucky Dam Project [see NKAA entry Negro Village Site]. The school was not included in the public school directory. The first school to be listed as integrated in Marshall County was St. Paul X, on p.141 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1962-63.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Negro Village School
  • Walnut Grove School [photo image at KDLA Electronic Records Archives

 

There are African American children on the far right of the picture of school children in Marshall County, KY. The photo image is in the Cora Wilson Stewart Photographic Collection, ca. 1900-1940, within the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Marshall County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Martin County, KY
There is no record of a colored school in Martin County, KY, though there were African American children of school age in the county [sources: Kentucky Public School Directory, Kentucky School Directory, Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, and Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky]. In 1880, there were about 18 children of school age, including the four children of William and Mahala Davidson. None of the children are listed in the U.S. Federal Census as being in school, and the older boys are listed as working on the farm. There continued to be a few African American children of school age in Martin County; it is not known if the children attended school in a neighboring county. In the 1940 U.S. Census, the Simpkins family had lived in Martin County in 1935 but had since moved to Grant, WV, where their children were enrolled in school. There is no listing of Martin County schools being integrated before 1965 in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Martin County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mason County, KY
Start Year : 1865
End Year : 1956
According to Kentucky author Marion B. Lucas, freemen in Maysville, Kentucky, opened a school prior to the end of the Civil War. There were at least four schools in Mason County that were supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In 1880, two of the colored school teachers were Annie B. Simpson in Orangeburg, and Wyatt N. Stewart in Maysville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. According to Elizabeth Jefferson Dabney, in her thesis, The History of Education in Mason County, Kentucky, "There is little statistical material available in regard to the general report of the Negro schools. The only years between 1874 and 1890 for which a report could be found were the years 1880 and 1881" [p.68]. There were nine colored schools in Mason County in 1880, and 12 schools in 1881 [Dabney, p.68]. A year later, in 1882, one of the colored schools had a high school, and there were 40 students. The principal D. L. V. Moffitt resigned at the end of the school year [see citation below]. In 1891, there were 15 colored schools [Dabney, p.160], one of the schools was in Maysville led by Charles Harris, the principal, and three assistants, Miss Britton, Miss Barbee, and Miss Smith. Another school was in the community of Washington and was led by Miss Belle F. Chew, from Cleveland, OH, and she was assisted by Miss Mary Bookram from Oberlin, OH [source: "About men and women," Cleveland Gazette, 05/09/1891, p.3]. According to author Dabney, the 1891 superintendent's report stated that most of the teachers at the Mason County colored schools came from Cincinnati, Dayton, Cleveland, and Stubenville, Ohio [p.160]. Other colored schools that existed during the 1890-1891 school term are listed in Dabney's thesis as Dover School No.106; Minerva School No.105; Mayslick District No.101; Charleston No.109; and Murphysville No.110 [pp.171-172]. The Maysville Colored School continued into the 1900s, and in 1904, there was a complaint made to the Maysville Board of Education that there were not enough teachers at the colored school [source: "There was no business...," Evening Bulletin, 10/01/1904, p.1]. In 1915, the Maysville Colored Moonlight School was reported by Cora W. Stewart to be one of the best for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools by Y. H. Baldwin]. In 1925, there were two colored high schools in Mason County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. At the high school in Mayslick, Mrs. L. F. Berven was principal; it was a Class 3 school with one teacher and 7 students. In Maysville, there was also a Class 3 high school. There was also a county training school in Mayslick with Mrs. L. F. Brown as the principal along with 3 teachers who earned an average salary of $853; there were 2 years of high school and an 8 month school term [p.65]. By 1930, there were eight colored schools according to Dabney [p.160]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Mason County were James Batly, Ethel Boulden, Elizabeth Bowens, Edna Cunningham, Virginia Doley, Charlton Fields, Virgil Ford, Emory Gentry, Tioltha Howard, Jesse R. Howell, Bertie Howell, Helen L. Humphrey, Beatrice Lewis, Eleanor Mathias, Adeline Mlecher(?), Meria J. Smith, and Ida Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, was the Orangeburg High School, on p.441. Also listed were schools with the notation of "white & integrated": Mayslick High School (previously a school for whites), Minerva High School, Washington Jr. High School, and Maysville High and Center Graded School. For more see A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. Lucas; see "D. L. V. Moffitt...," and "Our public schools," both articles in the Evening Bulletin, 06/01/1882, p.3; "The Colored school commencement in every way excellent - interesting program rendered," Evening Bulletin, 06/14/1902, p.1; and see the c.1910 photo image of the Maysville and Mason County colored schools at the Northern Kentucky Views website.

  • Colored Schools (15)
  • Charleston School
  • Dover School
  • Mayslick - American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Mayslick School
  • Maysville School
  • Maysville American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Maysville Freedmen School
  • Maysville John Fee High School
  • Minerva School
  • Moonlight School
  • Murphysville School
  • Orangeburg School
  • Washington School
  • Washington Freedmen School

See photo image (near bottom of page) of Maysville Colored High School at the Northern Kentucky Views website.

See photo images (mid-way down the page) of the Mason County colored schools at the Northern Kentucky Views website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Maysville and Washington, Mason County, Kentucky

African American Schools in McCreary County, KY
Start Year : 1925
End Year : 1951
McCreary County, formed in 1912, was the last county established in Kentucky. It is not known when the colored school in McCreary County, KY, opened. In 1925, there were 6 children enrolled in the one colored elementary school in Stearns [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68; and subsequent volumes]. The school is listed in the 1926 Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, p.64. In 1936, McCreary County was listed as having one Negro teacher in the 9th District of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1936, p.58]. The independent colored school located in Stearns, would never have more than 20 students. During the 1946-47 school term, there were only 4 students enrolled [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.647]. The 1950-51 school term of the colored school, which had 3 students, was the last with a teacher listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, p.977. The 1952-53 term was the last with a listing of Negro children in the school census for McCreary County [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.433]. There were no schools in McCreary County listed as integrated prior to 1965 in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory.

  • Stearns School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: McCreary County, Kentucky

African American Schools in McLean County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
Within the 1886 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, it was reported that McLean County had five colored district schools that were taught in churches [see the NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. The schools were held three to five months [source: A History of Education in McLean County, Kentucky by Leonard C. Taylor, p.33]. There were seven colored schools in 1890, and by 1939, there were three [source: Taylor, pp.58 & 62]. The Livermore Colored School operated for nine months and had 17 students. The other colored schools were in Calhoun and Sacramento [source: "Sacramento Black School by Janey Johnston - 1992" in Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky]. Miss Geneva Clayborne, Miss Mary E. Eads, and Mrs. M. L. Humphrey, all of whom lived in Calhoun, were the teachers listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, pp.54, 57, & 63. The Sacramento school was a one room building located behind the Sacramento Methodist Church. There is a picture of the teacher and students on the page titled "Sacramento Black School 1918-1920" in Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky. There was not a colored high school in McLean County; the high school students were transported each day to Western High School in Owensboro, and the transportation was paid by the county board of education. In 1939, the school attendance for Negro children in McLean County was 40 and five were high school students [source: Taylor, p.63]. Siblings Betty Jean and Henry Thomas were the first Negro students from Sacramento, KY, to graduate from high school [source: Down Memory Lane in Sacramento, Kentucky]. In 1940, there was one Negro teacher, Myrtle Green, listed in the U.S. Federal Census for McLean County. Myrtle Green was at Calhoun. The prior year, there had been three Negro teachers in McLean County, and in 1940, there were two, one in Calhoun and one in the Livermore Independent Colored School [sources: "K.N.E.A. membership by counties," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1939, v.9, no.s 1-3, p.53; and Kentucky Public School Directory, 1940-41, p.866]. The Sacramento Colored School had closed, leaving the Calhoun Colored School that had an enrollment of 18 students, and the Livermore Colored School that had an enrollment of 15 students. The Livermore Colored School was last listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1949-50, p.541; there were four students enrolled in the school. The listing of the last colored school in McLean County is on p.224 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56; there was an enrollment of 15 students.  The following year, there was the first listing of integrated schools: Calhoun, Livermore, and Sacramento, on p.442 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Livermore School
  • Calhoun School
  • Sacramento School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: McLean County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Meade County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, at least two freedmen schools existed in Meade County, KY, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. One school was located in Brandenburg, the other in Haysville. Both of the school buildings were burnt down by those opposed to schools for African Americans; however, the school in Brandenburg continued in a rented building. In 1880, Edward Williams was the school teacher in Meadville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. From 1895-1897, there were nine colored schools in Meade County, with three schools held in log cabins and six in frame buildings in 1895 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp. 572-576]. About 200 students attended the schools during the five month school term. There was one teacher at each school: three male teachers and six female teachers. The African American teachers' average monthly salary for the school term 1896-97 was $25.72 for the males and $24.89 for the females. By 1907, the average monthly wages for the teachers at the colored schools was $24.00 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Schools, 1905-1907, p. 431]. In 1916, A. L. Poole was the teacher in Brandenburg, J. A. Starks at Ekron, and S. W. Starks at Sirocco [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp. 34 & 36]. In 1923, Professor S. W. Starks was still the teacher in Sirocco, and Mr. J. A. Starks was still the teacher in Ekron [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p. 75]. Meade County would have as many as six Negro teachers during the 1920s, according to various issues of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association (KNEA) Journal. In 1931, there was a two-year high school program at the Brandenburg Colored School [source: KNEA Journal, February 1931, vol. 1, no.3 , p. 11], with seven students in the high school program, all taught by one teacher who earned $840 for the school year [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, p. 81]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Meade County were Anna B. Payne and John Lewis Pool, both in Brandenburg, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The Meade County Schools began to integrate during the 1956-57 school term at Meade County High School, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, p. 442. See also Commencement Program of Meade County Colored Elementary Schools held at the Brandenburg Baptist Church, Brandenburg, KY, March 26, 1943.

  • Brandenburg Freedmen School
  • Haysville Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Brandenburg Elementary and High School
  • Guston School
  • Meadville School
  • Ekron School
  • Sirocco School
  • Zion Grove School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Meade County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Menifee County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1955
There was one colored school in Menifee County, KY, from as early as 1886 [see NKAA entry African American Schools 1886]. In 1895, the school house, made of log, was located in the one colored school district [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, July 1895-June 1897, pp. 577-580]. The average attendance of eight students (1896-97) was taught by a single teacher. There continued to be one teacher in the one colored school from 1928-1939 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p. 27, up to Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1939, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 53]. The colored school is listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory up to 1955 when there were six students enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1954-55, p. 579]. There were no schools listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory or the Kentucky School Directory prior to the 1964-65 school term.

  • Colored School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Menifee County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mercer County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866 there was a colored school in Mercer County, KY, according to the Annual Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky. An early teacher, Susan Mary Craig, was one of the first African American school teachers in Harrodsburg, KY, according to the thesis by William M. Wesley: The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, pp. 186-201 and p. 205. Susan Mary Craig had attended a white school and taught students in Harrodsburg before the Civil War. She opened a school after the war, located on Fort Street and later moved to Greenville Street. Another teacher was Landonia Simms from Ohio, who was hired by Craig to teach at her school. After the death of Susan Mary Craig, Sallie Ann Taylor began teaching at the school. Taylor is often noted as the first African American teacher in Harrodsburg. Another teacher was a Dr. Jackson, who moved the Craig School to the basement of the New Methodist Church. The school was later taught by Dr. I. H. Welch. Another school was started by Ellen Craig Harris, the daughter of Susan Mary Craig. Classes were held in Ellen Harris' home for 40-50 students who paid $1 per month for instruction. The State Association of Colored Teachers was formed in 1877, and the second annual meeting was held in Mercer County, August 7, 1878 [source: The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, p. 185]. The colored schools in Mercer County were still operating independently in the 1870s. In 1880, the teachers at the colored schools were Samuel Gill at McAfee; Nathan Singleton at Salvisa; and George Craig (son of Susan Mary Craig), James T. Harris, and Mattie Nerick, all in Harrodsburg [source: U.S. Federal Census]. W. E. Newsom would become a teacher in Mercer County, teaching from 1888-1891. During this time, the city of Harrodsburg had at least two colored schools, one in the basement of St. Peter's Church and one at the corner of Lexington and Warrick Streets. By 1893, there were 10 colored schools in Mercer County, according to the county superintendent's report. In 1903, A. L. Garvin became principal of Harrodsburg Colored School, and a new school building was constructed on four acres of land. There were Colored Moonlight Schools in every colored school district in Mercer County in 1911. There were eight school districts [source: 1911 Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction]. Principal A. L. Garvin left Mercer County in 1920, and Maynette M. Elliott became principal of Harrodsburg Colored School; she was the granddaughter of Susan Mary Craig. (Her name is given as Mattie Elliott in the census records.) By 1929, there were five colored schools in Mercer County, including Rosenwald Schools in Maye, Salvisa, and Unity; and schools in rented buildings in Burgin and Robinson Row. In 1930, Maynette M. Elliott was principal of the newly constructed West Side School in Harrodsburg. The school held the elementary grades and the approved four-year high school grades. The cost of the school was covered in part by $4,000 from the Julius Rosenwald Fund [source: "Counties aided on buildings," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 2, issue 2, p. 23]. A picture of the school is on the cover of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 2, issue 1 (October-November 1931), and additional information about the school is on p. 6. Another school in Mercer County was Wayman Institute, established in 1890 just outside Harrodsburg, KY; it was owned by the Kentucky Conference of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (A.M.E.) [source The History of Education of Mercer County, Kentucky, pp. 196-201]. The first school teacher for Wayman Institute was Dr. I. H. Welch, who had resigned as the school teacher of the New Methodist Church School. Dr. Welch taught the first class of Wayman Institute in the lecture room of St. Peter's Church. The students came from surrounding counties and boarded with families in Harrodsburg. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Mercer County were Helen Boston, Florence Coleman, Jane Franklin, Mary Franklin, Carol Franklin, Nellie C. Gillispie, Annie R. Hayes, Cecelia Jackson, Bertha Lewis in Burgin, Beulah Sallee, Janetta Taylor, and Lesta Washam [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools in Mercer County to be listed as integrated were the Mercer County High School, Burgin Independent (integrated, colored, and white), and Harrodsburg High School, on p.442 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Susan Mary Craig School
  • Ellen Craig Harris School
  • McAfee School
  • New Methodist Church School
  • St. Peter's Church School
  • Lexington / Warrick Street School
  • Harrodsburg School
  • Maye School
  • Salvisa School
  • Unity School
  • Burgin School
  • Robinson Row School
  • Moonlight Schools (8)
  • Wayman Institute
  • West Side School
  • Mayo School

 

  See photo image of the Mayo School, in Kentucky Digital Library. 

 

 

Access Interview Listen to the Mercer County African American Oral History recordings for more about colored schools in Mercer County, KY, at "Pass the Word" a Kentucky Historical Society website.  
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Mercer County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Metcalfe County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1963
In 1880, a colored school in Edmonton, KY, employed a 30 year old teacher named Ellen J. Butler, a widow who was a boarder with the John Jones family [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were seven colored school districts in Metcalfe County, KY [see the NKAA entry for African American Schools 1886]. Thomas J. Ray was a teacher in Edmonton as early as 1916 and at least as late as 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p. 34; and April 18-21, 1923, p. 72]. There were still seven colored schools in 1925, all elementary schools, with one teacher each [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68]. The following year, another colored school was opened, and there were nine teachers at the eight schools [source: Kenucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p. 82]. In 1931, there were 10 Negro teachers in the Metcalfe County schools [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1931, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 19]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Metcalfe County included Zenobia Brewes and Lola A. Mitchell [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Another teacher was Robert Lee Smith, who retired in 1942 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, November-December, 1942, vol. 13, no. 1, p. 7]. During the 1942-43 school term, the number of colored schools had fallen to six [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1942-1943, p. 1116]. The Metcalfe County High School was listed as the first integrated school in Metcalfe County in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p. 134].

  • Colored Schools (8)
  • Edmonton School
  • Blue Springs School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Cedar Top School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]
  • Summer Shade School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 880]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Metcalfe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Monroe County, KY
Start Year : 1846
End Year : 1963
In 1846, the Mt. Vernon Church was built in Gamaliel, KY, and the building also served as a school [source: Black Heritage Sites by N. C. Curtis, pp.99-100]. The church and school were established near Freetown, and the dual purpose log structure was built by George Pipkin, Albert Howard, and Peter West. Between 1866 and 1870, there was a Freedmen School in Tompkinsville, KY, supported by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands; however, the school was burned down [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. In 1886, there were five colored schools in Monroe County, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 9 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, pp.591-594]. Four of the 9 school houses were made of logs, and 5 were frame structures, and during the 1896-97 school term another colored district was added, but classes were not held because there was not a school house or a teacher. During the 1895 school year, there were 80 students attending school regularly, and the following year there was an average of 133 students each school day. Each of the 9 schools had one teacher. In 1919, there was a Colored Moonlight School in Monroe County [see NKAA entry African American Moonlight Schools]. In 1926, the teachers at the Gamaliel Colored School were Mrs. Elma and Mr. Roscoe W. Pipkin [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.54], classes were still held in the Mt. Vernon Church [source: Curtis, p.100]. The African American children of Monroe County attended high school in Hickory Ridge [source: Curtis, p.100]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Monroe County were Kate Barkesdale, Vera Edwards, Roscoe W. Pipkin, Elma Pipkin, and Winfred Pipkin [source: U.S. Federal Census]. School integration started during the 1963-64 school term at the following schools: Fountain Run, Gamaliel Elementary and High School, and Tompkinsville High School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.134].

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Tompkinsville Freedmen School
  • Gamaliel School
  • Fountain Run School
  • Hickory Ridge School
  • Moonlight School
  • Roy's Chapel School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22, File: Monroe County, Title: WPA 3, Monroe Co. - Education (Lenneth Jones-643-4), List of Schools, p.4, July 16, 1939]
  • Forkton School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Tooley's Ridge School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]
  • Bethlehem School [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 22...]

  See photo image of the Mt. Vernon Church and School at Gamaliel, at the flickr site by The Freedman.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Monroe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Morgan County, KY
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1907
It is not known when the first colored schools opened in Morgan County, KY, but there were 7 free Blacks attending school in Morgan County in 1850, according to author M. B. Lucas in his book A History of Blacks in Kentucky, 2003, p.145. In 1906, there were at least five Negro teachers who received teaching certificates in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905 - June 1907, p. 421]. During the 1906-1907 school term, the average attendance at the one colored school was 11 students [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, pp. 407 & 345], and there was one teacher in the school, it was the teacher's first year teaching in Morgan County [source: Biennial Report, 1905-1907, p.427]. Very little data about the colored school, teachers, and students in Morgan County were published in the biennial reports from the Kentucky Superintendent's Office. The colored school is not mentioned in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926 or any of the subsequent volumes. During the 1961-1962 school term, the Salem Schools were the first in Morgan County to integrate [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 882].

  • Colored School (1850)
  • Colored School (1906)
  • Salem School

*This entry was completed with assistance from Morgan County, KY, historian Ron Gevedon.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Morgan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1964
Between 1866 and 1870, there were two schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The first school for Colored children in Montgomery County was thought to be established in 1881 with Mrs. Anna Thompson as the teacher, according to Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. The school was held in a one-room building located at the corner of Queen and Locust Streets in Smithville, the present location of Keas Tabernacle CME Church. There was actually other colored schools in Montgomery County; in 1880 the teachers were Anna Belle Botts and Victoria Clarke, both in Mt. Sterling; Alex Davis in Aarons Run; and Sarah Jackson in Smithville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first commencement of the Mt. Sterling Colored School was held in 1891, and Professor J. S. Estill had completed his first year as principal of the school. In 1892, J. Green Trimble offered a lot on his farm for a colored church, and he also offered for sale, at the lowest price, a lot for a colored high school [source: "Highland Park," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 07/05/1892, p. 4]. There were 12 colored schools in Montgomery County in 1895 [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp. 595-598]. The average attendance was 696 students taught by 17 teachers during the 1895-96 school term, and 900 students taught by 19 teachers for 1896-97. The average wages for male teachers was $34.00 and the female teachers earned $33.00 per month, 1895-96, and the following year, male teachers earned $38.00 and female teachers earned $35.00. The majority of the teachers were fairly well educated and more than two-thirds of them held a first class teaching certificate. In 1899, Professor Estill presented diplomas to the graduates during the commencement exercises at the court house [source: "Colored School commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/09/1899, p. 3]. It was reported in the Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/04/1900, p. 7, that there were no colored county schools in Montgomery County, "as there are not exceeding ten colored children of school age in the county." This wasn't exactly true; according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, in Montgomery County, KY (including Mt. Sterling) there were at least 891 Blacks who were 10 to 20 years old. In 1914, the Colored Moonlight School held classes in the Mt. Sterling Colored School: there were 75 students, the most at any one Moonlight School in Montgomery County [source: "Moonlight schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1914, p. 1]. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Mt. Sterling Colored Moonlight School was one of the best for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools, by Y. H. Baldwin]. In 1918, the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal was Prof. George W. Adams, who had come to the school in 1914. At the end of the school year in 1915, the school had the first grammar school commencement [sources: Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/01/1918, "The School children of the city...," p. 1, and "A Nice compliment," p. 2; and "Commencement exercises of colored school," 06/02/1915, p. 1]. The previous principal, Professor Estill, had left in 1914 for a teaching position at the Colored Normal School [today Kentucky State University]; his replacement was Prof. George W. Adams, who came from the Glendale Reform School in Lexington [source: "Goes to Frankfort," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 10/14/1914, p. 5]. Professor Adams resigned in 1918 to take a position with the National Benefit Life Insurance Company in Washington, D.C. and was replaced by Mrs. Robert [Cathryn] Gatewood [source: "Colored principal resigns," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 01/29/1918, p. 4]. Prof. George W. Adams was back in 1919, serving as superintendent of the Mt. Sterling colored schools [source: "Colored commencement," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 05/20/1919, p. 9]. Professor Adams' return coincided with the organizing of the colored county school system in Montgomery County, one of the schools was named Prewitt School, mentioned under the heading "Prewitt Descendants" on p. 25 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris. In the fall of 1919, plans were made for the construction of the Colored Training School to serve Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County [source: "The Right spirit," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 09/09/1919, p. 5]. J. W. Muir was the Mt. Sterling Colored School principal in 1922, and the new teachers were Miss Barnes, Miss Coons, and Miss Keller [source: "Teachers selected for city schools," Mt. Sterling Advocate, 06/08/1922, p. 1]. In 1930, there were two high schools: Montgomery County Colored School and Mt. Sterling Colored School [source: "Colored high schools--Kentucky, 1930-31," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 1, issue 1, pp. 23-24]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Montgomery County were Anna J. Black, Dwena Carrington, Viola Chenault, Robin Hamilton Davis, Judia Davis, William Ethel, Katherine Gatewood, Amilda Gatewood, William Hawkins, Wayman Hockett, Margaret Hockett, Susie Jones, Cornie McClure, and Melinda Preevitt [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The two Negro high schools were consolidated in 1952, and in 1964 the schools in Montgomery County were fully integrated after DuBois High School was burned down. The St. Partrick School in Mt. Sterling was the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1015. For more on the history of the colored schools in Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County, see the "Schools - 1881-1964" on pp. 17-18 in Montgomery County Kentucky Bicentennial, 1774-1974, by S. A. Harris.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Aarons Run School
  • Smithville School
  • DuBois School (built in 1939)
  • Montgomery County High School
  • Moonlight School
  • Mt. Sterling American Missionary Association School supported by the Bureau
  • Mt. Sterling Freedmen School
  • Mt. Sterling School
  • Mt. Sterling High School
  • Prewitt School
  • Training School of Mt. Sterling and Montgomery County

  See photo image of the Montgomery County Training School on p. 32 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Mount Sterling, Montgomery County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Muhlenberg County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1962
One of the teachers at a colored school in Muhlenberg County was William H. Ross, who left teaching in 1887 to open a grocery store.  Between 1891 and 1893, there were 14 African American teachers in Muhlenberg County colored schools, with an average monthly pay of $29.06 for male teachers and $28.10 for female teachers [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. Sallie L. Waddleton Campbell was a school teacher at the Central City Colored School in 1894; she was the wife of William J. Campbell. The school houses and grounds were valued at $1,258.00 and the furniture at $74.50. There was a new school built in 1893 that cost $25. In total, there were 13 school districts with 13 schools: 2 schools in session for 3 months; 2 in session for 4 months; and 9 in session for 5 months. Six of the schools were log buildings and three were frame, and there was no mention of where the remaining schools were held. None of the schools were in good condition (not including the new building) [source: History of Education in Muhlenberg County by C. E. Vincent, pp.92-96]. There were 14 colored schools in Muhlenberg County again in 1895, according to Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.603-607. Six of the schools were held in log buildings and 4 were held in a frame structure, and there is no mention of where the remaining 2 schools were held. The average attendance was 309 students 1895-96, and 333 students 1896-97. In 1909, the colored schools at Bevier and Drakesboro needed furnishings and repairs, and the same was true for most of the colored schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "A Plea to the members of the fiscal court," The Record, 03/18/1909, p. 3]. Professor William Holloway was the principal of the Drakesboro Community School in 1937; the school was the result of the consolidation of rural schools in Muhlenberg County [source: "1937 K.N.E.A. Honor Roll" on p. 14, and "Education since the War of 1917" on p. 22, in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1937]. The Negro teachers in Muhlenberg County in 1940 were W. E. Bennett, Jennie V. Bord, Drusilla Dulin, Blanche Elliott, Willie Hightower, Amelin Jones, Louis Littlepage, Richard McReynolds, Robert Martin, Goward Mathis, Cathonia Morris, Eligh Render, Mabel W. Render, Sophronia Robinson, Corrie L. Smith, Leslie S. Smith, Naomi Smith, Lillian Tichenor, Iva Y. Traylor, Vernetta Walker, Eloise Walker, James Waterfield, and James Watson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1949, the colored school in Greenville had Mrs. Blonnie Shelton as the teacher, and C. L. Timberlake was principal of the County Teachers Training School [source: "The New president at the West Kentucky Vocational Training School, Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, March 1949, vol. 20, issue 2, pp. 12 & 18]. The St. Joseph Elementary and High School were the first schools to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.146.

  • Colored Schools (14)
  • Bevier School
  • Central City School
  • Drakesboro School
  • Drakesboro Community School
  • Greenville School

Central City Negro School See photo image of the Central City Negro School, in the Kentucky Digital Library online.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bevier, Central City, Drakesboro, and Greenville, Muhlenberg County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Nelson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Between 1866 and 1870, there were three colored schools in Nelson County, KY, funded by the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands. There was a Freedmen school in Bardstown and one in Bloomfield, and a school run by the American Missionary Association in Springfield [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The New Haven School for Colored Children opened in 1869, it was a Catholic school managed by the Sisters of Loretto [source: Loretto: annals of the century by A. C. Minogue, p. 236]. In 1871, St. Monica's School for Colored Children opened in Bardstown and was run by the Sisters of Charity [sources: The Sisters of Charity of Nazareth, Kentucky by A. B. McGill, pp.287 & 399; and The History of Catholic Education in Nelson County (thesis) by Sister M. R. O'Leary, pp.94-95]. In 1880 there were at least 7 Negro school teachers in Nelson County; Daniel Peppers in the Bardstown; James Richardson in Bloomfield; 17 year old Fannie Davis in Bloomfield; Mollie Johnson in Boston; Henry Miller in Nelson Furnace; and J. W. Richards and his wife Florida in Bloomfield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The number of colored schools in Nelson County continued to grow, and by 1895, there were 16 schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp.609-612]. There was one teacher at each of the schools, and in 1895, there was an additional teacher at the two schools with a high school program. The teachers' average pay, 1899-1900, was $48.37, and for 1900-1901, it was $39.55 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1899-1901, p.455]. Six students from Nelson County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons during the 1902-1903 school term, and 400 or more students attended the colored schools in Nelson County 1901-1903 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1901-1903, pp.81 & 329]. In 1916, the school in Fairfield was taught by Nelson Bryant, and the school in New Haven was taught by Willa F. and M. B. Claggett [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.26]. The school in Cox's Creek was taught by Mrs. Dora Hutchinson in 1929 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.46]; Mrs. Hattie Davis was the teacher in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.53]; and in 1947, Miss Dora Davis was a teacher at the school, she is listed in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal as a sustaining member of KNEA, on p.36 of the January-February issue, v.18, no.1. Lena Berry Whitney was a teacher at Chaplin in 1940; she is listed as an honor member of KNEA in 1943 and 1944 [source: 1940 U.S. Federal Census; Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January-February 1943, v.13, no.2, p.31, and February-March 1944, v.15, no.3, p.23]. The Negro teachers in Nelson County in 1940 were Bell Bauman, Jessie B. Cherry, Hattie Davis, Hattie Hansford, Elizabeth Hardin, Sallie P. Lewis, Martha Lewis, Richard Lee Livers, Steve Samuels, Sherman L. Smith, Fannie B. Smith, Lena B. Whitney, and Charles Woodson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first Nelson County schools integrated during the 1956-57 school term were New Haven School, Nazareth Academy, and St. Joseph Preparatory School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.443].

  • Bardstown Freedmen's School
  • Bloomfield Freedmen's School
  • Springfield American Missionary Association School (funded by the Bureau)
  • New Haven Catholic School
  • St. Monica School
  • Colored Schools (16)
  • New Haven School
  • Boston School
  • Nelson Furnace School
  • Fairfield School
  • Chaplin School
  • Cox's Creek School
  • Eli H. Brown, Jr. School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.225]
  • Bardstown Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.225]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Nelson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Nicholas County, KY
Start Year : 1867
End Year : 1955
One of the earliest colored schools in Nicholas County, KY, was located in Carlisle, it was a Freedmen School supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The year 1867 is the date given as the beginning of the colored school system in Nicholas County by author Mary Bradley Moss, in her thesis The History of Education of Nicholas County, p.104. In 1880, Samuel Mitchell was the teacher at Head Quarters [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first report about the schools was recorded in 1881. There were four colored schools, one of which was held in the old jail house in Carlisle, and the other three were held in log cabins [source: Moss, p.104]. The school sessions were held for 2-3 months per year. By 1891, there were seven colored school districts with one school in each district, and the overall attendance ranged from 228 students to 150 students. Male teachers earned $30.16 per month and female teachers earned $30.47 per month [source: Moss, p.105]. In 1897, the school in Henryville was replaced with a new two story, frame building and there were two teachers [source: Moss, p.106]. The number of colored schools began to decrease in 1894, and by 1928, there were four: Henryville (2 schools), Moorefield, and Headquarters [source: Moss, p.107]. The principal at the Henryville Colored School taught the high school department and two female teachers taught the other grades [source: Moss, pp.107-108]. At the Henryville school, the principal was a high school graduate and earned $75.00 per month, while the female teachers had two years of college and earned $93.15 per month. All three were the highest paid teachers at the colored schools. The colored schools were under the county school system [source: Moss, p.109]. In 1916, Mary E. White and Mary F. Williams were two of the three teachers who were members of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.38]. Mrs. Lizzie D. McGowan was one of the school teachers in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.67]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Nicholas County were Ethel L. Jones, Carrie D. Murray, and Mary Francis Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Prior to the beginning of school desegregation at the Carlisle High School in 1955, Negro high school students in Nicholas County were bused to Western High School in Paris, KY [source: Finding the Fifties by D. J. Dampier; and History of Nicholas Countyby J. W. Conley]. The Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p. 444, lists the Carlisle Independent High School as the first in the county to start integrating the student population.

  • Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (7)
  • Carlisle School
  • Henryville School (2)
  • Moorefield School
  • Headquarters School
  • Booker T. Washington School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.883]

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Nicholas County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Ohio County, KY
Start Year : 1878
End Year : 1962
In 1878, there was a bill in the Kentucky Senate to authorize the building of a colored school in District 1 of Ohio County [source: Journal of the Regular Session of the Senate of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, December 1877, p.764]. The bill was said to have passed due to the Democrat vote, according to the article "Colored voters remember..." in the Hartford Herald, 08/01/1877, p.2. The school teacher at the Hartford Colored School in 1880 was Joe C. H. Taylor and the school year began in September [source: Hartford Herald, "The colored school...," 09/01/1880, p.3]. Prof. McDowell from Bowling Green, KY was the teacher at the Hayti Colored School [source: "Prof. McDowell...," Hartford Herald, 09/10/1884, p.3]. In 1886 there were 11 colored schools in Ohio County, according to the Kentucky Superintendent Report, and by 1899 there 8 school districts reported in the article "Statistics" in the Hartford Republican, 06/02/1899, p.3. In 1892, there was an investigation by the Hartford Herald on behalf of the colored schools and the colored teachers who had not received their pay. The newspaper reviewed the bookkeeping of the Ohio County school superintendent and determined the colored teachers were owed their pay [source: "In case a suit is brought..." and "Cowering beneath the Herald's revelations" both in the Hartford Herald, 10/26/1892, p.2] The debate about the disposition of the colored school fund became a political disagreement between the Democrats and Republicans as to which had done more for the Negro. Other schools in Ohio County included Rockport Colored School in District 9 with P. A. Gary as the teacher [source: "Report," Hartford Republican, 11/17/1893, p.4]. The Sulphur Springs Colored School teacher was Samantha Bracken during the 1893-94 school year [source: "Program," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.2]. There was a colored school in McHenry as early as 1894 when Miss Charlotte Eidson was the teacher [source: "McHenry Colored School," Hartford Republican, 01/19/1894, p.1]. L. W. Smith was the McHenry school teacher in 1904 [source: "The Guess candle," Hartford Herald, 01/20/1904, p.3]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Ohio County were Delois Eidson, Kenneth Eidson, William C. Jackson, Mittie K. Render, and Ethel Tichenor [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated were  Beaver Dam Elementary and High School; Hartford Elementary and High School; and Wayland Alexander School, all on p.147 of the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63

  • Bruce School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.883]
  • Hayti School
  • Hartford School
  • McHenry School
  • Rockport School
  • Sulphur Springs School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Ohio County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Oldham County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
H. C. Marrs is credited for one of the earliest colored schools in Oldham County, KY; the school was in session in 1866, and the following year, Elijah P. Marrs took over the school for his brother, H.C Marrs, who left to teach in Lexington, KY [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during Reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.116].  Between 1866 and 1870, there were two colored schools supported by the Freedmen's Bureau in Oldham County, KY: one school in LaGrange and one in Peewee Valley [see the NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. In 1880 two of the teachers in the colored schools were Lewis E. Carter, who lived in Brownsboro, and Lulie Booker who lived in Covington [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The number of colored schools had increased by 1895 when there were 8 schools with 9 teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.624-629]. During the two year period, 1895-1897, all but one of the schools was in session for 5 months, and the remaining school was open longer. There was an average attendance of 232 students for 1895-96, and an average of 224 students for 1896-97. During the 1900-01 school term, three students from Oldham County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.144]. For the school year 1910-1911, the Negro teachers' average monthly salary was $60 for male teachers and $37.43 for female teachers [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Instruction, p.48]. In 1916, Romania Booker was the teacher at the Pewee Valley School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.25], and by 1924, the teacher had married and her name was Mrs. Romania Flournoy [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 23-26, 1924, p.50]. The Pewee Valley School was one of the colored schools selected to received funding to extend the school term to 9 months [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]. In 1925, Mrs. George Retter was the teacher at the Goshen School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, p.85]. Retter was one of 6 Negro teachers in Oldham County, when there were 242 children in the schools, and there were seven elementary schools and a high school at the LaGrange School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. In 1928, Mrs. Georgia Taylor, was the teacher in the Crestwood School [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p.61]. Another Crestwood teacher was Mrs. Ethel Howell, who also taught at Brownsboro [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.46]. In 1930, J. V. Coleman was principal of the LaGrange Colored High School (Class 3) which had 14 students taught by one teacher who earned an annual salary of $810 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1930-1931, pp.27 & 85]. By 1940, according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were at least 6 Negro teachers in Oldham County: Louise Coldwell; Ms. Lang; Grace Parrett; Melvin Strong; Maude Vaughn; and James T. Cooper who was principal of the LaGrange School, and he had been a teacher at the Crestwood School in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1935, v.6, no.1, p.52]. The LaGrange Colored High School continued to serve the entire county, with less than 20 students being taught by one teacher until 1947 when there was an enrollment of 23 students, which was the last year the high school existed [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1947-1948, p.487]. Integration of the schools began in 1956 in the county school system with LaGrange Elementary School and St. Aloysius [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.444].


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Oldham County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Owen County, KY
Start Year : 1877
End Year : 1958
During the 1877-78 school term, there was a total of three colored schools in Owen County, KY, according to the thesis of Capitola Simpson, History of Education in Owen County, p.111-119. One school was located in Owenton and two in New Liberty, and the following school year, two more schools were established, one in Harrisburg (Long Ridge) and one in Dallasburg. In 1880, two of the teachers were Joseph Johnston and Robert Langford, both in New Liberty [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Gratz Colored School was added during the 1881-1882 year and over the next few years there were also schools in New Columbus, Sparta, Monterey, Maple Grove, and Buck Run. The earlier schools were taught in churches, and later in log cabins, frame buildings, and a box building. The teachers were brought in from other states because it was felt that there were no qualified Negro teachers in the county. The schools were in session two or three months in the 1880s; five months starting with the 1893-94 school terms; and six months starting with the 1907-08 school term when there was an average school attendance of 145 students. The teachers' average monthly salary during the 1893-94 term was $33.00 for Negro male teachers and $25.00 for Negro female teachers. The salaries would fluctuate over the years, and during the 1908-09 school term, the average monthly salary for Negro males was $32.00 and Negro females earned $30.00. By 1912, the number of colored schools decreased to seven; there were five schools in 1913; and four in 1915 [source: Simpson, p.222-228]. The average daily attendance for the term 1915-1916 was 100, and by 1929-1930, the average attendance was 86, with 15 students in high school. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Owen County were Daisy Fitzgerald, Priscilla Henry, and Ethel Ware [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The schools in Owen County began to integrate in 1958 with Owen County High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59, p.1017]. 

  • Owenton School
  • New Liberty School
  • Harrisburg School
  • Dallasburg School
  • Gratz School
  • New Columbus School
  • Sparta School
  • Monterey School
  • Maple Grove School
  • Buck Run School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Owen County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Owsley County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1953
The Sag School was the only colored school in Owsley County, KY [source: The History of Education in Owsley County, by Eugene Field Gabbard, p. 112]. The school was located in District 14, which is where the majority of the Negro population lived in Owsley County. In 1895, the school was included in the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.632-635. The school was held in a frame building and the average attendance was 11 during the 1896-97 school term. There was only one teacher whose average monthly salary was $20.81 during the 1895-96 school term, and $19.71 during the 1896-97 school term. In 1925, there was still the one school with one teacher for the 12 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. The 1939 school enrollment at Sag School was 19 students. The school was located on land the county school system purchased from Billie Hall. The African American community built the school and raised the money for the seats and equipment. The teacher was Sanford Scott, who encouraged students to continue their education at Kentucky Normal School [at present day Kentucky State University] in Frankfort, KY. Two of the students who attended the normal school were Jack Jett, who in 1922-23 was a farm agent in Jefferson County, and Lena Guess Lightfoot, who returned to teach at the Sag School during regular terms and attended the normal school in the summer [source: Gabbard, p. 113]. A picture of the Sag School, a one-room school house, is on p. 127 in Gabbard's thesis. In 1940, the Negro teacher in Owsley County was Lena Lightfoot [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The one colored school in Owsley County continued to be listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory, but was not counted in the 1952-53 directory on p.435. It was again counted in the 1953-54 directory, p.805, but was not counted in the 1954-55 directory or any subsequent directories. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Owsley High School and Grade School on p.444 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.  

  • Sag School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Owsley County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Paducah and McCracken County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One of the early colored schools supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, was Runkle Institute located in Paducah, KY, established between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freemen Schools]. The act to establish public schools for African American children in McCracken County was approved by the Kentucky General Assembly in 1873. There would be an annual tax to support the schools: 20 cents on each one hundred dollars of property owned by persons of color, and a poll tax or per capital tax of $1 for each Colored male resident over the age of 18. In 1880, the colored teachers were Charles Brooks, William Clark, Matilda Fletcher, Columbus Holland, James Owens, George Owens, and Samuel Reed [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1893, there were 13 colored school districts with 13 school houses in McCracken County: 6 log buildings, 1 frame building, and 6 brick buildings [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky by Francis M. Irwin, pp.63-66]. There were 13 teachers, 7 males and 6 females, who taught an average of 340 students each day during the 8 month school term. In 1925, Lincoln High School in Paducah was a Class 1A school with Mrs. M. R. Phillips as principal [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.40]. The high school had 6 teachers and an enrollment of 127 students. There were 9 elementary schools with 9 teachers in the county school system meant to serve 1,741 students; and in Paducah, there were 18 elementary teachers and 7 teachers at Lincoln High School, all meant to serve 1,166 students [pp.68-69]. Sixteen years earlier, in 1909, Dennis Anderson began building West Kentucky Industrial College, the school offered secondary education (high school) and junior college for the training of teachers. In 1928, the school had 11 faculty members and their annual salaries were as follows: D. H. Anderson, President, $3,000; H. S. Osborne, Dean, $2,000; W. W. Maddox, $1,233; Mrs. M. J. Egester, $1,080; J. A. Walker, $1,110.78; Mrs. A. H. Anderson, $1,008; Mrs. M. V. McGill, $900; R. W. Daevson, Manual Training, $1,008; Mrs. S. E. Poston, Domestic Science, $810 (second wife of Ephraim Poston); Miss M. A. Robison, Matron and Teacher, $540; Mrs. B. A. Dawson, $945 [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky by Francis M. Irwin, pp.110-112]. The school had an average attendance of 343 students, and there were extra-curricular activities such as football, tennis, croquet, basketball, and volleyball. Lincoln High School opened in 1908, and in 1926, there were four teachers, all graduates of a four year college [source: History of Education in McCracken County, Kentucky]. In 1916, Paducah Public High School (Lincoln) was listed in the Bureau of Education Bulletin on Negro Education. J. B. F. Prather was principal of the four year high school and the eight elementary grades that were also within the school. There were 39 students in the high school and there were four teachers. There had been a public high school for African Americans in Paducah since the 1890s. By the 1940s, the city of Paducah had seven public schools for Colored children; the schools were listed in Caron's Paducah, KY City Directory, 1941 and 1942: Dunbar School at 2510 Yeiser Street (Lexie B. Mays was the teacher); Garfield School on Harris, southeast corner of Ninth Street, (Mattye O. Strauss was the principal); Lincoln School on the west side of Eighth Street and Lincoln Jr. High and Lincoln High School, both at 1715 S. Eighth Street (E. W. Whiteside was principal of all three schools); Rowlandtown School at 1400 Thompson Avenue (Henrietta Brogwell was the teacher); and Sanders School on the east side of Levin Avenue, north of 32nd Street (Kate O. Smith was the teacher). In total, there were at least 68 Negro teachers in McCracken County in 1940 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The West Kentucky Vocational School was the first to be listed as having both "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.224]. The following year, the schools listed as integrated were Clark, Jefferson Jr. High, Longfellow, and Paducah Tilghman, on p.441 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57. For more see Chapter 998, pp. 509-510, Acts Passed at the ... Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth, 1873 [available full-text at Google Book Search]; and Paducah Public High School on p. 280 in Negro Education, Bulletin, 1916, No. 39, vol. 2, Department of the Interior, Bureau of Education. See photocopy image of Union Station School in McCracken County on p.31 at Rosenwald schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf].
 

  • Runkle Institute 
  • Colored Schools (13) 
  • Dunbar School 
  • Garfield School 
  • Lincoln School 
  • Northside School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879] 
  • Paducah Public High School (1890s) 
  • Rosemary School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879] 
  • Rowlandtown School 
  • Sanders School 
  • Southside School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.879] 
  • Union Station School 
  • West Kentucky Industrial College  
  • West Paducah School
  • Woodland School

 

  See photo image of West Paducah Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library - images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Paducah, McCracken County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Paris and Bourbon County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1961
Some of the early colored schools in Bourbon County were built and supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. The Negro common schools began around 1874, according to James R. Welch in his thesis titled The History of Education of Bourbon County. In 1880, the school teachers were George Nelson in North Middletown; Eugene Jones, Reuben Butler, and Henry L. Gowen in Paris; Elisha Lewis in Millersburg; A. Wm. Knowx in Clintonville; and Annie Trotter in Hutchison [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The following comes from Welch's thesis: In 1881, there were 1,765 colored school age children counted in the school census, and not many of them attended school. There were 16 colored school districts, with 15 schools. In 1885, there were 22 colored schools. In 1886, there were 24 colored schools, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.227-230. All of the schools were held in full session [5 months] up to the 1893-94 school year, which was about a decade prior to the beginning of a continuing decrease in the number of schools and students [source: The History of Education of Bourbon County]. The number of school districts held constant between 1890 and 1908, with 22 to 24 colored school districts and a daily attendance from a high of 1,063 students in 1893-94, to a low of 532 students in 1902-03. The attendance numbers picked up, but started to slip again in 1906. From 1908-1919, the number of colored schools decreased from 20 to 12. The following is a compilation of newspaper items on the history of Paris and Bourbon County colored Schools; the articles contained quite a bit more information than was printed in most other Kentucky newspapers for the same time period. Reverend Graves, who died in 1902, had come to Paris, KY in 1901 to become principal of the Paris Western Colored School. There were 248 students and seven teachers, and the numbers would remain consistent for the next several years. The prior year there was a high school graduating class of eight: Katie L. Long, Anna E. Parker, Fannie B. Buford, Dora B. Kimbrough, Jimmie R. Fields, James B. Woodward, and Keatha R. Williams. Graduation ceremonies were initially held at the Opera House in Paris, KY, with admission costs of 10 cents, 15 cents, and 25 cents. A smaller school system was the Millersburg Colored School, where in 1901 there were three graduates: Frank R. Lewis, Lucile Jefferson, and Hattie B. Mayburry. Manual training was introduced in the Paris school in 1907 with 26 men and boys enrolled in the newly established night school; the Colored teachers' wages for the year totaled $2,550. Mrs. Nettie H. Grant was the school principal at the Claysville Colored School in 1907, which was the year that the Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association held their meeting at the school [source: "Colored Bourbon County Teachers' Association," Bourbon News, 11/12/1907, p.4, col.6]. In Paris, at the end of the school year in 1909, there were two graduations, one for 7th graders held at a local African American church and one for high school graduates held in the school auditorium. In 1909, new colored schools were scheduled to be built in Ruddles Mills and Jacksonville. The following year, several colored schools in the county were consolidated: Ruddles Mills School with Glentown School; Millersburg School with Shipptown School (the school location was undecided); and Houston School with Amentsville School. By 1910, a new school was being built in Centerville, and the Sidville School was to be repaired if church members would agree to help raise funds for the repairs. In 1915, Cora W. Stewart reported that the Paris Colored Moonlight School was one of the best in the state for Negroes [source: Cora Wilson Stewart and Kentucky's Moonlight Schools by Y. H. Baldwin]. See photocopy image of Cumensville School on p.12 at Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [.pdf]. The following is additional information from Welch's thesis. The total number of students had continued to decrease. During the 1908-09 school term the average elementary school attendance was 587 colored students, and by the end of the 1932-33 term, the average attendance was 296. An industrial training school opened in Little Rock in 1914, it was established with support from the Slater Fund. It was developed into the Bourbon County Training School for colored persons in 1918, and was also referred to as the Little Rock Training School. For more see The Bourbon News articles - "Colored School Commencement," 06/12/1900, p. 1.; "Millersburg," 02/15/1901, p. 2; "Commencement items of the Paris High Schools," 05/31/1901, p. 3; "New board elects teachers," 07/05/1901, p. 3; "A tribute," 05/02/1902, p. 5; "City Schools," 09/09/1902, p. 5; "Meeting of school board," 06/14/1907, p. 1; "Expenditures," 07/16/1907, p. 8; "800 pupils," 10/08/1907, p. 6; "Calendar of Colored School," 06/04/1909, p. 1; "School Improvement League in session," 08/24/1909, p. 3; "County School Board," 11/16/1909, p. 4; "County School Board meets," 05/10/1910, p. 1; and "Recent meeting of the County Board," 08/12/1910, p. 1.

 

In 1925, G. W. Adams was principal of Western School which had 9 elementary teachers and 5 teachers at the Class 1 Level B high school that had an enrollment of 112 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 69]. In 1940, the Negro school teachers in Bourbon County were Mattie F. Alexander, Howard Allen, Minerva Bedford, Charles R. Bland, Nora S. Bland, Sallie F. Brooke, Charles Buckner, Jessie Buford, Mary Butler, Nannie Butler, John Derrickson, Dewese Grant, Dorothy Hankins, Ola Delle Jacobs, Mary Elizabeth Kellis, Anna McBonner (sp), Carrie Murray, William Reed, Minnie Steele, Ennis Toles, Elizabeth Thomas, Archie Thomas, Mattie Whaley, Betty Williams, Lily Mae Williams, Clara Mae Woods, and Willa Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated in Bourbon County were Bourbon County High School, North Middletown High School, and Paris Independent 7th Street Schools, all in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842.
 

  • Amentsville School
  • Baptist Church School (James. M. Thomas' School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Bourbon County Training School [Little Rock]
  • Brentsville School
  • Browntown School (submitted by Myke Carter; photo image by The Feedman)*
  • Caneridge School
  • Centerville School
  • Claysville School
  • Clintonville School
  • C. M. Clay's School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Cumensville School
  • Currentsville School [source: "Counties aided on extension of terms," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]
  • Glentown School
  • Houston School
  • Hutchison School
  • Jacksonville School
  • Jackstown School [source: "The New School Law," Bourbon News, 07/14/1908, p.1]
  • Little Rock School
  • Methodist Church School (Reuben Butler's School) [source: History of Bourbon, Scott, Harrison, and Nicholas Counties, Kentucky by W. H. Perrin & R. Peter, p.119]
  • Monterey School
  • Millersburg School
  • Millersburg Freedmen School
  • Moonlight School
  • North Middletown School
  • Paris American Missionary Association School
  • Paris Freedmen School
  • Ruckerville School
  • Ruddles Mills School
  • Shipptown School
  • Sidville School
  • Western School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.842]

 See photo image of Clintonville Colored School building at Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
 
*Browntown was an African American Community on Townsend Valley Road in Bourbon County, KY, from the 1800s-sometime in the 1900s [source: The Feedman, Browntown Church Flickr site].
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Bourbon County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Pendleton County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1952
The first colored school in Pendleton County, KY, was probably the American Missionary Association School supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The first school mentioned in the thesis of Elbert Wallace Richmond, A history of Education in Pendleton County, Kentucky, pp.48-49, was established in 1878 in Falmouth. The teachers in Falmouth were George Black and Polly Southgate, according to the U.S. Federal Census. By 1885, there were two other schools, one in Levengood and one in Clays Run. The first colored school report for the three districts in Pendleton County was filed in 1888. The school terms were three months, and the average monthly salary of the three teachers was $25. By 1900, two of the schools had closed, leaving only the Falmouth school [source: Richmond, p.71]. The county school board provided transportation for the children in the county to attend the school in Falmouth. A new school house was constructed in 1907 [source: "Pendleton County" on p.161 in Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky for the Two Years Beginning July 1, 1905 and Ending June 30, 1907]. In 1916, the teachers were Grace Ayers and Imogene Ayers [source: "Membership Kentucky Negro Educational Association 1916," Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.24]. In 1932, the teacher was Mrs. Bertha Chambers [source: Richmond, p.71]. The average salary was $80 per month and the average attendance was 33 students with a school term of seven months. There was not a colored high school in Pendleton County, KY. The Negro teachers in Pendleton County in 1940 were Amanda Hinton and Anna L. Hinton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, the Falmouth Colored School had closed, the building was sold, and the students were bused to the colored school in Harrison County [source: "Pendleton County Public Schools" on p.708 in The Encyclopedia of Northern Kentucky]. The Falmouth Colored School had closed in 1952, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1951-52, p.709. The St. Frances Xavier School was the first listed as having "white and colored" students, on p.226 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56. The first school to be listed as integrated was Morgan, on p.444 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Falmouth School
  • Levengood School
  • Clays Run School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pendleton County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Perry County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1956
In 1895, there was one colored school in Perry County, KY, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.641-645, and the average attendance was between 31 and 16 students. During the 1899-1900 school term, the Negro teacher's average salary was $32.57 per month, and the following term the salary was $21.60 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-1901, p.455]. During the 1905-06 school term, the teacher's salary had increased to $49.44, and the following term the salary was $34.66, and the school had an average attendance of 27 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1905-June 1906, p.431 & p.407]. In 1928, the colored school teachers included Mr. Elmer Williams in Hazard [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1928, p.59]; Miss Delinia Barker in Hazard [p.32]; Anna Hood in Hazard [p.44]; Rev. J. T. Martnee in Hazard [p.49]; and Miss Corina South in Blue Diamond [p.55]. During the 1930-31 school term, the Vicco Colored School received $40, and the Hazard Colored School received $80 from the Rosenwald Fund in support of the school libraries [source: "Counties aided on school libraries," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, p.25], and in 1932, the Vicco School received aid in order to extend the school term to 8 months [p.24]. A colored school mentioned in history books about Perry County, KY, is the Town Mountain School in South Hazard [sources: History of Perry County, Kentucky by E. T. Johnson, pp.116-117; and Observations of God's Timing in the Kentucky Mountains by R. Huston, p.119]. Author E. T. Johnson also mentions the Liberty Street Colored School, which had a high school that was open to students from the county [p.117]. The Liberty Street School was built in 1936 in Hazard as part of the Work Progress Administration projects, the school closed in 1963 [source: B. Richards, "Former Liberty students reunite at memorial," Hazard Herald, 07/2013 - online]. The Higgins Colored School also had a high school, the school was located in Vicco and the high school was an approved 3 year county high school [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November, 1937, v.8, no.2, p.55; and October-November 1931, v.2, no.1, p.24]. The Vicco teachers were Mr. A. J. Williams in 1929 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 17-20, 1929, p.58]; Mr. C. A. Colerane in 1935 [source: The Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, October-November 1935, v.6, no.1, p.52]; and Mr. and Mrs. A. D. Puryear in 1935 [p.61]. In 1940, the Vicco Colored School was merged with the Hazard Colored School system [source: The Administration and Organization of Secondary Schools for Negro Pupils in Eastern Kentucky (thesis) by W. T. Gilbert]. According to the U.S. Federal Census, in 1940, there were at least 10 Negro teachers in Perry County: Lou Visa Cannon in Bulan; Pearl B. Cornett; Rankine J. Dearmond in Blue Diamond - Hervyton; Lillian Green; Cregan Herald and her husband Bergen Herald; Betty Kelly in Bulan; Mary Tate from Alabama, lived in Hazard; Carl Walker in Hazard; and Florence Zimmerman in Blue Diamond - Hervyton. School integration is indicated as starting in 1956 at the Perry County Schools, the Hazard Independent Schools, and the Hazard High School, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445.

 

  • Hazard School (before 1936)
  • Blue Diamond School
  • Town Mountain School
  • Liberty Street School
  • Kodak School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.885]
  • Tribey School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.885]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Perry County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Pike County, KY
Start Year : 1875
End Year : 1956
The colored school in Pike County, KY, was established prior to 1875, according to Herbert Woodson Crick in his thesis, History of Education in Pike County, Kentucky, p. 47. The school was located in Pikeville. In the 1890s, Effie Waller Smith was a teacher at the Pikeville Colored School. There were 63 Negro children and one Negro teacher in Pike County in 1890; 83 students in 1910; 87 students in 1920; and 83 students in 1930 [source: Crick, p. 106]. The Pikeville Colored School offered two years of high school. There were four teachers in the county colored schools. William R. Cummings was principal of the Perry A. Cline School in 1938 when he wrote "History of the Perry A. Cline High School," which appeared on p. 49 of the KNEA Journal, vol. 9,no. 1-2. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Pike County were Edwin Pearson who was a grade school teacher in Millard; Albert J. Cummings; Jesse Wyler; and Mary L. Whitefield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Perry A. Cline School would become a four year high school and then close in 1966 when the Pike County schools were fully integrated. Prior to that, the Pikeville College Trg. School was listed as having "white & colored" students in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.227. The following year Belfry School was listed as having "white & integrated" students, and there were three schools listed as integrated: Majestic, Mullins, and Pikeville High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445]. 

  • Perry Cline School
  • Pikeville School
  • Pike County Schools (4)
  • McAndrews School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.886]
  • Northside High School on Hellier Street, 1929-1932 [source: M. F. Sohn, "The Black Struggle for Education and Learning," Appalachian Heritage, v.16, Fall 1987, pp.35-42]

   See photo image of 1938 Pikeville Negro School in Kentucky Digital Library-Images.



   See photo image and bio of W. R. Cummings on p. 16 in KNEA Journal, January/February 1942, vol. 12, no. 2.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pikeville, Pike County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Powell County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1956
There were three African American schools in Powell County, KY, in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. In 1906, the examination for Colored school teachers was held in Stanton, KY [source: "Examination for colored school teachers...," Clay City Times, 06/24/1906, p. 3]. Within the Powell County Educational Division No. 1, the teacher at West Bend Colored School was Valeria Samuels in 1916, and the Clay City Colored School teacher had not been selected [source: "Teachers selected," Clay City Times, 06/08/1916, p. 4]. In 1925, there were 2 colored schools, one in West Bend and one in Clay City, each with one teacher, and there were 69 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. The Clay City School was replaced with Rosenwald school that was built 1926-27 [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.66]. In 1927, Scott Mitchell was the teacher at West Bend Colored School, which included a two year high school [sources: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association,  April 20-23, 1927, p. 53, and April 8-21, 1928, p. 19]. By 1932, there were still 2 colored elementary schools with a total of 80 students, and the West Bend Colored High School which had 9 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.57]. The school term 1932-33 was the last for the West Bend High School; though the high school students continued to be counted in the Kentucky Public School Directory. Perhaps the high school students attended school in a nearby county.  In 1941, Allie Gentry was the principal at West Bend Colored School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, vol. 11, issue 2, p. 19]. By 1943, one of the two colored schools was closed [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1943-44, p.541]. The last colored school in Powell County, believed to be the West Bend School, was noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1959-60, p.806; there were 14 students enrolled in the school that was taught by one teacher. According to the title Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, pp.65-66, the West Bend Colored School was a Rosenwald School located on Turley Road, built between 1917 and 1920, and the school closed in 1960. The school had closed during school integration in Powell County. The process had started with the Powell County High School noted as being "white & integrated" in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.445, and the following year the same school is listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.642.

  • Clay City School
  • Stanton School
  • West Bend School

  See the 1927 photocopy image of the Clay City Colored School on p. 40 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932.
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Powell County, Kentucky: Clay City, West Bend, Stanton

African American Schools in Pulaski County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
One or the earliest colored schools in Pulaski County, KY was the Freedmen School located in Somerset. The school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry for Freedmen Schools]. Not too long after the school was established, the teacher at the Freedmen School was run out of town, but that did not deter the effort for there to be colored schools. In 1880, there were schools with the following teachers: William P. Barker who was 15 years old; Charlie Goings; and Robert Owens [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886 there were 6 colored schools [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. Ten years later, there was a court case concerning clarification on the appropriation of taxes between white and colored schools in Pulaski County: "Board of Education of Somerset Public Schools v. Trustees Colored School District No. 1, Pulaski County" [online at Google Books]. The taxes were needed to support the 10 colored schools that had an average attendance of 224 students for the school year 1895-96, and 256 for the 1896-97 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1895-June 1897, pp.653-657]. There were 11 Negro teachers at the 10 schools, they earned an average monthly wage of $34.79 during the 1895-96 school term, and the following year, male teachers earned $28.33 per month, and female teachers earned $20.17 per month. Nine of the 10 schools were taught for 5 months, and one school was held more than 5 months. Seven of the school buildings were log cabins, and three of the schools were held in frame buildings. One student from Pulaski County attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) during the 1900-01 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1899-June 1901, p.144]. The following biennium, there were 5 students from Pulaski County at the State Normal School for Colored Persons [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, July 1901-June 1903, p.81]. During the same time period, in the Pulaski County colored schools, the teachers' average monthly salaries were $31.00 for 1901-02, and $22.87 for 1902-03 [p.355]. In 1925, there were 4 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher in the colored schools in Somerset, KY, and two teachers in the rural schools [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68-69]. By 1927, the teachers in the various colored schools listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 20-23, 1927, were Miss Arneeda Gilmore and Mrs. Ollie M. Gilmore [p.45]; Mrs. Bertha Bogle [p.37]; Mrs. Blanca Brown [p.38]; Miss Virginia E. Lackey [p.50]; and Mrs. Betty McClasky and Prof. E. B. McClasky at Dunbar School [p.51]. More than a decade later, there were at least nine Negro teachers in Pulaski County, KY, according to the 1940 U.S. Federal Census: Ernest Alexandria who had lived in Cynthiana, KY in 1935; Christine Barger; Mae Brown; Bertha Dorye; Virginia Lackey; Perry McDowell; Maggie Smith; Hatha Weat; and G. P. Wilson who was the principal at Dunbar School. In 1956, Pulaski County schools started to integrate their student populations at the county schools, Somerset High School, and St. Mildred School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].

  • Freedmen Colored School in Somerset
  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Dunbar School (built in 1909)
  • Bourbon School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, pp.11 & 84]
  • Garner School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, p.30]
  • Owens School [source: Pulaski County's Schools of the Past rev. ed. by M. B. Tucker, p.11]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Pulaski County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Robertson County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1946
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Mt. Olivet, KY; William Crosby was the school teacher and he was also a farm worker according to the U.S. Federal Census. William Crosby was a Kentucky native, he was a husband, and father of three. In 1886, there were two colored schools in Robertson County, KY, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. During the two year period 1895-97, there were still two colored schools in the county [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97,  pp.657-660]. There was one teacher at each school and the school terms lasted five months. Both the male and the female teacher earned $24.39 the first school year, and during the second year, they each earned $19.17. At one school, classes were held in a log building, and the other school was held in a frame building. There were 34 students enrolled for the school term 1895-96, and 39 enrolled for the 1896-97 term; less than half the students attended school on a regular basis. By 1907, there was only one colored school in Robertson County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, pp.166-167].  Mr. R. L. Diggs was the school teacher at the Mt. Olivet Colored School in 1923 [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 18-21, 1923, p.56]. Beginning in 1947, the colored school in Mt. Olivet was no longer listed in the Kentucky Public School Directory [source: 1947-48 volume, p.488]. Integration of the student population began in 1956, according to the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446; the Deming School is listed as integrated with 5 Negro children in the school census.

  • Colored Schools (2)
  • Mt. Olivert School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Robertson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Rockcastle County, KY
Start Year : 1865
End Year : 1938
A colored school in Rockcastle County, KY, was established several years prior to 1884, according to the thesis of Egbert F. Norton: History of Education in Rockcastle County, Kentucky, pp. 57-58. Norton estimated that the colored school house had been built in 1865 [source: Norton, p. 79]. In 1886, there were two colored schools; one in Brodhead and one in Mt. Vernon [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1899, the teacher of the colored Mt. Vernon school was Remetha Ford [source: "The colored school here..." in the column "LOCAL and OTHERWISE," Mount Vernon Signal, 11/17/1899, p. 3]. By 1903, there was only one colored school, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky For the two years beginning July 1, 1901, and ending June 30, 1903, p. 232. In 1906, it was reported in the Mount Vernon Signal that there were 23 colored students in Rockcastle County [source: "Kentucky's Annual School Census," 07/13/1906, p. 3]. One of the last terms for a colored school in Rockcastle County was noted in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1927-1928, p.64; there was one school, one teacher, and 19 students enrolled in the school. According to E. F. Norton, by 1930, there were nine Negro children of school age listed in the school census of Rockcastle County, and the average school attendance was 0. There may have been a 0 attendance because there was no school for the children. Norton stated, on p. 79 of his thesis, "Colored education in Rockcastle became less serious during this period, because of the gradual decrease in colored population in the county." There were 79 Blacks listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census for Rockcastle County, KY, including 17 children between the ages of 6 and 18. Looking at prior years, the U.S. Census population in Rockcastle County, KY, listed 92 Blacks and 38 Mulattoes in 1910; 71 Blacks and 35 Mulattoes in 1920; 79 Blacks in 1930. By 1933, there was another colored school in Rockcastle County; the school was located in Mt. Vernon and had an enrollment of 11 students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1933-34, p.58. Miss Lena Marshall was the school teacher in Mt. Vernon in 1935 [source: KNEA Journal, vol. 6, no.1, p. 59], and she was the first teacher from that county to enroll in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. The 1937-38 was the last term of the school; there was one teacher and 7 students were enrolled in the school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1937-38, p.56]. In 1940, there were still Negro children of school age in Rockcastle County: 14 year old Genena Jacker had completed the 7th grade; 10 year old Joyce Jacker had completed the 3rd grade; 14 year old Pete L. Jarber had completed the 7th grade, he was working, a farm laborer; 11 year old Morris Newcomb had completed the 1st grade; and there was no school information about 8 year old Sallie Newcomb [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There are no notations in the Kentucky School Directory, 1964-65, that the Rockcastle County Schools integrated prior to the end of the school term.

  • Brodhead School
  • Mt. Vernon School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Rockcastle County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Rowan County, KY
Start Year : 1895
End Year : 1930
The colored schools in Rowan County, KY, seemed to come and go from the late 1800s to about 1930. As early as 1895, there was one colored school in Rowan County, KY, the school was taught for five months, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.665-668. No more than 10 students attended the school on a regular basis. The teacher's average monthly pay was $24.39, 1895-96, and $19.44, 1896-97. By 1912, the colored school had closed and reopened with an enrollment of 10 students, 1911-12, and 8 students, 1912-13 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-12, p.4; and 1912-13, p.112]. In 1920, Beatrice Mance, a Kentucky native who was 19 years old, was the school teacher [source: U.S. Federal Census].  Mance was a boarder with the Luke and Lizzie France family in Morehead. The family was among the 21 Blacks and 2 Mulattoes listed in the 1920 census for Rowan County, with the France children as the only school age children between the ages of 5 and 18. Luke France worked at a mechanical shop, and both he and his wife could read and write. By 1925, no school was listed in the school directory.  In 1930, there was again one colored school in Rowan County and there was an enrollment of 9 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, p.89]. The teacher was Kentucky native, 20 year old Agatha Chennault who lived with the France family on Railroad Street in Morehead, according to the U.S. Federal Census. The following year, 1931, there was no longer a colored school listed for Rowan County in the school directories. The first school in Rowan County to be listed as integrated was the Breckinridge Training Schools in 1961 [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.889].

  • Morehead School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Rowan County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Russell County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
Parker H. Jackman was one of the first teachers in the colored schools in Russell County, KY; he began teaching after the Civil War ended. It is not known how long the school existed or where it was located. By 1895, there were four colored schools in Russell County, KY, according to the Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.669-672]. One of the schools was taught in a log cabin and the other three were taught in frame buildings. The average attendance was 40 students and there were 4 teachers, 1895-96, and there were 35 students and three teachers, 1896-97. The teachers' average wages were $24.12, 1895-96, and $19.08, 1896-97. During the 1902-03 school term, there was one student from Russell County who attended the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-03, p.81]. The average attendance at the Russell County colored schools was 38, 1901-02, and 48, 1902-03 [p.329]. In 1905, the students attending Russell Springs Colored School moved from their old school building to the school that was used by the white students [source: Russell County, Kentucky: history & families by Turner Publishing Company, p.156]. A new school had been built for the white students who attended Russell Springs Academy, a private school. Their old school, where the colored students would be attending, was located on North Main Street near the Christian Church. Several years later, a new school building for the colored students was constructed on S. Highway 379. There were 3 colored schools in Russell County in 1925 with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68], and the following year, there were 2 colored schools [1926-1927, p.82]. In 1935, Miss Thelma Simpson was a school teacher in Jamestown [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.6, no.1, October-November 1935, p.63]. There continued to be two colored schools in Russell County, until 1953, when Greens Chapel was the one remaining school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1953-1954, p.807]. In 1955, the Russell County High School was the first to report having both white and colored students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.228], and the following year the school was listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].


Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Russell County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Scott County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
In 1866, there was an American Missionary School for the freedmen of Scott County, the school was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. According to Apple, Johnston, and Bevins, freedmen in Scott County had to secure a building before the Freedmen's Bureau would consider establishing and maintaining a school in Scott County [source: Scott County Kentucky: a history edited by L. Apple, F. A. Johnston, and B. Bevins, p.249]. The community organized a colored school board of directors in the spring of 1866 and rented a house for the school. Classes started in October of 1866 with 20 students and the cost was $1.50 per student, except for orphans and poor children who attend for free. In 1873, Charles Steele was head of the Georgetown Colored School. According to author A. B. Bevins, Charles Steele founded the school in 1873 and it was named Boston School, and there were two teachers, Lyda G. Ross and Emma Shores [source: Involvement of Blacks in Scott County Commerce by A. B. Bevins, p.9]. One other teacher at the school was Allen Allensworth [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, p.120]. In 1884, the Graded School for Colored Children opened and the name of the school was eventually changed to Chambers Avenue School, Charles Steele was head of the school until his death in 1908 [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. In 1880, the teachers in the colored schools were Charles Blackburn, a Kentucky native who was 20 years old; Quincey Bailey, also 20 years old; and Charles Steele who was 25 and married with a one year old son [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, one of the colored schools was held in a rented building [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. In 1891, two additional schools were built [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, School Year Ending June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.213]. By 1895, there were 15 colored districts with 9 colored schools, with 10 teachers, and an average attendance of 442 students; and one additional district was added the following school year, still with 9 schools, 10 teachers, and an average attendance of 465 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.673-676]. The teachers' average wages were $46.53 for males and $41.83 for females, 1895-96, and the following school year, the wages were $40.08 for males and $34.74 for females. Around mid-October of 1898, the Peach Orchard Colored School in Scott County burned down [source: Kentucky Gazzette, 10/15/1898, p.3]. During the 1900 and 1901 school terms, there was one student from Scott County who attended State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.144]. During the same period, within the colored schools of Scott County, the teachers' monthly pay was $40.90, 1899-1900, and $35.87, 1900-1901 [p.455]. From 1902-03, there were two students from Scott County attending State Normal School for Colored Persons [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903,  p.81]. The average attendance at the colored schools in Scott County was 464 and the teachers' average monthly wages was $44.14, 1901-02 [pp.329 & 355]; and the following school year, 1902-03, there was an average of 437 students and the teachers' average monthly wages was $34.12 [pp.329 & 355]. In 1908, Edward B. Davis replaced Charles Steele as principal of the Chambers Avenue School, and Davis remained as the principal until his death in 1934 [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. According to Apple, Johnston, and Bevins, the white community of Stamping Ground, KY helped the African American community to buy the land and build the Stamping Ground Colored School [source: Scott County Kentucky: a history edited by L. Apple, F. A. Johnston, and B. Bevins, p.249]. Between 1917 and 1920, Rosenwald Schools were built in Sadieville and New Zion to replace older colored school buildings [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 by the Kentucky Heritage Council, and the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission].  From 1921-1922, there were Rosenwald Schools built in Boydtown, Great Crossing, and Watkinsville [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.27]. In 1925, there were 7 colored schools in Scott County, KY, and the high school was located in Georgetown in the Chambers Avenue School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-67; and 1927-1928, p.56]. An additional elementary school was added in 1926 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, pp. 82-83]. In 1926, Ruth A. Takecare was the teacher in Stamping Ground [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 21-24, 1926, p.62]. In 1929, the Chambers Avenue School was renamed Ed Davis School, and after Ed Davis died in 1934, his wife, Betty Webb Davis served as principal of the school [source: Scott County, Kentucky: families & history by Turner Publishing Company, p.23]. The Rosenwald School in Zion Hill was built 1929-30 [source: Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932, p.29].  In 1940, there were at least 18 Negro teachers in the colored schools in Scott County: Ella Arrington; Ida Mae Chinn; Bettie Davis; Katy C. Generals; Lucille Goosey; Estella Hawkins; Julia B. Johnson; Rhodea Lightfoot; Raymond McClellan; Mary Neal; Benjamin Patterson; Celia Scott; Mary Somers; Sallie P. Tilford; Mattie Mae Warner; Margaret L. White; Virginia Williams; and James P. Wilson [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Integration of the schools in Scott County started in 1956 with Scott County High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.446].

  • American Missionary School supported by the Bureau
  • Georgetown Colored School
  • Graded School for Colored Children
  • Peach Orchard School
  • Chambers Avenue School
  • Stamping Ground School
  • Ed Davis School (1929-1956)
  • Zion Hill School [see NKAA entry for Zion Hill]
  • Sadieville School
  • New Zion School
  • Boydtown School
  • Great Crossing School
  • Watkinsville School

  See photo image of c.1920 photo image of New Zion Rosenwald School on p.40 of Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 by the Kentucky Heritage Council, and the Kentucky African American Heritage Commission.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Scott County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Shelby County, KY
Start Year : 1849
End Year : 1956
As early as 1849, a colored school was attempted in Shelbyville, KY; Rev. C. W. Robinson was flogged in the school room by the Shelby County chief patrol officer for Robinson's daring to have a Sunday School for free Negroes and for slaves who were given permission to attend the school. Another early colored school in Shelbyville, was the American Missionary Association School, supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedman Schools]. The teacher at the school was assaulted by the county judge and run out of town. Still, there were colored schools established in Shelby County, KY.  In 1880 there were four teachers: Sarah Clark in Shelbyville; Lucy Gwinn in Christianburg; P. Charles Jones in Shelbyville; Lewis Lawson in Shelbyville; and Ada Mumford in Shelbyville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1886, there were 13 colored school districts with 13 colored schools, and two of the schools were open for eight months [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, June 1886 and June 1887, pp.64, 76, & 92-93]. Most of the schools were taught in churches. A new school, Colored Common School No.14, in Drewsville was built on land William M. Blackwell sold to the school trustees in 1887 [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.63]. The number of colored schools continued to increase and by 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Shelby County, KY [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, pp.677-680]. There was an average attendance of 708 students, 1895-96, and 1,020 students, 1896-97. There were 25 teachers employed in the schools, and their average monthly salaries were $42.12, 1895-96, and $28.35, 1896-97. In 1898, there were 20 colored schools in Shelby County [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.280].  From 1907-1919, Daisy Morgan Saffell was the school principal at the colored school in Shelbyville, and her husband George W. Saffell Jr. was a teacher at the school [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.170].  In 1912, Lincoln Institute opened in Lincoln Ridge, KY. The school came about after Berea College became segregated by court order. In 1925, J. W. Roberts was the superintendent for the colored city schools; Shelbyville was one of eight city school systems in Kentucky to have a colored school superintendent [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. J. W. Roberts was also the principal of the Shelbyville Colored High School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. It was a 3rd class high school with 2 teachers and 26 students. There were 9 elementary schools in the county, and 6 teachers in Shelbyville [pp.68-69]. In 1936, the Shelbyville School System devised a contract for providing high school education to colored students; transportation was provided to Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville [source: The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. The arrangements were made between the schools of Shelbyville, Shelby County, Henry County, and Eminence. In 1940, the Negro teachers were Wil Allen in Shelbyville; Beatrice Boyd in Shelbyville; Marie Brown in Shelbyville; Joseph and Kathleen Carroll in Simpsonville; Katherine Freeman in Simpsonville; Mary Greenfield in Simpsonville; Lamont Lawson in Simpsonville; Lula McCampbell in Simpsonville; Herbert McCoy in Simpsonville; Martha Nuckols in Simpsonville; A. G. Pinbury in Simpsonville; Jewel J. Rabb in Shelbyville, wife of Dr. Maurice F. Rabb, Sr.; James Ray in Simpsonville; Helen Shouse in Simpsonville; James Taylor in Simpsonville; and Whitney Young, Sr. in Simpsonville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1945, fire destroyed the Shelbyville Colored School and a new school was built at the corner of 11th and High Streets in Martinsville [source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, p.272]. Shelbyville Elementary School was the first to be noted as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.447.    

  • Colored Schools (20)
  • Shelbyville Sunday School
  • American Missionary Association School (supported by the Bureau)
  • Shelbyville School
  • Christianburg School
  • School No.14 in Drewsville
  • Simpsonville School
  • Chestnut Grove School
  • Stringtown School
  • Olive Branch School
  • Todds Point School
  • Southville School
  • Scotts Station School
  • Buck Creek School
  • Harrisonville School
  • Benson School
  • Clarks Station School
  • Logans Station School
  • Evansville School
  • Bagdad School
  • Clayvillage School
  • Rockbridge School
  • Clear Creek School
  • Lincoln Institute in Simpsonville
  • Lincoln Model School (closed in 1940 - source:  The New History of Shelby County, Kentucky by the Shelby County Historical Society, pp.281-282)
  • Montclair School (replaced Lincoln Model School)
  • High Street School
  • Mulberry School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.890]
  • Waddy School [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, January 1932, v.2, no.2, p.24]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Shelby County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Simpson County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
Elijah P. Marrs is credited with opening the first school for Negros in Simpson County in 1866; Marrs had returned home from service in the American Civil War [source: Ante-bellum free Negroes as race leaders in Virginia and Kentucky during reconstruction (thesis) by C. B. King, pp.115-116]. The students paid $1 per month to attend the school, and Marrs was paid $25 per month salary. The school lasted for one year; Marrs left in 1867 to teach school in Lagrange, KY. Between 1866 and 1870, Simpson County, KY, had a Freedmen School that was supported by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry African American Freedmen Schools]. The school was located in Franklin. The school teacher was mobbed and had to be saved by U.S. Troops. In spite of the mobbing, there continued to be colored schools in Simpson County, and in 1880 three of the teachers were Henry Bogan, Joe Perdue, and Eoline Malory [source: U.S. Federal Census]. Between 1885-1887, there were 10 colored school districts in the county [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, School Years Ending June 30th 1886 and June 30th 1887, p.130]. A decade later, there were 12 colored schools with 15 teachers, and the schools were held in three log cabins and nine frame buildings with an average attendance of 363 students during the 1895-96 school term and 400 students during the 1896-97 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.681-684]. Between 1899 and 1901, there was one student from Simpson County at the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University) [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p. 144]. For the 1909-1910 term, the Negro teachers earned an average wage of $47 per month [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1909-1911, p.50]. In 1919, there were 68 adult students in the Simpson County Colored Moonlight School that were taught by Gertrude Mahin, Iola Ryons, and Bessie Lawrence, all of whom were also teachers at the colored schools for children. Harlem Renaissance poet, Blanch Taylor Dickinson, born in Franklin, was a school teacher in 1916 up through 1923 when she taught in Franklin along with Miss Effa B. Dixon, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Mr. T. B. Williams, Mrs. W. L. Lawrence, Miss Lizzie Moore, and Mr. A. E. Robinson,  [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, p.37; and April 18-21, 1923, pp.51, 56, 66, 69, 72, & 80]. [Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County.] In 1925, the Franklin Colored Schools was one of ten systems in the state to have a colored superintendent, the Franklin superintendent was T. C. B. Williams [see NKAA entry for Colored Superintendents]. Williams was over the 4 elementary teachers and 1 high school teacher in Franklin, and the 8 elementary schools in rural Simpson County were under the county school system and there was one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, pp.68-69]. The school teachers included Mr. T. J. Dixon, Mrs. Effie Dixon, Prof. D. T. Wright, Miss Cora Mae Barlow, Mrs. Lula Bradley, Mrs. Mary Burrs, Mrs. G. G. Mahin, Mrs. L. B. Payne, Mr. W. H. Bogan, Prof. T. C. B. Williams [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, pp. 49, 50, 51, 53, 56, 68, 72, 82, & 83]. By 1940, the teachers at the colored schools were Josephine Berry; Lula Bradley; John Bradley; Mary E. Burrus; Virgie L. Burress; Cathrin Douthett; George Douthett; Hulean Gumm; Wilson Hale and Mary Hale; G. B. Housten; Cora M. Jackson; Hubert Neal; Margrette Neal; Tom Payne; Mary E. Stringer; Blanch Taylor (Dickinson); and Tucker Wright [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The Simpson County Schools are first listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64, p.143.

  • Colored Schools (12)
  • Elijah P. Marrs School
  • Franklin School
  • Lincoln School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Simpson County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Spencer County, KY
Start Year : 1886
End Year : 1957
Spencer County had colored schools as early as 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, school year ending June 1886 and school year ending June 1887 [see NKAA entry African American Schools, 1886]. One of the schools was located in Taylorsville (District 1) and the superintendent reported that attendance was extremely low at the school (pp.213-214). By 1895, there were 9 colored school districts, each with one school, and 2 of the schools were in session more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.685-688]. Four of the schools were held in log buildings and 5 of the schools were held in frame buildings. The average attendance was 207 students (1895-96), and 206 students (1896-97). The eight female teachers' average monthly wages were $25.20 (1895-96) and $26.45 (1896-97). The one male teacher earned $24.03 (1895-96) and $18.81 (1896-97). Four students from Spencer County attended the State Normal School for Colored Persons (now Kentucky State University), 1900-1901; two of the Negro teachers in Spencer County were graduates of a normal school; and 8 of the teachers taught in Spencer County for the first time during the 1900-01 school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, pp.144, 445, & 451]. In 1916, the teachers in the Spencer County colored schools included Emma Taylor and Zueta Taylor; Eva M. Shelburne, Ruth D. Shelburne, and Sue Pery Shelburne; and Lorena E. Brown. [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25, 32, & 35]. All of the teachers were in Taylorsville. By 1925, there were 4 colored elementary schools with one teacher at each school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 68].  Fifteen years later, according to the U.S. Federal Census, there were 3 Negro teachers in 1940: Charity Mason, Monroe Miles, and Mabel Miles. The Spencer County schools started to integrate in 1957, as mentioned in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.644.

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Taylorsville School 

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Spencer County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Taylor County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1956
As early as 1880, there was a colored school in Taylor County, KY; the teacher was Robert Hubbard at the Campbellsville school [source: U.S. Federal Census]. There were still schools during the 1886-87 school term [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1888, p. 130]. In 1895, there were 10 colored schools in Taylor County [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp. 689-692]. The average attendance was 281 students during the 1895-96 school term, and 252 students during the 1896-97 school term. There were 11 teachers. In 1916, the following school teachers were listed in the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916: Fannie B. Gaddie and J. H. Gaddie, Saloma (p.28); Norian E. Harris, Campbellsville (p. 29); Ethel Von Lewis, Campbellsville (p. 31); C. B. Nuckolls [or Nuchols], Campbellsville (p. 33); and Maxwell Philpott, Campbellsville (p. 34). Mrs. G. E. Philpott taught the Colored Moonlight School in Campbellsville, beginning in 1915, with students between the ages of 18 and 55 [source: "Mrs. G. E. Philpott...," Freeman, 02/13/1915, p. 3]. Robert L. Dowery conducted night school for colored soldiers at Camp Zachary Taylor during World War I. In 1937, there were seven one-room, colored elementary schools in Taylor County, KY, according to the master's thesis of John Albert Jones, History of Education in Taylor County, p. 77. One of the schools was in Campbellsville; in 1939 that school was replaced by the newly-constructed Durham School, grades 1-12; the school received funding from the Rosenwald Fund to house the second high school for African Americans in Taylor County [source: Images of America: Campbellsville, by DeSpain, Burch, and Hooper, pp. 92-93]. The earlier high school, Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes, existed in 1922 when teacher C. B. Nuchols [or Nuckolls] left the school for a teaching job with Booker T. Washington School in Ashland, KY [see NKAA entry African American Schools in Boyd County, KY]. The Taylor County Industrial High School, located in Campbellsville, was established between 1911 and 1919 and was funded by the John F. Slater Fund [source: A History of Education in Kentucky, by W. E. Ellis, p. 179]. Margaret Ray was the teacher at the Taylor County Industrial School in 1925. The term of service was nine months. The school received $450 from the Jeanes Fund [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 66]. Also in 1925, C. V. Haynes was the principal of the Taylor County Training School in Campbellsville  [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp. 41 & 65]. The training school was a Class 3, two-year high school with one-three teachers and six students. The high school was in session for nine months, and the teachers' average salary was $630. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Taylor County were Flora Bell, Ethel Lewis, Rodney K. Ivery, Ortie L. Miller, Helen Miller, Margaret Ryan, and Melvin Strong [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, the school named Our Lady of Perpetual Help was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students (on p. 229 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56). The Negro student at the school was Wallace Williams, who would become an Olympic marathon runner. The following year, Our Lady of Perpetual Help would become the first school in Taylor County to be listed as integrated [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p. 447]. Basketball player Clem Haksins transferred from Durham High School to Taylor County High School in 1961, the year Taylor High School was listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 890. See also the unpublished manuscript, "Public Education in Taylor County (con.)" [1939-1940], by Nelle B. Crawley, 507 Central Avenue, Campbellsville, KY., p. 4, section Colored:, in the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, 0000UA129, File: Taylor County Education, at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center.

  • Colored Schools (10)
  • Taylor County Industrial High School for Negroes
  • Durham School
  • Campbellsville Colored Moonlight School
  • Camp Zachary Taylor Colored Night School
  • Taylor County Training School
  • Shady Grove School
  • Burdick School
  • Smith Ridge School
  • Saloma School
  • Sweenyville School
  • Old Pitman School
  • Pleasant Union School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Taylor County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Todd County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1963
At least two colored schools were established in Todd County, KY, by the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. One school was located in Hadensville, and another in Trenton. In 1880, there were several more schools and the teachers were Henry Beid at Kirkmansville; Filmore Gaugh, Euclide Loving, and Jarusha Russell at Elkton; and Ben Mansfield and Wilson Hunter at Trenton [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1920, Nannie Samuel was the school teacher at the Fairview School [source: U.S. Federal Census].  Blanch T. Dickinson taught in Todd County during the 1924 and 1925 school terms; her husband Verdell Dickinson was from Todd County. There were 17 colored elementary schools in Todd County in 1925, each with one teacher, and there was one high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.83].  There were 21 teachers at the 17 elementary schools during the 1926-27 school term [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.82]. The class 3 colored high school was located in Elkton and J. W. Waddle was the principal during the 1927-28 term, the high school had 2 teachers and 11 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1926-1927, p.57]. The Elkton School held both the elementary and high school. J. W. Waddle had been with the Elkton School as early as 1916, along with J. S. Henderson, Robert M. Small, Emma Stoner, and Rhoda Hall; and T. Henderson and P. T. Frazer in Allensville [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.28, 29, 30, 35, 36, & 37]. In 1940, there were 15 Negro teachers in Todd County, KY according to the U.S. Federal Census: Bonnie H. Bell, Leon Bell, Ora Ferguson, James P. Griffin, Hattie L. Griffin, Rhoda Hall, Manice Gladdiak, Iola Marrow, Mazella Marshall, Bertha Mae Morehead, Inez Russell, Robert Small, Daveny F. Smith, Larizza Terry, and Massey Ward. The first school to be listed as integrated was the Todd County Central High School, on p.143 in the Kentucky School Directory, 1963-64.

  • Hadensville Freedmen School
  • Trenton Freedmen School
  • Colored Schools (17)
  • Kirkmansville School
  • Elkton School 
  • Fairview School
  • Guthrie School
  • Allensville School
  • Todd County Training School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.229]
  • Trenton Rosenwald School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1961-62, p.891]

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Todd County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Trigg County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1962
In 1880, D. M. Brown was a school teacher at the colored school in Cadiz (Trigg County), KY, according to the U.S. Federal Census. Brown was from Tennessee; he was married, and had three children. By 1886, there were 3 colored school districts in Trigg County [source: see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. In 1887, Rev. Wendell H. McRidley founded and was the first president of the Cadiz Normal and Theological College. The number of colored schools continued to grow, and in 1895, there were 19 colored schools in Trigg County, with two of the schools were in session for more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.698-702]. Nine of the schools were held in log buildings and 10 were held in frame structures. The average attendance was 1,218 students, who were taught by 21 teachers, 1895-96, and 1,054 students taught by 22 teachers, 1896-97. The teachers' average monthly wages were $67.18 for males and $43.00 for females, 1895-96; and $46.70 for males and $31.40 for females, 1896-97. In 1900, the teacher at the Montgomery colored school was George Danden from Tennessee [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The class 2 high school for Negro students was located in Cadiz, the principal was J. E. Bush in 1925 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p. 39]. The high school had 2 teachers and 23 students. There were 14 teachers at the 13 elementary schools [p.68]. Mrs. Thelma Brooks was the school teacher at the Cerulean Colored School in 1935 [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, (1935), v.6, no.1, p.50]. Fourteen year old, Lillie H. Bingham was a student at the Cerulean School in 1935 when she won the 1st prize of $10.00 in the student spelling bee held during the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Conference in Louisville, KY [source: "Elementary School Department," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.6, no.1, p.21]. In 1940, there were seven Negro teachers in Trigg County, according to the U.S. Federal Census: Martha Caudle, Susa A. Cunningham, Susa Mae Cunningham, Lillie V. Curlin, Plumb Maston, Cora P. Reed, and Reuben Tinsley. The Trigg County High School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trigg County, Kentaucky

African American Schools in Trimble County, KY
Start Year : 1833
End Year : 1925
In 1833, there was a Miss Davis in Trimble County, KY, who opened a school for slaves, she gave them books and was teaching them to read, which caused a stir and the school was shut down [source: A History of Blacks in Kentucky by M. B. Lucas, pp.141-142]. In 1874, there was a colored school in Trimble County with Maria F. Carter as the teacher. There were three colored school districts in 1895, each with one school, and one teacher at each school [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, p.703-706 ]. The average attendance was 55 students 1895-96, and 28 students 1896-97. During the 1899-1900 school term, the average salary for the teachers was $24.91 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.15]. The following school year, the average salary was $24.10. During the 1901-02 school term, the average attendance at the colored school was 24 and the school teacher's average monthly wages were $24.50; and the following school term the average attendance was 25 and the teacher's average monthly wages were $20.79 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903, pp.329 & 355]. The colored school in Trimble County was still in operation during the 1912-1913 school term when there was an enrollment of 5 students [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, pp.112 & 122]. By 1925, there was no longer a colored school in Trimble County, KY, though the school census listed 7 colored school-age children in the county [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.68]. There is no mention as to where the children attended school or if they attended school. In 1930, there were no children of school age listed for Trimble County in the U.S. Federal Census. The Milton Elementary School is the first school to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky School Directory, 1962-63, p.155.

  • Miss Davis' School for Slaves (1833)
  • Colored School (M. F. Carter)
  • Colored Schools (3)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Trimble County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Union County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1957
As early as 1880, there were colored schools in Union County, KY; the teachers were Mollie Kirk, and Pamelia H. Wynn in Caseyville [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1886, there were 9 colored school districts and 6 of them had schools; three of the school districts were too poor to afford schools [see NKAA entry for African American Schools, 1886]. By 1895, there were 11 school districts, nine of the districts had a school, and 2 of the schools were in session for more than 5 months [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.707-710]. Two of the schools were held in log buildings and 7 were held in frame buildings. There were 13 teachers in the 9 schools. The schools had an average attendance of 368 students 1895-96, and 389 students 1896-97. During the two year term of 1899-1901, the teachers' average monthly wages were $45.11 the first year, and $35.50 the following school term [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1899-1901, p.15]. In 1931, there was a colored high school in Sturgis, KY, with an average daily attendance of 10 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.74]. There was also a colored elementary school at Sturgis with an average daily attendance of 91 students taught by 2 women teachers.  Dunbar School was located in Morganfield, and was named for poet Paul L. Dunbar. There had been a colored high school in Morganfield since 1932 when there were 14 students taught by 1 teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1932-1933, p.58]. There were three teachers in the Dunbar High School in 1941 and two grade school teachers; the high school students from around the county were transported by bus to Dunbar High School [source: "Dunbar Colored High School," information by C. L. Timberlake, Principal of School, and reported by Sarah D. Young of Sturgis, typed 05/20/1941. Found within the Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, File: Union County]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Union County were John M. Hoke, Alphonso Lovelace, Elizabeth McCulley, Amos Parker, Emma Peppin, Mary L. Reed, John Robinson, Hattie Robinson, Dorothy Slaughter, Clarence Timberlake, and George Wakefield [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In 1955, there were four graduates from the Blessed Martin School located near Waverly, KY [source: Union County Advocate, 05/19/1955]. The graduates were Joseph Curry, Betty Chambers, Hershel Harris, and Frances Hammond. The total student enrollment was 26 high school students who were taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.229]. There was also an elementary school with an enrollment of 51 students taught by 2 teachers. The colored school in Uniontown had an enrollment of 13 students taught by one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.448]. The Sturgis school for whites was the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1957-58, p.644]. For more about the desegregation of the Sturgis School see Sturgis and Clay: showdown for desegregation in Kentucky education by John M Trowbridge and Jason Lemay. 

  • Colored Schools (9)
  • Caseyville School
  • Blessed Martin School
  • Dunbar School 
  • Sturgis School
  • Uniontown School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Union County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Warren County, KY
Start Year : 1800
End Year : 1958
One of the earliest schools for slaves in Kentucky was established by Peter Tardiveau (d. 1817), a Revolutionary War volunteer from Bordeaux, France. Tardiveau was a friend and fellow Revolutionary War veteran of Robert E. Craddock. The school was located in Warren County, KY, around 1800 for the slaves of Robert E. Craddock [see NKAA entry Willis Russell]. One of the first schools for the freemen was established between 1866 and 1870 in Bowling Green with support from the U.S. Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools]. The school teacher was run out of town. During this same time period, a school was held within the Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church, which was established in 1866 [see NKAA entry Stoney Point]. The school was moved in 1908 to a newly built schoolhouse in Stoney Point, and the school continued to serve the community for about 20 more years before it was closed and the children were bused to the Smith Grove School. In 1880, the colored teachers in Warren County were Andrew Bowles; Frances Buckley in Woodburn; George D. Loving; C. R. McDowell; Tobias Sweeney; Willis Tisdale; J. B. Henderson; Maria J. Mayo; and Alex Williams [source: U.S. Federal Census]. By 1895, the Simmons Memorial College was in operation, headed by Robert Mitchell [see NKAA entry American Baptist Home Missionary Schools; and Rev. Robert Mitchell in Lexington Herald, 10/08/1926, p. 16]. In total, there were 30 colored schools in Warren County in 1895 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp. 712-715]. Warren County had the highest number of colored schools recorded in the 1895-1897 biennial report of the Kentucky Superintendent, more than any other Kentucky county. All but one of the schools were held for five months, and the remaining school was held for more than five months. Each of the schools had one teacher, and the male teachers' average monthly pay was $39.93, 1895-96, and $31.56, 1896-97. The female teachers' average monthly pay was $37.93, 1895-96, and $27.41, 1896-97. The average attendance was 709 students, 1895-96, and 863 students, 1896-97. In 1902 a school was opened in the Colored Cumberland Presbyterian Church in Bowling Green, KY. The school was later moved into a building on State Street and named Bowling Green Academy. Other communities with colored schools were Sunnyside, Freeport, and Oakland [see NKAA entry African American Communities in Warren County, KY]. In the 1930s, a report completed by Kathryn S. Coleman lists twelve colored schools in Warren County, along with the enrollment numbers, and the number of teachers per school. The title of the report is "Public Schools," and on pp.10-11 is the section titled "Warren County, Colored Public Schools" [source: Kentucky Education Collection, Series 1, Box 25, 0000UA129, File: Warren County, at the University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center]. Within the Shake Rag District in Bowling Green was the State Street High School [see NKAA entry Shake Rag]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Warren County were Robert Barlow, Christine Barlow, E. Hortense Bathnic(?), Ethel Buford, Virginia Cabell, Lula Carpenter, Clara Cole, Addie J. Edmonds, Lutisha Frierson, Willie Gossom, Lena Hudson, C. A. Hutcherson, Latter Huston Cox, Eva Kuykendall, Lila Bell Lee, Frances Luvalle, Charity McCrutchen, Emma Milligan, Mabel Moore, Frank Moxley, Claude Nichols, Alroma Nichols, Mattie Patticord, A. L. Poole, Ethel Ray, A. P. Williams, Delorese Williams, Clara Bell Yarbrough, and Henry Yost [source: U.S. Federal Census]. St. Joseph School was the first to be listed as having "white & colored" students, on p.230 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, and the school is the first to be listed as integrated on p.1021 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1958-59. For more on the school integration in Warren County listen to the George Esters interviews (High Street School) within the Civil Rights Movement in Kentucky Oral History Project at the Kentucky Historical Society website.

  • Colored Schools (30)
  • Peter Tardiveau School on Craddock Plantation
  • Freedmen School
  • Stoney Point Missionary Baptist Church School
  • Smith Grove School
  • Simmons Memorial College (Baptist)
  • Bowling Green Academy (Presbyterian)
  • Loving Union School (in Sunnyside)
  • Woodland School (in Freeport)
  • Kepley School (in Oakland)
  • Oakland School
  • State Street High School
  • High Street School
  • Bristow School
  • Cosby School (in Alvaton)
  • Rockfield School
  • Woodburn School
  • Salem School (in Rockfield)
  • Dellafield School (in Bowling Green)
  • Robert Mitchell School for Ministers
  • H. D. Carpenter School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p. 891]

 
Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Warren County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Washington County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1956
The first Negro school in Washington County was established in 1868, according to the thesis of William L. Case, A History of Education in Washington County, Kentucky. The colored school district had an average of 29 children attending each colored school during the five month school term. According to author Case, between 1879 and 1880, there were seven school districts with seven schools; 1 log building and six frame buildings. The colored school teachers earned an average monthly salary of $25.44. The the first school report from the county school commissioner was in 1880. The colored teachers in 1880 included Leotta Meaux and R. W. Christian [source: U.S. Federal Census]. It was in 1883 that the colored students and the white students of Washington County received the same per capita amount, $1.30 per student. The colored schools still existed in Washington County, KY, in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In the 1895-97 Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, on pp. 716 & 718, there were 13 colored schools in 13 districts. Ten of the schools were held in log or frame school houses, with about 200 students attending the schools during each term. The first commencement of the Springfield Colored School was held at the Opera House on July 17, 1902 by Principal M. B. Givens; reserve seats cost 25 cents, general seats 15 cents [source: "Commencement exercises," News-Leader, 07/17/1902, p. 3]. In 1905, the school principal was Mrs. Eliza Davison, and her assistant was Miss H. E. Wells [source: "The Entertainments given by the pupils of the Springfield Colored School...," News-Leader, 02/16/1905, p. 5]. That same year, a school was held in Randall's Chapel in Springfield, KY [source: "Will Best, a Negro...," Springfield Sun, 01/25/1905, p. 5]. In 1908, an election for the formation of a new colored school district was held in Washington County [source: "Election Notice! of colored graded school," Springfield Sun, 10/07/1908, p. 2]. There was a two year high school, the Washington County Training School in Springfield, with Principal C. V. Haunes who earned $125 per month [source: A History of Education in Washington County, Kentucky]. There were 19 high school students and the school was in session for eight months of each year. In 1925, L. L. Rowe was the principal of the Springfield Colored High School, a Class 3 school that was also a county training school with 4 teachers over the 2 year high school that was in session for 8 months, and the average salary was $712 [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp. 41 & 65]. In 1931, Prof. G. W. Adams was the principal of the Washington County Training School; he was previously the principal of the colored school in Paris, KY [source: Prof. G. W. Adams...," KNEA Journal, vol. 2, issue 1, p. 26]. Mrs.Catherine Gowdy was the teacher at the Washington County Supervising Industrial School in Springfield in 1925 [p.66]. The term of service was 8 months and the school received $400 from the Jeanes Fund. In 1935, there were 402 children in the colored county school district and the Springfield district [source: "Letter on salary schedule," KNEA Journal, vol. 5, issue 2, p. 20]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Washington County were David E. Carmon, Ada Hughes, Ann Philips, and Nancy Ray. A pioneer teacher in Washington County was Mrs. Elizabeth Goodloe Clark, who died in 1942; she started teaching at the age of 16 at the Mackville Colored School [source: "The Late Mrs. E. G. Clark, Historian, Kentucky Negro Education Assn.," KNEA Journal, vol. 13, issue 1, pp. 19-20]. St. Catherine Academy was the first school to be listed with "white & colored" students, on p.230 of the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, and the following year it was the first school to be listed as integrated, on p.448 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57.

  • Colored Schools (13)
  • Mackville School
  • Randall's Chapel School
  • Springfield School
  • Washington County Training School
  • High Street School [source: Kentucky School Directory, 1961-62, p.892]

 

  See photo image of the Washington County Training School in Springfield on p. 20 in Rosenwald Schools in Kentucky, 1917-1932 [available online in .pdf].
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Washington County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Wayne County, KY
Start Year : 1868
End Year : 1956
According to an article in Overview, both African American and white settlers of Shearer Valley and Simpson Branch (then called Turkey Ridge) came together to build the first church/school house for colored and white children in Wayne County, KY. The school was built in 1868 and was named the Little Flock School and Church [source: History of Public Education of Wayne County, 1842 to 1975 by Ira Bell]. William Simpson, who was white, was the first teacher. The names of 76 Negro teachers, beginning in 1885, are listed on pages 18-19 in History of Public Education of Wayne County, 1842 to 1975 by I. Bell. There was one colored school in Wayne County in 1886, according to the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. Later other African American schools were established in the county in Dogwood, Duncan Valley, Mill Springs, Monticello, and Meadow Creek. According to the thesis of Harry F. Young, History of Education in Wayne County, pp.35-37 and 69-73, in 1890, all of the colored school buildings were log structures that in total were valued at $700. The schools were poor and the teachers were not very well prepared. During the  1895-96 school term, there were 7 colored schools in Wayne, and the following school term there were 8 colored schools [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.721-725]. There was one teacher at each school. Male teachers' average monthly pay was $24.75 during 1895-96, and $18.74 during 1896-97. Female teachers' average monthly pay was $25.06 during 1895-96, and $19.17 during 1896-97. The average attendance was 143 students 1895-96, and 165 students 1896-97. Looking at the 37 year period, from 1890-1927, the highest average enrollment at the colored schools in Wayne County was 191 students during the 1920-21 school term, and the lowest average attendance was 60 students during the 1917-18 school term. There were never more than 8 teachers in the colored schools in Wayne County. In 1925, L. Iva White was the supervising teacher of the Wayne County Industrial School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.66]. The school was located in Monticello and the teacher's term of service was 7 months. The school received $350 from the Jeanes Fund. In 1931, there was a high school in the Monticello School [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1931-1932, p.78]. It was a Class 3 high school with one teacher and an average attendance of 6 students. William E. Didlicks was principal of the Monticello School. In 1940 the Negro teachers in Wayne County were Edna Bertram and Carl M. Burnside [source: U.S. Federal Census]; they were 2 of the 4 Negro teachers in Wayne County [source: "K.N.E.A. membership by counties," Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, v.9, no.1-3, p.54]. For more see "Negro Schools," Overview, vol. 13, issue 1, 1992. Overview is published by the Wayne County Historical Society in Monticello, KY. In 1955, there were three colored schools in Wayne County, and Wayne County High School was listed as having both "white & colored" students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1955-56, p.230]. The following year, the Wayne County High School and the Rocky Branch School were listed as integrated, and the Monticello Independent Schools were noted as "white, colored, and integrated" [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.448].

  See 1937 photo image of Monticello School in the Kentucky Digital Library - Images.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Wayne County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Webster County, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1957
As early as 1880, there were colored schools in Providence, Webster County, KY; the teachers were Kentucky natives C. Haughton, born around 1858, and Mandy Stanley, born around 1863 [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. There were 11 colored schools with 12 teachers in 1895, and 2 of the schools were held in a log building, and 9 were held in a frame building [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.725-728]. The average attendance was 277 for 1895-96, and 355 for 1896-97. The male teachers' average monthly wages were $40.97 and females received $37.86, 1895-96; and the following school term, males received $33.99 and females received $30.69. In 1900, Ida Bell Shackleford was a school teacher in Dixon [source: U.S. Federal Census]. During the 1905-1907 school terms, the average attendance was 471 students, and the teachers average monthly salaries were $44.76 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1905-1907, pp.407 & 431]. In 1916, Webster County colored teachers included Owen Brooks and William D. Brooks, both in Dixon, and J. V. Coleman in Providence [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.25 & 26]. By 1925, there were 9 colored rural schools in Webster County, and the school in Providence had 4 elementary teachers and 3 teachers in the Class 1 high school [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.41 & 68-69]. W. O. Nuckolls was the principal of the high school, which had 30 students. In 1931, the Webster County Training and Rosenwald City High School was constructed in Providence, KY, with W. O. Nuckolls as principal [source: Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1931, v.1, no.3, p.16]. In 1938, the new Sebree Colored School was constructed by the WPA [source: waymarking.com]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Webster County were Curtis Bishop, Vatula Bishop, Gurner Bishop, Owen Brooks, Laura Campbell, Claudine Drake in Slaughtersville, Francis Finley, Geneva Fergurson, Leslie Hayes Jr., Comagell Marton, Gertrude Mitchell, Ovenus Mitchel, Dorothy Mitchell, Helen Nuckolls, Martha Helen Nuckolls, Harvey Saieva, James R. Shearer, Virginia Springfield, Deborah Woolfork, and Louis Woolfork [source: U.S. Federal Census]. In December of 1956, the Sturgis and Clay school systems were directed by U.S. District Judge Henry L. Brooks to submit their desegregation plans by February 4, 1957. Both school systems complied and in September of 1957, Negro students were admitted to the schools. For more about the desegregation of the Clay Elementary School see the NKAA entry James and Teresa Gordon (siblings).

  • Colored Schools (11)
  • Providence School
  • Dixon School
  • Sebree School [source: Goodman-Paxton Photographic Collection at UK Special Collections]
  • Slaughtersville School
  • Webster County Training and Rosenwald City High School (in Providence)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Webster County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Whitley County, KY
Start Year : 1883
End Year : 1956
In 1883, the American Missionary Association (AMA) opened a church and a school in Williamsburg, KY, that was attended by both Negroes and whites [see NKAA entry Williamsburg (KY) Colored Academy]. In 1885, there was a school teacher at the colored schools, the teacher was a normal school graduate [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, end of school years, June 30, 1886 and June 30, 1887, p.110]. Ten years later, 1895-96, there were 5 colored schools with 7 teachers, and the following term, there were 8 schools, each with one teacher [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-1897, pp.729-733]. The schools were open 5 months of each year. The average attendance was 85 students 1895-96, and 100 students 1896-97. The teachers' average monthly wages were $26.89 for 1896, and the following school term, the teachers' wages were $21.12 for males and $19.78 for females. By 1925, there were 4 colored schools in rural Whitley County, each with one teacher, and 1 colored school in Williamsburg with one teacher [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, pp.68-69]. Though, according to the Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 22-25, 1925, p.50, there were two teachers at the Williamsburg Colored School: Henry W. Bond and his daughter Ruth A. Bond. There were three Negro teachers listed in the 1940 U.S. Federal Census: Benjman Barrus, Evelyn Griffey, and Thelma Lewis. The Williamsburg Independent Schools were the first to be listed as integrated in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, p.449. For additional information about the teachers of the Williamsburg Colored School see the NKAA entry Williamsburg (KY) Colored Academy.

  • AMA School
  • Williamsburg School
  • Colored Schools (8)

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Whitley County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Wolfe County, KY
Start Year : 1885
End Year : 1925
In 1885 the colored school in Wolfe County had 55 students [source: "Our county schools," The Hazel Green Herald, 04/01/1885, p. 3]. In 1886 the school was included in the Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. P. E. Davenport was the school teacher in 1891 [source: "The Following endorsement ...," The Hazel Green Herald, 12/11/1891, p. 5]. In 1897, Prof. Austin from Paris, KY, was the school teacher at the Daysboro Colored School [source: The Hazel Green Herald, "Prof. Austin began teaching the colored school Monday," and "Prof. Austin of Paris...," 12/09/1897, p. 1]. It was the only colored school in the county [source: Document No. 11, Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of Kentucky, 1895-1897, pp. 733-737]. The building was a log cabin with furniture worth $20; it was to seat the 43 students studying at the elementary level. Wolfe County had no high school for African Americans. The teacher, Prof. Austin, was paid $24.57 per month. W. C. Crawford, also from Paris, became a school teacher in Wolfe County in 1898 [source: "W. C. Crawford, of Paris...," The Hazel Green Herald, 07/28/1898, p. 3]. During the school term 1901-02, the average attendance at Wolfe County colored common schools was 19 students and the teacher's average monthly pay was $22.32, and during the following school term, the average attendance was 8 and the teacher's average monthly pay was $24.48 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1901-1903, pp.329 & 355]. During the 1911-12 school term, there were 22 students enrolled in grades 1-8 of the colored school, and the teacher's average monthly pay was $37 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1911-1913, pp.14 & 49]. The following year, the enrollment was 25 [p.112]. By 1925, no schools were listed for Wolfe County in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926. There were no schools listed for Wolfe County in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, 1916-1952; perhaps the teacher in Wolfe County did not participate in the Kentucky Negro Educational Association. There is a single notation of Wolf County Schools being integrated on p.449 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57, though the notation does not appear again; all schools in Wolfe County are designated as "white" in the subsequent issues of the Kentucky Public School Directory and the Kentucky School Directory.

  • Daysboro School

Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Daysboro, Wolfe County, Kentucky

African American Schools in Woodford County, KY
Start Year : 1866
End Year : 1956
A Colored School in Midway, KY, had its exhibition attacked by a mob on July 31, 1868 [source: Index to the Miscellaneous Documents of the Senate of the United States, 1871, p. 49]. The school may have been one of the two Freedmen Schools in Woodford County established between 1866 and 1870 [see NKAA entry Freedmen Schools, Kentucky]. In the Kentucky superintendent's reports for the years 1881-1886, there were 16 colored school districts; the Versailles Colored School was said to be a model school [source: Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction of the Commonwealth of Kentucky, 1881-1886]. In 1880, the teachers in Woodford County included Jason Jefferson, Mary Taylor, P. Bronham, J. C. Hawkins, and George Jackson, all in Versailles, and Wallace Lewis in Midway [source: U.S. Federal Census]. According to the Simmons Elementary School website [no longer available], the Simmons School existed in the late 1890s along with the Woolridgetown School and 17 other colored schools in Woodford County. When the Woolridgetown School burned, students attended school at a church in Big Spring Bottom. Within the Hifner Photo Collection are pictures of all the Colored schools in Woodford County in 1892, including Simmons and Big Spring. The collection was created for the educational exhibit at the World's Fair and is available online via the Hifner Collection at the Kentucky Historical Society Digital Collections web page. During the 1895-97 school terms, there were as many as 18 colored schools, and the average attendance was 525, 1895-96, and 628, 1896-97 [source: Biennial Report of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, 1895-97, pp.739-742]. There were 20 teachers in the colored schools, and the average monthly pay for male teachers was $55.82, 1895-96, and $41.78, 1896-97. For the female teachers, the average monthly pay was $48.19, 1895-96, and $27.57, 1896-97. Various colored schools in Woodford County are mentioned in issues of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association Journal, available full-text in the Kentucky Digital Library - Journals. In 1916, the teachers listed in the journal were Emma D. Hale and Katie Hancock in Midway; and Pearl E. Arnold in Versailles [source: Proceedings of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, April 25-28, 1916, pp.24-29]  In 1925, the Simmons Street School in Versailles had a Class 1 high school with J. L. Bean as principal, and the high school had 2 teachers and 59 students [source: Kentucky Public School Directory, 1925-1926, p.41]. There was no colored high school in the county among the 9 elementary schools taught by 11 teachers [p.68]. In Versailles, there were 5 elementary teachers and two high school teachers [p.69]. In 1940, the Negro teachers in Woodford County were Jennie A. Bean, Gladys Carter, W. J. Christy, Ada B. Crawford, Elene Jackson, Rose I. Johnson, Ethelbert McClesky, Emma Minnie, Lula Rowland, Ada Scruggs, and Robin Stepp [source: U.S. Federal Census]. The first schools to be listed as integrated are Versailles High School, St. Leo, and Midway Independent Schools, all on p.449 in the Kentucky Public School Directory, 1956-57. See also the KHS to Dedicate Historical Marker to Honor Midway Colored School, a Kentucky.gov website.

  • Colored Schools (19)
  • Big Spring Bottom School (church)
  • Davistown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Elm Bend School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Fermantown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Fort Spring School
  • Frazier School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Jacksontown School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Midway School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Midway School (Hadensville, 1911-1958)
  • Midway Freedmen School
  • Milville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Mortonsville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Mount Vernon School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Nashville School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Simmons School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Versailles School [photo in Hifner Collection]
  • Versailles Freemen School
  • Woolridgetown School

Subjects: Communities, Education and Educators, Photographers, Photographs, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, African American Schools in Kentucky (Counties A-Z)
Geographic Region: Woodford County, Kentucky

[African American Schools] Negro Public Elementary Schools , 1931
Start Year : 1931
The following information comes from the 1931 master's thesis by Pleasant Moore titled The Status of the Negro Public Elementary Schools of Kentucky, #33 at Indiana State Teachers College, pp.40-46, & 65-68. The data is from the Kentucky Department of Education for the school year ending June 30, 1929. Pleasant Moore's thesis is thought to be first scientific study of the public elementary schools for Negroes in Kentucky. It was the author's hope that his work would be used to address many of the problems, such as school terms that were less than the state required time period, lack of sufficient schools, and more responsibility for the education of Negro children on the part of independent school systems and cities of the 5th and 6th class. 

 

Largest Total Elementary Enrollment  
Louisville (city) 6986
Christian County 1978
Lexington (city) 1760
Paducah (city) 1110
Harlan County [610 average attendance] 840
   
Largest Average Daily Attendance  
Louisville (city) 5400
Lexington (city) 1354
Christian County 1205
Paducah (city) 907
Hopkinsville (city) [694 total enrollment] 625
   
Highest % of Attendance Based on Enrollment  
Marion County  [247 attendance] 100%
Rowan County  [6 attendance] 100%
Lee County  [27 attendance] 93%
Sturgis (city)  [81 attendance] 93%
Ballard County  [77 attendance] 91%
Laurel County  [67 attendance] 90%
Paris (city)  [343 attendance] 90%
Pike County  [199 attendance] 90%
Elkton (city)  [198 attendance] 89%
   
Highest Average Annual Teachers' Salaries
 
Kenton County  [21 teachers] $1526.67
Jefferson County  [259 teachers] $1407.63
Campbell County  [4 teachers] $1275
Fayette County  [90 teachers] $1050
Clark County  [20 teachers] $994.33

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Schools: Ralph Bunche Community Center Oral History Project (FA 455)
Start Year : 2008
End Year : 2009
The following information comes from the collection notes about Ralph Bunche Community Center Oral History Project (FA 455): "This collection consists of ten interviews done with African Americans who attended the Ralph Bunche School when it was still a segregated school in Glasgow, Kentucky. The interviews were conducted by Jessica Bonneau; Barry Kaufkins served as the faculty advisor on the project. Interviews were arranged alphabetically by the informant. The interviewees discuss the importance of the school in the African American community, the values taught at the facility, teachers and teaching, prejudice, segregation and integration, and general attitudes toward African Americans. Concurrently the interviews also reveal information about African American culture in Glasgow. The interviews are on CD’s (compact discs). This project was funded by the Kentucky Oral History Commission, Frankfort, Kentucky." The collection has 1/2 box, 11 folders, 21 items, conaining the originals and compact discs. All items are available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscrips and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Glasgow, Barren County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers and Shoe Repairers in Lexington, KY Prior to 1900
End Year : 1900
The term shoemaker was sometimes written as two words [shoe maker] in the early city directories. The making of shoes was one of the skilled labors performed by slaves throughout the South. Once slavery ended, former slaves used the skill in their businesses that were often operated out of their homes. The industrial manufacturing and mass production of shoes greatly reduced the number of individual shoemakers. The names of the shoe factories, especially in Louisville, KY, can be found in city directories, along with the listing of shoemakers, both African American and white. In Lexington, KY, there was an abundance of African American shoemakers and a few shoe repairers. They are noted in the directories with (c), (col), (cld), or (col'd). Below are the names of some of the African American shoemakers and shoe repairers located in Lexington, KY prior to 1900. Practically all were born in Kentucky.

 

  • Micajah M. Mason was a shoemaker who lived on W. Water Street between N. Mill and Broadway. He is listed as a free man in the 1838-39 directory, and in the 1859-60 directory when he lived on E. S. Mulberry between Short and Barr Streets.

 

  • Edward Oliver was a boot and shoe maker. He lived at 4 E. Water Street and is listed as free in the 1838-39 directory.

 

  • Parker Pee (b. 1808 in KY) was a shoe and boot maker and lived at 23 W. Short Street. He is listed as free in the 1838-39 directory, in the 1859-60 directory when he was living on S. Main between Broadway and Spring Streets; he is listed in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census.

 

  • William Tanner, a shoe maker, lived on E. Short Street between Walnut and Bank Streets. He is listed as free in the 1838-39 directory.

 

  • Thomas Johnson (b. 1822 in KY) was a shoemaker on S. Broadway between Main and Water Streets. He is listed as a free man in the 1859-60 directory, and in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census.

 

  • Isaac Robinson was a shoemaker who lived on S. Short Street between Spring and Jefferson. He is listed as a free man in the 1859-60 directory, and he is listed as cook living at 11 S. Broadway in the 1877-78 directory.

 

  • Moses Thomas, boots and shoes, lived on S. Short Street between Broadway and Mill Streets. He is listed as a free man in the 1859-60 directory.

 

 

  • E. Dishman and Lawson Dishman were boot and shoemakers at 13 1/2 Water Street; both are listed in Sheppard's Lexington City Directory 1873 and 1874. Ebenezer Dishman, Sr. (1818-1901) and Lawson Dishman (1828-1899) were two of the sons of William and Frances Dishman. Ebenezer was born in Fayette County, KY, and was the husband of Georgiana Dishman (b. 1830). They are listed in the 1870 U.S. Federal Census as the parents of four children. Lawson Dishman was born in Fayette County, KY, and was the husband of May Dishman. Lawson Dishman was a shoemaker and a tanner. He is later listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82, as a shoemaker in Dill's Ally, 4th house west of Jefferson St. In the same directory is a listing for Ebenezer and his son, James E. Dishman (b. 1852). They are listed as shoemakers at their home at 205 N. Upper Street. James E. Dishman was born in Fayette County, KY.

 

  • (1873 and 1874) Alex Burton was a shoe maker at 13 1/2 Water Street; he lived in Guntown. By 1880, Burton had moved his business and family to Danville, KY.

 

  • (1873 and 1874) Lewis Morton was a shoemaker at 175 E. Third Street.

 

  • Harvey Young, b. 1814 in KY, had his shop at 159 Correll [Corral] Street. He was the husband of Susan Young, b. 1839 in KY. In 1880, twelve year old Daniel Bell lived with the Youngs. They are all listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census. Harvey Young's business is listed in Prather's Lexington City Directory 1875 and 1876. In an earlier directory, Williams' Lexington City Directory 1864-65, Harvey Young was listed as a shoemaker with no race distinction. His home was on Water Street between Upper and Mulberry Streets.

 

  • David French (b. 1822) was a shoemaker at 112 N. Upper Street, according to Prather's Lexington City Directory 1875 and 1876. Born in Kentucky, he was the husband of Hannah French, b. 1835 in KY.

 

 

  • Silas Crowders sold shoes and boots at 267 N. Limestone, near his home at 269 Limestone. His business is listed in Williams' Lexington City Directory 1881-82. There is an earlier listing for Silas Crowdus (b. 1824 in KY), in Prather's Lexington City Directory 1875 and 1876. He was a shoemaker located at 137 S. Broadway.

 

  • Titus Buckner (1855-1936) was a minister and shoemaker. His business was at his home on Winslow Street between Upper and Limestone, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82. [He was still repairing shoes in the 1930s and is listed in Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directory 1931-32.] Reverend Titus Buckner was born in Fayette County, KY. He was the husband of Julia Buckner, b. 1856 in KY. The couple lived at 196 Eddie Street, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. Titus Buckner was a widower by 1920. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery, according to his death certificate.

 

  • Price Buford (b. 1820 in KY) worked out of his home in Gill's Alley, 9th house west of Jefferson Street, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.

 

  • Shoemaker Evan Collins did business at the home he shared with Charles Henderson, located in an alley between Spring, Lower, Maxwell, and Pine Streets. Collins is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.

 

  • Isaac Johnson was a shoe repairer on Georgetown Street, 3rd house north of King. He is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.

 

  • Charles Skillman (1844-1888) made shoes at his home, 144 Lower Street. Born in Kentucky, he was the husband of Emma Skillman b.1850 in KY. Charles Skillman is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.

 

  • Charles Taylor and Charles A. Thomas (b.1862) were both shoemakers at 138 N. Limestone. Charles Thomas was born in Kentucky, the son of Emma Thompson, and the brother of shoemaker John Thomas. Thomas and Taylor are listed separately in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82, but with the same address.

 

  • The William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82 lists two John Toles, the first worked at his home, 80 N. Broadway. The second John Toles also worked from his home on Vine Street, 3rd door east of Broadway. The older John Toles was born in 1820 in Kentucky.

 

  • John Wilkerson (b.1832) made shoes on Broadway, 3rd house north of Maxwell. His home was on Limestone and Winslow. Wilkerson was born in Kentucky, and was the husband of Virginia Wilkerson, b.1834 in KY. John Wilkerson is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.

 

  • Nathaniel Wilson (b.1809 in VA) lived on Limestone and worked from home, the fifth house south of 6th Street, according to William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.

 

  • Shoemaker William Vinegar had a business on Cox Street, he worked out of his home. His business is listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82.

 

 

Shoe makers in Lexington, listed in the 1880 U.S. Federal Census:

 

  • Gable Carr (b.1804) shoemaker, the husband of Matilda Carr.

 

  • Albert Diggs (b.1854), Sanders Diggs (1855-1898), and Edmund Diggs (1857-1912), all born in Kentucky, and the sons of Brooks and Emily Carter Diggs. The family of nine lived in Brucetown. Brooks and his sons were all shoe makers.

 

  • John Latcher (b.1811) widower shoemaker who lived on East Short Street.

 

  • Joseph Reeves (b.1858) a shoe maker from West Canada. He lived alone on Upper Street.

 

  • Walter Rhodes (b.1845) was the husband of Hattie Rhodes who was born in Kentucky. The couple had two children, the oldest was from Walter’s earlier marriage. The family lived on Deweese Street.

 

  • Jack Stopher (b.1845) was the husband of Minnie Stopher (b.1850). The family of five were all born in Kentucky, and lived in Kinkeadtown.

 

  • John Thomas (b.1857) listed above.

 

  • Shoemaker John Tobs (b.1820) was also a servant with the Wasfield family. Tobs lived with the family on Broadway.

 

  • William Vinegar (b.1849) was a shoemaker in Lexington. He was the husband of Kitty (b.1859) and the couple had 3 children.

 

  • Emanuel Wells (b.1842) was the husband of Harriet Wells and the couple had three children. The family lived in Adamstown.

 

 

Shoe makers listed in the Directory of African Americans in Lexington, Kentucky, 1893 by D. Y. Wilkinson:

 

  • Isaiah Graves at 29 Ballard Street.

 

  • Charles Green worked for F. King. His address was 24 Wickliffe Street.

 

  • William S. Irvine at 57 Megowan Street.

 

  • John Latcher at 55 E. Water Street.

 

  • Wallace Maxberry at 5 Drake Street.

 

  • Henry Nichols (b.1860 in KY) at 79 S. Limestone, he was the husband of Susan Nichols. In 1900, the couple lived on Corral Street, according to the U.S. Federal Census.

 

  • Isaiah Stone at 11 Blackburn Street.

 

  • Charles Thurston at 57 Megowan Street.

 

Shoe makers in Lexington, mentioned in newspapers:

 

  • George Robinson (1863-1911), a shoe maker who was born in Kentucky, died in 1911 after being burned in a fire at his home at 180 Locust Avenue in Lexington, KY. Source: Lexington Leader, 08/28/1911, p.1. Robinson was a widow, according to the 1910 U.S. Federal Census.

 


Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers from Kentucky
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1880
The following is a list of African American shoe makers who were born in Kentucky and lived in other states. The information comes from the 1800 U.S. Federal Census, except where noted otherwise. [See also Kentucky shoe makers and Lexington, KY, shoe makers.]

 

ALABAMA

  • David Crocket (b.1828) was a shoemaker in Huntsville. He was the husband of Josephine (b.1835 in AL).

 

CALIFORNIA

  • David McReynolds (b.1825) was a shoemaker in Petaluma. He was the husband of Selena (b.1834 in Washington D. C.).

 

GEORGIA

  • Abrom Halton (b.1835) was a shoemaker in Butler where he lived with his wife Emily (b.1835 in GA) and their 4 children.

 

ILLINOIS

  • William Donegan (b.1839) was a shoemaker in Springfield with his wife Sarah (b.1850 in IL) and their one year old son.
  • Daniel F. Garnett (b.1837) was a shoe maker in Evanston with his wife Mary E. (b.1852 in AR) and their five children.
  • Beverly Grayson (b.1817) was a shoemaker in Carbondale. He was the husband of Harriett (b.1823 in VA), and the couple had a daughter.
  • Dennis Miller (b.1845) was a shoemaker in Metropolis. He was a widower.
  • George T. Smith (b.1834) was a shoe maker who lived in Paris with his wife Jennie Smith (b.1861 in MS).
     

INDIANA

  • Henry Crawford (b.1847) was a shoemaker in Evansville. He was the husband of Clara (b.1849 in KY) and the couple had two children.  Clara's brother lived with the family.
  • Henry Craycroft (b.1832) was a shoemaker who lived in Jeffersonville. He was a widower and lived with his three children.
  • Judson Goe (b.1806) was a shoemaker in Wabash. He was the husband of Rose Ann (b.1810 in KY) and the couple had a son.
  • F. M. Green (b.1844) was a boot and shoe maker who lived in Evansville. He was a widower with four children, and a boarder lived with them on 5th Street.
  • Horace Heston (b.1853) was a shoemaker in Indianapolis.  He was the husband of Millie (b.1833 in KY) and the couple had two adult children.
  • Amos Irvine (b.1815) was a shoemaker in Port Fulton.
  • James Lee (b.1840) was a shoe maker who lived in Jeffersonville with his wife Amy (b.1846 in KY), their two children, and James' mother. The family lived on Broadway.
  • Anthony McDougal (b.1843) was a shoe maker who lived in Jeffersonville. He was the husband of Elizabeth McDougal (b.1852 in KY). The family of five and two boarders lived on Indiana Avenue.
  • Joe L. Louis (b.1820) was a shoemaker in Vincennes. He was the husband of Susan (b.1841 in KY) and the couple had 6 children.
  • Marian Madrian (b.1834) was a shoemaker in Evansville where he lived with his wife Elisa (b.1877 in KY) and their 3 children.
  • James McGary (b.1849) was a shoe maker in Evansville where he lived alone, he was a widower.
  • Sam Morgan (b.1845) was a shoemaker in Tell City. He was the husband of Bertha (b.1854 in KY) and the couple had 4 children.
  • Henry Patton (b.1858) was a shoe maker who was a prisoner in Michigan City.


IOWA

  • Philip Reeves (b.1844) was a shoemaker who had learned his craft as a slave in Kentucky. In 1900, he lived 211 N. Eighth Street in Keokuk with his wife Jennie (b.1845 in GA) and their son Wesley (b.1871 in IA). Philip Reeves is highlighted in a 1905 article in The Freeman, 10/14/1905, p.4. He is described as a popular shoemaker and shoe repairer at the business address of 317 Johnson Street.


KANSAS

  • James Bradley (b.1845) was a shoe maker who lived in Atchison City on 3rd Street. He was the husband of Sina Bradley (b.1849 in KY).
  • Richard Hodges (b.184) was a shoemaker in Wyandotte. He was the husband of Caddie (b.1851 in KY) and the couple had two children.
  • Moses Foster (b.1833) was a shoemaker in Leavenworth where he lived with his wife Francis (b.1834 in KY).
  • Alexander Gregg (1824-1904) was known in Kansas as Deacon Gregg, he was a boot and shoe maker who was born in Kentucky. Gregg left Kentucky and first settled in Missouri, then moved on to Kansas where he was one of the founders of the Baptist Church in Lawrence in 1862. He was the husband of Mary F. Gregg (b.1839 in MO). The couple lived on Tennessee Street with their children, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. For more see "In Memory of Deacon Gregg," Plaindealer, 02/26/1904, p.4.
  • Richard Hodges (b.1842) was shoemaker in Wyandotte where he lived with his wife Caddy (b.1851 in KY) and their two children on Kansas Avenue.
  • John Page (b.1850) was a shoe maker who lived in Leavenworth with his parents Richard and Anna Page who were both born in Virginia. The family lived on Miami Street.
  • Samuel P. Smith (b.1835) was a shoemaker in Topeka. He was the husband of Elvira (b.1849 in TN) and the couple had 7 children. A son-in-law and granddaughter also lived with the family.

 

LOUISIANA

  • Alcee Gaspar (b.1838) was a shoemaker in New Orleans. He was the husband of Rosine (b.1848 in LA) and the couple had 8 children.
  • Jubal Poland (b.1856) was a shoemaker in New Orleans.
  • Henry Robertson (b.1845) was cobbler in New Orleans. He was a widower.
  • Andrew Swyn (b.1834) was a shoemaker in Pineville. He was the husband of Mary (b.1840 in LA).


MICHIGAN

  • Peter Fisher (b.1859) was a shoe maker who was the son of William (b.1815 in KY) and Harriet Fisher (b.1818 in KY). The family of six lived in Greenfield.
  • John Richardson (b.1820) was a shoemaker in Madison.


MISSISSIPPI

  • Tom Broadwaters (b.1841), a shoe maker, was the husband of Laura Broadwaters (b.1852 in LA). The family of three lived in Vicksburg.
  • John Midderhoff (b.1859) a shoemaker in Natchez.
  • Thomas Monday (b.1855) was a shoe maker who lived in Wilkinson County with his wife Nancy (b.1858 in MS) and their five children.
  • Walt Owens (b.1824) was a shoe maker who lived in Summit with his wife Eliza (b.1858 in MS) and their four children.
  • Thomas Payne (b.1825) was a shoe maker who lived in Vicksburg with his wife Eliza Barnett (b.1839 in MS). They shared their home with an orphan and three boarders.
  • William Swank (b.1835) was a shoemaker in Senatobia. He was the husband of Chany (b.1843 in MS). The couple had 2 children and Chany's mother lived with them.


MISSOURI

  • Samuel Black (b.1845) was a shoemaker in St. Louis.
  • George Brenson (b.1816) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Judy Brenson (b.1813 in KY), and the family of five lived in Pierce City.
  • Newton Harden (b.1847) was a shoe maker who lived in Jefferson City.
  • Henry Johnson (b.1827) was a shoemaker in Huntsville. He was the husband of Louisa (b.1848 in MO) and the couple had three children.
  • Samuel Lewis (b.1857) was a shoe maker who lived in Jefferson City.
  • Peter Parker (b.1835) was a shoemaker in Kansas City. He was the husband of Susan (b.1838 in KY) and the couple had 5 children.
  • Jefferson Pierce (b.1840) was a shoe maker who lived in Joplin with his wife Sarah (b.1841 in KY), their six children and a boarder.
  • Nelson Robinson (b.1825) was a shoemaker in Paris. He was the husband of Jane (b.1827 in KY) and the couple had 6 children.
  • Presley Steward (b.1821) was a shoe maker. He lived in Linneus with his wife Ellen (b.1836 in MO) and their seven children.
  • Edward Young (b.1816) was a shoemaker in Fulton. He was the husband of Cassie (b.1836 in KY) and the couple had 3 children.


OHIO

  • James Andrews (b.1850) a shoemaker in Xenia with his wife Louisa, 3 siblings, and his mother. The family lived on East Main Street.
  • Joseph Bulger (b.1833) a boot and shoe maker in Ripley. He was the husband of Josephine Bulger (b.1854 in OH), and the couple had three children. They lived on Cherry Street.
  • Jackson Day (b.1841) a shoemaker in Springfield. He was the husband of Francis (b.1852 in KY) and the couple had 4 children. A nephew and a boarder also lived with the family.
  • Joseph Grubbs (b.1828) was a shoe maker who lived in Xenia with his wife Eliza (b.1832 in VA). The couple lived on Lexington Street.
  • Robert R. Hodge (b.1813) was a shoemaker in Oberlin. He lived with his wife Ida (b.1854 in OH) and their two sons.
  • Douglas Mullens (b.1845) was a shoemaker in Fayette. He was the husband of Martha (b.1840 in KY) and the couple had 3 children.
  • Albert Parks (b.1888 in Carlisle, KY) was a shoe repairer in Cincinnati, OH, having opened his business in 1922. He was the son of John W. and Laura Parks, and was a veteran of the U.S. Army. Source: Cincinnati's Colored Citizens by W. P. Dabney.
  • Robert Peoples (b.1846 in KY) was a shoemaker in Columbus. He was a prisoner in the penitentiary.
  • Alfred Seals (b.1824 in KY) was a shoemaker in Harrison. He was the husband of Mariah (b.1822 in KY) and they had one son.

 

TENNESSEE

  • Charles Bailey (b.1822) a shoe maker, was the husband of Emily Bailey (b.1825 in TN). The family of six lived in Montgomery County.
  • Thomas Ball (b.1828) was a shoe maker who lived in Milan with two nieces.
  • Phillip Caldwell (b.1853) was a shoemaker in Nashville.
  • Horace Chenault (b.1831) was a shoemaker in Gallatin. He was the husband of Amanda (b.1830 in TN) and the couple had 4 children.
  • J. Cox (b.1831) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Mary Cox (b.1836 in TN). The family of eight lived in Murfreesborough.
  • Ben Harlan (b.1813) was a shoemaker in Sumner County where he lived with his wife Eliza (b.1820 in KY) and their son.
  • Ben Henderson (b.1844) was a shoe maker who lived in Chattanooga with his wife Hanah (b.1852 in NC), their three children, Hanah's mother, and a boarder.
  • Lee Jones (b.1862) was a shoemaker apprentice in Nashville.
  • David Masterson (b.1850) was a shoe maker who lived in Roane County. He was the husband of Charlotte Masterson (b.1856 in TN). The family of five lived on Lowly Street.
  • Daniel Settles (b.1829) was a shoe maker who lived in Nashville. He was a widower and lived on Cherry Street.


TEXAS

  • Tep Beatty (b.1836) a shoe maker in Seguin. Roomed with Howard Coleman and another boarder.
  • Howard Coleman (b.1854) a shoe maker in Seguin.  Roomed with Tep Beatty and another boarder.
  • Lewis Green (b.1825) a shoemaker in Austin. He was the husband of Pelsey.
  • Anderson Rawlett (b.1833) a shoemaker in Bonham. He was the husband of Jane (b.1839 in TX) and the couple had one child.
  • J. Thompson (b.1840) a shoemaker in Anderson County. He was the husband of M. F. (b.1845 in NC).


WASHINGTON, D.C.

  • Edward Bean (b.1851) was a shoe repairer who lived on 21st Street, N.W.

Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers in Kentucky [not Lexington]
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1880
The following is a list of shoe makers from the 1880 U.S. Federal Census, except where noted. These are shoe makers who were born in Kentucky or lived in Kentucky. The list does not include those who lived in Lexington, KY, or those who lived outside Kentucky. There is a separate entry for Lexington shoe makers before 1900, African American Shoe Shiners and Shoe Repairers in Lexington, KY, 1930-1947, and for Kentucky shoe makers who lived in other states.

 

ALLEN COUNTY

  • Berry Walker (b.1838 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Kittie Walker (b.1840 in KY), and the family of eleven lived in Scottsville.

BALLARD COUNTY

  • Arche Booker (b.1841 in VA) was a shoe maker who lived in Blandville.


BARREN COUNTY

  • James Wade (b.1837 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Lucinda Wade (b.1840 in KY). The couple and their four children lived on Front Street in Glasgow Junction. 

 

BATH COUNTY

  • Sims McElhany (b.1805 in KY) was a shoe maker, and he and his wife Fanny were also servants for the Crooks Family. They all lived in Tanyard.
  • John Sanford (b.1840 in KY) was a shoemaker in Owingsville. He was the husband of Jane (b.1845 in KY) and the couple had 6 children.


BOURBON COUNTY

  • James Hyers (b.1840 in KY) was a shoemaker in Ruddles Mills. He was the husband of Margaret (b.1842 in KY) and Margaret had a son who lived with them.
  • John Jones (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Millersburg. He was the husband of Clara Jones (b.1830 in KY), and supported a family of eight.
  • Jack Logan (b.1831 in KY) was a shoemaker in Bourbon County where he lived with his wife Martha (b.1830 in KY) and their son.
  • Alford Moorehead (b.1830 in KY) was a shoemaker in Claysville. He was the husband of Mary (b.1838 in KY) and the couple had two sons. Alford's mother also lived with the family.
  • George Watson (b.1832 in KY) was a shoemaker in Claysville. He was a widower and lived with his daughter.

 

BOYLE COUNTY

  • John Baughman (b.1849 in KY) is listed in the census as a shoe maker who is crippled. He was the husband of Lizzie Baughman (b.1857 in KY), and supported a family of five. The family lived in Danville.
  • Samuel W. Brumfield (b.1827 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Danville with his family of six. He was the husband of Sarah A. Brumfield (b.1834 in KY).
  • Anthoney Burnside (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker in Danville. He and his wife Bettie (b.1840 in KY) lived with their 20 year old adopted daughter.
  • Alex Burton (b.1832 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Danville. He was the husband of Mattie E. Burton (b.1852 in KY), and supported a family of four. The family lived on Lebanon Pike.
  • William Caldwell (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker who was a widower supporting a family of five.
  • R. Cowan (b.1820 in KY) is listed in the census as a shoe cobbler who lived in Danville. He was the husband of Harriet Cowan (b.1823 in KY). The family of six lived on Lexington Avenue.
  • Anderson Gutherie (b.1820 in KY), a shoe maker, lived on Fourth Street in Danville with his wife Eliza (b.1824 in KY). 
  • Henry Mack (b.1833 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Mary Mack (b.1831 in KY), and supported a family of five.
  • Timothy Masterson (b.1832 in KY) was a shoe maker who supported a family of seven. He was the husband of Lucinda Masterson (b.1844 in KY).


CALDWELL COUNTY

  • Carter Barnes (b.1833 in KY) a shoe maker in Princeton, KY, he lived with his wife Davina (b.1840 in KY). 
  • Anthony Slaughter (b.1830 in KY) a shoe maker in Princeton, supported seven other family members, including his wife Mariah (b.1835 in KY).


CHRISTIAN COUNTY

  • Jessie Hart (b.1855 in TN) is listed in the census as a shoe cobbler who lived in Garretsburg.


CLARK COUNTY

  • John Armstrong (b.1836 in KY) was a shoemaker in Winchester. He was the husband of Lucy (b.1850 in KY) and the couple had 5 children.
  • Robert Banks (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Anna M. Banks (b.1825 in KY). The family of five lived in Winchester.
  • Richard Brett (b.1848 in KY) was a shoemaker in Winchester. He was he husband of Charlotte (b.1845) and the couple had three children.
  • Henry Combs (b.1837 in KY) was a shoemaker in Winchester. He was the husband of Mary and the couple had two sons.
  • William Jackson (b.1857 in KY) was a shoemaker in Winchester. He was the husband of Carrie Duerson and they had daughter. They all lived with Carrie’s parents, Austin and Sarah Duerson.
  • James Robinson (b.1858 in KY), a shoe maker, was the son of Peter and Minerva Robinson. The family of seven lived in Winchester.
  • Jordon Stogdon (b.1837 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Lottie (b.1847 in KY), and the family of eight lived in Blue Ball.


CLAY COUNTY

  • William Potter (b.1832 in KY) was a shoemaker in Manchester. He was the husband of Harriet (b.1837 in KY) and the couple had 9 children.


FLOYD COUNTY

  • James Weaver (b.1873 in KY) was the owner of a shoe shop in Wheelwright, KY. He repaired shoes. He was the husband of Lucinda Weaver (b.1899 in VA). The couple lived on Otter Creek Road. [source: 1930 U.S. Federal Census].


FRANKLIN COUNTY

  • Baker Clark (b.1828 in KY) was a shoe maker in Frankfort. He was the husband of Betty Clark (b.1832 in KY), and the family of three lived on Wilkerson Street.
  • James Franklin (b.1862) in KY) was a shoe maker incarcerated in the Frankfort Penitentiary.
  • Henry Rodman (b.1851 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Mary E. Rodman (b.1858 in KY). The family of six lived on Clinton Street and shared their home with four boarders.
  • Benjamin Spencer (b.1854 in KY) was a shoe maker in Frankfort. He was the son of Frank and Caroline Spencer, and the family of seven lived on Clinton Street.
  • John Stanley (b.1840 in CT) was a shoe maker incarcerated in the Frankfort Penitentiary.
  • Henry Thompson (b.1848 in KY) was a shoe maker incarcerated in the Frankfort Penitentiary.
  • Chandler Wood (b.1851 in KY) was a shoe maker incarcerated in the Frankfort Penitentiary.


GARRARD COUNTY

  • Dennis Brown (b.1800 in MD) was a shoe maker who lived in Lancaster. He was the husband of Neoma Brown (b.1802 in KY), and they had a son.
  • Dave Falkner (b.1835 in KY) was a shoe maker and lived with his wife Eda (b.1837 in KY) and their six children in Brandy Springs.
  • Jettie E. Knox ( -1898), a shoe maker, Knox was killed by Lancaster Postmaster J. I. Hamilton over a loan dispute. Knox had come from North Carolina about a year before his death [source: "About 10:30 o'clock Wednesday,..." in the column "Lancaster, Garrard County" on p.1 of Semi-Weekly Interior Journal, 09/11/1896]. Jettie Knox was the husband of Ella B. Cook, a school teacher in Stanford, KY [source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census]. The couple married in Danville, KY, July 28, 1896 [source: Kentucky Marriages Index].
  • Henry Mason (b.1825 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Harriet Mason (b.1844 in KY), and the family of seven lived in Lancaster.


GRANT COUNTY

  • Hary Powers (b.1744 in VA) was listed in the census as a 106 year old widower who was shoe maker.


GREEN COUNTY

  • George Edwards (b.1843 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Greensburg. He was the husband of Esther Edwards (b.1852 in KY), and supported a family of seven.
  • Dick Thornton (b.1837 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Greensburg. He was the husband of Fannie L. Thornton (b.1850 in KY) and the couple had five children.


HARDIN COUNTY

  • William Crow (b.1815) was a shoemaker in Glendale where he lived with his wife Mariah (b.1817 in KY).


HARRISON COUNTY

  • Leander Agers (b.1799 in MD) was an earlier shoe maker and property owner listed in the 1850 U.S. Federal Census. He was head of a family of eight, husband of Susan Agers (b.1803 in KY), with four sons who were also shoe makers: Wiley, Leander Jr., Peter, and Daniel Agers.
  • John Ayres (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker in Cynthiana. He was the husband of Caroline (b.1830) and two nephews lived with the couple.
  • Willis Ayres (b.1835 in KY) was a shoemaker in Cynthiana.
  • John M. Ayers (b.1804 in KY) was a shoemaker in Buena Vista. He was the husband of Patsy Ayers, and there were four in the family.
  • Jim Jackson (b.1845 in KY) was a shoemaker in Cynthiana. He was the husband of Caroline (b.1848 in KY). The couple lived on Bridge Street.
  • Jim Jackson (b.1845 in KY) was a shoe maker in Cynthiana. He was the husband of Malinda (b.1855). The couple lived on Pleasant Street.
  • Miner Woods (b.1853 in VA) was a shoemaker in Cynthiana. He was the husband of Fannie (b.1857 in KY).

 

HENDERSON COUNTY

  • Leander Ward (b.1856 in KY) was a shoe maker in Henderson. He was the husband of Frances Ward (b.1856 in KY) and the family of four lived on Elm Street.
  • Green Willingham (b.1821 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Edy Willingham (b.1810 in KY) and the couple lived in Hebbardsville.

 

HENRY COUNTY

  • James Adams (b.1813 in KY) was a shoemaker in Eminence where he lived with his wife Cynthia (b.1815 in KY) and their 5 children.

 

HICKMAN COUNTY

  • William Jackson (b.1849 in TN) was a shoe and boot maker who lived in Columbus. 


HOPKINS COUNTY

  • Miles Nourse (b.1832 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Madisonville with his wife Rachel (b.1840 in KY), their son, and a boarder.


JEFFERSON COUNTY

  • James Alcorn (b.1838 in KY) was a boot and shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was a boarder with the Williamson Family on West Walnut Street, South Side.
  • Jerry Ballinger (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was the husband of Mary Ballinger (b.1832 in KY), and the family of four lived on Brook Street.
  • John Berry (b.1840 in KY) was a shoemaker who lived in Louisville. He was a widower.
  • George Bright (b.1844 in KY) was shoe maker who lived in Louisville on Floyd Street.
  • Charles Cole (b.1817 in KY) was a shoemaker in Cross Roads.
  • David Coleman (b.1798 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville. He was the husband of Ami Coleman and 3 others lived in their home.
  • Alfred Cumes (b.1817 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville where he lived with his wife Maria and their 6 children.
  • William T. Davis (b.1834 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville. He was the husband of Ester Davis and the couple lived on the east side of 19th Street with a boarder.
  • William Griffin (b.1829 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisiville. He was the husband of Francis and the couple had 4 children.
  • James Gutherie (b.1826 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville where he lived with his wife Mary.
  • Willis Jackson (b.1839 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville. He was the husband of Melissa (b.1829 in IN) and he couple had a son.
  • R. J. Johnson (b.1854 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was the husband of Nannie Johnson (b.1860 in KY), and the family of four lived on Market Street.
  • William Johnson (b.1844 in KY) was a shoe maker in Louisville who lived with Bettie Johnson.
  • Samuel Lahslay (b.1831 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville. He was a widower.
  • Dennis Lyons (b.1819 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville.
  • Sam Mattingly (b.1827 in KY) a shoe maker, was a widower who lived in Louisville on Magazine Street.
  • Absolam May (b.1835 in AL) a shoemaker in Louisville.
  • J. F. Oglesby (b.1848 in KY) a shoemaker in Louisville. He was the husband of Lotta (b.1850 in KY) and the couple had 3 children.
  • John Radford (b.1823 in KY) shoemaker in Louisville. He was the husband of Caroline (b.1825 in KY).
  • Francis Smith (b.1835 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville with his wife Susan Smith (b.1847 in KY). The couple shared their home with two boarders on Ninth Street, West Side.
  • Washington Vanduke (b.1805 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Louisville. He was a widower and lived on Oldham Street.
  • William A. Warley (b.1833 in SC) was a shoemaker in Louisville. He was the husband of Belle (b.1852 in LA).
  • James Washington (b.1858 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville.
  • Henry Wilson (b.1831 in KY) was a shoemaker in Louisville. He was the husband of Lucinda (b.1840 in KY) and the couple had 6 children.

 

JESSAMINE COUNTY

  • Martin Jackson (b.1856 in KY) a shoemaker in Nicholasville. He was the husband of Nancy (b.1860 in KY) and the couple had a daughter.
  • Galvin Pugh (b.1840 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Syntha Pugh (b.1856 in KY). The family of five lived in Nicholasville.
  • John Wheeler (b.1820 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Nicholasville. He was the husband of Luisa Wheeler (b.1840 in KY).
  • John Scott (b.1845 in KY) was a shoe maker in Plaquemine. He was the husband of Rose Ann (b.1845 in KY) and the father of Squire.


KENTON COUNTY

  • Edward Mason (b.1821 in KY) was a shoemaker in Covington. He was the husband of Maggie (b.1838 in KY).
  • Alonzo Taylor (b.1864 in KY) was a shoemaker in Covington. He was one of the six children of David and Esther Taylor.


LINCOLN COUNTY

  • Clark Hansford (b.1820 in KY) was a shoe maker in Stanford who lived with four other family members and a boarder on Church Street.


LOGAN COUNTY

  • Henry Cole (b.1840 in KY) was a shoe maker in Gordonsville. He was married to Ellen (b.1839 in VA).
  • Austin James (b.1825 in KY) was a shoe maker in Clay. He was married to Ellen (b.1847 in KY) and they were the parents of for children.
  • John Wilson (b.1828 in KY) was a shoe maker in Clay. He was married to Alice (b.1852 in KY).


LYON COUNTY

  • Stewart Scott (b.1813 in KY) was a shoe maker married to Atesnue(sp)(b.1831 in KY) and the couple lived in Eddyville.


MADISON COUNTY

  • Owen Walker (b.1860 in KY) was a shoemaker in Richmond. He was the husband of Betsy (b.1840) and the couple had a son.


MARION COUNTY

  • James Booker (b.1840 in KY) was a shoemaker in Lebanon, he lived alone on R. R. Street.
  • Simon Irvine (b.1834 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Lebanon. He was the husband of Emma Irvine (b.1843 in KY), and the family of five lived on Chandler Street.
  • David Lee (b.1831 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Loretto. He was the husband Harriet A. Lee (b.1831 in KY).
  • William Porter (b.1830 in KY) was a shoe maker in Raywick. He was a widower who lived with his six sons.
  • Phillip Spalding (b.1843 in KY) was a shoemaker in Lebanon. He was a widower with 3 children.
  • Josiah Yokum (b.1820 in KY) was a boot and shoe maker who lived in Lebanon. He was widower who lived with his two young sons on Republican Street.


MASON COUNTY

  • Harvey Scott (b.1830 in KY) was a shoemaker in Washington. He was the husband of Margaret (b.1841 in KY) and the couple had 4 children.
  • Christopher Williams (b.1830 in KY) was a shoemaker in Maysville. He was the husband of Annie (b.1840 in KY).
  • John Williams (b.1840 in KY) was a shoemaker in Maysville. He was the husband of Maria (b.1845 in KY) and the couple had 4 children.

 

MCCRACKEN COUNTY

  • Saunders Alexander (b.1843 in KY) was a shoe maker in Paducah. His wife was Elizabeth (b.1843 in KY) and the couple had a son. The family lived on Jackson Street.
  • Arthur Carter (b.1844 in GA) was a shoemaker in Paducah. He was the husband of Fannie Carter (b.1853 in KY) and the couple had a daughter.  His brother-in-law was Robert Taylor.
  • Ben Huston (b.1854 in KY) was a shoemaker in Paducah.
  • Robert Taylor (b.1952 in KY) was a shoemaker in Paducah. He lived with his sister Fannie Taylor Carter and her husband, shoemaker Arthur Carter.
  • Phillip Williams (b.1845 in TN) was a cobbler in Paducah. He was the husband of Mary (b.1845 in KY) and the couple had two children.

 

MONROE COUNTY

  • Jerry Kirkpatrick (b.1822 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Tompkinsville. He was the husband of Jane Kirkpatrick (b.1850 in KY), and supported a family of five.

 

MONTGOMERY COUNTY

  • Anderson Taul (b.1853 in KY) was a shoe maker in Mt. Sterling. He was a boarder with the Everett Family.
  • Ben Tipton (b.1845 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Mt. Sterling.
  • James Willis (b.1840 in VA) was a shoe maker who lived in Mt. Sterling. He was a boarder with the Everett Family.

 

MUHLENBERG COUNTY

  • Samuel Elliott (b.1846 in KY) was a shoe maker Greenville. He was the husband of Fannie (b.1847 in KY) and the couple had three children.


NELSON COUNTY

  • Hans Brown (b.1825 in KY) was a shoe maker who supported a family of eight. He was the husband of Adaline Brown (b.1827 in KY).

 

NICHOLAS COUNTY

  • Horace Baker (b.1839 in KY) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Sarah Baker (b.1840 in KY), and the family of four lived in Henryville.
  • Henry H. Brooks (b.1815 in KY) was a cobbler in Carlisle. He was the husband of Jane (b.1837 in KY). Two of the couple's children and Jane's mother lived with them.
  • John Jones (b.1855 in KY) was a shoemaker in Carlisle. He was a prisoner in the county jail.
  • Henry Lawson (b.1820 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Carlisle. He was the husband of Manda Lawson (b.1820 in VA).


OLDHAM COUNTY

  • Warren Nettles (b.1827 in KY) was a shoemaker in LaGrange. He was the husband of Ama (b.1857 in KY) and the couple had 6 children.


PULASKI COUNTY

  • Henry Owens (b.1824 in KY), a shoe maker, was the husband of Silva Owens (b.1839 in KY), the family of five lived in Somerset.

 

SCOTT COUNTY

  • Philmore Bailey (b.1806 in KY) was a shoemaker in Boston. He lived with 3 other family members.
  • Reason Baker (b.1826 in VA) was a shoe maker. He was the husband of Lidia Baker (b.1829 in MD) and supported a family of eight.
  • Cupid Bradford (b. - d.1871) was a shoe maker who was killed in Stamping Ground, KY [source: Involvement of Blacks in Scott County Commerce by A. B. Bevins, p.3].
  • Henry Scott was a boot and shoe maker in Scott County in 1870 [source: Involvement of Blacks in Scott County Commerce by A. B. Bevins, p.3 {second pagination}].
  • Garrett Smith (b.1820 in KY) was a shoe maker in Boston. He was the husband of Sarah (b.1826 in KY) and the couple’s daughter and grandson lived with them.


SIMPSON COUNTY

  • Alfred Foster (b.1840 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Franklin. He was a boarder with the Creekmore Family.

 

SPENCER COUNTY

  • Edmond Slone (b.1821 in KY) was a shoemaker in Taylorsville. He was the husband of Mary (b.1828 in KY) and the couple had 8 children.

 

TODD COUNTY

  • Thomas Johnson (b.1825 in VA) was a shoe maker who lived in Allensville. He was the husband of Sallie Johnson (b.1833 in KY), and supported a family of four.
  • John Kudy (b.1840 in MD) was a shoe maker in Elkton.
  • John Waters (b.1850 in KY) was a shoemaker in Allensville. He was the husband of Done (b.1853 in KY).


WARREN COUNTY

  • Thornton Cole (b.1823 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Hadley with his sister and brother-in-law and their four children.
  • Charles Burrell (b.1839 in VA) was a shoe maker who lived alone in Bowling Green.
  • Isam Lynn (b.1850 in KY) was a shoemaker in Bowling Green. He was the husband of Mary (b.1854 in KY) and the couple had three children.
  • Henry Ray (b.1836 in KY) was a shoemaker in Bowling Green. He was the husband of Mary (b.1840 in KY) and the couple had 8 children.


WAYNE COUNTY

  • Patrick Kindrick (b.1833 in KY) was a shoe maker who lived in Mill Springs. He was the husband of Marthey Kindrick (b.1840 in KY), and supported a family of five.
  • William Sandusky (b.1842 in KY) was a shoe and boot maker who lived in Monticello. He was divorced and supported a family of four, they lived on West Street.

 

WOODFORD COUNTY

  • Harry Hurley (b.1810 in KY) was a shoe maker in Midway. He was the husband of Harriet (b.1808 in KY). The couple lived on the farm of Francis B. Harper.

 

 
Subjects: Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers, Repairers, Shiners - Covington, Kenton County, KY
Start Year : 1869
End Year : 1951
The business of making shoes was a good business in northern Kentucky, though in Covington there were very few African American shoemakers, shiners, and repairers. In the 1880 U.S. Census there were two African American shoemakers in Covington, KY: Edward Mason and Alonzo Taylor. Edward Mason had been making shoes as early as 1869, and both he and Alonzo Taylor may have formerly been slaves. All other shoemakers in Covington in 1880 were listed in the census as whites who were born in the United States, or were immigrants or the children of immigrants from Germany, Ireland, and Prussia, along with a few from England, Canada, and France. As far back as 1861, the majority of the boot and shoemakers in Covington were immigrants from Germany and Ireland. There are 37 names listed under the heading of "BOOTS AND SHOES" on pp.1-2 of the "Covington Business Mirror" published within Williams' Covington Directory. City Guide [1861]. The race and nationality of each person was not included in the directory, but may be found in the U.S. Census records. By 1900, there were 75 names within the city directory with 23 businesses under the heading "Boots and Shoes," along with 52 names under the heading of "Boot and Shoe Makers and Repairers," and one "Boot and Shoe Upper Manufacturer" [source: pp.243-244 in the "Covington Business Directory" within Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1900-1901]. Forty years later, shoes were no longer being made by hand. In the Covington directory was listed 12 "Shoe Dealers-Retailers," and 39 "Shoe Repairers" [source: p.696 in Williams' Covington (Kenton County, KY) City Directory 1940-41]. Overall, during the 20th Century the majority of the African Americans in the shoe business in Covington, KY, were shoe shiners at barber shops, in parlors, or they did business from their homes. There were porters (janitors) and a maid at the shoe stores. Matthew J. Sharp, who lived in Covington, was a porter for about 37 years at the Cohen Shoe Company located in Cincinnati, OH. At least two persons were employed at a shoe factory: Charles Jordon worked in a stockroom, and John Green was a laster. With the migration of African Americans to Chicago, IL, Albert Brown took along his trade as a boot black, which was his occupation prior to his death in 1925. His son William Brown, who was born in Covington, was also a shoe shiner and repaired shoes in Chicago, he died in 1928. In Covington, for African American men in general, the business of shining shoes or being a porter (janitor) in a shoe store were short-term employments until a better job came along. Coleman Kelly was a shoe shiner in a parlor where he earned money for college. When he graduated from college, Coleman Kelly returned to Covington and was a school teacher. George Cammax was 14 years old when he was hired to shine shoes at a barber shop. The one African American who made a long term career of making shoes and repairing shoes in Covington, KY, was Milton B. Lee who owned his business for at least 37 years. Milton B. Lee is named as a shoemaker in the city directory as early as 1908, and he continued to be listed as a shoe repairer up to 1945. In the table below are the names and additional information about the African American shoemakers, repairers, and shoe shiners in and from Covington, KY, from 1869-1951.

 

NAME BUSINESS LOCATION YEAR SOURCES NOTES
Albert C. Brown (1885-1925) Boot Black at Parlor Chicago, IL 1920 U.S. Census Supported wife Edna and six sons. Family left Kentucky about 1907.
Albert C. Brown (1885-1925) Boot Black at Parlor
Chicago, IL 1925 Illinois Deaths and Stillbirths Index Albert C. Brown was born in Covington, KY and died in Chicago, IL. He was the son of Charley Brown and Rachel Conner Brown. He was the husband of Edna Douglas Brown.
William Brown (1905-1928) Boot Black, Shoe Repairer Chicago, IL 1928 Illinois Deaths and Stillbirths Index William Brown was born in Covington, KY and died in Chicago, IL. He was the oldest son of Albert C. Brown and Edna Douglas Brown.
William Brown (b.1921) Shoe Shiner at Barber Shop   1940 U.S. Census  
George W. Cammax (1916-1946) Shoe Shiner at Barber Shop   1930 U.S. Census; and California Death Index George Wesley Cammax died in Los Angeles, CA.
Frazier Coleman (1891-1967) Shoe Shiner at Barber Shop   1910 U.S. Census; p.66 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1910-1911; and U.S. Social Security Death Index Frazier Coleman was also a waiter in 1910, according to the city directory, and he would become a barber in Covington, KY by 1918. Frazier Coleman died in Cincinnati, OH.
Samuel Davis (b.1893) Porter at Shoe Store   1920 U.S. Census  
Emma Douglas (b.1875) Maid at Shoe Store   1910 U.S. Census  
Herbert L. Esaw (b.1912) Shoe Shiner 216 Harvey Street 1928 p.89 & p.285 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory for 1928-29  
Herbert L. Esaw (b.1912) Shoe Shiner at Parlor   1930 U.S. Census Born in South Carolina.
John Green (b.1881) Laster at Shoe Factory   1910 U.S. Census * Shoe laster used a machine to fasten the upper part of a shoe to the inner sole. The machine was invented by Jan Earnst Matzeliger in 1883.
Richard Leonard Hayden (1895-1955) Boot Black at Barber Shop   1930 U.S. Census; and Kentucky Death Index Find A Grave
Bishop W. Howard, Sr. (1894-1961) Porter at Shoe Store   1910 U.S. Census; 1900 & 1930 U.S. Census; WWI Draft Registration Card; and Ohio Deaths, Certificate #31006 Bishop Howard was born in Lexington, KY, son of Tom and Laura Howard. By 1917, he was employed in a restaurant, and by 1930 he had moved to Ohio. He died in Springfield, OH.
Rogers Jackson (1899-1940) Shoe Shiner at Parlor   1920 U.S. Census; Kentucky Death Index  
Charles Jordon (1891) Stock Room at Shoe Factory   1920 U.S. Census; WWI Draft Registration Card Born in Virginia.
Coleman Kelly (1912) Shoe Shiner at Shoe Parlor   1930 U.S. Census; 1940 U.S. Census By 1940, Coleman Kelly was a college graduate who taught school in Covington.
Scott Lambkins (1902-1954) Shoe Shiner at Parlor   1920 U.S. Census; Illinois, Cook County, Deaths Scott Lambkins left Kentucky and was a bartender in Chicago prior to his death. He was buried in Covington, KY.
Milton B. Lee (1867-1951) Boot and Shoemaker and Repairer   1908 p.282 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1908-1909  
Milton B. Lee (1867-1951) Shoemaker, Owned Shop   1910 U.S. Census  
Milton B. Lee (1867-1951) Shoe Repairer, Owned Shop 47 E. 11th Street 1916 p.145 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1916-1917  
Milton B. Lee (1867-1951) Shoe Repairer, Owned Shop   1920 U.S. Census  
Milton B. Lee (1867-1951) Shoe Repairer, Owned Shop   1930 U.S. Census  
Milton B. Lee (1867-1951) Shoe Repairer, Owned Shop   1940 U.S. Census  
Milton B. Lee (1867-1951) Shoe Repairer, Owned Shop   1945 p.654 in Williams' Covington (Kenton County, KY.) City Directory 1945; Kentucky Death Certificate File No.116 51 25310, Registrar's No.1139 Buried in Union Baptist Cemetery in Cincinnati, OH.
Joseph Mack (b.1913) Shoe Shiner   1940 U.S. Census  
Edward Mason (b.1821) Shoemaker 1038 Bank Lick 1869 p.86 in Williams' Covington Directory for 1869  
Edward Mason (b.1821) Shoemaker 50 Madison Street 1880 U.S. Census  
James O'Neal, Jr. (b.1924) Shoe Shiner   1940 U.S. Census  
George Owens (b.1882) Porter at Shoe Store   1920 U.S. Census  
Samuel A. Payne (1888-1932) Shoe Shiner at Parlor 18 E. 5th Street 1920 U.S. Census; p.178 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1920-1921  
Samuel A. Payne (1888-1932) Shoe Shiner at Bus Station   1930 U.S. Census; WWI Draft Registration Card; Kentucky Death Certificate File No.24099  
Matthew Johnson Sharp (1889-1962) Porter at Dan Cohen Shoe Co. 426 E. 4th Street Cincinnati, OH 1914 p.215 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1914-1915  
Matthew Johnson Sharp (1889-1962) Porter at Dan Cohen Shoe Co. 426 E. 4th Street Cincinnati, OH 1918 WWI Draft Registration Card Born in Georgetown, KY.
Matthew Johnson Sharp (1889-1962) Porter at Dan Cohen Shoe Co. 426 E. 4th Street Cincinnati, OH 1920 U.S. Census  
Matthew Johnson Sharp (1889-1962) Porter at Dan Cohen Shoe Co. 426 E. 4th Street Cincinnati, OH 1930 U.S. Census  
Matthew Johnson Sharp (1889-1962) Porter at Dan Cohen Shoe Co. 426 E. 4th Street Cincinnati, OH 1940 U.S. Census; WWII Draft Registration Card  
Matthew Johnson Sharp (1889-1962) Porter at Dan Cohen Shoe Co. 426 E. 4th Street Cincinnati, OH 1951 p.346 in Williams' Covington (Kenton County, KY.) City Directory 1951 Find A Grave
Buried in Cincinnati, OH.
Irvin S. St.Clair (b.1890) Boot Black   1910 U.S. Census; p.229 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1910-1911  
Saunders Streams (b.1915) Shoe Shiner   1926 p.1657 in Williams' Cincinnati Directory 1926-27  
Saunders Streams (b.1915) Shoe Shiner   1940 U.S. Census; p.381 in Williams' Covington (Kenton County, KY.) City Directory 1940-41  
Alonzo W. Taylor (b.1864) Shoemaker   1880 U.S. Census  
Alonzo W. Taylor (b.1864) Shoemaker   1882 p.142 in Williams' Covington and Newport Directory 1882-83  
David Waters (b.1909) Shoe Shiner   1940 U.S. Census  
William Williams (b.1899) Shoe Shiner at Parlor   1920 U.S. Census  

Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Covington, Kenton County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois / Cincinnati, Ohio

African American Shoe Makers, Repairers, Shiners - Maysville, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1940
African Americans were a small part of the overall shoemaking and shoe care business in Maysville, KY, from 1880-1940. In the 1880 U.S. Census, there are three African Americans listed among the 50 or so shoemakers, and there were no African Americans among the five persons listed as being in the "boot and shoe business." Whites who made shoes or cared for shoes in Maysville in 1880 were mostly the sons of immigrants from Germany, Ireland, France, England, Canada, and Prussia, along with a few others whose parents were born in Kentucky, Pennsylvania, and other northern locations in the U.S. As for African Americans, there was shoemakers, Harvey Scott, Christopher Williams, and John Williams. After 1880, repairing shoes, shining shoes, and the janitorial jobs in shoe stores were short-term jobs or short-term business ventures for African Americans in Maysville.  In the case of Rev. Harry Thomas Keeton, repairing shoes was a side job.

 

NAME BUSINESS LOCATION YEAR SOURCES NOTES
Isaac "Ike" Beatty (b.1867) Owns Shoe Repair Shop   1940 U.S. Census  
Stanley Lee Hamilton (b.1891) Boot Black at Barber Shop   1910 U.S. Census  
Burt or Henry Jackson (b.1901) Laborer in Shoe Store   1920 U.S. Census  
James Jackson (b.1910) Shoe Shiner   1940 U.S. Census  
Isaac D. Jones (b.1909) Shoe Shiner at Tom and Jerry Haberdashery 229 Market Street 1927 p.98 in Caron's Directory of the City of Maysville, KY. for 1927-1928  
Isaac D. Jones (b.1909) Porter at Shoe Store   1930 U.S. Census  
Harry Thomas Keeton (1880-1973) Shoe Repair 137 W. Second Street 1932 p.95 in Caron's Maysville, KY. City Directory for 1932-1934 Rev. Harry T. Keeton was pastor of the Maysville Bethel Baptist Church in 1932, and had been at the church since at least 1927 [source: p.99 in Caron's Directory of the City of Maysville, KY. for 1927-1928]. At the same time, he was pastor at the Baptist Church in Ashland [source: 1930 U.S. Census]. Rev. Keeton was also a shoe repairer in Maysville, KY; a shoemaker and repairer in Ashland, KY (NKAA source); and a shoe repairer in Russell (Greenup County), KY [source: p.648 in Polk's Russell City Directory 1937-38]. Rev. Harry Thomas Keeton is buried in Ashland, KY - Find A Grave.
George Frank Lee (1894-1949) Boot Black at Barber Shop   1910 U.S. Census; U.S. Headstone Application for Military Veterans 04/04/1949 Frank Lee was a barber by trade [sources: p.111 in Caron's Directory of the City of Maysville, KY and Aberdeen, OH for 1913=1914; and 1920 U.S. Census]. He also did a number of other odd jobs and was a WWI Veteran.
Lee Vern Pleasant (1909-1966) Shoe Shiner at Tom and Jerry Haberdashery 229 Market Street 1927 p.130 in Caron's Directory of the City of Maysville, KY. for 1927-1928; and Ohio Death Index Lee. V. Pleasant died in Athens, OH.
Frank Samuel Shoe Shiner 511 Bank Street 1922 p.132 in Caron's Directory of the City of Maysville, KY. for 1922-1923  
Harvey Scott (b.1830) Shoemaker   1880 U.S. Census  
Christopher Williams (b.1830) Shoemaker   1880 U.S. Census  
Christopher Williams (b.1849) Shoemaker - Owns Shop   1910 U.S. Census  
John Williams (b.1840) Shoemaker   1880 U.S. Census  
Toliver Young (b.1894) Boot Black on Streets   1910 U.S. Census  

Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Maysville, Mason County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Shiners and Shoe Repairers in Lexington, KY, 1930-1947
Start Year : 1930
End Year : 1947
By 1920, there were approximately 50,000 shoe repair shops in the United States. In Lexington,KY, there were many African Americans who supported their families as shoe repairers, shoe shiners, and shoe finishers. The making, repairing and caring of shoes were trades taught in Kentucky's African American normal and industrial institutes, orphanages, and schools for students with disabilities. During the economic depression, when jobs were few and the purchase of new shoes had drastically declined, skilled workers in other trades turned to shoe repair and shoe shining as a source of income. Very limited research has been done on these occupations, but very good documentation can be found in reference to Lexington, KY, and African Americans employed in the shoe care and repair market. Below are some of their names for the years 1930-1947. Many were WWI and WWII veterans. The information comes from Polk's Lexington (Kentucky) City Directories, U.S. Federal Census Records, military registration records, death certificates, and other sources as noted.

[See also the NKAA entries African American Shoe Makers and Shoe Repairers in Lexington , KY, prior to 1900; African American Shoe Makers in Kentucky; and African American Shoe Makers from Kentucky.]

  • William Anderson was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe and Hat Shop (1939 directory). William and Luvenia Anderson lived at 252 E. 3rd Street (1940-41 directory).
  • William E. Anderson (b.1873) was a shoe shiner for M. Churchill Johnson. He had been a porter at his father's barber shop at the corner of Main and Upper Streets, according to his WWI draft registration card. Anderson lived at 321 E. 2nd Street (1940-41 directory) with his father Will Anderson. [see also NKAA entry Suter Brothers, Barbers]
  • Robert Arthur was a shoe repairman at Ben Snyder Inc. Robert and Mary Arthur lived at 668A Charlotte Court (1942 directory).
  • Thomas Atkins was a shoe shiner at Woodland Barber Shop. He lived at 543 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory).
  • Edward Bailey was a shoe shiner at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company. He lived at 150 N. Eastern Avenue (1947 directory).
  • Roosevelt Ballard was a shoe repairman at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company. He lived at 389 Patterson Street (1945 directory).
  • James W. Beatty was a shoe shiner at 204 Deweese Street (1942 directory).
  • Benjamin Bibbs (b.1880) was a shoe shiner at N Y Hat Cleaners (1931 directory). According to his WWI draft registration card, Bibbs had been a tinner at State University on Limestone [now University of Kentucky], and he and Lena Bibbs lived at 167 E. 7th Street.
  • William Bibbs was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. He lived at 716 N. Limestone Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Coleman Bledshaw was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. He was the husband of Artemesia Bledshaw, and the couple lived at 530 Lawrence Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Daniel Boone was a shoe shiner for Clyde R. Clem. Boone lived at 558 N. Upper Street (1937 directory).
  • Robert Brookter was a shoe repairman for Mrs. Sadie Bederman. He lived at 501 Patterson Street (1945 directory). [The last name Brookter was more common in Louisiana and Mississippi, than in Kentucky.]
  • Willie Brown (b.1916) was a shoe shiner at a shoe shining parlor in Lexington, KY. He and his wife Alice Brown lived at 374 E. 2nd Street. Willie Brown lived in Hopkinsville, KY, in 1935 (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • William Huston Bradshaw (b.1877) was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 274 E. 2nd Street (1940-41 directory), and was the husband of Susie Bradshaw, according to his WWI draft registration card. 
  • Matthew Buckner was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Buckner lived at 448 Ohio Street (1937 directory).
  • Thomas Henry Buckner (b.1878) was a shoe shiner. He lived at 450 Chestnut Street (1943-44 directory). He had been a waiter at the Phoenix Hotel in downtown Lexington, according to his WWI draft registration card, and lived at 824 Charles Avenue with his wife Mollie Buckner.
  • Titus Buckner (1855-1936) was a shoe repairman (1931 directory). He had also been a shoemaker and was listed in William's Lexington City Directory 1881-82. Buckner was also a minister. Reverend Titus Buckner was born in Fayette County, KY. He was the husband of Julia Buckner, b.1856 in KY. The couple lived at 196 Eddie Street, according to the 1900 U.S. Federal Census. Titus Buckner was a widower by 1920, and Mattie Titus is listed as his wife in the 1931 city directory. Titus Buckner is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington, KY, according to his death certificate.
  • Jesse Cawl (1911-1971) was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop at 244 E. Short Street (1942 directory). He was born in Jefferson County, KY, and Eugene Booker is listed as his mother on the birth certificate. Cawl was a WWII veteran, he enlisted in Cincinnati, OH, on January 22, 1943, according to his Army enlistment record. Cawl died in Louisville, KY.
  • Felix Chapman (1906-1966) was a shoe maker in 1940 (U.S. Federal Census). He was also a shoe repairman and shoe finisher for Charles H. McAtee. Chapman lived at 366 E. 2nd Street (1939 directory and 1940-41 directory). He was later a shoe repairman at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company, and lived at 545 Wilson Street (1945 directory). Chapman had been a chauffeur and lived at 336 E. Short Street (1927 directory). Chapman died in Bourbon County, KY.
  • Marcus Caldwell was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Marcus and Sarah Caldwell lived at 507F S. Aspendale Drive (1939 directory).
  • Robert D. Claybourne (b.1880) was a shoe repairman at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived with his wife, Lollia Claybourne, and family at 357 Wilson Street (1947 directory). Claybourne, born in KY, had been a shoemaker at a shoe store in Louisville according to the 1920 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Farris Craig (b.1890) was a shoe shiner for Fred D. Bostic. Craig lived at 352 Poplar Street (1937 directory). He is listed with his wife Anna H. Craig, and his step-daughter in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census. He had been a porter in a barber shop owned by William Johnson in Lexington, KY, according to his WWI draft registration card. Craig was born in Danville, KY, the son of John and Jessie Craig, according to the 1900 Census.
  • Kenneth Craig (1923-1945) was a shoe repairman for Samuel Bederman. He lived in Versailles, KY (1943-44 directory). Craig was born in Buffalo, NY, the son of Clayton Coleman and Roy C. Craig, Sr., and according to his death certificate, his parents were Kentucky natives. Kenneth Craig died of tuberculosis in Lexington, KY.
  • Joseph Davis was a shoe repairman employed by Samuel Bederman. Davis lived at 324 Hickory Street (1931 directory). He was later a shoe shiner at Harber Shoe Repair Company, and lived at 501D N. Aspendale Avenue (1940-41 directory).
  • John Doty was a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor. He lived at 468 Kenton Street (1942 directory).
  • Loyal R. Drye (1901-1975) was a shoe shiner at Five Minute Hat Shop. Loyal and his wife Eliza lived at 178 Race Street (1931 directory). He died in Cincinnati, OH.
  • Jessie Edwards was a shoe shiner for Samuel Bederman. He lived at 327 Chestnut Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Ceola Evans (b.1913) was a shoe shiner at a shoe shining parlor. He and his wife Bessie Mary Spencer Evans and their two children lived with the Spencer family at 562 E. Third Street (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • Alphonso Fair was a shoe shiner employed by William T. Hurst. Alphonso and Mayme Fair lived at 446 Ash Street (1931 directory).
  • Nathaniel C. Farmer was a shoe repairman at 306 E. 2nd Street (1931 directory).
  • William Fisher was a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor. He lived at 197 Deweese Street (1947 directory).
  • Thomas Foster was a shoe shiner at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Foster lived at 313 Henry Street (1939 directory).
  • Lawrence Fox was a shoe shiner for Martin Berlin. Fox lived at 427 Kenton Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Mitchell Garth (b.1881) was a shoe shiner. He worked from his home at 133 W. Water Street (1937 directory). Garth was born in Alabama, and had been a janitor while a boarder at the home of Samuel Young on Corral Street, according to the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • James A. Graves (b.1891) repaired shoes at his home, 523 S. Spring Street (1931 directory). He was born in Kentucky, the son of Florida Graves, according to the 1920 U.S. Census. James Graves later repaired shoes at 211 Deweese Street (1937 directory). James was the husband of Abbie Graves. The city directory entry reads "Shoe Repair Shop, I Doctor Shoes, Heel Them and Save Their Soles" (1945 directory).
  • Patrick Green was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop (1947 directory).
  • Walker Green was a shoe finisher at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 726 Chiles Avenue (1945 directory).
  • Peter Harley was a shoe shiner at 164 Race Street (1943-44 directory).
  • Sam Harris (b.1880) was a shoe repairman at a shoe shop. He and his wife Deedie lived on 533 Jefferson Street in Lexington (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • Samuel M. Harrison (1874-1951) was a shoemaker and shoe repairman at 535 Jefferson Street, and he lived at 533 Jefferson Street (1931 directory). Harrison was born in Fayette County, KY, the son of Martha Allen Harrison and Essix Harrison, according to his death certificate. He was the husband of Cordelia Harrison. By the 1940s, Samuel Harrison had expanded his shoe repair business to include the making of artificial limbs (1943-44 directory). Samuel M. Harrison is buried in the Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington, KY.
  • John F. Holman was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 150 N. Eastern Avenue (1943-44 directory).
  • Henry E. Howe (1911-1984) was a shoe finisher at a shoe shop in 1930 when he was living with his grandmother Mary Howe at 275 E. 4th Street, according to the U.S. Federal Census. He was later a shoe repairman at 607 N. Limestone, and was married to Nannie Howe. The couple lived at 275 E. 4th Street (1937 directory). A few years later, Henry Howe lived at 332 Ohio Street (1942 directory) with his wife Louise P. Howe (1945 directory), and he was still repairing shoes on N. Limestone.
  • Alex Hutsel was a shoe shiner employed by Samuel Bederman. Hutsel lived at 350 Deweese Street (1942 directory).
  • William Irvin was a shoe shiner for Robert E. Parris. Irvin lived at 549 Thomas Street (1937 directory).
  • Christ Jackson was listed as a laborer who lived at 180 Correll Street [Corral Street] in the R. C. Hellrigle and Co's Lexington City Directory 1877-78, and he was later a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor (1939 directory). Christ and Lillie Jackson lived at 309 Coleman Street (1939 directory and 1940-41 directory).
  • James L. Jackson was a shoe shiner who lived at 217 E. 2nd Street (1942 directory).
  • Robert Jackson was a shoe repairman for Sol Bederman. He and his wife Annabelle Jackson lived at 219 E. 2nd Street (1945 directory).
  • Roy Jackson was a shoe shiner at 314 Corral Street (1931 directory).
  • Robert E. Johnson was a shoe shiner for Samuel Bederman. He lived at 436 Kenton Street (1943-44 directory).
  • Shirley B. Johnson was a paperhanger when he and his wife Sidney lived at 553 Ohio Street (1931-32 directory). Shirley Johnson was later a shoe shiner at O K Barber Shop, and the couple lived at 145 Prall Street (1939 directory).
  • Chester Jones was a shoe repairman at 559 White Street (1937 directory). He was later a shoe shiner at the Lexington Shoe Hospital (1939 directory).
  • Lloyd Jones was a shoe finisher and shoe repairman at McGurk's Shoe and Hat Shop. Lloyd and Mary Jones lived at 684C Charlotte Court (1943-44 directory & 1945 directory).
  • Oliver Jones was a shoe shiner at 371 Corral Street (1937 directory).
  • William C. Jones repaired shoes at 243 Lee Street. He and his wife Callie C. Jones lived at 923 Whitney Avenue (1931 directory).
  • John L. Lawrence was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. John and Mary Lawrence lived at 450 N. Upper Street (1940-41 directory).
  • David Lee was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 736 N. Broadway (1943-44 directory).
  • Spurgeon L. Lewis (1911-1985) was a shoe shiner at Unique Shine Parlor. Lewis lived at 326 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory) with his parents, Henry S. and Elizabeth T. Lewis. There was a family of eight listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Joseph B. Lyons, Sr. was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Joseph and Sam Ella Lyons lived at 182 Eddie Street (1937 directory). They later lived at 507D S. Aspendale Drive (1942 directory). [He was the father of Donald W. Lyons, Sr. and Joseph B. Lyons, Jr.]
  • Robert Hamilton McClasky (b.1881) was a shoemaker at his home at 209 South Broadway, and was the husband of Clara M. McClasky, according to his WWI draft registration card. He is listed as a widow in the 1920 Census, he was sharing his home, 207 S. Broadway, with his brother John E. McClasky (b.1891) who was a shoe repairman. Both brothers were born in Kentucky. Robert McClasky was later a shoe repairman at 207 S. Broadway (1931 directory), and would become the owner of Tuskegee Shoe Shop, which had a separate entry in the city directory (1945 directory). The shop was located at his home. The directory entry reads "Tuskegee Shoe Shop, (c; Robert H. McClasky), 35 Years of Dependable Service, Shoe Repairing, and Rebuilding." He was the husband of Birdie McClasky (1945 directory).
  • Andrew McGee (1894-1942) was a shoe shiner for John K. Reeder. McGee lived at 346 Corral Street (1939 directory). He is listed in the 1920 U.S. Federal Census as a barber. He had earlier been a porter at Wiley & Fields, at the corner of Main and Broadway, according to McGee's WWI registration card. Andrew McGee was born in Kentucky, the son of Pollie Lee and William McGee, according to his death certificate. He lived with his grandmother when he was a child; Jane Lee was a widow who lived on Constitution Street in Lexington, KY, according to the 1900 Census. Andrew McGee was a WWI veteran and is buried in the National Cemetery in Nicholasville, KY.
  • Michael Miegel was a shoe shiner at Broadway Shine Parlor (1947 directory).
  • William Mells was a shoe shiner for Martin Berlin (1940-41 directory). He later shined shoes at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. William and Jean Mells lived at 248 Jefferson Street (1942 directory). Jean Hamilton Mells was a 47 year old widow when she died in 1948, according to her death certificate.
  • Thomas Mells (1900-1967) was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners. Mells lived at 122 W. 4th Street (1942 directory), and later lived at 248 Jefferson Street (1943-44 directory). He died in Lexington, KY, according to the Social Security Death Index.
  • Thomas Mullen was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 351 E. 3rd Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Robert Mundy (1915-1976) and Thomas L. Mundy (1916-1983) were brothers, both were shoe shiners at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Robert was the husband of Ruth Mundy and the couple lived at 419 Chestnut Street. Thomas Mundy lived at 243 Ann Street (1937 directory). The brothers were born in Kentucky, the sons of George and Sally Mundy. The family of seven is listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census, they lived on Mary Street in Lexington, KY.
  • Edward M. Neal, Jr. was a shoe repairman at 508 Thomas Street (1937 directory).
  • Raymond Nichols was a shoe shiner for Henry Howe (above). Nichols lived at 738 N. Broadway (1939 directory).
  • Kenneth A. Paige (1903-1961) was a shoe repairman at 322 Chestnut Street in the 1930s. Kenneth and his wife Anna J. Paige lived at 219 W. 7th Street (1931 directory). Kenneth Paige is listed in the Lexington city directory for almost two decades, including his employment at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company (1942 directory). Paige was also a shoe repairman at Pinkston's, and lived at 351 Corral Street (1945 directory). He was owner of "Paige's Shoe Repair Shop, The House of Souls and Heels." The business was located at 211 Deweese Street (1947 directory).
  • Charles Palmer did shoe repairs at his home, 445 Chestnut Street. He was the husband of Anna B. Palmer (1931 directory).
  • John Nimrod Paul was born in 1885 in Russell County, KY. He was the husband of Emma Grider Paul, born in 1892 in Cumberland, KY. The couple lived in Russell Springs, KY, according to John Paul's WWI registration card. John Paul had a shoemaker's shop in Russell Springs according to the 1920 U.S. Federal Census. By 1930, the family of six lived in Lexington, KY, and John Paul did shoe repairs from their home at 457 Georgetown Street (1931 directory).
  • Felix Pearsall (1922) was a shoe shiner for Charles H. McAtee (1939 directory). He was the son of Katherine Pearsall who was a widow when listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Gilbert W. Potter (1910-1954) was a shoe shiner for Sol Bederman, and he and his wife Virginia lived at 667C Charlotte Court F (1945 directory). He had been a waiter (1937 directory), and was later a porter at Drake Hotel (1939 directory). Gilbert W. Potter served in the U.S. Army during WWII, he enlisted in Cincinnati, OH, October 23, 1942, according to his enlistment record.
  • William Reed (b.1924) was a shoe shiner in a barber shop. He was the son of Susy Reed. The family lived at 349 Wilson Street (1940 U.S. Federal Census).
  • Albert Rogers was a shoe shiner at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Rogers lived at 230 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory).
  • Jesse Ross shined shoes at N Y Hat Cleaners. He lived at 731 Whitney Avenue (1931 directory).
  • Paul L. Seals (1930-1985) was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe Shop. He lived at 500C N. Aspendale Drive (1947 directory). Seals was the son of Robert P. and Marjorie R. Seals, the family of four is listed in the 1930 U.S. Federal Census.
  • Harry Shields was a shoe repairman. He lived at 248 E. Short Street (1942 directory). Shields was later a shoe repairman at Tuskegee Shoe Shop (1947 directory). He was the husband of Sarah Shields.
  • David Singleton was a shoe shiner for Sol Bederman. He lived at 248 E. 5th Street (1937 directory).
  • Jerry Smith was a shoe shiner at 118 W. Vine Street. He was the husband of Beatrice T. Smith (1947 directory).
  • John Smith repaired shoes at 401 1/2 Race Street. He and his wife Mary Smith lived at 562 Thomas Street (1931 directory).
  • Rudolph Smith was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 374 E. 2nd Street (1943-44 directory). He was later a shoe shiner at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company, and lived at 428 Ash Street (1945 directory).
  • Thornton Smith was a shoe shiner at 390 Patterson Street. Smith lived at 721 Noble Avenue (1942 directory).
  • George W. Stewart was a shoe repairman at 337 N. Limestone. George and Leona P. Stewart lived at 341 N. Limestone (1937 directory).
  • George A. Stone was a shoe shiner and a shoe repairman at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Stone lived at 532 Emma Street (1939 directory), and later lived at 425 N. Upper Street (1943-44 directory).
  • A second George A. Stone was a shoe finisher at 417 E. 2nd Street. He was the husband of Rose L. Stone (1943-44 directory), the couple lived at 309 E. 2nd Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Albert Taylor was a shoe shiner. He lived at 133 Water Street (1940-41 directory).
  • Dillard Taylor (1884-1939) did shoe repairs at 801 Whitney Avenue. He was married to Lizzie Taylor (1931 directory). Dillard Taylor was born in Scott County, KY, the son of Litha Redd and George Taylor, according to his death certificate. He was buried in Georgetown, KY.
  • George T. Taylor (1900-1952) was a shoe repairman. He lived at 322 Chestnut Street (1942 directory). Taylor was later a shoe repairman at Third Street Bargain Store. George and Rosa Taylor lived at 316 Deweese Street (1945 directory). According to his death certificate, George T. Taylor was also a shoemaker. He was born in Macon, GA, the son of Eugenia and Lee Taylor. He is buried in Greenwood Cemetery in Lexington, KY.
  • Ella B. Thomas was one of the few women who were employed as a shoe repairer. The business was at 337 N. Limestone, and Thomas lived at 341 N. Limestone (1931 directory).
  • James Tribble was a shoe shiner at McGurk's Shoe & Hat Shop. He lived at 753 Loraine Avenue (1943-44 directory).
  • Sanford Vinegar was a shoe shiner for George Miner. He lived at 477 W. 4th Street (1937 directory).
  • E. Waldo was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners located at 321 Wilson Street (1942 directory). He was the husband of Corine Waldo.
  • Joseph E. Walker was a shoe shiner. Joseph and Mozelle Walker lived at 157 N. Eastern Avenue (1945 directory).
  • Virgil Washington was a shoe repairman employed by Sol Bederman. Washington lived at 309 E. 6th Street (1931 directory).
  • Thompson Webb was a shoe shiner at Unique Shine Parlor. He was the husband of Hattie Webb (1939 directory).
  • Earl White was a shoe shiner for Sol Bederman. White lived at 702 Lindbergh Court (1940-41 directory).
  • Joseph White was a shoe repairman for Samuel Bederman. White lived at 343 E. 2nd Street (1937 directory).
  • Albert Wilkerson was a shoe shiner at State Cleaners. He lived at 413 Elm Street (1937 directory)
  • Jesse Williams was a shoe repairman at Harber Shoe Repair Company. Jesse and Clara Williams lived at 205 E. Euclid Avenue (1937 directory).
  • Jesse Williams, Jr. was a shoe repairman at E E Harber Shoe Repair Company. He lived at 248 Roosevelt Boulevard (1943-44 directory).
  • William Wilson was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters & Cleaners (1937 directory).
  • William Winchester was a shoe shiner at Lexington Hatters and Cleaners (1940-41 directory).
  • Harry E. Worsham was a shoe shiner at Lexington Shoe Hospital. Worsham lived at 445 Chestnut Street (1942 directory). He was later a shoe repairman for Mrs. Sadie Bederman (1945 directory).
  • Nathaniel Young was a shoe shiner at Martin's Barber Shop. Nathaniel and Luella Young lived at 108 York Street (1939 directory).

See 1907 photo image of shoe shiner on Lexington, KY street in University of Louisville Libraries: Digital Archives. For more information on shoe repairing in general, see The Shoe Industry by F. J. Allen. For more general information on African American shoe shiners see Encyclopedia of African American Business, v.2, K-Z, edited by J. C. Smith. See also Establishing and Operating a Shoe Repair Business by J. G. Schnitzer and C. R. Budd.


Subjects: Barbers, Businesses, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Tuberculosis: Care and Deaths, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Russell Springs, Russell County, Kentucky / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Bourbon County, Kentucky / Alabama / Cincinnati, Ohio / Macon, Georgia / Louisiana / Mississippi / Buffalo, New York

African American Shoemakers in Kentucky Prisons (A Leading U.S. Industry)
Start Year : 1870
End Year : 1920
Submitted by Reinette F. Jones, August 17, 2015 

 

The Kentucky State Penitentiary in Frankfort, KY, opened in 1789 and it was the first state prison. It was renamed the Kentucky State Reformatory before closing in 1937. Though the Kentucky State Reformatory in Frankfort was said to be closed, there were still 159 inmates there in 1940, none of these inmates were shoemakers [source: U.S. Census]. A branch of the Kentucky State Penitentiary was built in Eddyville, KY and it opened in 1886. The second prison was meant to relieve the overcrowding in the Frankfort State Penitentiary. There have been many additions and other changes to the facilities in Eddyville and it is now a maximum security prison [more info at KSP website]. The third prison, the new Kentucky State Reformatory, was built in LaGrange, KY, and opened in 1936, it was funded by the Kentucky General Assembly and the Public Works Administration [more info at KSR website]. The present day Kentucky State Reformatory is a medium security prison. The shoe factories were located in the Frankfort and Eddyville Penitentiaries. The making of shoes is no longer a major prison industry in Kentucky, though during the final decades of the 1800s and the early decades of the 1900s, the shoe industry in Kentucky prisons would rank among the top in the United States. 

 

From early on, there was a shoe factory in the Kentucky State Prison in Frankfort with the shoes made by prison labor. In 1816 there were 12 convicts working in the shoe factory [source: p.102 in A Report on the History and Mode of Management of the Kentucky Penitentiary from Its Origin, in 1798, To March 1, 1860 prepared by W. E. Sneed]. These convicts were probably white. The prison population was fairly small in 1816 and by 1844 there were 157 white male prisoners and 19 colored male prisoners [p.385]. The year 1844 was during the period when most colored males in Kentucky were enslaved and considered valuable property. Colored males in the Kentucky State Penitentiary prior to the end of slavery had been free (not slaves) before being incarcerated. Freedom came to all slaves in Kentucky after the end of the Civil War. With more freed colored men in the general population, there were more freed colored men charged with crimes and imprisoned. With more prisoners, there were more workers in the prisons. [For a comparison of the number of free colored persons in the 19 state prisons in the United States, see "Appendix: Table A" on p.282 in the section "Pauperism and Crime" in De Bow's Review and the Industrial Resources, Statistics, etc., v.XIX, New Series, V.II, 1855.] In the 1850s, the cause of crime was still attributed to race, ethnicity, the wrong religion, class, lack of education, and many other reasons and prejudices. Work was thought to be good for the prisoners' souls to help address their bad ways, and work also helped pay the bills and fill the pouches of those who operated the prison. There were different types of factories in prisons, but shoe factories became a major work area for the colored prisoners after 1880 and up to the 1920s. All shoemakers were males; women prisoners did not make shoes in Kentucky prisons [though they did in Virginia, Illinois, Massachusetts, and Michigan]. Shoemaking was a trade most of the colored inmates learned while incarcerated. In the general public in Kentucky, there was not an overwhelming number of African American shoemakers, but the numbers were not drastically decreasing as the numbers increased within the prisons [see the NKAA subject search for shoes]. 

 

After 1880, there would be more colored shoemakers in prison than out of prison. Making shoes using prison labor became the most profitable industry in Kentucky prisons. The training and working of prisoners was to the financial benefit of those who leased the prison and of financial benefit to the prison keeper, and was soon of great financial benefit to the State of Kentucky. During the earliest years, the head of the prison leased the entire prison to the highest bidder. The leasing system was compared to slavery; many of the guards had received their jobs as political favors and were not trained. The person or company that leased the prison set the tone for the level of care the prisoners received, which led to the death of prisoners as a result of company cost-saving measures with food, sanitation, and health, and there was physical abuse toward the prisoners. A warden system was established in the Kentucky State Penitentiary in the 1880s, with individual prisoners being leased by the State to work on public projects. Still many prisoners died from malnourishment, on the job accidents, and physical abuse. In 1890, the Kentucky Constitution prohibited the leasing of convicts, which lead to a system of contacted prisoner labor with company operations inside the prison. [For more about the early prison years in Kentucky and the south see "The Blackburn Governorship and the Prison Issue" on pp.259-261 in A New History of Kentucky by L H. Harrison & J. C. Klotter; Slavery by Another Name by D. A. Blackmon; and One Dies, Get Another by M. J. Mancini.]    

 

Kentucky was not unique in the leasing of prisoners, especially African American prisoners, it was a practice throughout the south. But, Kentucky would excelled in the business of making shoes using prison labor, which placed the state among the top prison shoemaking industries in the nation, starting around 1882. The high market value of the shoe industry had developed in the late 1800s, and Kentucky prisons were actually a little late participating in the boon. Listed in the U.S. Census were very few shoemakers in the Kentucky Penitentiary in 1870, and those few were all listed as white male prisoners except one. The other African American male prisoners were listed in the census as "laborers" along with the occasional note of a brick maker, carriage maker or wagon maker, and barbers. The African American women prisoners were all noted as domestic servants. Ten years later, within the 1880 U.S. Census, the African American women prisoners were still listed as domestic servants. The job listings of the African American male prisoners had been upgraded from laborers to more definitive job titles such as brick mason, farm labor, blacksmith, carpenter, and other job titles. There were four African American shoemakers in prison in 1880. As for the literacy of all the inmates, there were few who were considered educated: "24 is good, 183 common, and 355 have no education" [source: p.13 in Report of the Directors and Warden of the Kentucky Penitentiary to the General Assembly, January 1, 1884, at Google Books]. Around 1882, one of the Kentucky State Penitentiary contracts was awarded to C. R. Mason and Company [later Mason and Ford Co.], a shoe factory managed by Charles E. Hoge. The company was said to have provided the prison shoemakers with all provisions, clothing, beds, bedding, and medicines, as stipulated in the contract [p.12]. The inmates also received spiritual enlightenment from four ministers who came to the prison to preach; the colored minister was Rev. J. W. Asbury. In December of 1883, there were 542 inmates in the Frankfort State Penitentiary: 249 White Males; 256 Colored Males; 2 White Females; and 35 Colored Females [p.22]. The majority of the inmates came from 103 counties in Kentucky, with the absolute most from Jefferson County and Fayette County [pp.24-26]. The second largest group of prisoners by state of origin, came from Tennessee, followed by Virginia [p.27]. Murder was the number one offense of the inmates, followed by grand larceny and house-breaking [p.26]. [For more about prison life for African American inmates in Kentucky Prisons see the chapter "Sacrifice upon the altar of the law" in Racial Violence in Kentucky, 1865-1940 by G. C. Wright.]. 

 

"The new shoe factory at the penitentiary at Frankfort started up on the first of the month known as the Southern Shoe Co., owned by Mason and Ford Co. They will employ about 400 convicts for the manufacture of ladies', misses' and children's shoes. This is one of the most complete shoe factories in our state, and turns out some of the strongest medium priced lines built. They have had quite a successful past in manufacturing shoes, and trade appreciate the value for the money. Trade has been principally with jobbers and large department stores." - - [source: Southern Department: "Among the Manufacturers" on p.84 in Boot and Shoe Recorder, March 17, 1897]. 

 

The shoe industry in Kentucky prisons started to pick up momentum in the 1890s and by the close of 1898, there was an average of 300 prisoners at the Frankfort Penitentiary working in the shoe shop under the watchful eyes of six guards [source: pp.49-50 in The Annual Report of the Board of Prison Commissioners to the Governor of the State of Kentucky for The Year Ending November 30, 1898, Document NO. 11, within Kentucky Public Documents]. In 1900, the prisoners at the Kentucky Branch Penitentiary in Eddyville were all listed in the U.S. Census with the occupation of prisoner, though there were probably shoemakers there also. At the Kentucky State Penitentiary in Frankfort, the number of African Americans involved in the production of shoes was 35 times greater than the 1880 census total (see table below). The process for the making of shoes by prisoners had become a major industry. The job duties were listed as a step in the assembly line for shoemaking such as shoe bottomers, shoe cutters, shoe lasters (sews shoes together), shoe filters (measures shoe length), shoe finishsers, and workers in the shoe stock department. Starting in 1850 and up to 1900, there had been a boon in the making of shoes in the United States due to the invention of machines that did the work faster, more consistently, and cheaper than the work of an individual human making one shoe at a time. With the cheap prison labor, it became possible to have a much larger supply of the finished product and a much more affordable product for consumers. In the Kentucky prisons, the making of boots and shoes was the major profit-making industry for the State [source: "Kentucky" on pp.95-96 in The Report of the Industrial Commission on Prison Labor, V.III, House of Representatives, Doc. No.476, Part 8, 56th Congress, 1st Session, Approved June 18, 1898]. All abled-bodied prisoners in the Kentucky prisons worked under a prison lease or a contract system, or for the public-account system. The cost was 40 cents, per man, per working day at the Kentucky State Penitentiary in Frankfort, and 35 cents per day, per man, per working day at the Branch State Penitentiary in Eddyville.  

 

The State continued to lease the shoe factory in the Frankfort State Penitentiary to the Claiborne. R. Mason Manufacturing Company located in Frankfort [later named the Mason and Ford Company], which was managed by Charles E. Hoge [Find A Grave]. The C. R. Mason Company had been leasing the prison labor for the making of shoes as early as 1882. The shoe factory in the Kentucky Penitentiary in Eddyville was leased to the Southern Shoe Company owned by Mason and Hoge until the shoe factory burned down in 1896 due to mysterious circumstances. By 1905, the Kentucky Shoe Manufacturing Company had leased the Eddyville Penitentiary, 175 men at 45 cents per day [source: p.8 of article "The Abuses of prison labor" by C. Lovely in The Shoe Workers' Journal, August 1905]. Charles E. Hoge would go on to form his own company, the Frankfort Shoe Company and in 1905 the name changed to Hoge-Montgomery Shoe Company [James F. Montgomery]. The Hoge and Montgomery Company, the Southern Shoe Co, the Kentucky Shoe Mfg. Co., and the Mason Company tightly controlled the leasing of the prison shoe industry. These shoe manufacturers controlled the day-to-day shoe operations in the Kentucky prisons and they heavily influenced the type of employment systems used for prison labor in Kentucky. The shoe manufacturers using prison labor also beat out competition in the general public in Kentucky, but more so in those states where Kentucky prison-made shoes were sold.  

 

In the 1905 Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, the making of boots and shoes in Kentucky prisons was listed as the most valued goods among the Kentucky prison industries, valued at $780,000, and the 477 male prisoners' labor was valued at $172, 292 [source: Table III, p.275]. Within the boot and shoe prison industries in the United States, Kentucky placed 4th in value of goods produced among 38 states and the U.S. prisons, and Kentucky was ranked 4th in the number of prisoners employed in the shoe industry: the top five states were Missouri ($1,863,685) using 1,114 prisoners; Virginia ($1,631,540) using 996 prisoners, Illinois ($990,431) using 288.5 prisoners; Kentucky ($780,000) using 477 prisoners; and Wisconsin ($685,440) using 284 prisoners [sources: Table III, pp.285-286; and Table III, p.330]. The majority of the shoes made in Kentucky prisons were sold in other states: Disposition of Goods (boots and shoes) Made - $45,000 Within State, $670,000 Outside State, for a total of $713,000 [source: Table V, p.458]. The successful profit of the prison shoe industry in Kentucky depended on sales in other states, which was not always appreciated by competitors in those states. There were no limitations on the sales of boots and shoes made in Kentucky prisons, and the items were not marked noting the products were "made by prisoners in Kentucky" [source: Table V, p.425]. The 1905 value of the prisoner made boots and shoes in Kentucky at $780,000, equated to approximately $20,600,000 in 2014. The shoe industry in Kentucky prisons were 52% of the value of all goods produced in the Kentucky prison industries [all goods produced valued at $1,494,563; source: Table III, p.296]. Kentucky ranked third among the 27 states that used a contract system for prison labor and the value of goods produced; Kentucky was third from last among the 40 states that used a public-account system for prison labor; Kentucky was fourth from the bottom of the 17 states with a piece-price system for prison labor; and Kentucky was fourth from the bottom of the 47 states that employed prisoners for a state-use prison labor system [source: Table III, p.303] [For a more detailed definition of the leasing systems in the Kentucky prisons at the turn of the century see "Kentucky" on p.148 in The Report of the Industrial Commission on Prison Labor, V.III, House of Representatives, Doc. No.476, Part 8, 56th Congress, 1st Session, Approved June 18, 1898; and see "Kentucky. State Convicts. Constitution." on pp.674-679 in 20th Annual Report of the Commissioner of Labor, 1905. Convict Labor.]  

 

By 1900, there were about 139 African American shoemakers in Kentucky's prisons and a decade later, there were over 700. Approximately half of all the prisoners making shoes in Kentucky were African American males. The literacy rate among the prisoners had increased overall. Of the African American prisoners who made shoes in the Kentucky State Penitentiary, a little less than half could read and write (see table below). Practically all of this group of men were born in Kentucky, along with eight prisoners born in Tennessee, five in North Carolina, and no more than three in the other states mentioned in the table below. In 1910 the making of shoes was still the most profitable prison industry in the state. At the Eddyville Branch, the majority of the shoemakers were African American men who were born in Kentucky, and of that group, the majority could read and write. Of those who were not born in Kentucky, 23 were born in Tennessee, and there were no more than three from the other states listed in the table below. Also in 1910, the majority of the more than 600 African American prisoners making shoes in the Kentucky State Penitentiary in Frankfort, the majority were born in Kentucky, with 31 born in Tennessee, 15 in Virginia, 10 in Ohio, 9 in Indiana and Georgia, 8 in North Carolina, South Carolina, and Alabama, and five or less from the states and countries listed in the table below. For the 1910 Census, race was heavily stressed for African Americans as either Black or Mulatto. This breakdown of race was due to the changes implemented at the U.S. Census Bureau. The census takers were instructed that “B” was called “black” only. The definition for “B” and “Mu” is: “For census purposes, the term ‘‘black’’ (B) includes all persons who are evidently full blooded negroes, while the term ‘‘mulatto’’ (Mu) includes all other persons having some proportion or perceptible trace of negro blood” [source: Race and the Census: the "Negro" controversy by D. Cohn, a Pew Research Center website]. The combined total of Black and Mulatto shoemakers in both of the Kentucky prisons in 1910 represented 3/5 of all the prison shoemakers in the state. The year 1910 represented the last of the best years which were the height of the shoemaking era in Kentucky prisons. Within the prisons, the African American male labor force was transitioning from shoemakers to pant and shirt makers, with African American female prisoners added to the labor force as seamstresses [source: 1910 U.S. Census].     

 

In 1920, the shoe industry at the Kentucky State Penitentiary in Eddyville had been totally converted to a shirt making factory. The prisoners' job titles were listed as laborers [source: U.S. Census]. Meanwhile, at the Kentucky State Reformatory in Frankfort, the number of African American shoemakers had dropped to less than half the total counted in the 1910 census. There were 65 Black shoemakers and 218 Mulatto shoemakers according to the U.S. Census. It should be noted that the U.S. Census Bureau once again was making the distinction between what was perceived as full blooded Negroes and those thought to have a portion of Negro blood. The census taker for the Kentucky Reformatory went overboard with the instructions and the collected data gives the impression that there were far more men in prison with a portion of Negro blood (Mulattoes) than those that appeared to be full blooded Negroes (Black). Along that same line of thinking, the collected data also showed far more literate Mulatto male prisoners making shoes in 1920 than any other year the census was taken. The Black and Mulatto shoemakers made up a little less than half of the shoemakers in the Kentucky State Reformatory in Frankfort. The majority of the African American shoemakers were Kentucky natives, followed by 27 born in Tennessee, 12 in Virginia, 11 in Alabama and Georgia, and less than five in the states listed in the table below. The other African American inmates in the Kentucky Reformatory were shirt makers, broom makers, chair makers, and a few who worked on the farm. The African American female inmates worked in the laundry. The census for the year 1920 was the last to have listed the shoe making occupations of the inmates in Kentucky prisons.     

 

For more about the shoe industries in Kentucky prisons see "The Courts and convict labor" by J. Leavitt on pp.649-656 in International Molder's Journal, v.49, no.1, January 1913; see the announcement that includes the sale of Kentucky Penitentiary Shoes in the ad "The Red Flag" on p.5, columns 5-6 in The Abbeville Press and Banner (Abbeville, S.C.); for more about the fire of unknown origins that destroyed the Southern Shoe Company at the Eddyville Penitentiary see "Kentucky News: Fire in prison" on p.4 in the Daily Public Ledger, 05/16/1896; and see Prison Slavery by B. Esposito et. al. For more on the history of shoemaking in the United States see The Path to Mechanized Shoe Production in the United States by R. Thomson; Feet and Footwear by M. DeMello; Pacemakers of Progress by H. R. Quimby; and Labor Productivity in the Boot and Shoe Industry by B. Stern and S. E. Thompson.  Below is a summary of African American shoemakers in Kentucky prisons from 1870 to 1920.      

 

AFRICAN AMERICAN SHOEMAKERS IN KENTUCKY PRISONS, 1870-1940       

 

YEAR LOCATION BLACK MULATTO BIRTH LOCATIONS READ & WRITE  TOTAL MALES  SOURCES
 1870 Kentucky Penitentiary
Frankfort, KY
1   Indiana NO   1 U.S. Census pp.70-88
Penitentiary
 1880 Kentucky Penitentiary
Frankfort, KY
2 2 Kentucky & Connecticut     4 U.S. Census pp.1-58
Penitentiary
 1900 Kentucky State Penitentiary
Frankfort, KY
139   Kentucky, Tennessee, Illinois,
Virginia, Missouri, Indiana,
North Carolina, South Carolina,
Ohio, Alabama, Georgia,
Michigan, and New York
NO 74 / YES 65   139 U.S. Census pp.1-26
Penitentiary
 1910 Kentucky Branch Penitentiary
Eddyville, KY
170   Kentucky, Tennessee, North Carolina,
Mississippi, Illinois, South Carolina,
Indiana, Pennsylvania, Arkansas, 
Michigan, Louisiana, Alabama,
New York, Texas, England
NO 65 / YES 105   170  U.S. Census pp.1-14
Kentucky Branch Penitentiary
 1910 Kentucky State Penitentiary
Frankfort, KY
355 255 Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, North Carolina,
Indiana, Georgia, South Carolina, Virginia,
Mississippi, Texas, Arkansas, Alabama, Idaho,
Michigan, Nebraska, Kansas, West Virginia,
Florida, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Illinois, Oklahoma, California, Louisiana, Colorado,
West Indies/Jamaica, U.S. or Unknown,  Canada
NO 179 / YES 431    610 U.S. Census pp.1-30
Kentucky Penitentiary
 1920 Kentucky State Reformatory
Frankfort, KY
65 219 Kentucky, Tennessee, Virginia, Alabama, Georgia,
Indiana, North Carolina, Illinois, Ohio, Iowa, Oklahoma,
Missouri, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, Maryland,
Florida, Texas, New Jersey
NO 42 / YES 242   284 U.S. Census pp.1-25
Kentucky State Reformatory

 

  

   See photo image of buildings that housed the Hoge-Montgomery Shoe Company at the Kentucky State Penitentiary in Frankfort, KY, the image is within the Kentucky Historical Society Digital Collections.

 
Subjects: Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores, Prison Laborers
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Eddyville, Lyon County, Kentucky

African American Slave Owners in Kentucky
Start Year : 1830
In 1924 the Research Department of the Association for the Study of Negro Life and History completed a study of the free Negro slave owners found in the 1830 U. S. Federal Census. The study found that there were 3,777 Negro slave owners in the United States. Negro slave owners were listed in 29 Kentucky counties (see below). Ownership may have meant the purchase of a spouse, an individual's children, or other relatives who were not emancipated. Ownership was also an investment: purchased children and adults may or may not have been given the opportunity to work off their purchase price in exchange for their freedom. A History of World Societies documents a total of 6,000 Negro slave owners in the U.S. for the year 1840 [p. 846]. The 1850 and 1860 Slave Schedules do not identify slave owners by race; the individual names of slave owners must be searched in the U.S. Federal Census to identify the individual's race. For more see the Research Department's article, "Free Negro owners of slaves in the United States in 1830," The Journal of Negro History, vol. 9, no. 1 (Jan., 1924), pp. 41-85; A History of World Societies, by J. P. McKay, et al. [2006]; and A History of Blacks in Kentucky, by M. B. Lucas.

Kentucky Counties with Negro Slave Owners in 1830
[book source: Free Negro Owners of Slaves in the United States in 1830 compiled and edited by C. G. Woodson, pp.4-6]
 

  1. Adair County (1) - Swaney Burbridge
  2. Barren County (1) - Leander Force
  3. Bourbon County (9) - Peter Allen, Sally Wallace, Isaac Jones, James Monday, Peter Grant, Gabriel, Allen Heathman, Edmon Hurley, Stephen Brooks
  4. Bracken County (1) - Lethia Thomas
  5. Bullitt County, [Mt. Washington] (2) - Isaac Ellison, Bash Oldridge
  6. Christian County, [Hopkinsville] (1) - Michael Cocke
  7. Clark County (2) - John Dudley, George Birth
  8. Fayette County (13), [Lexington] (15) - Nancy Scott, Peter Whiting, Robert Gray, Charlotte Lewis, Richard Bird, William Tucker, Jesse Smith, Nathan Keifer, Benjamin Tibbs, Jane Brittain, Hannah Travis, Wittshire Brackenridge, Harvey Phillips, Frank Lee, Nicholas Black -- Peter Davis, Adam B. Martin, Isaac Howard, William Burk, Benjamin Caulden, Peter Francess, Ben Williams, Anaka Shores, Jer'y Allen, Alexander Allen, Samuel Dunlap, Rhody Clark, Robert Smith
  9. Fleming County (1) - Jacob Truett
  10. Franklin County, [Frankfort] (6) - Harry Mordecai, David Jones, John Ward, Burrel Chiles, John S. Goin, Samuel Brown
  11. Graves County (1) - Alias Keeling
  12. Green County (1) - Thomas Malone
  13. Harrison County (1) - Benjamin Berton
  14. Henderson County (1) - Liverpool Pointer
  15. Jefferson County (1), [Louisville] (5) - J. T. Gray -- Betty Cozzens, David Straws, Frank Merriwether, Daniel Brigadier, Sally
  16. Jessamine County (3) - Judith Higenbothan, Anthony of colour, William a man of color
  17. Knox County (1) - Isaiah Goins
  18. Logan County, [Russellville] (5) - Nicholas Valentine, Robert Buckner, Edward Jones, Isham Husketh, William Barber
  19. Madison County (1) - George White
  20. Mason County (9), [Washington] (3) - Thomas F. Bowles, John Glasford, Edward Cooper, H. Markham, Roseann Wann, Charles More, Ann Baylor, Edmond Toliver, Acam Diggs -- Peggy Miles, John Lightfoot, Isaac Johnson
  21. Mercer County (9) - Anderson Harris, Ben Harris, Spencer Easton, Fielding Melvin, Jemima Fry, Hercules Jenkins, George Warman, Adam Beaty, Sanko Robinson
  22. Montgomery County (1) - Richard Lee
  23. Nelson County, [Bardstown] (4) - Thomas Smiley, Joe Cocke, Thomas Rudd, George Aud
  24. Nicholas County (1) - George Mallery
  25. Rockcastle County (1) - David Cable
  26. Shelby County (1), [Shelbyville] (3) - John Edwards -- Peter Short, Hannah Harris, Jim Henson
  27. Warren County (2) - Jane Palmore, Bazzle Russell
  28. Washington County, [Springfield] (2) - Robert C. Palmer, Ignatius Sandy
  29. Woodford County (13) - Joe Miller, Lawrence Corbin, Betty Tutt, Billy Campbell, Henry Mason, Tom Stratford, Ambrose Hardy, Richard Harvey, Samuel Cloak, Nathan Twiner, Joel Hawkins, Moses Weaver, Jordan Ritchie

Subjects: Free African American Slave Owners, Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county A-C], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county D-J], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county K-M], Slave Owners, Slaves, Free Blacks, Free Mulattoes in Kentucky, 1850-1870 [by county N-Z]
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American Slavery in Mexico - Tom West
According to author J. K. Turner, Tom West was born free in Kentucky and later became a slave in what was described as an experiment in Mexico. Turner met West in 1908-1909. West had earned $2 per day in a brickyard in Kentucky, and he left the U.S. for Mexico by way of Florida along with 80 other African Americans, with the promise of earning $3.75 or 7.5 pesos per day. They were to work at coffee and rubber plantations in La Junta. Once in Mexico the group was locked away at night, and armed guards watched over them as they worked during the day. Unbeknownst to West and the other African Americans, they had been sold as slaves to an American plantation owner and were forced to work off their purchase price before they would be paid for their labor. Those who escaped and then captured were beaten, and according to Turner, the Diaz government turned a blind eye to the whole affair. African American slavery in Mexico was considered a failure, and Tom West was freed after two years on the plantation but remained in Mexico. For more see Barbarous Mexico, by J. K. Turner.
Subjects: Freedom, Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Mexico & Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Mexico

African American Theater Buildings in Kentucky
Start Year : 1900
End Year : 1955
Of the more than 1,500 theaters listed within the title African American Theater Buildings by Eric L. Smith, a few were located in nine Kentucky cities between 1900-1955. The theaters were managed by both African Americans and whites, and the predominate clientele were African Americans. The theaters in Kentucky were:

  • Higgins School in Vicco (Higgins School merged into Liberty Street School in 1940)
  • Frankfort - Kentucky State College Theater, picture house
  • Henderson - Doxy Theater, picture house
  • Lexington - Ada Meade, Lyric Theater, and Orpheum Theater, all picture houses
  • Louisville - Dixie Theater, Grand Theater, and Lyric Theater, picture houses. Lincoln Theater, and Palace Theater, both picture houses and vaudeville. Ruby Theater and Victory Theater were both vaudeville
  • Mayfield - Unique Theater, picture house
  • Owensboro - Plaza Theater, picture house
  • Paducah - Hiawatha Theater, picture house
  • Pikesville - Liberty Theater, picture house [may be Pikeville, KY]
  • Winchester - Lincoln Theater, picture house


Texas, Florida, and North Carolina were the states with the most African American theater buildings. Also included in E. L. Smith's book is a listing of African American drive-in theaters, all were in the South.



  See "History of the Lyric Theater" on YouTube by Derlando Ragland. 
Subjects: Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers, Theater: Companies, Education, Exhibitions, Performers, and Performances in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Kentucky: Frankfort, Franklin County / Henderson, Henderson County / Lexington, Fayette County / Louisville, Jefferson County / Mayfield, Graves County / Owensboro, Daviess County / Paducah, McCracken County / Pikeville, Pike County / Winchester, Clark C

African American Undergraduates at University of Kentucky
Start Year : 1950
This entry was added to the NKAA Database in response to the frequent reference requests for the names of the first African American undergraduates to enroll at the University of Kentucky (UK).  Most of the enrollments came about with the passing of the 1954 Supreme Court Decision, Brown v. Board of Education, which declared state laws establishing separate public schools for black and white students to be unconstitutional. African American graduate and professional students had been admitted to UK in 1949, and five years later, 20 or so undergraduate students enrolled. Listed below are the undergraduate names that are known at this time. Also listed below are the names of undergraduates who enrolled before or right after 1954 and graduated. 

 

*For more information on the first African American graduates from the University of Kentucky see They Came Before: the legacy of African American pioneers and trailblazers at the University of Kentucky by the UK Alumni Association

 

NAME HOMETOWN/SCHOOL MAJOR GRADUATION DATE LIBRARY SOURCES
Beatty, Josephine Jackson Lexington - Dunbar Channing Undeclared (transfer) None The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Cannon, Frank Jr. Nicholasville - Rosenwald-Dunbar Electrical Engineering None The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Cruse, Jacqueline Lexington - Dunbar Music Education (transfer) None The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Fields, Holloway Jr. Lexington Engineering 1951 Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy 1949-1999, p.49
Gillis, John William Lexington - Douglass Agriculture None "Integration achieved without incident at University of Kentucky," Lexington Leader, 10/13/1954 / The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Jones, LaBernice Lexington Physical Education 1957 UK 90th Annual Commencement Exercises 1957 Program, p.20 / The 1957 Kentuckian, p.181
Jones, William Jr.   Sociology 1958 Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy 1949-1999, p.49 / UK College of A&S website
LaRue, Janice Napier Lexington - Dunbar Elementary Education None The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Lymon, Luminta Locke Lexington - Dunbar Music None The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Lyons, Joseph B. Jr. Lexington Engineering 1958 Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy 1949-1999, p.49 / The 1958 Kentuckian, p.80
Mack, Dorothy Mitchell Lexington Social Work 1957  Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy 1949-1999, p.49 {last name given as Mitchell} / UK 90th Annual Commencement Exercises 1957 Program, p.7 / The 1957 Kentuckian, p.187
Million, Ruth Cruse Lexington - Dunbar Commerce/Business None The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Newby, Sarah Clark Lexington - Dunbar Elementary Education 1958 The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138 / Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy 1949-1999, p.49 / The 1958 Kentuckian, p.59 {last name given as Clark}
Ross, Lucius Tom Lexington - Dunbar Medical Technology None "Integration achieved without incident at University of Kentucky," Lexington Leader, 10/13/1954 / The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Schultz, William R. Louisville Pharmacy 1954 Email message from the UK College of Pharmacy confirming enrollment and graduation. Transfer work from U of L and Indiana University. Photo images in the 1953 & 1954 Kentuckian yearbooks.
Simpson, Clay E. Jr. Owensboro Arts & Sciences 1958 Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy 1949-1999, p.49 
Stewart, James Cecil Lexington - Douglass Agriculture (transfer)   "Integration achieved without incident at University of Kentucky," Lexington Leader, 10/13/1954
Strider (Abel), Maureen Barbara Lexington - Dunbar Pre-medicine None "Integration achieved without incident at University of Kentucky," Lexington Leader, 10/13/1954 {last name given as Abel} / The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Walker, Anna Brown Lexington - Dunbar Elementary Education None The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Wallace, Samuel III "Bud" Lexington - Douglass Electrical Engineering None "Integration achieved without incident at University of Kentucky," Lexington Leader, 10/13/1954 / The Integration of the First African-American Undergraduates at the University of Kentucky (dissertation) by Sharon Barrow Childs, p.138
Wilkinson, Doris Y. Lexington Social Work w/English minor 1958 The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan / "African American contributions to Kentucky history and the desegregation of the University of Kentucky" in Integration File 2 of 3 /Fifty Years of the University of Kentucky African-American Legacy 1949-1999, p.49

 

 
Subjects: Education and Educators, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

African American Union Sailors from Kentucky
Subjects: Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African American WACs Who Were Born in Kentucky
Start Year : 1943
End Year : 1945
This is a partial list of the African American women born in Kentucky and served in the WACs. The information comes from the WWII Army Enlistment Records. Martha L. Bell, b.1918, Daviess County; Georgia A. Bradley, b.1900; Lena C. H. Bruce, b.1923, Kenton County; Sarah M. Carr, b.1911, Jefferson County; Gladys L. Collier, b.1923; Lula B. Collins, b.1910; Dorothy C. Davis, b.1919; Ethel W. Fields, b.1922, Jefferson County; Alma C. Fischer, b.1924; Edna M. Griffin, b.1909; Willia M. Griffin, b.1920; Zelma H. Grooms, b.1922; Elizabeth Hardyster, b.1921, Jefferson County; Ann M. Highsaw, b.1917, Jefferson County; Florence J. Hoard, b.1919, Jefferson County; Ruth Holt, b.1911; Hannah E. Huley, b.1911, Grant County; June C. Ingram, b.1921; Juanita M. Irvin, b.1920, McCracken County; Julia M. Jackson, b.1911, Jefferson County; Lula M. Johnson, b.1918, Fayette County; Alma E. Kairson, b.1918; Emma L. Lutz, b.1917; Hollie B. Martin, b.1903; Anna C. Morrison, b.1923; Mary E. Neal, b.1914; Dorthea M. Owens, b.1920; LaVenta M. Penn, b.1916; Thelma L. Pruden, b.1923, Daviess County; Catherine Roberts, b.1920, Bath County; Beaulah C. Simms, b.1924; Emma Smith, b.1922, Lincoln County; Marjorie Smith, b.1923; Mattie L. Sproul, b.1917, Barren County; Vivian Steward, b.1918; Susie D. L. Tardy, b.1920; Annie B. Thurman, b.1921, Fulton County; Ora L. Tichenor, b.1915; Anna S. Townsend, b.1923, Jefferson County; Effie M. Turner, b.1923; Joanna M. Turner, b.1900; Anna M. Wall, b.1924, Fulton County; Lena M. Warden, b.1923; Helen C. Washington, b.1919, Bourbon County; Alice T. White, b.1923, Fayette County; Thelma M. Wimbley, b.1921; Daisy B. Utterback, b.1922, Graves County; Dorothy J. Young, b.1921.



  See photo images of African American WACs, including Kentuckian Willa B. Brown [Chappell], at flickr website.

 

 

  See history of African American women WACs, a video by "African American History is American History (AAHIAH)" Episode #11 Black Soldiers, Part 2.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Women's Groups and Organizations, Women's Army Corps (WACs)
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in Kentucky Killed By Lightning
Start Year : 1850
End Year : 1940
In early newspapers are articles about people in Kentucky killed by lightning, and the articles were many times front page stories.  There are also lightning deaths noted in the U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, 1850-1885 and in the annual Mortality Statistics volumes, some of which are available full-text at Google Books. See Lightning Fatalities by State, 1956-2012, a NOAA website, for a rank of where Kentucky stands in terms of deaths due to lightning. This entry is an introduction to the names, geographic locations, and data on African Americans in Kentucky who were killed by lightning. 

 

Since 2006, there have been less than 50 lightning deaths per year in the United States, according to the statistics at the NWS (National Weather Service) Lightning Safety, NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) website. For earlier data, back to 1940, and additional information, see Victims/SurvivorsSafety Tips, and other educational links on the National Weather Service, NOAA website. See also Lightning Casualties and Their Proximity to Surrounding Cloud-to-ground Lightning (thesis) by M. M. Lengyel; An Epidemiological Description of Lightning-related Deaths in the United States by P. J. Duclos and L. M. Sanderson; and search in PubMed for articles on lightning and lightning injuries.

  • 1850 - Jenny, a slave, killed by lightning strike, May 1850. Warren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, line 1, Year Ending 1st of June 1850. 
  • 1860 - Robert, a slave and farm hand, killed by lightning, April 1860. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.2, line 10, Year Ending 1st of June 1860. 
  • 1860 - Nathaniel White, a 13 year old slave was killed by lightning May 1860. Barren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.3, line 12, Year Ending 1st of June 1860. 
  • 1860 - Ruben White, a slave who was married, was killed by lightning May 1860. Barren County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 3, p.3, line 12, Year Ending 1st of June 1860. 
  • 1868 - Two white men and a colored man killed by lightning in London, KY. June 26, 1868. Laurel County. Source: "Three men killed by lightning in Kentucky," New York Times, 06/28/1868, p.1. 
  • 1870 - James Diggs, a farm hand, killed by "effice [efficacy] of lightning," November 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 29, Year Ending 1st of June 1870. 
  • 1870 - Edmond White, 9 years old, was killed by lightning July 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 27, Year Ending 1st of June 1870. 
  • 1870 - Pauline White, 13 years old, was killed by lightning July 1870. Madison County. Source: U. S. Federal Census Mortality Schedules, Schedule 2, p.2, line 27, Year Ending 1st of June 1870. 
  • 1890 - Lish Wilson, 15 years old, was one of two boys killed by lightning in Louisville, KY. The boys and two others had been out fishing and took shelter under a tree when it started to rain and lightning. June 1890. Jefferson County. Source: "Article 2 - No Title," The New York Times, June 15, 1890, p.2. 
  • 1902 - Nelson Holmes a Negro farm hand was killed by lightning in Mt. Sterling, KY. July 1902. Montgomery County. Source: "Severe storm in Kentucky," Spokane Daily Chronicle, 07/28/1902, p.1. 
  • 1907 - Evans Duncan, colored, was killed by lightning at Cleaton. July 1907. Muhlenberg County. Source: "Here and there," Interior Journal, 07/23/1907, p.1. 
  • 1907 - A Negro named Mimms was struck by lightning and killed while plowing the fields of Frank Waldron near Allensville, KY. The two mules attached to the plow were also killed. August 1907. Todd County. Source: "News notes," Interior Journal, 08/20/1907, p.1.
  • 1908 - Thomas Gaines, a 13 year old colored boy, was struck by lightning and instantly killed while passing under a tree on the farm of Catesby Woodford. June 1908. Bourbon County. Source: "Prominent farmer and colored boy killed by lightning," Bourbon News, 06/16/1908, p.1. Thomas Gaines was the son of Gertie Hanline Gaines; the family lived in Flat Rock. Source: 1900 U.S. Federal Census. 
  • 1911 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 20-29, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1911: twelfth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.385. 
  • 1916 - One colored person in Kentucky, a child 5-9 years old, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1916: seventeenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.321. 
  • 1917 - Three colored persons were killed by lightning: a baby under 1 year old; person between 20-29 years old; and a person of unknown age. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1917: eighteenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.347. 
  • 1918 - Four colored persons were killed by lightning: a child between 5-9 years old; a child between 10-19 years old; a person between 20-29 years old; and a person between 40-49 years old. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1918: nineteenth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.326. 
  • 1919 - Three colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning: two children between the ages of 10-19; and a person between 40-49. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1919: twentieth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.336. 
  • 1920 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 40-49, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1920: twenty-first annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.361. 
  • 1922 - Two colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning: a child 10-14 years old; and a person 35-44 years old. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1922: twenty-third annual report, part 1, by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.410. 
  • 1925 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 35-44, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1925: twenty-sixth annual report, by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.185. 
  • 1929 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 35-44, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1929: thirtieth annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.284. 
  • 1931 - One colored person in Kentucky, between the ages of 45-54, was killed by lightning. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1931: thirty-second annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.249. 
  • 1932 - Three colored persons in Kentucky were killed by lightning; they were all between the ages of 25-34. Kentucky. Source: Mortality Statistics, 1931: thirty-third annual report by the United States Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, p.246.

 
Subjects: Killed by Lightning
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in the Military Oral History Project
Start Year : 2002
End Year : 2004
The following subject terms come from the "Pass the Word" website. "African Americans, Florida, Germany, Japan, Korea, Korean War, 1950-1953, Kuwait, Military, Persian Gulf War, 1991, Saudi Arabia, Vietnam, Vietnam War, 1961-1975, World War, 1939-1945, ..."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Military & Veterans, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in the Thoroughbred Industry Oral History Project
Start Year : 1994
End Year : 1995
The following information comes from the description on the "Pass the Word" website. "This series focuses on the experiences of African Americans working in the thoroughbred industry in Kentucky. The majority of interviews focus on backside occupations including hot walkers, exercise riders, and groomers. Other occupations include trainers, clockers, and jockeys. Interviewees discuss employment opportunities for African Americans in the racing industry, individuals they have worked with including owners and trainers, living conditions at the track, how they were trained in various occupations, working on horse farms, family life, race horses they have worked with, and the Kentucky Derby. Most of the interviews were conducted in Louisville with individuals who have worked at Churchill Downs."

 

Access Interview  See list of interviews at "Pass the Word" website.
Subjects: Jockeys, Horsemen, Horse Breeders, Trainers, Betting, & The Derby, Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Kentucky

African Americans in the Upper Cumberland Region (FA 510) [oral histories]
Start Year : 1991
End Year : 1997
The following information about the oral history collection, African Americans in the Upper Cumberland Region (FA 510), comes from the collection note at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives:  "This collection contains interviews with or about African Americans in the upper Cumberland region of Kentucky and Tennessee. The interviews are life histories focusing on what it was like growing up in the region. Researchers should look at the subject analytics below to determine the counties included in this study. This project was done as part of a class in folk studies at Western Kentucky University and supervised by Lynwood Montell." The collection is 6 boxes, 54 folders, 238 items, dated 1991-1997, consisting of original papers, transcriptions, photos, and cassette tapes.  All items are available at Western Kentucky University, Manuscripts and Folklife Archives.
Subjects: Oral History Collections
Geographic Region: Upper Cumberland Region, Kentucky and Tennessee

African Americans Returning to the U.S from Honduras [Jimmy Johnson]
End Year : 1940
Jimmy Johnson was born in either 1911 or 1913 in Louisville, KY, and lived at 99 W. Springfield Street in Roxbury, MA. Not many African Americans from Kentucky had migrated to Massachusetts before or after the Civil War. The U.S. Census shows just one free African American from Kentucky living in Massachusetts in 1850, 28 in 1870, and in 1920, 184. Among those 184 there were three Johnson families, but Jimmy Johnson was not listed as a member of any of those families. According to the La Perla (ship) passenger list for July 1932, Johnson was described as a "USC (United States Citizen)=Stowaway=From Boston." The La Perla was owned by the United Fruit Company, a U.S. Corporation based in Boston, MA; the company traded in tropical fruit grown in the West Indies and Central American countries and sold in the U.S. and Europe. United Fruit Company was the largest employer in Central America and managed the postal service in Guatemala. Its steamers transported the fruit, mail, passengers, and cargo between the United States and Central America. In 1928, Roy T. Davis, the U.S. Minister to Costa Rica, wrote the Secretary of State, Frank B. Kellogg, to say the State Department had been informed that Marcus Garvey (UNIA) had received a large donation and monthly subscriptions from Negro employees of the United Fruit Company in Costa Rica. Garvey was denied a return visit to Costa Rica and prohibited from visiting Honduras. The exact number of American Negroes living in Honduras prior to the 1930s is not known. May Ford, a former slave from New Orleans, LA, had sailed to Honduras in 1868 with his former owner, George Henry Friarson, aboard the steamship Trade Winds. Friarson had plantation interests in Honduras and returned to the U.S. after a brief stay. May Ford decided to remain in Honduras and had various jobs, including work on fruit plantations. He was about 76 years old when he returned to the U.S. in 1904 aboard the Anselm (owned by the United Fruit Company); May's passage was paid for by Friarson's son. In 1910, six year old Beresford L. Grant, a U.S. citizen, returned from Honduras with his mother, Wilhelmina Grant (born in England). The Grants and two other Negroes born in England arrived at the Tampa, FL, Port on June 6, 1910, aboard the Carrie W. Babson. The Grants and one of the other passengers had been living in Belize, British Honduras. There were other American Negroes who returned to the U.S. from Honduras as stowaways. In 1932, Kentucky native Jimmy Johnson returned to the Boston, MA, Port aboard the La Perla; he had boarded the ship at the Puerto Castilla Port in Honduras. The port had been built by the United Fruit Company and was used to transport goods from the Castilla Division of the United Fruit Company. The Castilla Division operated until the late 1930s. It is not known why Jimmy Johnson went to Honduras, what his occupation was while there, or why he stowed away on the La Perla to return to the United States. Two other stowaways from Honduras were 20-year-old Amos Bailey from Hattiesburg, MS, and a man who went by the name Vans Miller (18 or 19 years old) and claimed to be a U.S. citizen from Philadelphia, PA. According to the Galveston, TX, Passenger List, Bailey and Miller had been laborers in Honduras, and both left from the Puerto Castilla Port aboard the Comoyagua (owned by the United Fruit Company) and returned to the U.S. at the Galveston Port on June 24, 1936. Bailey was admitted to the country as an American Negro citizen, but Miller, who spoke both English and Spanish, was denied. For more about the United Fruit Company see Bananas: how the United Fruit Company shaped the world, by P. Chapman. For more about the United Fruit Company in Honduras see M. Moberg, "Crown colony as Banana Republic: the United Fruit Company in British Honduras, 1900-1920," Journal of Latin American Studies, vol. 28, issue 2 (May 1996), pp. 357-381. For more about the fleets owned by the United Fruit Company, see The Ships List website for the United Fruit Company. For more about Marcus Garvey and Honduras, see The Marcus Garvey and Universal Negro Improvement Association Papers, vol. 12, edited by R. A. Hill. For more about May Ford, see "Back to slavery home," The Washington Post, 08/22/1904, p. 12.
Subjects: Migration Outside the U.S. and Canada, Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Roxbury, Massachusetts / New Orleans, Louisiana / Chicago, Illinois / Hattiesburg, Mississippi / Belize and Puerto Castilla, Honduras, Central America

African American Shoe Makers and Repairers - Danville, KY
Start Year : 1860
End Year : 1945
In Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky, there were at least nine African American shoemakers when the census was taken in 1880. Though nine was a small number, the African American shoemakers were the majority of the 14 or so shoemakers in the city. There may have also been African American shoe shiners, but they are not noted as such in the census records; shoe shinning was often a secondary job that did not get listed in the census records. The making of shoes as a business by African Americans in Danville, KY, was documented a little earlier than in many other Kentucky towns due to shoemaker Reuben Cowan being a free man in 1860. His wife and children are listed as free persons in the 1850 U.S. Census, and they were among the 13 or more free African Americans in Danville with the last name Cowan. There were also 48 slaves in Danville owned by Elisabeth Cowan, Mary Cowan, and Henry Cowan. It is not known at this time if Reuben Cowan was among the 48 slaves own by the Cowans; his name does not appear in the census until 1860. In the next census, 1870, when African Americans in Danville were free, three of them were shoemakers with the last name Cowan; there was Reuben and his two sons, Edward and Stephen Cowan, and Timothy Masterson, Sr. When the next census was taken in 1880, the Cowan shoemakers were not among those counted in Danville; Reuben and Stephen Cowan had moved to Louisville, KY, along with shoemaker Allen Cowan who may have been a relative or he may have only carried the same last name. Allen Cowan was not in the business very long in Louisville, he died of consumption in the fall of 1880. Sometime after the year 1880, Timothy Masterson, Sr. would also take his shoemaking business to Louisville. By 1910, there were few African American shoemakers left in Danville, KY, and among them were Addison C. Jenkins and his father Joshua Jenkins, and Simeon Thomas. Of note is Joshua Jenkins who made a living making and repairing shoes in Danville, KY longer than any other African American. Just prior to Joshua Jenkins death in 1931, African American Charles Scott was also a shoemaker in Danville. By 1945, Silas T. Vivion was the sole African American shoe repairer noted in the business section of the Danville city directory. Below are the names of African American shoemakers and shoe repairers in Danville, KY, from 1860-1945.

 

NAME BUSINESS LOCATION YEAR SOURCES NOTES
John Baughman (b.1849) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Samuel W. Brumfield (b.1827) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Anthoney Burnside (b.1830) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Alex Burton (b.1832) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
William Caldwell (b.1830) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Roy L. Calhoun (1902-1950) Cleaner Shoe Shop - Danville 1920 U.S. Census Died in Lexington, KY. Kentucky Death Certificate State File No. 50 396 116, Registrar's No.39
Allen Cowan (1844-1880) Shoemaker From Danville, KY. Lived in Louisville - 7th Street 1875 pp.167 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1875 Family listed in 1860 U.S. Census as free and living in Danville, KY. Birth year estimated as 1844.
Allen Cowan (1844-1880) Shoemaker From Danville, KY. Lived in Louisville -243 54th Street 1876 p.169 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1876  
Allen Cowan (1844-1880) Shoemaker From Danville, KY. Lived in Louisville - 33 Center Street 1877 p.159 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1877  
Allen Cowan (1844-1880) Boot and Shoemaker From Danville, KY. Lived in Louisville - 33 Center Street 1878 p.175 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1878  
Allen Cowan (1844-1880) Shoemaker From Danville, KY. Lived in Louisville, KY - 33 Center Street 1880 Kentucky Death Records Died of consumption in Louisville, September 9, 1880. Birth year estimated as 1853 on his Kentucky Death Record.
Edward Cowan (b.1844) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1870 U.S. Census Son of Reuben and Harriet Cowan. Family listed in the 1850 U.S. Census as free.
Rueben Cowan (b.1820) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1860 U.S. Census Family listed in the 1860 U.S. Census as free. Father of Edward and Stephen Cowan.
Reuben Cowan (b.1820) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1870 U.S. Census  
Reuben Cowan (b.1820) Shoemaker Moved to Louisville, KY
143 5th Street
1875 p.167 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1875  
Reuben Cowan (b.1820) Shoemaker Still lived in Louisville, KY
342 1/2 Walnut Street
1876 p.169 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1876  
Reuben Cowan (b.1820) Shoe Cobbler Danville, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Stephen Cowan (b.1849) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1870 U.S. Census Son of Reuben and Harriet Cowan. Family listed in the 1850 U.S. Census as free.
Stephen Cowan (b.1849) Shoemaker Moved to Louisville, KY
33 Center Street
1873 p.155 in Caron's Annual Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1873  
Stephen Cowan (b.1849) Shoemaker Worked with Allen Cowan Shoemaker in Louisville at 243 5th Street 1876 p.169 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville, for 1876  
Anderson Gutherie (b.1820) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1880 U.S. Census Born in Missouri.
Addison Cheek Jenkins (1887-1965) Cobbler Joshua Jenkins Shoe Shop
118 West Walnut Street
1910 U.S. Census Son of Joshua Jenkins and Fannie Knox. Left Danville for a few years and lived in Indianapolis, IN [source: WWI Draft Registration Card].
Find A Grave
Joshua Jenkins (1855-1934) Shoemaker Danville, KY 1900 U.S. Census Kentucky Death Certificate File No.24169, Registered No.139
Joshua Jenkins (1855-1934) Cobbler Owns Shop-Danville 1910 U.S. Census  
Joshua Jenkins (1855-1934) Shoemaker Owns Shop-Danville 1920 U.S. Census  
Joshua Jenkins (1855-1934) Shoemaker Owns Shop-Danville 1930 U.S. Census  
Joshua Jenkins (1855-1934) Shoe Repairer Owns Shop-118 West Walnut 1931 p.215 in Polk's Danville (Kentucky) City Directory 1931-32  
Henry Mack (b.1833) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Timothy Masterson, Sr. (1827-1910) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1870 U.S. Census Died in Louisville, KY.
Find A Grave
Timothy Masterson, Sr. (1827-1910) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Timothy Masterson, Sr. (1827-1910) Shoemaker Louisville, KY 1884 p.512 in Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville for 1884 Timothy Masterson, Sr. moved to Louisville and continued to make shoes until about 1888 when he is listed as a laborer on p.639 of Caron's Directory of the City of Louisville for 1888.
Charles Scott (b.1913) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1930 U.S. Census  
Simeon Thomas (1842-1922) Shoemaker Boyle County, KY 1910 U.S. Census Kentucky Death Certificate File No.195
Find A Grave
Silas T. Vivion Shoe Repairer McGurk's Shoe Shop
114 S. 3rd Street
1945 p.107 in Polk's Danville (Boyle County, Kentucky) City Directory 1945  

Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Danville, Boyle County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers, Repairers, Shiners - Ashland, KY [Nettie May Higgins Franklin]
Birth Year : 1908
Death Year : 1960
Below are the names and locations of African American-owned shoe businesses in Ashland, KY. Three of the owners were members of the Franklin family. Nettie Franklin is the only woman listed as an owner. It was very rare for there to be a woman in the shoemaking and shoe care business in Kentucky. Nettie Franklin was in business for about 10 years, then in 1933 she was doing domestic work, and she was working as a janitor when she died in 1939 [sources: p.139 in Polk's Ashland (Boyd County, KY.) City Directory, 1933; and Kentucky Certificate of Death File No.196, Registered No.30]. She ran the shoe shop from 1924 to about 1933. During this time, Nettie Franklin was a widow with a son named William W. Franklin and the shoe business was their livelihood. She had kept the business going since her husband's death in 1924. The shop was located on 29th Street and Nettie and her son lived at 309 Greenup Street [source: p.539 & p.266 in Miller's Official Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1930-31, Advertiser's Special Directory]. Nettie had been the wife of Edward Franklin. The couple lost a son shortly after he was born in 1915 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death File No.29279, Registered No.153]. In 1920 the couple was employed by a private family where Edward was a butler and Nettie was a maid [source: 1920 U.S. Census]. Their son William W. was born around 1921. In 1922, Edward Franklin was owner of the Electric Shoe Shop on 29th Street, and at that same address, Fred Alfred ran the shoe shine parlor [source: p.144 & p.309 in Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1922-1923]. Edward Franklin had run a pool parlor in 1908. He was the son of Richard and Amanda Cockrell Franklin [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death File No.829, Registered No.108]. The father, Richard Franklin, had been a shoemaker and repaired shoes since the 1800s. Both he and Nettie Franklin had shoe shops on 22nd Street in 1930. Nettie May Higgins Franklin was the daughter of Serenia Lindon and Alex Higgins, the family was from Wolfe County, KY [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death File No.196, Registered No.30]. Another shoe business in Ashland was the Keeton Shoe Shop, the longest owned African American shoe repair shop in Boyd County, having opened around 1908 with Harry T. Keeton as the proprietor up to about 1947. James Keeton and Aaron Keeton were employed in the shoe shop and both were there in the 1960s. The Keeton Shoe Shop was open for more than 50 years.  

 

*There were two women named Nettie Franklin in Ashland, KY in the 1930s and both had a son named William, one of the women was African American and she is the one being referred to in this entry.    

 

**Edward Franklin and William Edgar Franklin were brothers. Their names are continuously mixed up in the census records and in the Ashland city directories.      

 

***Starting around 1933, the Ashland city directories no longer indicated the race of individuals or businesses.         

  

NAME BUSINESS LOCATION YEAR SOURCES NOTES
Fred Alfred (b.1889) Shoemaker Ashland 1920 U.S. Census  
Fred Alfred (b.1889) Shoe Shine Parlor 309 29th Street 1922 p.309 in Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1922-1923  
Cut Rate Shoe Repairing Shoemaker & Repairer 309 E. Greenup Avenue 1922 p.309 in Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1922-1923  
Electric Shoe Shop [Edward Franklin (1886-1924)] Shoemaker & Repairer 309 29th Street 1922 p.309 in Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1922-1923 Find A Grave
George G. Banks (b.1887) Shoe Shining Parlor 119 Fifteenth Street 1908 p.259 in The Marion Directory Company's Directory of Ashland and Boyd County Gazetteer for the year 1908-1909  
Thomas R. Foley (1872-1924) Shoemaker Ashland 1920 U.S. Census  
Thomas R. Foley (1872-1924) Keeton Shoe Shop Ashland 1922 p.143 Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1922-1923; Kentucky Death Certificate File #5346, Registered #65 Find A Grave
Nettie Franklin (1893-1939) Shoemaker & Repairer 315 29th Street 1930 p.539 in Miller's Official Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1930-31, Advertiser's Special Directory Find A Grave
Richard Franklin (1858-1933) Shoemaker & Repairer 311 22nd Street 1915 p.363 in Ashland-Catlettsburg, Ky City Directory, 1915 Find A Grave
Richard Franklin (1858-1933) Shoemaker & Repairer 323 22nd Street 1930 p.539 in Miller's Official Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1930-31, Advertiser's Special Directory  
Willie Jones (b.1888) Shoe Shiner Ashland 1920 U.S. Census  
Aaron W. Keeton (1902-1967) Shoemaker Ashland 1930 U.S. Census  
Aaron W. Keeton (1902-1967) Harry T. Keeton Shoe Repair Shop 140 16th Street 1933 p.193 Polk's Ashland City Directory, 1933  
Aaron W. Keeton (1902-1967) Keeton Shoe Shop Ashland 1960 p.206 in Polk's Ashland (Boyd County, Ky.) City Directory, 1960; Kentucky Death Index Find A Grave
Harry T. Keeton (1880-1973) Shoe Shop 316 13th Street 1908 p.260 in The Marion Directory Company's Directory of Ashland and Boyd County Gazetteer for the year 1908-1909 Find A Grave
Harry T. Keeton (1880-1973) Shoemaker & Repairer 224 W. Winchester Avenue 1917 p.352 in Ashland-Catlettsburg, Ky City Directory, 1917-18  
Harry T. Keeton (1880-1973) Shoemaker & Repairer 112 26th Street (Cattletsburg) 1922 p.309 in Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1922-1923  
Keeton's Shoe Shop Shoemaker & Repairer 116 16th Street 1922 p.309 in Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1922-1923  
James Ethaniel Keeton, Sr. (1909-1982) Harry T. Keeton Shoe Repair Shop 140 16th Street 1930 p.311 in Miller's Ashland, Kentucky City Directory, 1930-31 Find A Grave
James E. Keeton, Sr. (1909-1982) Keeton Shoe Shop Ashland 1960 p.206 in Polk's Ashland (Boyd County, Ky.) City Directory, 1960  
William Pippin (b.1909) Shoe Shiner Ashland 1930 U.S. Census  
Charles J. Smith, Jr. (b.1880) Keeton Shoe Shop Greenup Avenue 1917 p.249 in Ashland-Catlettsburg, Ky. City Directory, 1917-18  
Charles J. Smith, Jr. (b.1880) Shoemaker Ashland 1920 U.S. Census  
French Smith (b.1884) Shoe Shiner Cattletsburg 1920 U.S. Census  
John Smith (b.1892) Shoemaker Ashland 1930 U.S. Census  
Alexander S. Walker Shoe Shop Winchester Avenue 1908 p.260 in The Marion Directory Company's Directory of Ashland and Boyd County Gazetteer for the year 1908-1909  

Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Ashland, Boyd County, Kentucky / Wolfe County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers, Repairers, Shiners - Bowling Green, KY [John T. and Mattie Porter]
Start Year : 1908
End Year : 1941
Below are the names and locations of African American-owned shoe businesses in Bowling Green, KY, between 1908 and1941. Also included in the table are the names of earlier shoemakers and a shoe shiner. One of the business owners was John T. Porter who had a shoe shop on Main Street in Bowling Green from about 1908 until his death in 1934. His name continued to be listed in the city directory business section until at least 1937 [source: p.434 in Caron's Bowling Green (Kentucky) City Directory for the Years 1937-1938]. Though John T. Porter had died, his wife Mattie took over the shoe repair business and kept John's name on the business. Mattie Porter was one of the very few women to own a shoemaking and repair business in Kentucky. The J. T. and Mattie Porter shoe business lasted longer than most other African American-owned shoemaking and repair businesses in Bowling Green and in Kentucky. By 1941, the business name in the city directory had been changed to Mattie Porter. Six years later, the business was no longer listed in the city directory [source: pp.439-440 in Caron's Bowling Green (Warren County, KY) City Directory, 1947].     

 

*Around 1934, the race of a person or business was no longer indicated in the Bowling Green, KY, city directories.      

 

NAME BUSINESS LOCATION YEAR SOURCES NOTES
Isaac Badgett (b.1843) Works in shoe shop Bowling Green 1880 U.S. Census  
Henry H. Bothis Shoemaker Bowling Green 1908 p.76 in Bowling Green, KY. City Directory, 1908 v.1  
Charles Burrell (b.1839) Shoemaker Bowling Green 1880 U.S. Census  
Thornton Cole (b.1823) Shoemaker Hadley, Warren County 1880 U.S. Census  
Henry Davidson (b.1902) Shoe Shining Shop Bowling Green 1930 U.S. Census  
Frank Grider (1878-1932) Shoemaker Bloomfield 1908 p.105 in Bowling Green, KY. City Directory, 1908 v.1 Find A Grave
Zach Grider (1863-1912) Shoemaker 1 Morris Row 1908 p.105 in Bowling Green, KY. City Directory, 1908 v.1 Find A Grave
William Mack (b.1913) Shoe Shiner Bowling Green 1930 U.S. Census  
John T. Porter (1873-1934)   Shoemaker 129 Main Street 1908 p.105 in Bowling Green, KY. City Directory, 1908 v.1 Find A Grave
John T. Porter (1873-1934) Shoe Rebuilder 131 E. Main Street 1927 p.234 in Baldwin Brother's Bowling Green, Kentucky City Directory, 1927  
John T. Porter (1873-1934)    Shoe Repairer 131 E. Main Street 1934 p.405 in Caron's Bowling Green, Ky. City Directory for 1934-1935  
Mattie Porter (1891-1973) John T. Porter Shoe Repair    131 E. Main Street 1937 p.434 in Caron's Bowling Green (Kentucky) City Directory for the Years 1937-1938   Find A Grave
Mattie Porter (1891-1973) Mattie Porter Shoe Repair 131 E. Main Street 1941 p.474 in Caron's Bowling Green (Kentucky) City Directory for the Years 1941-1942     
John Smith (b.1870) Shoemaker 324 8th Street 1908 p.105 in Bowling Green, KY. City Directory, 1908 v.1  
John Smith (b.1870) shoemaker

moved to Lexington, KY / 562 Thomas Street   

1920 U.S Census / p.554 in Polk's Lexington (Fayette County, KY.) City Directory 1939  
Ural Stall (b.1900) Shoe Shiner

Bowling Green barber shop

1920 U.S. Census  

 

 
Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers, Repairers, Shiners - Frankfort, KY [B. F. Spencer] [B. F. Sayre]
Birth Year : 1880
Death Year : 1952
Frankfort, KY, had two shoe care business owners of note from the late 1880s to the mid-1900s. The first was probably one of the longest African American-owned shoemaking and repair shops in Frankfort and in the state of Kentucky, it was started by Benjamin Franklin Spencer, Sr. He was a native of Kentucky, born around 1854, the son of Caroline and Frank Spencer. He is often referred to as B. F. Spencer, Sr. in written sources. Spencer is first listed as a shoemaker in the 1880 Census, though he was not the only one at that time (see table below). According to the 1900 Census, B. F. Spencer, Sr. owned his own business, was married to Sue Thompson Spencer, and the couple had at least six children. In 1910, he was the only African American shoemaker and repairer listed in the business section of Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort for 1910-11-12, p303. Spencer's shop was located at 102 W. Broadway. Also in 1910, the city's second longest African American-owned shoemaking and repairer business was in operation, the owner was Benjamin F. Sayre, Jr. [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census]. Benjamin F. Sayre was listed as a shoemaker and repairer at 324 Ann Street on p.325 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort for 1912-13-14. Sayre, a native of Kentucky, was born around 1868 and he is listed as a mulatto in the 1910 Census. He was the son of Benjamin F. Sr. and Maria Sayre [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death File No.12150, Registrar's No.109]. His wife was Julia Hockersmith Sayre and the couple lived on Main Street in Frankfort. Their shoe shop is listed in the 1924 city directory along with B. F. Spencer, and Henry Clelland. Sayre's shop was located at 316 Elks Place; Benjamin F. Spencer and Son, the new business name since 1921, was located at 104 W. Broadway; and Henry Clelland did business on Versailles Pike [source: p.321 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1924-1925-1926]. The sons, Benjamin F. Spencer Jr. and Louis H. Spencer, were in business with their father B. F. Spencer Sr. when Louis died in 1925 [source: Find A Grave]. Benjamin F. Spencer, Jr. became a porter at the state capitol, and his son Bennie E. Spencer, became an apprentice in the shoe shop with B. F. Spencer, Sr. [source: 1930 U.S. Census]. In 1928, Henry Clelland was no longer listed as a shoe repairer, he was a stonemason [1930 U.S. Census]. With Clelland's exit from the shoe business, B. F. Sayre and B. F. Spencer, Sr. remained and were joined by African American shoe shiner Anthony Haynes whose business was on Main Street in Frankfort [source: p.322 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1928-1929-1930]. All three businesses were listed in the 1932 city directory, but not the men's race; race was not indicated for persons or businesses in this particular directory [source: p.332 in Caron's Frankfort, KY. City Directory for 1932-1933]. In 1934, Benjamin F. Spencer, Sr. died [source: FamilySearch], his wife Sue had died in 1931 [source: Find A Grave]. Benjamin F. Spencer's name remained with the shoe business and his son Benjamin F. Spencer, Jr. became the new owner. A few years later, B. F. Spencer, Jr.'s son, Bennie E. Spencer, left the shoe business and left Kentucky between 1936 and 1940; he and his wife and son moved to Detroit, MI [source: 1940 U.S. Census] Also around 1936, Anthony Haynes had given up his shoe shine business in Frankfort and moved to Cleveland, OH, where he worked as an elevator operator in department stores [source: Ohio Death Index]. Meanwhile, back in Kentucky, by 1940 there were several African American shoe shiners in Frankfort, KY, according to the U.S. Census (see table below); however, these men were not listed in the business section of the city directory. In 1942, the Frankfort city directory noted race again, and B. F. Sayre, B. F. Spencer, Jr. and son, and William H. Clelland were the three African American men noted as being in the shoe repair business [source: p.317 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1942]. Bennie E. Spencer and his family had returned to Kentucky by 1942, and Bennie was in the shoe business with his father Benjamin F. Spencer, Jr. [source: p.202 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1942]. William H. Clelland was a new listing, he was the son of former shoe repairer Henry Clelland [source: 1910 U.S. Census]. William Clelland's business was located on Versailles Pike, the same location as his father's business in 1924. Notations were not always consistent in the city directory; in 1942, Benjamin F. Sayre's business was not noted with the letter "c" for colored. His shop had moved to 216 Lewis Street which was mistakenly printed as "316 Lewis" in the city directory. Three years later, the African American business owners were Benjamin F. Spencer, Jr., William H. Clelland, and the Benjamin F. Sayre Estate [source: p.278 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1945-46]. Benjamin F. Sayre had died in 1945 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death File No.12150, Registrar's No.109]. In 1948, once again, race was not indicated for individuals or businesses. The Benjamin F. Spencer and Son shoe repair business was still in place at 104 W. Broadway; the William H. Clelland shoe repair business was still on Versailles Pike; and the Benjamin F. Sayre business was owned and managed by his son Junius H. Sayre at 216 Lewis Street [source: p.25 in Polk's Frankfort Classified Business Directory, 1948-49 that is within Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1948-49]. Benjamin F. Spencer, Jr. died in 1950 and his son Bennie continued to manage the shoe store [source: p.210 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1951-52]. The competitor, Junius H. Sayre, was in ill health and he was not able to maintain his business but a few years befoe closing the doors; he died April 8, 1953 [source: Kentucky Certificate of Death File No.116-53 7342, Registrar's No.75]. The Benjamin F. Sayre shoe business had been in operation for about 40 years, 1910-1950. By 1952, the only African American-owned shoe business listed in the business section of the city directory was Benjamin F. Spencer and Son [p.368 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1951-52], managed by Bennie E. Spencer who died in 1952 [source: FamilySearch]. It was the end of era. Benjamin F. Spencer, Sr. had started making shoes as early as 1880 and the family had kept the shoe business on W. Broadway open for about 42 years, 1910-1952. No African American-owned shoe business was noted in the city directory after 1952.    

 

*This entry does not include the names of shoemakers in the Kentucky State Penitentiary between 1890-1920.  

 

  See photo image of Sue and Benjamin F. Spencer Sr. Part of Spencer Family Papers at UK Special Collections Research Center.     

 

  See photo image of Benjamin F. Spencere, Jr. Part of Spencer Family Papers at UK Special Collections Research Center.     

 

  See photo image of Bennie Edgar Spencer. Part of Spencer Family Papers at UK Special Collections Research Center.    

 

NAME BUSINESS LOCATION YEAR SOURCES NOTES
Ewing Atkins Shoe Shiner Anthony S. Haynes Shop 1928 p.47 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1928-1929-1930  
William Burk (b.1905) Shoe Shiner Frankfort 1940 U.S. Census  
William Burley (b.1907) Shoe Shiner Frankfort 1940 U.S. Census  
Harding Clay (b.1921) Shoe Shiner Frankfort 1940 U.S. Census  
Baker Clark (b.1828) Shoemaker Wilkerson Street 1880 U.S. Census  
Henry Clelland (1880-1963) Shoe Repairer Versailles Pike 1917 p.326 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1917-1918-1919 Find A Grave
William H. Clelland (1908-2002) Shoe Repairer Versailles Pike 1942 p.317 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1942 Find A Grave
Harrison Coleman (1906-1953) Shoe Shiner 117 Logan Street 1924 p.73 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1924-1925-1926 Find A Grave
James Franklin (b.1862) Shoemaker Kentucky Penitentiary 1880 U.S. Census  
Augusta Garrett (1905-1962) Shoe Shiner Capitol Shoe Shine Parlor 1921 p.100 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1921-1922-1923 Find A Grave
Robert E. Grant (1910-1941) Shoe Shiner Capitol Shoe Shine Parlor 1928 p.111 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1928-1929-1930  
Robert E. Grant (1910-1941) Shoe Shiner Frankfort 1940 U.S. Census / Kentucky Death Certificate, State File #26162, Registrar's #941 Find A Grave
Anthony S. Haynes (1904-1994) Shoe Shiner 221 Murray Street 1928 p.122 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1928-1929-1930 FamilySearch
James Miller (b.1908) Shoe Shiner Frankfort 1940 U.S. Census  
Charles T. Morton (1891-1967) Shoemaker B. F. Sayer Jr. Shop 1921 p.166 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1921-1922-1923 Find A Grave
Henry Rodman (b.1851) Shoemaker Clinton Street 1880 U.S. Census  
William Saunders Jr. (b.1901) Shoe Shiner Capitol Shoe Shine Parlor 1921 p.197 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1921-1922-1923  
Benjamin F. Sayre, Jr. (1868-1945) Shoemaker and Repairer Frankfort, KY 1910 U.S. Census  

Benjamin F. Sayre, Jr. (1868-1945)

Shoemaker and Repairer 324 Ann Street 1912 p.325 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1912-13-14  
Benjamin F. Sayre Estate (1868-1945) Shoe Repairer 216 Lewis Street 1945 p.278 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1945-46 FamilySearch
Junius H. Sayre (1892-1953) Shoe Repairer 216 Lewis Street 1948 p.25 in Polk's Frankfort Classified Business Directory, 1948-49 FamilySearch
Harry H. Speaker II Shoe Repairer B. F. Spencer & Son Shop 1924 p.206 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1924-1925-1926  
Benjamin F. Spencer, Sr. (1854-1934) Shoemaker and Repairer Frankfort, KY 1880 U.S. Census  
Benjamin F. Spencer, Sr. (1854-1934) Shoemaker and Repairer 102 W. Broadway 1910 p.303 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1910-1911-1912  

Benjamin F. Spencer and Son

B. F. Spencer, Sr. (1854-1934)

B. F. Spencer, Jr. (1887-1950)

Louis  H. Spencer (1886-1925)

Shoemaker and Repairer 104 W. Broadway 1921 p.323 in Caron's Directory of the City of Frankfort, Ky. for 1921-1922-1923

L. H. Spencer-FamilySearch



B. F. Spencer, Sr.-FamilySearch

Benjamin F. Spencer and Son

Benjamin F. Spencer, Jr. (1887-1950)

Bennie E. Spencer (1914-1952)

Shoe Repairer 104 W. Broadway 1942

p.202 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1942



1940 Census

B. F. Spencer Jr.-FamilySearch 

Benjamin F. Spencer and Son

Bennie E. Spencer (1914-1952)

Shoe Repairer 104 W. Broadway 1952

p.368 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1951-52

B. E. Spencer-FamilySearch

John Stanley (b.1840)

Shoemaker Kentucky Penitentiary 1880 U.S. Census  

Underwood Taylor (1901-1967)

Shoemaker Frankfort 1920 U.S. Census Find A Grave

Underwood Taylor (1901-1967)

Shoemaker Frankfort 1942 p.209 in Polk's Frankfort (Franklin County, KY.) City Directory, 1942  

Henry Thompson (b.1848)

Shoemaker Kentucky Penitentiary 1880 U.S. Census  

Chandler Wood (b.1851)

Shoemaker Kentucky Penitentiary  1880 U.S. Census  

 

* See also NKAA entry African American Shoemakers in Kentucky Prisons (A Leading U.S. Industry)

 
Subjects: Businesses, Migration North, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers, Repairers, Shiners - Hopkinsville, KY
Start Year : 1880
End Year : 1930
In Christian County, KY, the few African American shoemakers were located in Hopkinsville between 1870 and 1930. Though, one of the earliest of the recently freed men to make shoes was Jessie Hart in Garretsburg around 1880. There were never more than five of the shoemakers at any one time, and around WWI, the African American shoemaking businesses began the transition to shoe repair and shoe shining. By the early 1920s, most of the African American men in Christian County who were in the shoe care business were shoe shiners. There was a combination of employment styles, some men worked for themselves, while some worked in parlors that catered to whites, and others worked under the business name of African American proprietors such as Brasher & Shipp, Ned Bronaugh, and Shelby Carlisle. One of the unique things in Christian County, was the come and go nature of shoe shine employees who were African American. A man would be listed in the city directory as a shoe shiner one year and the previous or next years they were listed as porters, barbers, or tobacco workers. The shoe shine business was not a long term trade but more like a filler for when the men were between jobs. Also, it is not uncommon to see a man's name to be listed only one year in the city directory but not found at all in the census records for Christian County, as if the person may have visited for a brief spell before moving on from Christian County.  

 

NAME BUSINESS LOCATION YEAR SOURCES NOTES
Samuel Anderson Shoe Shiner w/Wm. Brasher 215 Brown Street 1926 p.43 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1926-1927  
Sargent L. Banks (1890-1961) Shoe Shiner 308 E. Twelfth Street 1924 p.48 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925 Find A Grave
William Sargent Banks (1906-1953) Shoe Shiner 308 E. Twelfth Street 1928 p.51 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929
; Kentucky Death Certificate File No.116-53-26585
 
Henry Bell (b.1886) Shoe Shiner w/Brasher & Shipp 918 E. Hayes 1924 p.51 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
Robert B. Bibbs (1904-1943) Shoe Shiner 111 S. Campbell 1922 p.52 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1922-1923; Kentucky Death Certificate File No.5447, Registrar's No.200  
Herman Black (b.1886) Shoe Shiner w/Brasher & Shipp 113 E. Sixth Street 1922 p.52 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1922-1923  
William Bowles (b.1883) Shoemaker & Repairer 625 Vine Street 1916 p.432 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1916-1917-1918  
William Brasher (b.1885) Shoe Shiner Hopkinsville 1920 U.S. Census  
William Brasher (b.1885) Shoe Shiner 121 1/2 E. Ninth Street 1928 p.67 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929   
Brasher & Shipp Shoe Shining Parlor 125 E. Seventh Street 1922 p.395 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1922-1923  
Ned Bronaugh (1874-1946) Shoe Shining Parlor 118 1/2 E. Ninth Street 1922 p.395 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1922-1923; Kentucky Death Certificate File No.23310, Registrar's No.642  
Ned Bronaugh (1874-1946) Shoe Shiner 118 1/2 E. Ninth Street 1926 p.327 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1926-1927  
John Buckner Shoe Shiner w/Lucinda Barber Shop 413 E. First Street 1924 p.68 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
Reginald Buckner (b.1906) Shoe Shiner w/Lucinda Barber Shop 218 E. Tenth Street 1924 p.69 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
James E. Caldwell Shoe Shiner w/Wm. Brasher 143 S. Vine Street 1930 p.69 in Caron's Hopkinsville, Ky. City Directory for 1930-1931  
Shelby Carlisle (d.1935-1940) Shoe Shiner 118 1/2 E. Ninth Street 1928 p.417 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929  
Shelby Carlisle (d.1935-1940) Shoe Shiner 118 1/2 E. Ninth Street 1935 p.357 in Caron's Hopkinsville, Ky. City Directory for 1935-1936  
Isaac Clark (1892-1982) Shoe Shiner w/Wm. Brasher  100 Liberty Street 1928 p.91 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929 Find A Grave
George Cole (b.1894) Shoe Shiner w/Brasher & Shipp Hopkinsville 1924 p.86 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
George Cole (b.1894) Shoe Shiner w/Wm. Brasher 215 Brown Street 1928 p.93 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929  
John M. Cole (1871-1944) Boot Black Shoe Shine Parlor 1920 U.S. Census; Kentucky Death Certificate File No.21794, Registrar's No.578  
John M. Cole (1871-1944) Shoe Shiner w/ Brasher & Shipp 119 W. Third Street 1922 p.86 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1922-1923  
John M. Cole (1871-1944) Shoe Shiner w/Fuller & McGehee Hopkinsville 1924 p.86 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
Ernest L. Cornette (b.1883) Shoe Shiner w/N. Bronaugh 118 1/2 E. Ninth Street 1922 p.89 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1922-1923  
Ernest L. Cornette (b.1883) Shoe Shiner 1212 Sharpe Street 1924 p.90 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
John W. Cox Shoe Shiner w/Royal Tailor, Cleaners & Dyers 112 W. Seventh Street 1924 p.91 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
George Croney (b.1894) Shoe Shiner w/Wm. Brasher 1210 Sharpe Street 1930 p.89 in Caron's Hopkinsville, Ky. City Directory for 1930-1931  
Jewel J. Dulin (b.1908) Shoe Shiner w/Brasher & Shipp Hopkinsville 1926 p.100 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1926-1927  
Jewel J. Dulin (b.1908) Shoe Shiner w/Shelby Carlisle 117 W. Third Street 1928 p.112 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929  
Raymond France (b.1906) Shoe Shiner 1022 E. Second Street 1924 p.115 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
George Wesley Frazier (b.1874) Shoemaker & Repairer 20 E. Fifth Street 1910 p.324 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville for 1910-11-12  
George Wesley Frazier (b.1874) Shoe Repair Shop 207 N. Virginia Street 1912 p.394 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville for 1912-13-14  
Samuel A. Freeman Shoe Shiner w/Royal Tailor, Cleaners & Dyers 729 Barrow Street 1924 p.116 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
Robert Griggs Shoe Shiner 125 E. Seventh Street 1928 p.142 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929  
Griggs & Herrell Shoe Shiners 125 E. Seventh Street 1928 p.417 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929  
John Hargraves Shoe Shiner w/Shelby Carlisle 905 Younglove Street 1930 p.131 in Caron's Hopkinsville, Ky. City Directory for 1930-1931  
Jessie Hart (b.1855) Shoe Cobbler Garretsburg 1880 U.S. Census  
James Harvey (b.1922) Shoe Shiner Hopkinsville 1940 U.S. Census  
James Herrell Shoe Shiner 125 E. Seventh Street 1928 p.142 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929  
Jewel Jackson Shoe Shiner w/Brasher & Shipp 1907 Hopper Court 1924 p.155 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
William Leverett (1907-1967) Shoe Shiner w/Cansler, Jenkins, & McGehee 204 E. First Street 1926 p.171 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1926-1927 Find A Grave
George McElwain (b.1895) Shoe Presser w/Electric Shoe Shop 16 W. Fourth Street 1914 p.205 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1914-1915-1916  
Walter McReynolds (1911-1944) Shoe Shiner 713 E. First Street 1928 p.206 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929; Kentucky Death Certificate File No.644, Registrar's No.12  
Will Marawheather (b.1891)   Shoe Shiner Hopkinsville 1920 U.S. Census  
Otis W. Mimms (b.1896) Shoe Shiner 905 Hayes Street 1928 p.417 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1928-1929  
William Morsingle Shoemaker & Repairer 115 N. Virginia Street 1910 p.324 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville for 1910-11-12  
Linard Moss (b.1866) Shoe Repairer Christian County 1930 U.S. Census  
Dennis S. Pool (1865-1932) Shoemaker Christian County 1900 U.S. Census; Kentucky Death Index Find A Grave
Dennis S. Pool (1865-1932) Boot Black w/J. S. Rice 214 E. First Street 1910 p.198 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville for 1910-11-12  
Dennis S. Pool (1865-1932) Shoe Shiner w/State Tonsorial Parlor Hopkinsville 1930 p.208 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1930-1931  
Theodore Robinson Shoe Shiner w/Fuller & McGehee 722 Hayes Street 1924 p.232 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
William A. Shipp Shoe Shiner 125 E. Seventh Street 1930 p.363 in Caron's Hopkinsville, Ky. City Directory for 1930-1931   
Cary S. Snordden (1864-1924) Shoemaker & Repairer 102 E. Sixth Street 1910 p.324 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville for 1910-11-12; Kentucky Death Certificate File No. 26809, Registered No.375  
Cary S. Snordden (1864-1924) Shoemaker & Repairer 102 1/2 E. Sixth Street 1916 p.432 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1916-1917-1918  
Cary S. Snordden (1864-1924) Shoemaker & Repairer 200 1/2 E. Sixth Street 1924 p.397 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
Frank Summers (b.1904) Shoe Shiner w/N. Bronaugh 318 Edmunds Street 1926 p.247 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1926-1927  
Stephen H. Summers (b.1906) Shoe Shiner w/Hotel Latham Barber Shop 512 E. Second Street 1924 p.252 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1924-1925  
James Tramel Shoe Shiner w/Brasher & Shipp 401 1/2 S. Virginia Street 1922 p.253 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1922-1923  
Arthur L. West Shoe Shiner w/Fuller's Barber Shop 914 E. Second Street 1926 p.271 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1926-1927  
Charles L. Williams  Shoemaker & Repairer 132 E. First Street 1916 p.310 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1916-1917-1918  
John Williams Shoe Shiner w/Wm. Brasher 404 S. Virginia 1930 p.266 in Caron's Hopkinsville, Ky. City Directory for 1930-1931  
Roy White Shoe Shiner w/Phoenix Shoe Shining Parlor 110 1/2 W. Seventh Street 1926 p.274 in Caron's Directory of the City of Hopkinsville, Ky. for 1926-1927  

   
Subjects: Businesses, Shoes: Finishers, Makers, Repairers, Shiners, Stores
Geographic Region: Hopkinsville, Christian County, Kentucky

African American Shoe Makers, Repairers, Shiners - Lexington, KY [John B. and Ella B. Thomas] [Rev. Titus Buckner]
Start Year : 1920
End Year : 1930
In Lexington, KY, there were hundreds of African American men in the shoemaking and shoe care business. The income they earned kept some in the business a short while, and for others the income sustained their businesses for decades. There were even a few who were in the business for half a century or more. This entry represents a selection of both African American men and women in Lexington, KY, who were in the shoemaking and shoe care business from 1920 to 1930. This was a period of time before retirement and social security benefits, and people started working early and kept working up to the time of their deaths. The individuals in the table below earned their livelihood in shoe occupations that offered services considered part of the standard cost of being well dressed. In 1920, there were at least 16 African American shoe shiners in Lexington, according to the U.S. Federal Census, and only one, Mitchell Garth was listed under the heading of "Shoe Shiners" in the business section of the 1921 city directory. After 1921, race (c) was not noted again in the business section of the directory until the 1928 issue was published. Mrs. Ella B. Thomas was the only African American woman listed and her name can be found under the heading of "Shoe Repairers." Born around 1869, Ella B. Thomas was the wife of John Thomas, the couple married in 1886 and had two children according to the 1900 U.S. Census. Beginning in 1900, Ella's occupation is listed as dressmaker, seamstress, or sewing in the census records, but in the city directories, beginning in 1916, she is listed as a shoemaker or a shoe repairer [source: p.55