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Yancey, Sadie Mae
Birth Year : 1907
Death Year : 1958
Sadie M. Yancey was the top honor student when she graduated from Kentucky State College in 1935 [now Kentucky State University]. She was the first graduate of the college department at Kentucky State College to earn a Ph.D. Yancey received her doctorate from Cornell University, September 1950; she had earned her master's degree in education from the University of Cincinnati in 1942. Yancey was an advocate for education: in 1940 she was a member of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association, serving on the Committee of Expenditures of Funds on Educational Inequalities [source: KNEA Journal vol. 10, no. 2, p. 8]. Yancey gave a presentation, "What Guidance Techniques I Am Using," at the Guidance Workers Conference during the 1942 KNEA Conference in Louisville, KY. In 1950, she was the dean of women and a psychology professor at Florida A&M and was later dean of women at Howard University in Washington, D.C. She was the first president and a founding member of the National Association of Personnel Workers (NAPW), founded in 1953. The association was a combined effort of the National Association of the Deans of Women and Advisers of Girls in Colored Schools and the National Association of the Deans of Men in Negro Educational Institutions. The NAPW was renamed the National Association of Student Affairs Professionals (NASAP), and the Sadie M. Yancey Professional Service Award was established as the second highest honor that a member of that organization can receive. Yancey was also vice president of the National Council of Negro Women. She was a member of Delta Sigma Theta, and chaired the Scholarship and Standards Committee. Sadie Yancey was born in Lexington, KY, the daughter of Minnie Jackson Yancey, a domestic, and Charles Yancey, a Lexington grocer who was from Canada [source: Sadie Yancey's Certificate of Birth]. The family lived at 120 South Upper Street in Lexington. Sadie Yancey was also the granddaughter of Belle Mitchell Jackson and Jordan C. Jackson, Jr. [source: 1910 U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Two Kentucky state graduates...," The Crisis, vol. 57, no. 11 (Dec. 1950), p. 736; "Professional Associations" in Student Services: a handbook for the profession, by S. R. Komives and D. Woodard; Sadie Yancey in The Historical Cookbook of the American Negro, by S. B. Thurman, et al.; under the heading "Died" see "Sadie M. Yancey, 51,...," Jet, Oct 16, 1958, p.43; and H. A. Davis and P. Bell-Scott, "Association of Deans of Women and Advisers to Girls in Negro Schools" in Black Women in America, vol. 1 A-L, edited by D. C. Hine, pp. 49-51; and In Search of Sisterhood: Delta Sigma Theta and the challenge of the Black sorority movement, by P. Giddings. See also Yancey's Ph.D. dissertation, A Study of Racial and Sectional Differences in the Ranking of Occupations By High School Boys, and her master's thesis, A Follow-up Study of Five Graduating Classes of the Paul Laurence Dunbar High School.

See photo image of Sadie M. Yancey at the Yancy Family Genealogy website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Fraternal Organizations, Women's Groups and Organizations, Higher Education Before Desegregation, Kentucky, National Council of Negro Women
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky / Florida / Washington, D. C.

Yarbrough-Jumoke, Nailah
Yarbrough-Jumoke is a writer, poet,  and activist. In 1999 she was the first African American candidate for governor of Kentucky. She ran on the Natural Law Party (NLP) ticket and received a little more than 1% of the vote. In 2000 she won the Preservation Award from the Louisville Historic League for developing the Harriet Tubman Cultural Center. For more see "Ex-candidate fosters culture," Lexington Herald-Leader, 02/18/200, p. B3.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Poets, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Community Centers and Cultural Centers
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Yokley, Raytha L.
Birth Year : 1910
Death Year : 2001
Yokley, born in East Bernstadt, KY, was the son of Edd and Emma Yokley. The family lived in Russellville, KY. Yokley, a recognized sociologist, was one of the first African American professors at Western Kentucky University. He was also a retired sociology professor from Kentucky State University, and had taught at Fisk University and Meharry Medical College. Yokley published a number of articles and papers and collaborated with others on books such as The Black Church in America. He was a veteran of the U.S. Air Force and was a member of Alpha Kappa Delta and the Masons. Yokley was a two time graduate of Indiana University, where he earned his M.A. in 1941 and his Ph.D. in 1952. His dissertation is titled The Development of Racial Concepts in Negro Children. Yokley was living in Buffalo, NY, prior to his death. For more see The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians, by A. A. Dunnigan; and "Raytha L. Yokley," Daily News, 07/07/2001, Obituaries section.
Subjects: Authors, Education and Educators, Migration North, Military & Veterans, Sociologists & Social Scientists, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: East Bernstadt, Laurel County, Kentucky / Bowling Green, Warren County, Kentucky / Russellville, Logan County, Kentucky / Buffalo, New York

York, a slave whom William Clark inherited from his father, was the first African American to cross North America. York came to Jefferson County, KY, with Clark to live on the family plantation, Mulberry Hill. In 1803 York accompanied Clark on the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1803-1806); he was known as Big Medicine to the Indians. A while after the expedition, York was freed; the date and place of his death is not known. For more see In Search of York by R. Betts; The Encyclopedia of Louisville, ed. by J. E. Kleber; and Buffalo Dance, the journey of York, by F. X. Walker.
Subjects: Explorers, Inheritance
Geographic Region: Jefferson County, Kentucky

Young, Ada Johnson and Samuel "Policy Sam"
Ada Johnson Young was born in Kentucky around 1886, she was the wife of Samuel Young who was also known in Chicago as "Policy Sam" and the "Father of Policy". Samuel Young was born around 1868 in Alabama, died in 1937 in Chicago, and was buried in Louisville, KY. He is remembered for bringing the illegal numbers game "Policy" to Chicago. According to the U.S. Federal Census, Ada and Samuel Young lived in Chicago on Dearborn Street in 1910; they were two of the four lodgers at the home of Henry Bates. Samuel's employment was given as bondsman. Ada was listed as a mulatto from Kentucky, and Samuel was listed as a black man from Tennessee [he had previously lived in TN]. The two other lodgers at Bates' home were Pearl and Robert Reed. Pearl, a hairdresser, was also from Kentucky. By 1920, Ada and Samuel Young had their own place on State Street and were the parents of two children. Samuel's occupation was still recorded as bondsman in the census. Ten years later, Samuel and the children were listed in the census as living with Ada's brother's family on Rhodes Avenue in Chicago; Ada's name was not included as a member of the household. Both Samuel Young and his brother-in-law, Albert Johnson, were said to be employed as bondsmen of appearance bonds. [Appearance bonds are posted for the release of a defendant or a witness who is in legal custody. The bond, which can be cash, propety, or collateral, is posted to secure the individual's required appearance in court.] For more see "The Last of the Policy Kings: game unnoticed in 1915 becomes richest racket," Chicago Defender, 08/23/1952, p.1; "Policy Sam Young rites held Friday," Chicago Defender, 05/29/1937, p.5; "Policy Sam shot in card game holdup," Chicago Defender, 12/22/1928; and see NKAA entry Negro Gig.
Subjects: Migration North, Gambling, Lottery
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky / Chicago, Illinois

Young, Aurelia J. Norris
Birth Year : 1915
Death Year : 2010
Aurelia Young was a musician, composer, performer, writer, and educator. She was formerly a music professor at Jackson State College [now Jackson State University]. She was a member of Delta Sigma Theta Sorority and an original charter member of the Jackson (MS) Alumnae Chapter; Young served as the first president of the chapter 1941-1943. In 2008, she attended the chapter's "Legacy of Leadership" program. Aurelia Norris was born in Knottsville, KY, the daughter of John H., a farmer, and Hilda A. Stone Norris [sources: Kentucky Birth Index and the 1920 U.S. Federal Census]. By 1930, the family of five had moved to New London, OH, where John H. Norris was employed as a mechanic. Aurelia studied piano and violin and was a top graduate of her high school class. She was a 1937 graduate of Wilberforce University, where she studied music theory, organ, and French horn. She moved to Mississippi intending to teach for one year then leave, but she stayed after she married Jack Harvey Young, Sr. in 1938. Jack Young (1908-1976) would become a distinguished civil rights lawyer in Mississippi. Aurelia Young described her role in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement as a supporter of her husband's efforts. In 1955, Aurelia Young earned her Master of Music degree at Indiana University then continued her studies in Europe and Africa. She held the copyright [PAu002421668] to a trilogy created in 1995 entitled Trilogy. Aurelia Young died in Los Angeles, California on October 17, 2010 [source: Social Security Death Index]. For more see the Aurelia Norris Young entry in Accomplishments of Mississippi Women, funded by the National Commission on the Observance of International Women's Year; Mississippi Black History Makers, by G. A. Sewell and M. L. Dwight; P. Jenkins, "PTA hears panelist: accept me as human," Delta Democrat-Times, 10/14/1970, p. 10; Mississippi, America [videorecording] by J. McCray; and J. Irons, "The Shaping of activist recruitment and participation: a study of women in the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement," Gender and Society, vol. 12, issue 6, Special Issue: Gender and Social Movements, Part 1, (Dec. 1998), pp. 692-709.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Education and Educators, Migration North, Musicians, Opera, Singers, Song Writers, Migration South, Women's Groups and Organizations
Geographic Region: Knottsville, Daviess County, Kentucky / Jackson, Mississippi / Los Angeles, California

Young, Betty
Death Year : 1833
The free black population in Kentucky was, prior to the Civil War, a small percentage of the total number of African Americans living in the state. Their legal status was often challenged, their personal freedoms and civil rights tenuous. Their accomplishments are all the more notable because so many factors worked against them. Betty Young was a free black woman who lived in Lexington in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. She and her husband, Thomas Young, had been slaves belonging to Nathaniel Wilson, but Thomas purchased his own and his wife's freedom sometime prior to 1806. Dr. Basil Duke, then a practicing physician in Lexington, administered the estate of Nathaniel Wilson and filed the manumissions. In 1826, Nathaniel Wilson's widow, Margaret, took oath that the Youngs had been free for many years and had paid her husband for their freedom in full. The proof of their freedom was formally recorded with the Fayette County Court in 1828 and was prompted by Betty Young's purchase of her son Jim's freedom from the estate of John Springle; Betty formally emancipated her son later that year. Betty Young was listed as the head of her household in Lexington in the 1810 and the 1820 censuses; her husband had probably died by 1810 since he was not listed as head of household. She was one of only 208 free African American citizens in Fayette County in 1810 (compared to 7,664 slaves in the county in the same year). The free African American population in Fayette County increased to only 248 persons by 1820; Betty Young was one of them. Betty managed to buy a house on High Street in 1829, a time when it was rare for free people of color to own property. Beside her son Jim, Betty Young had a daughter, Margaret Bogus, who may have lived with her. Margaret's freedom was not formally recorded until 1833, but the manumission record indicated that her mother had purchased her daughter's freedom at an earlier date. Betty Young succumbed to cholera in the summer of 1833; she was described as “Betty Young, free” in the list of cholera deaths published in the Kentucky Gazette on June 23. Betty Young's efforts to free her children meant freedom from servitude for them and, freedom for any children that her daughter bore after she was emancipated, extending her gift of freedom into future generations. For more information, see Fayette County Deed Books, 5:421, 3:387, 3:388, and 4:258 [available at the Fayette County Clerk's Office]; Lexington city tax records; Kentucky Gazette, June 23, 1833; and U.S. Census returns (1810, 1820, and 1830) [available on microfilm at UK Special Collections].


This entry was researched, written and submitted by

Nancy O’Malley, Assistant Director
William S. Webb Museum of Anthropology and
Office of State Archaeology
1020A Export Street
University of Kentucky
Lexington, Kentucky 40506
Ph. 859-257-1944
FAX: 859-323-1968
Subjects: Freedom
Geographic Region: Lexington, Fayette County, Kentucky

Young, Billy
Birth Year : 1860
Death Year : 1913
Young may have been born in Kentucky, he grew up in Cincinnati. He and D. W. McCabe owned a minstrel company, one of the few owned by African Americans. The duo teamed up in the 1870s. They played to audiences around the country, including the southern states and even Cuba. Young was equally talented at singing, dancing, and comedy and tragedy, and he also wrote the script for a number of performances. In 1892, McCabe ditched the company in Mexico, took off with the money, and was not heard from again until 1894 as head of a new company. McCabe died in 1907. Young, who liked his rye and bourbon, continued to perform until 1913 when he developed lung problems and died a few months later. For more see Out of Sight: the Rise of African American Popular Music, 1889-1895, by L. Abbott and D. Seroff; and Father of the Blues, an autobiography, by W. C. Handy.
Subjects: Actors, Actresses, Minstrel and Vaudeville Performers
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Cincinnati, Ohio / Cuba / Mexico

Young, Charles D.
Birth Year : 1864
Death Year : 1922
Charles D. Young, born in Mayslick, KY, was the third African American graduate of West Point, the first African American military attaché to a foreign state, and the highest ranking African American officer at the beginning of World War I. He was a child when his parents, Gabriel and Arminta Young, former slaves, moved the family to Huntington, Ohio [source: 1870 U.S. Federal Census]. All family members were born in Kentucky. By 1880, the family lived in Ripley, OH. Both Gabriel and Charles Young were employed as draymen [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. Charles Young graduated from a white high school and taught at a colored school in Ripley [source: Arlington National Cemetery website]. He entered the military academy in 1883, and after graduation, served in the Army for 28 years. Charles Young, a soldier, and his mother are listed in the 1900 U.S. Federal Census, when they lived in Xenia, OH; his mother was a widow. Charles D. Young died on detail in Liberia, Africa, and is buried at Arlington National Cemetery, where he was eulogized by W.E.B. DuBois. He was the husband of Ada R. M. Young, with whom he had a son and a daughter; the family lived at Fort D. A. Russell in Laramie, Wyoming in 1910 [source: U.S. Federal Census]. For more see The Early Life of Colonel Charles Young: 1864-1889, by R. E. Greene; Charles D. Young in the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000, and the Lexington Herald-Leader, November 14, 2010, pp. B1 & B3.


See photo image of Charles D. Young at the Arlington National Cemetery website.
Subjects: Education and Educators, Liberia, Liberian Presidents & Diplomats, Migration North, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Mayslick, Mason County, Kentucky / West Point, New York / Huntington and Ripley, Ohio / Laramie, Wyoming / Liberia, Africa

Young, Coleman Milton, III
Birth Year : 1930
Dr. C. Milton Young, III was the first African American to enroll at the University of Louisville in 1950. He went on to earn his medical degree at Meharry Medical College, and was the first African American intern at Louisville General Hospital, 1961-62. In addition to having a private medical practice, Young was the founder and director of the Louisville Methadone Treatment Program, 1968-72. He was the editor of the journal Louisville Medicine, founded the Louisville Black Pages, and founded and edited the Black Scene Magazine. Young is a veteran of the U.S. Army and a member of Alpha Phi Alpha. He was born in Louisville, KY, the son of Hortense Houston Young and Colman Milton Young, Jr. For more see C. Milton Young, III, M.D. in Who's Who of Black Louisville, 3rd ed., p.169; and Who's Who Among African Americans, 1996-2009.
Subjects: Journalists, Newspapers, Magazines, Book Publishers, Music Publishers, Medical Field, Health Care, Military & Veterans, Fraternal Organizations
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Young, David
Birth Year : 1836
Death Year : 1907
David Young was a Louisiana Senator for the 15th district that covered the Concordia and Avoyelles Parishes. Young was born a slave in Kentucky on February 4,1836. When he was a boy, he escaped to Ohio but was captured in 1850 and sold to an owner in Natchez, Mississippi. He gained his freedom and moved to Concordia, LA, where he was a property owner and a community leader. He was a civil rights activist who fought for equal access to public establishments such as saloons and theaters, and he fought for equal access to public transportation such as steamships. David Young was elected a House Member of the Louisiana Legislature in 1868; his parish, Concorida, was 92.8% Black. He was re-elected in 1870 and 1872. In 1874, he was elected to the Senate. In 1877 he was indicted for the embezzlement of the school fund for his parish. The case was dismissed and it was the end of David Young's political career. David Young was self-educated and owned interest in the Republican Journal and the Concordia Eagle. After his political career, David Young became a minister in New Orleans and was head of the Zion Traveller's Baptist Church at Adam and Commercial Streets. He was vice president of the Colored Baptist Convention. He was the husband of Nancy Young [source: 1880 U.S. Federal Census]. For more see "Hon. David Young" in the column "State House Sketches," Weekly Louisianian, 02/20/1875, p.2; "Baptist Churches" in the column "Church Directory," Weekly Pelican, 12/25/1886, p.4; Black Legislators in Louisiana During Reconstruction by C. Vincent; Crucible of Reconstruction by T. Tunnell; and "The Rev. David Young," The New York Times, 04/21/1907, p.9.
Subjects: Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Ministers, Pastors, Preachers, Religion & Church Work, Migration South, Legislators (Outside Kentucky)
Geographic Region: Kentucky / Ohio / Natchez, Mississippi / Condordia, Avoyelles, and New Orleans, Louisiana

Young, Eddie L.
Birth Year : 1923
Born in the coal camps of Jenkins, KY, Young is the father of Michelle Y. Green, author of the Willie Pearl Series. Eddie Young was a Tuskeegee Airman and one of the first African American pilots to fly in Korea and Vietnam. Green's book in progress, High Flight, is based on her father's life.  This entry was submitted by Michelle Y. Green.
Subjects: Aviators, Fathers, Military & Veterans
Geographic Region: Jenkins, Letcher County, Kentucky

Young, Herman A.
Birth Year : 1929
Young was born in Memphis, TN. He was a professor of natural sciences at the University of Louisville. Prior to that, Young had been head of the science department at Lincoln Institute. He had also been the first African American owner and president of an electronic manufacturing plant in Kentucky, Tubetek, Inc. He had been a chemical engineer with Dumont Labs and Thomas Electronics, Inc. Young and his wife, Barbara, co-authored Scientists in the Black Perspective. For more see Who's Who Among Black Americans, 1st-10th ed.
Subjects: Authors, Businesses, Education and Educators, Engineers
Geographic Region: Memphis, Tennessee / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Young, Hortense Houston
Birth Year : 1903
Death Year : 1977
Young was the first African American woman admitted to the University of Louisville Law School, which she attended from 1951-1953 before leaving the program. She was also a librarian at the Louisville Municipal College, 1937-1943. Young was the second person to chair the newly formed KNEA Librarian's Conference, in 1938. In 1947, she ran unsuccessfully for the Louisville Board of Education. She was also a civil rights activist; in 1949 she made a proposal to Louisville Mayor Charles Farnsley's Legislative Committee to amend the 1908 Day Law, which had been passed to keep the education of African Americans and whites segregated in Kentucky. Hortense Young, born in Texas, was the mother of Dr. Coleman Milton Young, III. For more see "Hortense Houston Young," on the University of Louisville's website; Central Law School, 1890-1941; and Library Service to African Americans in Kentucky, by R. F. Jones.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Librarians, Library Collections, Libraries, Politicians, Politics, Appointments & Elections, Board of Education
Geographic Region: Texas / Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Young, A. Howard
Raised in Louisville, KY, Young is the first African American to be named President of the Mortgage Bankers Association of Louisville. A graduate of Morehead State University, he is employed as a loan officer of GMAC Mortgage, a certificate-holder in the General Motors Family First Program. For more see HR141.
Subjects: Bankers, Banks, Finance, Financial Advisors
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

Young, Laura R.
Birth Year : 1896
Death Year : 1962
Laura Ray Young was born in Lebanon, KY, the daughter of Richard and Ella Ray. She was a teacher at Lincoln Institute, the first African American Post Master in Kentucky and the second one in the U.S. She was the wife of Whitney M. Young, Sr and the mother of Eleanor Young, Arnita Young Boswell, and Whitney Young, Jr. For more see Who's Who in Colored America, 1933-37; and In Black and White. A guide to magazine articles, newspaper articles, and books concerning Black individuals and groups, 3rd ed., edited by M. M. Spradling.
Subjects: Mothers, Postal Service
Geographic Region: Lebanon, Marion County, Kentucky

Young, Margaret B.
Birth Year : 1921
Death Year : 2009
Margaret Buckner Young, from Campbellsville, KY, is the author of children's books on African American history, civil rights, and civil rights leaders, including First Book of American Negroes and Picture Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. She is a graduate of Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] and the University of Minnesota. Margaret was the wife of the late Whitney Young, Jr. and the daughter of Eva and Frank Buckner. For more see Black Authors and Illustrators of Books for Children and Young Adults. A biographical dictionary, 2nd and 3rd eds., by B. Rollock; Who's Who Among African Americans, 1975-2005; and M. Fox, "Margaret B. Young, writer of children's books on Blacks, dies at 88," The New York Times, 12/18/2009, Obituary section, p. 7.
Subjects: Authors, Children's Books and Music
Geographic Region: Campbellsville, Taylor County, Kentucky

Young People's Congress, Youth Council of Kentucky (African Methodist Episcopal Church)
Start Year : 1926
In 1926, Bishop R. C. Ransom combined the Sunday School and the AME League into an organization named Young People's Congress. The name was later changed to The Kentucky Congress of Youth. The first state meeting was held in the summer at St. Matthews AME Church in Midway, KY, and Rev. Charles Adams was elected president. In 1940, the name of the organization was changed to the ACE Youth Council of Kentucky and several other youth organizations were folded into the group; Bishop R. R. Wright had been assigned to the 13th Episcopal District and it was his goal to enlarge the work of the young people in his district. Annual meetings were held at Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University]. Miss Kathrine Chochran, of Quinn Chapel in Louisville, would become the first woman president of the state youth activities. For more see Young People's Congress, Youth Council of Kentucky on p.552 in The Encyclopaedia of the African Methodist Episcopal Church compiled by Bishop R. R. Wright.
Subjects: Ministers, Pastors, Preachers, Religion & Church Work
Geographic Region: Midway, Woodford County, Kentucky / Frankfort, Franklin County, Kentucky

Young, Whitney M., Jr.
Birth Year : 1921
Death Year : 1971
Whitney M. Young, Jr. was born in Lincoln Ridge, KY. He was the executive director of the National Urban League, and through this organization he pushed for equal opportunity, housing, education, and economic well being for African Americans. Young was a graduate of Lincoln Institute, Kentucky State College [now Kentucky State University] and the University of Minnesota. He was dean of social work at Atlanta University [now Clark-Atlanta]; the Whitney M. Young Jr. School of Social Work was named in his honor. He and Florence V. Adams co-authored Some Pioneers in Social Work: brief sketches; student work book (1957). In 1969, he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest award for civilians, by President Johnson. He was an adviser to Presidents Johnson, Kennedy, and Nixon. Young was married to Margaret B. Young and was the son of Whitney Young, Sr. and Laura Young. For more see Militant Mediator, by D. C. Dickerson.

See also "Whitney M. Young Jr.: Little Known Civil Rights Pioneer," a website by the U.S. Department of Defense.
See and download photo image at end of the article.

See photo image of Whitney M. Young, Jr. in UK Explore.
Subjects: Activists, Civil Rights, Authors, Education and Educators, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Urban Leagues, Housing, Fair Housing, Open Housing, Housing Agencies
Geographic Region: Lincoln Ridge, Shelby County, Kentucky / Atlanta, Georgia

Young, Whitney M., Sr.
Birth Year : 1897
Death Year : 1975
Young was born in Paynes Depot, KY, the son of Anne and Taylor Young. He became the first African American director of Lincoln Institute and kept the school from being closed with his Faith Plan. Young had attended grade school in Zion Hill and was a graduate of Lincoln Institute, Louisville Municipal College, and Fisk University. He was also two time President of the Kentucky Negro Educational Association and received committee appointments from U.S. presidents. Whitney Young, Sr., was the husband of Laura R. Young and the father of Eleanor Young, Arnita Young Boswell, and Whitney Young, Jr. Whitney Young, Sr.'s papers are at Kentucky State University. For more see the Kentucky Encyclopedia 2000The Fascinating Story of Black Kentuckians by A. A. Dunnigan; and "Whitney M. Young Sr. dies in Louisville at 77," Jet, 09/04/1975, p.46 [article and photo available full view at Google Book Search].

Subjects: Education and Educators, Fathers, Appointments by U.S. Presidents/Services for U.S. Presidents, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Paynes Depot, Scott County, Kentucky / Lincoln Ridge, Shelby County, Kentucky

Yowell, Samuel [Petersburg Colored School]
Birth Year : 1791
Death Year : 1872
Samuel Yowell [also spelled Youell] was a property owner in Petersburg, KY. He was born in Virginia and is listed in the 1860 U.S. Federal Census as a freeman who was a weaver. Included in his household was Jane Yowell, born in 1810 in Virginia. In the 1870 Census, Samuel Yowell's occupation is listed as a fisherman, and there are two children living with him and Jane: 12 year old Mat Yowell and 5 year old Amanda Yowell, both born in Kentucky. Samuel Yowell died in Petersburg in 1872 without any heirs, so his property, lots 172 and 173, became the property of the Commonwealth of Kentucky. In 1882, the Kentucky Legislature passed "An Act for the benefit of the colored schools in Petersburg, Kentucky," granting that lots 172 and 173 be used for the schools. Petersburg was established in 1800 and is an unincorporated community in Boone County, KY. In 1880, the population was 1,377 with 98 African Americans. For more see "Laws of Kentucky," Acts Passed at the...Session of the General Assembly for the Commonwealth of Kentucky, Chapter 1019, pp. 464-465 [available full-text at Google Book Search].
Subjects: Migration West, Grade Schools & High Schools in Kentucky
Geographic Region: Virginia / Petersburg, Boone County, Kentucky

YWCA (Louisville, KY)
Start Year : 1915
End Year : 1998
Founded in 1912, the Louisville YWCA hosted the first interracial YWCA conference in the South, October 14-16, 1915. Four years later, it was noted in the title Child Welfare in Kentucky that the Louisville Association of the YWCA was the only one in the United States that provided a summer camp for colored girls. The Phillis Wheatley Branch of the YWCA for African Americans was established in the early 1920s and closed in the 1970s. The first Spouse Abuse Shelter in Kentucky was opened in the Louisville YWCA in 1977, and in 1981 six shelters in the state formed a statewide coalition, the Kentucky Domestic Violence Association. In 1998, the Louisville YWCA was no longer affiliated with the national YWCA and became the Center For Women and Families. For more see U.S. Women's Interest Groups: Institutional Profiles, by S. Slavin; Our History at the website; YWCA entry in The Encyclopedia of Louisville, edited by J. E. Kleber; and the Young Women's Christian Association of Louisville Records at the University of Louisville Libraries.
Subjects: Civic Leaders, Women's Groups and Organizations, YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky

YWCA Subcommittee on Colored Work
Start Year : 1915
The YWCA's first Conference on Colored Work was held in Louisville, KY, in 1915, with both African American and white women in attendance and seated together during the programs. It was the first integrated conference by the YWCA, an experiment to see if it would work in an agreeable fashion. Louisville was considered a safe enough testing ground in the not too deep South. African American women from throughout the South who headed YWCA branches attended the conference, along with leaders from other women's organizations who wanted to establish African American YWCAs in their communities. A previous conference, held in Asheville, NC, in 1907, to discuss the YWCA's work in southern African American communities, was attended by 60 white women. The national meeting in 1913 was held in Richmond, VA, with African American student attendees seated in the balcony. It soon became obvious that more African American women were attending the YWCA conferences and establishing branches; therefore, in 1913 the Subcommittee on Colored Work was formed to respond to the work with African American women in urban areas, which was the fastest growing development. Stationed in New York, Eva Del Vakia Bowles, an African American from Albany, OH, was hired as secretary of the subcommittee, with the responsibility of helping the National YWCA to accommodate the African American members without detriment to the white membership. The 1915 conference attendees in Louisville are remembered for three areas of consensus: 1) The National Board appointed an interracial committee to promote the college associations, city associations, and new branches; 2) Training for African American staff and volunteer members would be paid for by the National Board; and 3) African American branches of the YWCA were to become branches of the local white associations or the National Board. The placement of the African American branches under the control of the local white YWCAs was protested, but to little avail. Also, African American student conferences were held annually in the South, with a white YWCA member in attendance. The YWCA Council on Colored Work was disbanded during World War I when the War Work Council was formed; work with African Americans shifted more toward the enlisted men. For more see the YWCA of the U.S.A. Records, a Five College Archive and Manuscripts Collections website; The Afro-American Woman, by S. Harley and R. Terborg-Penn; and Organizing Black America, by N. Mjagkij.

See photo image "Camping in Old Kentucky" in the NYPL Digital Gallery from the source: The work of colored women; compiled by Jane Olcott, issued by the Colored Work Committee, War Work Council, National Board Young Women's Christian Associations.
Subjects: Women's Groups and Organizations, YWCA (Young Women's Christian Association)
Geographic Region: Louisville, Jefferson County, Kentucky


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